The Evaluation of the Impact of Organizational Justice and Group Dynamics on Employee Motivation, Performance and Service Delivery in Public Management
Organizational justice, which results from certain policies and systems in treatment and administration of employees, is considered an important tool for creation of motivation among employees. Similarly, Group dynamics which enhances performance of individual when they work as in groups is considered another important tool in motivating employees for better work performance and service delivery. I would like to analyze through this paper the various ways in and the extent to which organizational justice and group dynamics are instrumental in impacting motivation, performance and service delivery of public management organizations.
Even though both organizational justice and group dynamics are important tools in effecting motivation performance and service delivery, they are different in the way; they impart motivation, performance and service delivery. In case of organizational justice, various procedures and systems created by the organization for dealing with its employees to judge whether they are handed out a fair and just treatment by the organization. Positive employee perception leads to employees feeling motivated to put forth good work performance and good service delivery (Levy & Williams, 2004). On the other hand, group dynamics relates to the interaction impacts of the membership of a group on the performance of the member. Employee motivation and several tools, which were effective in invoking it, are subjects of intense management research studies.
The limited amount of research that has been completed in government work settings suggests that fair treatment can improve employees' trust in management, increase satisfaction with their jobs, supervisors and organizations strengthen their motivation and public service delivery. The research showed that work outcomes like job satisfaction, organizational loyalty, and pay contentment and employee turnover were seriously impacted by the treatment meted out by the managements to employees. This study will consider the area of public services and will suggest that many of the problems associated with poor service and poor delivery are rooted in the ways that staff is treated as part of the organization. The issue of organizational justice and its impact to employees will be obtained through the perception and evaluation of employees in relation to increase or decrease of motivation, quality of performance and better service delivery. Organizational justice (Cropanzano, 2012) can create benefits for the organization and employees by inclusion of improved job performance, positive citizenship behaviors, and better customer service and diminished conflict in the workplace.
How employees perceive and understand their experience will fundamentally affect the way he or she responds and deals with the work in public service. It can be seen as a part of the wider human cognitive experience which determines how each employee interacts in the system and how the system causes such interaction. Appreciation and valuing depends as well on how employees are treated within the organization.
Companies and organizations have different approaches and structure as well as manner of delivering the services to clientele. The structure imposed or provided to employee is established to encourage and secure efficiency in terms of performance and productivity. Organizational structure is created to guide the employee on what to expect from the organization, and what the company expect from each employee. Companies may have horizontal and inclusive structure with much emphasis on a stakeholder approach; decisions are made in groups and teams rather than passed down from management or senior levels hierarchy as in the case of vertical and hierarchical command structure; other organization inclines to more bureaucratic and hierarchical structure. It is intended to add more content to the already existing material on impact of organizational justice on motivation and consequently on performance and service delivery.
In his book, Beugre (1998) has mentioned three important reasons for treating organizational justice as a very important prerequisite for success of organizations. The three reasons are
Justice is considered essential in every walk of life organizational or social.
Treatment of employees in organizations is the resultant of various systems and procedures which constitute organizational justice.
Most of the organizations have educated workforce for whom organizational justice is very important.
Organizational justice, in fact, is as important to the employees as it is to organizations and society as a whole because it contributes to the success of organizations, which are essential for society's progress.
There is a problem with good public service delivery by employees of public sector/management. This problem impacts the employees of the public service agency as well as the people served because how the employees are treated in the organization where they are employed, is how they will treat the public they serve. There are many possible factors contributing to this problem, among which are organizational justice in the public offices, the perception of public employees about organizational justice, and the implication of such perception to public service. This study will contribute to the body of knowledge needed to address this problem by an evaluation of public management in providing organizational justice and group dynamics which affect motivation, performance and service delivery among public employees. It is argued that the way employees are treated and how they treat each other influences how they treat the public. This in turn has the potential to undermine community building efforts and it is in this important area that the proposed research will be based.
The research aims at finding out the impact of organizational justice and group dynamics on motivation, performance and service delivery. While group dynamics can be considered a straight issue arising out of a group's contribution to a member's motivation, organizational justice can be achieved through implementation of programs or processes by the organization. Organizational justice is a comprehensive aspect comprised of distributive justice, procedural justice and interactional justice. The impact of these three types of justice needs to be studied to draw an overall picture of the impact of the organizational justice on employee motivation. Performance and service delivery can be considered as the outcomes of motivation and may not need a separate study. The objectives of the study may therefore be mentioned as below.
To find out the impact of distributive justice on employee motivation and service delivery.
To study the impact of procedural justice on employee motivation and service delivery.
To assess the impact of interactional justice on employee motivation and service delivery
To analyze the impact of group dynamics on employee motivation and service delivery.
Review of the Literature Review
Organizational justice refers to a perception of fairness within an organization (Greenberg, 2003). It is an individual and group perception of how fairness is demonstrated within the organization and the reactions and behaviors generated by such perception; it is further defined into distributive justice, procedural justice, and interactional justice. According to Cropanzano, Bowen and Gilliland (2007) there are three rules allocated which lead to distributive justice if appropriately implemented or applied to organization: equality, equity, and need to each depending on the necessity and urgency. Procedural justice, as Leventhal, Karuza and Fry (1980 as cited in Cropanzano, Bowen & Gilliland, 2007) proposed, is the fairness of the procedures used to make decisions. The last form is interactional justice which is perceived as fairness in terms of how decisions are enacted by authorities through a dignified and respectful treatment and adequate informational and honest explanation (Bies, 2001). The three types of justice show the tendency to be correlated as described by Ambrose and Arnaud (2005) and they can be treated as overall fairness components that can work together.
Subjects for Study
The subjects for study will be a group or groups of public sector employees as well as citizens. I am aware that if only one organization is selected, there will be limitations on the extent to which the results may be generalized. I am also aware of the importance of numbers that may be required in a quantitative survey if the results are to be representative. As this research is about perceptions, it is important to understand the assessments of the management as well as those of employees. Therefore, I will contact three public sector entities and request them that I may be allowed to administer questionnaires and interviews to frontline staff and management. Ideally, the numbers would be proportional. For example, if 100 employees and 25 managers can be selected from each organization for administering the questionnaire, such selection would satisfy at least some of the representativeness requirements.
Ideally, the respondents would be systematically selected and informed of the selection. Consent will be obtained before administration of the questionnaire. It is understood that confidentiality is an important issue (Babbie, 2010) and this would be ensured by using anonymous and numbered questionnaires, with no matching of names and, very importantly, with no name associations being made during the interviews (U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, 2012a).
A public government office will be the location of the study. The systems and procedures implemented by the…