However, though instructional adaptations are favored, students generally preferred that homework remain uniform for all students. However, after-school homework programs can also interfere with other, nonacademic activities that promote student bonding to the school and the community and run the risk of reducing parental involvement in the schooling process. Finally, as is always the case, the help provided by these programs will be limited by the quality of the homework students receive, as well as the integration of these programs with the regular teachers.
Students were very specific about the types of teacher practices that facilitated their understanding of grading, homework, and assignments, and provided recommendations to teachers regarding these practices. In general, students find textbook learning difficult and boring. Though they indicated that they learned a great deal from reading and answering questions, they did not like doing it. Students also were begging for strategy instruction that would assist them in learning from text and learning independently. Students liked activity-based instruction and while they did not call for an abandonment of textbooks, they wanted a balance between text learning and activity learning.
These studies teach us that students want teachers to be clear about the types of adaptations and accommodations that they intend to make and for which students. When it comes to grading, teachers need to consider the value of modified grades (low) and use them judiciously. Students expressed considerable need for adaptations that improve clarity of information, whether it be content or assignment. In general, students preferred mixed grouping with small groups and pairs, though there are conditions under which they prefer same ability grouping (e.g., when students can hardly read at all). Students would prefer more group work. Lower-achieving as well as higher-achieving students value opportunities to help others and appreciate when teachers structure assignments so that different students are placed in the role of helper.
More so, it has been revealed that children and adults with varied learning abilities are benefiting if intensive interactions is facilitated on them. In school curriculums, students with complex are found to be performing very well on their reading, comprehension and even writing subjects.
On the more advanced level, students' performances on the subjects of mathematics, sciences and language subjects also tend to be significantly better if they have intensive interaction with the teachers and with other students (Bailey & Wolery, 1992).
Not only did the students perform very well when it comes to academic standing. Their behavioral and cognitive skills are also found to be positively improving if they are subjected to intensive interactions. Students show signs of increased self-confidence. They are becoming very open to how they feel and they are even initiating to establish relationship with their peers and classmates. They are more motivated to learning. They do not fear facing the whole class to do series of presentations for they have started to exude confidence. Solving mathematical problems, creating sentences and even doing some scientific activities are becoming easier as the kids learned to adopt interaction to their peers and to the teachers (Stanovich, 1986).
Even at home, students, who have been subjected to intensive interaction programs, are becoming more matured in handling family matters, in a way that they have never done before (Stanovich, 1986).
Indeed, intensive interactions offer great benefits to children-students with varied levels of learning and abilities inside one classroom. They not only significantly improve their psychological state, but also their psycho-social and cognitive behaviors.
Based on the two studies reviewed there are several conclusions made:
First is the idea that homework can indeed provide students with structure, supervision, academic assistance, and the opportunity to learn study skills. At their best, participation in after-school homework programs can help students maintain their academic standing, feel more bonded to their school, reduce family stress, and develop attitudes and skills that would facilitate their ...
Lastly, after-school homework can provide students with the support they need to do well in school, but they should do so in ways that do not detract from the students' opportunities to become involved in family and community activities.
The second conclusion is related to the idea that students have very distinct preferences for how they are taught and strong feelings about ways in which they learn best. Students want everyone to be treated the same, yet they also recognize that students have different learning needs. Students with different learning abilities want to be involved in the same activities, read the same books, have the same homework, be judged with the same grading criteria, and be part of the same groups as their classmates. On the other hand, everyone recognizes that not all students learn in the same way or at the same speed. Thus, students with and without disabilities value teachers who slow instruction down when needed, explain concepts and assignments dearly, and teach the same material in different ways so that everyone can learn. Needless to say, students do not like it when teachers are inconsistent, spend too much time on classroom management, and give negative feedback.
It should be noted that both studies are focused on the educational outcome of the students. Both are offering an idea that education is at its best when facilitated properly. Both studies have shown that teachers do play a detrimental role in ensuring that the students are receiving the desired approach of teaching in the same manner that the teachers are achieving the desired results from the students.
It will also be good to note that all the essential parts of a normal research paper/study (such as the methodology, results and discussion and conclusion) are all integrated in both the peer reviewed journals analyzed above. The presence of such parts makes the journals more credible and reliable in the sense that both can be used as good reference materials for another research undertaking the will deal on education, educational outcomes and even about the teachers.
The only difference in the two studies highlighted above is the first study is more specific in the sense that it is more on just the assignments or the home works that are normally given to the students. Giving home works is just one aspect of teaching. Meanwhile, on the second study, it is more generalized in the sense that every aspect of teaching is analyzed and categorized as long as it provides both direct and indirect impact to students with varied learning abilities.
Bailey, D.B., SC Wolery, M. (1992). Teaching infants and preschoolers with disabilities (2nd ed.). New York: Macmillan.
Hoover-Dempsey, K.V., Battiato, a.C., Walker, J.M.T., Reed, R.P., Delong, J.M., & Jones, K.P. (2001). Parental involvement in homework. Educational Psychologist, 36, 195-209.
Lindsay, James. (2001). "A Model of Homework's Influence on the Performance Evaluations of Elementary School Students." The Journal of Experimental Education
Mahoney, J.L., & Cairns, R.B. (1997). Do extracurricular activities protect against early school dropout? Developmental Psychology, 33, 241-253.
Shumow, L., & Miller, J.D. (2001). Parents' at-home and at-school academic involvement with young adolescents. Journal of Early Adolescence, 21, 68-91.
Stanovich, K. (1986). Cognitive processes and the reading problems of learning disabled children: Evaluating the assumption of specificity. In J. Torgersen & B. Wong (Eds.),
Vaidya, Sheila Rao. (1997). "Meeting the…
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