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Motivation: Relatedness Using the Jigsaw Technique
Motivation Relatedness using Jigsaw
Motivation: Relatedness using Jigsaw Technique
In this paper, we are going to discuss the motivational issue which is faced by schools and for an ideal school these issues are to be resolved. In this paper we will present an ideal school plan in which a perfect plan will be implemented. Reasons for the low motivation will also be discussed. Motivational plans will be explained for the teachers to student motivation, peer-to-peer motivation, and parent to student motivation. This paper will describe some technique for the increase of motivation in students. In this paper some techniques for the development of students' relatedness will also be discussed.
Inspiration or motivation is a theoretical build used to describe the start, route, intensity, determination, and excellence of actions, especially goal-directed behavior.
Motives are usually considered as relatively common needs or wishes that energize…
Alderman. (1999). Motivation for Achievement: Possibilities for Teaching and Learning. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc. Publishers.
Aronson, E. (2012, March 10). Jigsaw Classroom. (Social Psycology Network) Retrieved December 22, 2012, from Jigsaw.ORG: http://www.jigsaw.org
Blatt, S. b. (1996). relatedness and self-definition. hillsdale, NJ:erlbaum.
Brophy, J. (2004). MOTIVATING STUDENTS. LAWRENCE ERLBAUM ASSOCIATES, PUBLISHERS.
According to one of the most famous scholars on the subject of motivation, motivation comes from the desire to satisfy first the basic needs within a hierarchical system; then moving from physiological means to self-actualization. This motivation moves from the more basic to advanced psychological levels by adding onto basic needs more emotional, then intellectual needs that allow the human being to capture concepts that are far more detailed, less static, and to analyze problems that have open-ended answers. This view also says that there are a set of needs that must be met before moving on, and that being human is part of focusing on inner needs as well, once the basic physical needs are met (atkins & Leigh, 2010).
The idea of motivation is so very critical within organizations of all types, that scholars have been studying the topic for decades. However, given the importance of the…
Boudreau, M., et al. (2001). Validation in IS Research: A State of the Art Assessment. MIS Quarterly, 25(1), 1-24.
Deci, E., et al., eds. (2002). Handbook of Self-Determination Research. Rochester, NY: University of Rochester Press.
Golafshani, N. (2003). Understanding Reliability and Validity in Qualitative Research. The Qualitative Report, 8(4), 597-607.
O'Neil, H., et al. (2011). Motivation: Theory and Research. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.
Organizational Behavior Analysis: Motivation
Organizational Behavior is a multi-disciplinary field that studies human behaviors in an organizational setting or how individuals interface with an organization or group of people. This field has many implications for business and human resources since in can help facilitate the achievement of organizational goals. Management can use insights gained through the study of this field to try to optimize different components of organizational behavior such as motivation. Motivation is one of the critical components that must be maximized in high achieving organizations.
There are many models of motivation that have been proposed in the field of organizational behavior. One of the reasons that some many models have been developed is that motivation is a complex concept that contains many facets of human behavior. Some of the earlier theories that tried to explain an individual's level of motivation include Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs theory and…
Dunham, D. (2010, January 27). At Whole Foods Thinner Employees Get Fatter Discounts. Retrieved from That's Fit: http://www.thatsfit.com/2010/01/27/whole-foods-thin-employees-get-discounts/
Underwood, R. (2005, October 1). Whole Foods nurtures democracy, putting their health plan to a company-wide vote. The outcome: satisfied workers and ultimately happy customers. Retrieved from Fast Company: http://www.fastcompany.com/53854/employee-innovator-runner-whole-foods-market
Even Google's famous 'perks' such as free food and fitness classes are based more upon an internal motivation strategy rather than an external motivation strategy. The happier people are to be at work and the more free time they have to think about work vs. mundane details of life like commuting to lunch or fitting in the gym after work, the more productive people will be. Theory Y leaders believe that once the basic needs of the worker are met to obtain a certain basic standard of living, then workers must be motivated by more intrinsic factors. Even lower-level employees can be motivated by feeling that they have made a contribution to the organization.
The Theory X/Theory Y philosophy is based upon an older theory of motivation: Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs. Maslow conceptualized worker needs as existing on a hierarchy: first, an employee's most basic physiological needs must be fulfilled,…
Bartle, P. (2013). Participatory management. Retrieved:
Theory X and Theory Y (2013). Mind Tools. Retrieved:
This is when these ideas will have a major impact upon an educational environment. ("Intrinsic Motivation," 2004) (Moore, 1991)
Having some kind of incentives, is when you are offering colleagues a reason to want to change. This is because most teachers will often believe that they have the experience and skills necessary to reach out to their students. However, the problem is that many individuals will often become set in their ways and will not change. This is when they could have difficulty in reaching out to the class. Once this takes place, it means that there will be a decrease in achievement scores. To deal with these kinds of issues, you must have some kind strategy of offering everyone a reason to change. Where, they will see: the value that it is providing to them over the long-term and the pain associated with continuing to embrace the status quo.…
Intrinsic Motivation. (20045). Shaw. Retrieved from: http://members.shaw.ca/priscillatheroux/motivation.html
Moore, D. (1991). 7 Motivational Strategies. Find Articles. Retrieved from: http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m3101/is_n9_v63/ai_9858447/
Motivation in Sport
Take a look at the animal world and you will find the proof that game is an inherent feature of the virtually evaluated species. This has an important part in literacy and evolution. We witness many a mock fights between kittens and pups so as to enhance their stamina, speed, tolerance and will. Through such hatred free games, they rub their hands for survival and satisfy their urge for challenge and ecstasy. The human species is not just a species of animals based on reason. There is an unquenchable thirst in the humans for wisdom, truth and joy. These spiritual features are the ones which differentiate human beings from animals. In the proceeding development of human civilization, sports and games have had a part in revealing the human ability.
At each and every phase of the evolutionary process, sport has had an important part in giving a…
Anshel, M.H. (1997). Sport Psychology: from Theory to Practice. (Third Edition). Scottsdale, Arizona: Gorsuch Scarisbrick
Bakker, F.C., De Koning, J.J., Van Ingen Schenau, G.J., & Gert, D.G. (1993).
Motivation of young elite speed skaters. International Journal of Sports Psychology, 24, 432-
Bandura, A. (1977). Self-efficacy: Toward a unifying theory of behavioral change. Psychological Review, 84, 191-215.
The concept of motivation has as many diverse meanings as there are its application and intended purpose for its application. Word Net (2011) gives a psychological angle of the motivation idea. It describes motivation as a psychological element that prompts an organism into deeds focused on a set target or goal. Motivation is said to be the reason driving the action, or that which attaches direction, control and behavior to behavior of an individual.
It is considered the as the aspect that prompts, directs and sustains or maintains the target/goal oriented behavior of human beings. In the study of motor response and receptors, motivation is summarized as what causes an organism to act, be it withdrawing your hand due to pain, or running after an ice cream vendor when craving ice-cream.
Motivation encapsulates the biological, social and the cognitive drives that initiate behavior. In our daily interaction, we describe…
About.com, (2011). What Is Motivation? Retrieved march 17, 2011 from http://psychology.about.com/od/mindex/g/motivation-definition.htm
Helium, (2008). Organizational Behavior and Motivation: Psychological and sociological insights. Retrieved march 17, 2011 from http://www.helium.com/items/989835-organizational-behavior-and-motivation-psychological-and-sociological-insights
Huitt, W. (2001). Motivation to learn: An overview. Educational Psychology Interactive.
Valdosta, GA: Valdosta State University. Retrieved march 17, 2011 from http://www.edpsycinteractive.org/topics/motivation/motivate.html
Motivation Theory: Intrinsic v Extrinsic
The objective of this study is to examine intrinsic vs. extrinsic motivation. Toward this end this work will examine the literature in this area of study.
The work of McCullagh (2005) is reported to state that motivation "can be defined as the intensity and direction of effort." (Wilson, nd, p.1) Wilson reports that motivation is demonstrated in the evidence to promote "learning, performance, enjoyment, and persistent…" (nd, p.1)
The work of Covington and Mueller (2001) states that it has been believed that providing extrinsic rewards such as "praise, gold stars, and school grades -- inhibits the will of students to learn." (p.157) Covington and Mueller believe that this belief is upheld by "the widely held assumption that intrinsic and extrinsic motivation are not just separate processes, but in compatible, if not antagonistic." (p.157)
Intrinsic motivation, on the other hand is stated to be that which…
Bateman, TS and Crant, JM (nd) Revisiting Intrinsic and Extrinsic Motivation. Retrieved from: http://www.ou.edu/cls/online/lstd3673/pdf/IMOBHDP24.pdf
Covington, MV and Mueller, KJ (2001) Intrinsic vs. Extrinsic Motivation: An Approach/Avoidance Reformulation. Educational Psychology Review. Vol. 13, No.2 2001. Retrieved from: http://www.unco.edu/cebs/psychology/kevinpugh/motivation_project/resources/covington_mueller01.pdf
Deci, E.L. (1971). Effects of externally mediated rewards on intrinsic motivation. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 18: 105-115 in: Bateman, TS and Crant, JM (nd) Revisiting Intrinsic and Extrinsic Motivation. Retrieved from:
Motivation is regarded as a measure of internal drive to achieve a goal. It is an essential human instinct, because without motivation people would lack the ability to progress. The amount of internal drive an individual has is influenced by a variety of factors such as personal gain, individual need, attitude and consequence of actions, to name a few. hile capturing and classifying all of the different types of motivation can be a daunting task, a few academic scholars have drawn connections between an individual's environment and personal attributes as influences on the types of motivation the individual has.
As explained in an article about motivation and study habits, N.J. Entwistle, Jennifer Thompson and J.D. ilson explain that the major classifications of motivation are intrinsic and extrinsic. Intrinsic motivation is centered on the task at hand and is most often a measure of personal ability, the conquering of a fear,…
Cameron, J., & Pierce, W.D. (1994). Reinforcement, reward and intrinsic motivation: a meta-analysis. Review of Educational Research, 64(3), 363-367.
Eby, J.E. (1999, July 17). Employee motivation strategies. New Straits Times, pp. 4-EX.
Entwistle, N.J., Thompson, J., & Wilson, J.D. (1974). Motivation and study habits.
Higher Education, 3(4), 379-395.
Motivation and Employee Engagement
Motivation and Employment Engagement
elationship between Motivation of Followers and Motivation Theories
McClelland's needs Based theory identifies three distinct needs and explains how these needs may be able to motivate employees to improved performance at the workplace. The three needs consist of the need for achievement, the need for power, and the need for affiliation. Employees possess each of these needs at varying levels depending on their personality and innate drives. Employees who have a high need for achievement are motivated by the opportunity to prove themselves to be better than their peers by meeting or surpassing performance standards. They are willing to assume personal responsibility for solving problems and making decisions. These employees can be motivated by specifying performance standards, delegating responsibility for the outcome to them, and by giving them ongoing feedback on their performance. Employees with a high need for power are motivated…
Bassford, T.E., Offermann, L.R., & Wirtz, P.W. (2012). Considering the source: The impact of leadership level on follower motivation and intent to stay. Journal of leadership and organizational studies, 19(2), 202-214. doi: 10.1177/1548051811436279.
Chaudhry, A.Q., & Javed, H. (2012). Impact of transactional and laissez faire leadership style on motivation. International journal of business and social science, 3(7), 258-264. Retrieved from EBSCO Business Source Complete.
Cheng, P.L.K., & Robertson, R.W. (2006). Not for bread alone-Motivation among hospital employees in Singapore. Public Organization Review, 6(2), 155-166. doi: 10.1007/s11115-006-0004-1.
Robbins, S.P. (1996) Organizational Behavior. 7th edn. Prentice Hall International.
Problem with Extrinsic Motivation and How Maslow's Theory Can Help
Tesla has been identified as a company that struggles with employee motivation under CEO Elon Musk, who has attempted to push his employees to outperform in order to meet production targets (James, 2019). Rather than using intrinsic motivation to compel employees to self-actualize and reach their fullest and maximum levels of potential, Musk uses extrinsic motivation—which only takes one so far before the trade-off between excessive labor and long hours fails to seem worth it to employees (James, 2019). As Gerhart and Fang (2015) explain, pay, benefits and bonuses are extrinsic motivators that companies use to push employees to meet targets. However, at some point employees will conduct a cost-benefit analysis of their own and determine whether the additional labor and longer hours are worth the extra benefits or bonuses. The reliance by the company upon extrinsic motivators hits…
There are several motivational issues at work in Sanderson Soaps. Examining the company through the lens of Maslow’s hierarchy, the family members are secure and have little reason to work too hard, but the non-family members have zero reason to work hard because they know that their upward mobility is stifled. This creates a situation where a couple of people feel entitled to promotions and opportunity without really having to earn them, and any non-family member would either lack intrinsic motivation or see Sanderson as a stepping stone to success elsewhere. In either case, nobody is particularly motivated by higher order needs relating to personal fulfillment or actualization (McLeod, 2018). The two-factor theory reveals a similar problem. While everybody at Sanderson has their hygiene needs taken care of, there is little left to motivate people because one’s career path at Sanderson almost seems predetermined (MindTools, 2019).
These theories are relevant…
This course provided me with the opportunity for a structured exploration of critical concepts of leadership, specifically what leaders can do to influence their followers in the workplace. The readings provided me with a strong grounding in the key material on workplace motivation, and from there I was able to apply my knowledge of research methods to determine the best way to solve a problem. I think that overall this was a highly valuable course for me, one that will give me the tools to be a better leader for a long time to come.
The capstone project ties together what I have learned about motivation, and how leaders can influence motivation, into a project that will add value to the overall study of workplace motivation. There are really two elements to this learning. The first is the understanding of fundamental principles that I acquired, and the second is the…
One example of this is shown when explaining why people eat, aside for being a basic need; people eat as a form of interaction or in some instances for entertainment. People are motivated to eat because they enjoy doing it with the company of friends and family. Individuals are motivated to eat for other reasons that may include health consideration in particular. Motivation in this aspect is largely attributed to be an internally driven. Each individual has a different motivation in pursuing a certain goal. This motivation is manifested in the human will or volition; some writers see it as the human spirit. In times of difficulty that a person encounters, it is this internal motivation that surfaces which provides the person added strength to weather the storm. For instance, when the body encounters substantial physical and mental stress, the body secretes adrenaline resulting to a situation wherein the individual…
Beck, Robert. (2000) Motivation: Theories and Principles. New Jersey Upper Saddle River: Prentice Hall.
Franken, Robert (1998) Human Motivation. New York: Brooks/Core Publishing Company.
Ford, Martin (1992) Motivating Humans. London: Sage Publications.
Houston, John (1985) Motivation. New York: Macmillan Publishing.
The theory of motivation has as many various meanings as there are its function and intended the desired outcome for that mater. Motivation can be defined as a psychological element that prompts an organism into deeds focused on a set target or goal. Motivation is said to be the reason driving the action, or that which attaches direction, control and behavior to behavior of an individual (Word Net (2011).
It is considered the as the aspect that prompts, directs and sustains or maintains the target/goal oriented behavior of human beings. In the study of motor response and receptors, motivation is taken as what causes an organism to act or react, be it stepping off a thorn or streaming for the river by the animals to quench their thirst.
Motivation covers a wide range of disciplines from the cognitive, social and the biological drives that initiate behavior. In the day-to-day…
About.com, (2011). What Is Motivation? Retrieved March 18, 2011 from http://psychology.about.com/od/mindex/g/motivation-definition.htm
Word Net, (2011). Definitions of motivation on the Web. Retrieved March 18, 2011 from wordnetweb.princeton.edu/perl/webw
Motivation is the key to materializing energy and getting things accomplished. Organizational relationships require proper motivation from all sides of the relationships. Leaders must be motivated and workers must be motivated as well in order to succeed at any mission. The purpose of this essay is to design an organizational motivation plan that encourages and maintains a high level of performance from the members of the Woo Widget Company. The essay will first describe the need for the plan before introducing key components of the system that intends to increase the productivity and efficiency of the employees at Woo.
Before designing a motivational plan that will work in this environment, it is necessary to reveal some important facts that contribute to the motivating factors of the employees at this organization. WooWoo designs widgets, but the widget that WooWoo makes is a clone of a nationally known widget. Woo sells their…
Amabile, T. (1997). Motivating Creativity in Organizations. California Management Review 40, 1, 1997. Retrieved from http://bear.warrington.ufl.edu/weitz/mar7786/articles/amabile%20ccal%20mgt%20revie w.pdf
Osterloh, M. et al. (2002). The Dynamics of Motivation in New Organizational Forms. International Journal of the Economics of Business, 9,1, 2002; 61-77. Retrieved from http://www.bsfrey.ch/articles/366_02.pdf
Vallerand, R.J. (March 08, 1993). The Academic Motivation Scale: A Measure of Intrinsic, Extrinsic, and Amotivation in Education. Educational and Psychological Measurement, 52, 4, 1003-17.
Organizational behavior is a field of study that is of particular importance to enterprises and those in management positions. One of the major issues that firms have to deal with is the problem of motivation. The purpose of this discussion is to discuss how organizational behavior management concepts and principles are applied to the problem of motivation. We will begin our discussion by exploring the problem of motivation. We will then design and suggest a solution to the problem. Our discussion will also evaluate the effectiveness of the solution in terms of leadership, managerial and employee perceptions. Finally, we will discuss organizational behavior concepts and principles that are applicable to the successful solution to the problem.
Exploration of the problem
Motivation, as it applies to organizational behavior, is defined as the ability of an employee to exert effort and accomplish organizational goals. Many organizations experience problems keeping employees motivated…
Butkus, R.T. & Green, T.B., (1999). Motivation, Beliefs, and Organizational Transformation. Westport, CT: Quorum Books.
Forschungsgemeinschaft, D., www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=28535492"Kleinbeck, U., Quast, H., Thierry, H., Higcker, H., (Eds.). (1990). Work Motivation. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Although his theory is not necessarily incompatible with Maslow and Alderfer's ideas, Herzberg places less emphasis on basic needs, and more upon using higher, internal needs to elicit optimal performance from the individual.
One common objection to theories of human motivation, of course, is that different types of people appear to be motivated by different things. For example, one teacher may choose his or her position because of job security, while another teacher may be more motivated by the idea of changing children's lives. This means that different strategies must be deployed in motivating people within the same organization or within different professions: a salesperson may be motivated by different things than a professor. "According to David McClelland's an individual's specific needs are acquired over time and are shaped by one's life experiences. Most of these needs can be classed as either achievement, affiliation, or power" (McClelland's theory of needs,…
Herzberg's Two-Factor theory. (2010). Net MBA. Retrieved February 23, 2010.
McClelland's theory of needs. (2010). Net MBA. Retrieved February 23, 2010.
esearch has identified ability, effort, task difficulty, and luck as the most important achievement attributions. The last category focuses on two issues: how motivation gets translated into regulated behavior, and how motivation and cognition are linked.
These theories can provide insights into the leader who is trying to motivate others to follow. It must be understood that no two people are motivated in the same way. For a committee with a small number of members, it may be best to look at each person and define how he or she is best motivated and then put these different individuals into groups and decide what can be the specific motivator for each group. For example, those individuals who are extrinsically motivated may be motivated if they receive some form of gratitude from the principal. In order to determine the particular motivations of these individuals, it may be necessary to talk one-on-one…
Wigfield, a (2002). Motivational Beliefs, Values and Goals. Annual Review of Psychology. 109+.
Motivation, Stress, And Communication
Ford motor is a global company dealing with the manufacture of vehicles. It has several offices/manufacturing plants in most parts of the world. For the company to run smoothly and efficiently, its operations are divided into several department headed by several departmental managers. One of the departments am in charge is the Supply Chain Systems Sales department a position I filled as the head of department.
A Supply Chain System Sales Operations Manager is in charge of two broad roles. One of roles concerns supplies while the other deals with sales of their locomotives. These two roles are interlinked in a way that the person in charge must ensures that their sales offices are supplied by their products (vehicles) for sales and shipping of new vehicles to other customers or to their sales offices in countries ford motors has no factory. Sales are an interactive kind…
Champoux, J. (2010). Organizational Behavior: Integrating Individuals, Groups, and Organizations: Taylor and Francis.
Locke, E.A., & Latham, G.P. (2002). Building a practically useful theory of goal setting and task motivation: A 35-year odyssey. American Psychologist, 57, 705-717.
Oldham, G.R., & Hackman, J.R. (2010). Not what it was and not what it will be: The future of job design research. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 31, 463-479.
Motivation at Work Application
In the case study, Making of Hotplates, Workers seems to be having jobs which are extremely specialized. Each task is balanced for three minutes per each station making the work to be extremely monotonous to the workers making them to become unhappy, Because of unhappiness of workers at the workplace; these would have resulted in poor morale as well as low motivation. Motivation in the workplace is a form of force that makes the employees to do things which will result to high production by having an inspiration of completing the tasks allocated. When there is motivation in organization, the employees try to put more effort to increase the output standard (Whiteley, 2002). This paper analyzes the importance of motivation to the workers in the workplace and problems that result when there is low motivation.
Changes in the workplace accounting for increase in productivity and decrease…
Rush, H.M. (2008). Job design for motivation; [experiments in job enlargement and job enrichment,. New York: Conference Board.
Stack, L. (2010). Super competent the six keys to perform at your productive best. New York:
Whiteley, P. (2002). Motivation. London: Capstone Pub.
Motivations in Company
To maximize productivity and employee job satisfaction, the heads of companies must provide some kind of monetary motivation for their employees. Often this motivation takes the form of such things as gift certificates, free food, stock shares, and cash bonuses. To ascertain the specific ways the company our group is investigating rewards and motivates its employees, I interviewed Jeremi Karnell, the CMO and founding partner; and Michael Donnelly, the Head of HR. Both men indicated the importance of monetary motivation for their employees and outline the specific ways their company provides it. They also offered their personal philosophy regarding employee monetary motivation. I concluded that for the company in question, financial rewards can effectively motivate employees and helps to create company loyalty and a sense of community within the corporation.
Jeremi Karnell, the CMO and founding partner, informed me that the company as a horizontal structure with…
As a conclusion, in terms of both responsibility and motivation, it is more that obvious that our two characters Iago and Krogstad are involved in destroying a marriage but the effects of their involvement are quite different; while Krogstad, through his blackmail, is motivated by the fact that he wants to spare his children of the miseries of a spoiled reputation and is responsible only for providing the necessary circumstances which will unravel the truth to Nora concerning her false happy marriage, in Iago's case we consider him fully responsible not only for destroying Othello's marriage but also for the death of many people around him, victims of his Machiavellian plans. Questioning his motivation, there isn't any and this exact utter lack of motivation is what makes him Shakespeare's greatness villain.
Katherine E. Monahan Huntley - Storytelling Output Report for a Doll's House " http://www.dramatica.com/story/analyses/analyses/dollshouse.html
Ian Johnston - on…
Katherine E. Monahan Huntley - Storytelling Output Report for a Doll's House " http://www.dramatica.com/story/analyses/analyses/dollshouse.html
Ian Johnston - on Ibsen's a Doll's House " http://www.mala.bc.ca/~johnstoi/introser/ibsen.htm
Enotes - a Doll's House Text
The success, performance, as well as development of an employee are influenced by motivation. There are numerous methods and theories on motivation. McClelland, for instance, in his theory expresses that each employee has specific needs acquired over time based on life's experiences. His theory summarized the needs of people into achievement, power, and affiliation. Different employees get motivated in varying manners therefore a manager should not rely on one motivation technique to serve the entire workforce. This paper will address three motivational methods, and how they would be applied in the workplace.
One motivational method that would reap numerous benefits from the employees and commonly applied in most organizations is rewards. Everyone is familiar with the use of rewards as a motivator since as early as preschool and daycare, rewards such as sticker chart and snacks were given for good behavior. Even later in life rewards still appeal…
Atchison, T.A. (2003). Exposing the myths of employee satisfaction. Healthcare executive. 17(3), pp. 20.
Cummings, L.L., & Elsalmi, A.M. (1968). Empirical research on the bases and correlates of managerial motivation. Psychological Bulletin, 70, pp.127 -- 144.
Every person who had performed well and met the deadlines was offered a cash bonus at the end of six-month period when performance appraisals were done. However I realized that Sarah was not motivated by this cash reward. She had one child who went to kindergarten and her husband earned well. his meant she needed something other than money to motivate her. his was indeed a challenge since I had no idea how to discover her needs which could enhance her performance and inspire her to meet deadlines.
he first stage was to determine if the job actually suited her aptitude. I spoke to her personally and asked her if she really liked her job. But this was done in a candid manner so she wouldn't know what the real issue was. Sarah talked eagerly about her work and her ideas about the next month's magazine. Studying her resume, I…
This was a very interesting and enlightening survey. I spoke to Sarah and we discussed her various options. I told her that as long as she promised to meet her deadlines, I could allow her to work from home on Tuesdays and Thursdays and she could leave around 1 p.m. provided she guaranteed timely delivery of the work assigned to her. Needless to say, Sarah was thrilled. This is the last time we ever had a problem with her deadline issue. The new reward program motivated her so much that she was putting in extra effort to get everything done on job. The company had no problem with her new schedule and I was finally convinced that a happy employee is a company's best resource.
Ken Smith, Great minds in Management. Oxford University Press, 2005
This has been most apparent through my work to obtain my education certification. In conjunction with this certification, I had the opportunity to work with a middle school aged student in a one-on-one tutoring situation. I brought different materials, and worked with the student once a week in preparation for a state examination. Not only was I able to help the student improve academically at the end of the lessons, but also I impacted him on a personal level. The eighth grader did not spend all of our time together speaking about academics, but also brought personal problems to me for assessment. He said that he struggled with being organized, and also confessed to being bullied. I advised the student to stop procrastinating and confront the bully verbally without anger. The student reported academic success, in addition to noting that the bully had stopped interfering with his studies. This experience…
What is it like to have enthusiasm? Does this come from within one person? Are outside influences important as well? Can it change someone's life? One will discuss motivation and provide examples as to how it impacts an individual on regular basis.
Intrinsic motivation is what comes from inside a person. For example, he or she is motivated to learn at school in order to get the best grade possible. This can make someone work hard at achieving their goals. If he or she wants an A in Biology, then he or she will work twice as hard to accomplish this. In the long run, the individual may or may not get what it is they want despite having the drive. Extrinsic motivation is important as well.
When it comes to extrinsic motivation, a person looks outside of themselves in order to seek ways in which to do a…
Society also ingrains many values and ideas into its populace, for instance, by gender conditioning. oys are told they should not cry or display feeling while it is okay for a girl to do it. oys are also expected to be tough and aggressive and told from a very young age that they need to be "strong." The worst insult for a little boy generally is that he is acting like a girl. This fact is observed in almost all societies irrespective of geographical location. Parenthood, marital status and involvement in social circles also influence values and attitudes.
Franken defined motivation as a multifaceted phenomenon. (Franken, 1998) He associated motivation as an internal state of need, desire or want that serves to activate or energize behavior as well as to give direction to behavior. Motivation is also defined as a factor that helps people get energized towards attaining a goal…
Ashforth, B., & Humphrey, R. (Emotional labor in service roles: The influence of identity). 1993. Academy of Management Review, 18(88-115).
Franken, R.E. (1998). Human motivation (4th ed.). vrPacific Grove, CA: Brooks/Cole Pub. Co.
Gove, W.R. (1994). Why We Do What We Do: a Biopsychosocial Theory of Human Motivation. Social Forces, 73.
Jackson, K.M., Mannix, E.A., Peterson, R.S., & Trochim, W.M.K. (2003). A Multi-faceted Approach to Process Conflict. Paper presented at the IACM 15th Annual Conference.
By experiencing and discussing each point of the theoretical aspects, I did get to know myself better and see both positive and negative sides of my personality. For instance, while discussing Freud's theories, I managed to explain certain emotional manifestations which, up to a point, were not entirely clear. Furthermore, discussions on matters such as child and life span development improved my perception on family relationships and inter-human communication.
A part of the importance of such courses is to better prepare us for the challenges one has to face throughout his lifetime. Although the experiences accumulated in academic preparation do not necessarily ensure a less troublesome road in life, they do offer additional support. Nonetheless, it is vital to create the proper theoretical background which will guide your actions in every situation. For me, the discussions relating to the stress, the pressure and the social tensions existing today have helped…
Boeree, C.G Personality theories. Sigmund Freud. Retrieved 19 September 2006, at http://www.ship.edu/%7Ecgboeree/freud.html
Buresch, T., Eiben, a.E., Nitschke, G., Schut, M.C. Effects of evolutionary and lifetime learning on minds and bodies in an artificial society. Free University Amsterdam. Retrieved 19 September 2006, at http://www.cs.vu.nl/~gusz/papers/2005_cec.pdf#search=%22life%20time%20learning%20importance%22
Conditioning and learning. Retrieved 19 September 2006, at http://psych.fullerton.edu/rlippa/Psych101/outline2.htm
Knowles, M.S. (1962) a History of the adult education movement in the U.S.A., New York: Krieger.
Motivation in Behavior
a) What does Tolman's theory of animal learning tell us about the motivation for human learning?
Unlike John Watson, B.F. Skinner and the other strict behaviorists, or the ussian physiologists like Ivan Pavlov, Edward C. Tolman argued that the behaviorist theory that learning was a matter of stimulus-response (S-) and positive and negative reinforcement was highly simplistic. Although he rejected introspective methods and metaphysics, he increasingly moved away from strict behaviorism into the areas of cognitive psychology. In short, he became a mentalist without actually using that term to describe himself and concluded that all behavior was "purposive" (Hergenhahn, 2009, p. 428). All of his experiments with rats moving through mazes at the University of Berkeley proved to his satisfaction that behavior was actually the dependent variable, with the environment as the independent variable, with mental processes as intervening variables. Tolman summarized this basic theory, which he…
Leaf, J.B. et al. (2010). "Comparison of Simultaneous Prompting and No-No Prompting in Two-Choice Discrimination Learning with Children with Autism." Journal of Applied Behavioral Analysis, No. 2 (Summer 2010), pp. 215-28.
Lerner, R.M. (2002). Concepts and Theories of Human Development, (3rd ed.) Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc.
Lund, S.K. (2009). "Discrete Trial Instruction in Early Intensive Behavioral Intervention" in E.A. Boutot and M. Tincani (eds). Autism Encyclopedia: The Complete Guide to Autism Spectrum Disorders. Prufrock Press, Inc.
Hergenhahn, B.R. (2009). An Introduction to the History of Psychology, (6th ed.). Belmont, CA: Wadsworth
At which point, managers must be able to challenge them on an intellectual level. In many ways, one could argue that the most successful organizations will address these basic needs and will then find a way to continually challenge their employees (at the levels of self-actualization).
Incentives Offered to Employees to keep them Motivated
There are a number of different ways that executives can motivate employees the most obvious is: addressing the basic needs of everyone. Where, employers have to offer benefits that will go above and beyond their competition to include: having generous health insurance, increasing flexibility in how employees plan their schedules, the ability for the staff to prepare for retirement and those little extras that can improve the work environment (such as: health club benefits, employees discounts, company parties along with child care). These different elements are important, because they will address the basic needs of employees.…
Benefits. (2010). Google. Retrieved from: http://www.google.com/international/en/jobs/lifeatgoogle/benefits/index.html#bbb
Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs. (2010). Net MBA. Retrieved from: http://www.netmba.com/mgmt/ob/motivation/maslow/
Bruce, A. (2006). How to Motivate Every Employee. New York, NY: McGraw Hill.
Kurtus, R. (2001). Basic Principals of Total Quality Management. School for Champions. Retrieved from: ( http://www.school-for-champions.com/tqm/principles.htm
I recently discovered that a female employee was being paid more than I even though we were both hired at the same time. The reason (as I discerned it) was that they had to pay her more because she was needed for a project that required at least one female on the team. However, I was doing most of the work and getting paid less than her. This made me angry, and as I remember it, made her feel guilty. She knew that I was more qualified but that did not matter to the employer, instead I was informed that I should just live with it. Reacting to this situation was a classic response according to the equity theory. I felt less like doing the work, and more apt to take a more casual approach to the project itself. My performance was still okay, but could have been much…
Motivation for Career Change
Over time, the manner in which different people define success tends to change, and this has certainly been the case with me. Despite the challenges that are involved, I have become highly motivated to make a change in my career that will help fulfill my revised definition of personal and professional success. In this regard, for the past several years, I have been studying clinical medicine and successfully completed my bachelor's degree at Yunyang Medical College in this program of study in mid-2008. Following the completion of my bachelor's degree at Yunyang Medical College, I was employed as an intern at the Weifang Maternal and Child Health Hospital where I gained valuable practical experience in hospital paper-based and computerized administration as well as various treatment protocols. While I found these healthcare experiences to be illuminating and fulfilling, there was something missing. As a result, I came…
Currently, I am working as a surgical technologist in two hospitals in Arkansas - Arkansas Children Hospital and the VA Hospital. I do surgical scrub on various cases of all surgical services, general, orthopedics, vascular, ENT, neurology, urology, and burns. To update and enhance my skills, I attended different medical training courses.
Since my youth, I had been in the scene of medicine. At the age of seventeen I was diagnosed with diabetes. Hence, in y sophomore years in college, I did a presentation on diabetes where I provided information on the symptoms, complications, and how to cope with diabetes. During my Junior year, I had family members that were diagnosed with breast cancer, glaucoma, heart attacks and thyroid problems.
Such experiences are my motivations in becoming a Physician Assistant. The feeling that I get from providing medical services is unfathomable and cannot be measured by anything.
Once this takes place, you have a situation that is similar to the time frame before World War I. Where, all of the different world powers assumed that they understood the rationale and actions of each other. At which point, a small regional conflict in Serbia would escalate in a major conflict that would engulf all of the major world powers. (Steward 2003, pp. 6 -- 20) This is significant, because it shows that when you have several major military powers around the globe, a balancing act must take place, as the chances for conflict have increased dramatically. Given the overall destructive nature of nuclear weapons, it is safe to assume that those nations that posses these devices, will more than likely view themselves in this light.
The ability that I have to analyze these kinds of situations, could be influential, in helping to bring a voice of reason to…
Iran's Nuclear Program, 2010, New York Times. Available from:
In the 21st century, American, European, and Asian trans-national corporations (e.g., General Motors; Toyota; Coca Cola; IBM; Nestle, etc., build plants in Mexico and Latin America, where indigenous labor is cheaper than American labor. Meanwhile, tens of thousands of poor Mexican citizens living in poverty struggle to sneak across the borders of the United States, into California, Arizona, Texas, or New Mexico, in hope of finding better lives by working for American dollars, instead of Mexican pesos.
All in all, European colonialism, an outgrowth and direct result of acquisitive worldwide European exploration and expansion, from the time of the Spanish conquistadores through the Enlightenment Period; through the Industrial Revolution and beyond, has done more harm than good within both Latin America and Sub-Saharan Africa. For the most part, within these regions, colonialism (and/or its long-lasting after-effects) brought disease; poverty, and much cultural coercion to those areas. Natural resources were stolen;…
Bradshaw, Michael et al. Contemporary World Regional Geography: Global
Connections, Local Voices. New York: McGraw-Hill, 2003.
Diamond, Jared. Guns, Germs, and Steel: The Fates of Human Societies. New York: Norton, 1999.
These performance appraisals are usually given to employees by managers. Such appraisals occur once or twice per year, depending upon the industry and the position of the employee. In some cases, performance appraisals are carried out by colleagues. egardless of how feedback is given most organizations recognize it as a legitimate and productive way to judge performance and present employees with ways to improve job performance.
Examples of Employee motivation
According to Neff (2002) the ability to motivate employees is an essential component in creating an organization that is successful. The author points out that the most successful organizations in the world are always succeeding in making certain that job satisfaction and motivation are primary priorities. These organizations have realized that employees who are motivated are also more productive and therefore improve the bottom line. Greater productivity usually leads to greater job satisfaction and ultimately greater customer satisfaction. The author…
Brief, a.P., & Weiss, H.M. (2002). Organizational Behavior: Affect in the Workplace. 279+.
Cameron, J., & Pierce, W.D. (2002). Rewards and Intrinsic Motivation: Resolving the Controversy. Westport, CT: Bergin & Garvey.
Kermally, S. (2005). Gurus on Managing People. London: Thorogood.
London, M. (2003). Job Feedback: Giving, Seeking, and Using Feedback for Performance Improvement. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
According to Nolan (2010), the right incentive program can help with this process.
Nolan (2010) reports that a motivated and goal-oriented staff is essential to any optometric practice, since staff / patient interaction accounts for about 70% of the patient's total time in the office. If the staff is not content, patients will not be treated appropriately and will look for eye-care services someplace else. Also, the cost of finding and training new staff members is much more costly than ongoing training and retaining activities. In addition, staff productivity significantly influences a practice's volume. Nolan (2010) therefore recommends a three-part incentive process: The first is to set annual financial goals for the practice, or else the staff will not be motivated to achieve them. In the fourth quarter, establish specific goals in attracting new patients and retaining present ones, revenue-per-patient, eye-wear sales and cash receipts. Second is to schedule a…
Gatlin, R (July 1, 1997) How to effectively reward employees. Industrial Management, 1-4.
Nolan, B. (2005) Reward your staff to build your practice: by setting financial goals for your practice, scheduling productive staff meetings and offering staff-incentive programs, you'll retain your current employees and grow financially. Review of Optometry 142(12) 36+.
Opperman, M. (2007) Give your team a cut: by offering quarterly bonuses based on employee performance, you give your team a strong incentive to succeed -- and help your practice thrive. Veterinary Economics 48(3), 49+.
Schrag, R.L. May I Speak Frankly. Retrieved March 10, 2010. http://mayispeakfrankly.blogspot.com/
I find that what motivates me most are intrinsic and extrinsic types of motivation. Extrinsic types of motivation include things like praise and simple communications of appreciation for a job well done. They also include things like bonus time for vacation or raises or even job promotions if a project really turns out to be a big success for the company. However, even just little things like smiles, compliments and positive feedback—things that have no direct cost on the company—are good extrinsic motivators, as Hauser (2014) points out, and I find them to be good motivators for me all the time. Appreciation and kind words from a manager or shows of respect can be enough of an extrinsic motivator to fill me with a sense of worth and pride and make me want to do a good job on projects. When managers show that they are aware of how…
The present study aims to establish a relationship between academic motivation and academic self-efficacy. More specifically we will be looking at whether individuals with high academic self-efficacy possess high intrinsic or high extrinsic motivation levels. A sample of approximately 100 undergraduate students will complete the Academic Motivation Scale, which measures their level of academic motivation as well as their type of motivation, and the College Academic Self-Efficacy Scale to measure their level of academic self-efficacy. It is expected that individuals with high levels of academic self-efficacy will also show high levels of intrinsic academic motivation. These findings are significant in that they would give insight as to the reason students strive toward success, which if known could play a role in the increase in college admission and retention, for if it is known what motivates one to perform well academically, it is thus known what to target as far…
Bandura, A. (1991). Social cognitive theory of self-regulation. Organizational Behavior
and Human Decision Processes, 50, 248 -- 287.
Bandura, A. (1997). Self-efficacy: the exercise of control. New York, Freeman.
Carway, K., Tucker, C.M., Reinke, W.M., & Hall, C. (2003). Self-efficacy, goal orientation, and fear of failure as predictors Of school engagement in high school students, Psychology in the School, 40, 417 -- 427.
Additionally, those who were in the test group also scored, on average 20% higher on the test when it was graded by the researcher. Though the case study was based on an abnormal psychology case the questions are associated with content (i.e. reading comprehension) and are not expected to be interpretive. The group was also debriefed at the close of the exam and informed of the nature of the exam and the resulting scoring, which was based on participation as apposed to test scores.
This brief research work demonstrates that extrinsic motivation (in an anomalous form) motivates students to achieve success on tests. The balance between intrinsic (results of moderate scores on MSLQ) and extrinsic, the motivation to score high on the exam as an impetus to a higher extra credit score, as apposed to a participation only score motivated those students in the test group to pay closer…
The vertical differentiations are associated with the components of abstraction that permit individuals to determine both their intentions and their behaviors. The horizontal differentiation is associated with different intentions including the completion of the project.
Tubbs and Eckeberg (1991) assert that understanding the intentional model has implications associated with understanding the effects of goal setting. The authors argue that the intentional behavior model explains the cognitive effects of goals which is rarely seen in research pertaining to work motivation. The authors posit that the research is important because it is the first time that research has sought to determine the impact that goals have on people.
Finally Latham and Pinder (2005) discuss Work Motivation Theory and research at the dawn of the twenty-first century. The author point out that interest in motivational theories has not waned since they first begin to surface. According to the authors, work motivation represents a…
Klein J.I. (1990) Feasibility Theory: A Resource Munificence Model of Work motivation and Behavior. Academy of Management Review. 15 (4) pgs. 646-645.
Latham G.P., Pinder, C.C. (2005) Work Motivation Theory and Research at the Dawn of the Twenty-First Century. Annual Review of Pyschology. 56: 485-516.
Tubbs M.E., Eckeberg S.E. (1991) Academy of Management Review. 15(1) pgs. 180-199.
Experimental Research on Motivation
Among the psychological variables discussed, motivation is the psychological variable that I have the most interest in, primarily because it helps uncover the 'mystery' of why we are drive to successfully accomplish tasks and activities. Motivation is at the center of every individual who makes a decision to commit an action or behavior; it develops within the individual the willingness to commit to change through his/her own actions. Whether or not the motivation was positively generated, motivation remains a key component to understanding the human psyche.
Take as an example weight loss or diet programs. These programs are anchored on the premise that given the correct motivation, individuals can successfully achieve weight loss. Weight programs are driven only by two important factors: the trainer's support to the individual in the program, developing the right motivation in him/her, and the individual's motivation to successfully finish the…
When staff was asked for the reasons why they were quitting one of the responses was that EL's crisis management style was insufficient, better opportunities for career advancement, and that the "chain of command" was also great reason for unrest within the organization. These are all additional reasons that can lead to a lack of motivation in an organization; if an employee feels that there is no one to turn to, that there are no opportunities for advancement, and that the hierarchy does not communicate with them will give the employee reasons to be unsatisfied.
Additional problems in an organization that may be reasons for motivational problems found in EL include the inability of employees to see the finished product. Each department has their job, once their job has been completed, it is possible that the project is then transferred to another building to have other aspects of the project…
Transformation leadership is 'authentic' leadership which "builds genuine trust between leaders and followers." Furthermore transformational leadership "concentrates on terminal values such as integrity and fairness. They see the responsibility for their organization's development and impact on society." (Ibid)
Homig and MacGregor in the work entitled:" Transformational Leadership" state that the following ten 'tenets' are inclusive in the transformational leader's style of leading:
1. Leaders have high moral and ethical values.
2. Leaders express genuine interest in followers.
3. Leaders have an inspirational vision.
4. Genuine trust exists between leaders and led.
5. Followers share leader's values and vision.
6. Leaders and followers perform beyond self-interest.
7. Participatory decision-making is the rule.
8. Innovative thinking and action is expected.
9. Motivation is to do the right thing.
10. Leaders mentor. (nd)
SUMMARY AND CONCLUSION
While all of these theories were valid at some time or in relation to some…
Creating Futures (nd) Online available at http://220.127.116.11/search?q=cache:k13BWFbu_wIJ:u wfoundation.org/newsletter/June2005/43565Camp NewsletterFI NAL.pdf+Jeffrey+H.+Brotman,+Leadership&hl=en&gl=us&ct=clnk&cd=9
Costco Wholesale Investor Relations (2006) Online http://phx.corporate-ir.net/phoenix.zhtml?c=83830&p=irol-govBio&ID=13292
Employee Motivation, the Organizational Environment and Productivity (2006) Section 2: Basic Approaches Used to Improve Productivity. Accel Team Online available at http://www.accel-team.com/human_relations/hrels_03_mcgregor.html
Costco -5th Largest Retailer in U.S. And 11th Largest in the World (2006) http://www.customer-service.com/newsletter/126E.aspx
" Often, conflicts arise when the individual wants two conflicting things: for example, I have occasionally wanted a long-term committed relationship at the same time as I have wanted to date different people. Avoidance-avoidance conflict is almost the opposite. Using a similar example, I have sometimes not wanted to be alone but simultaneously did not want to deal with being in a committed relationship. Approach-avoidance conflict can perhaps be best explained when I want something that is expensive: I want the item badly but I do not want to have to pay for it or work longer hours in order to pay for it.
Conflict." From Mastering Human Relations 3rd Edition, a Falikowski, 2002. Online at http://webhome.idirect.com/~kehamilt/ipsyconf.html.
Constructive Suggestions Regarding Motivation." Virginia Tech. Online at http://www.ucc.vt.edu/stdysk/motivate.html.
Davidson, et. al. "Emotion: Journal Description." APA Online. Online at http://www.apa.org/journals/emo/description.html.
Goleman, Daniel. "Test Your Emotional IQ." Utne. November-December 1005. Online at…
Conflict." From Mastering Human Relations 3rd Edition, a Falikowski, 2002. Online at http://webhome.idirect.com/~kehamilt/ipsyconf.html .
Constructive Suggestions Regarding Motivation." Virginia Tech. Online at http://www.ucc.vt.edu/stdysk/motivate.html .
Davidson, et. al. "Emotion: Journal Description." APA Online. Online at http://www.apa.org/journals/emo/description.html.
Goleman, Daniel. "Test Your Emotional IQ." Utne. November-December 1005. Online at http://www.utne.com/interact/test_iq.html .
Motivation in Learning
The role of motivation in determining educational outcomes has been widely acknowledged in educational psychology. However, different explanatory frameworks focus on varying aspects of the motivational process. For instance, cognitive psychology views psychological constructs of motivation as being rooted within an individual whereas the sociocultural approach sees cognitive activity and motivation as socially constructed. In the article under review, ueda and Dembo build an argument for combining the aforesaid approaches in order to arrive at a more powerful understanding of learning processes. Primarily, the authors rest their case on the principle that though the cognitive approach to motivation plays a key role in determining a student's self-regulated behavior, the success of classroom practices in positively influencing these would improve through applying the understanding that motivation also hinges on social negotiation and distribution within the context of specific activity settings. The inclusion of such a sociocultural perspective and…
Berson, R.K. (1994). Marching to a Different Drummer: Unrecognized Heroes of American
History. Greenwood Press.
Rueda, R & Dembo, M.H. (1995). Motivational Processes in Learning: A Comparative
Analysis of Cognitive and Sociocultural Frameworks. Advances in Motivation and Achievement. Vol. 9. p. 255-285. JAI Press Inc.
Embracing the limits of my control will enable me to deal with stress appropriately.
Nonverbal and Cultural Barriers to Communication
It is only when the intended receiver of a message understands the information contained within the message that communication can be regarded effective. The world is today regarded a global village. This effectively means that intercultural communication will continue being even more common going forward. In so many ways, effective communication will enable me to successfully execute the mandate of my new position. Given the multicultural nature of our institution, there exists a significant need for me to explore ways of overcoming cultural barriers to communication. In seeking to overcome the said barriers, I will amongst other things ensure that I understand the receiver's perspective. This will help minimize instances of wrong interpretation. I will also ensure that the message is delivered in a format that can be understood by…
Armstrong, M. (2012). Armstrong's Handbook of Human Resource Management Practice (12th ed.). Philadelphia, PA: Kogan Page Publishers.
Brain, C. (2002). Advanced Psychology: Applications, Issues & Perspectives. London: Nelson Thornes.
Sims, R.R. (2002). Managing Organizational Behavior. Westport, CT: Greenwood Publishing Group.
102). The haves also create moral divisions to distance themselves from the have-nots.
Cognitive distancing also puts the poor at a disadvantage. It manifests as "negative beliefs about [the poor's] characteristics, negative expectations about their behavior, and the attribution that their poverty is caused by their own failings" (Lott, 2002, p. 102). Lott points out how pervasive stereotyping of the poor can be, specifically since middle-class people (and even politicians) will freely ascribe negative character traits to welfare recipients as a general group. Lott cites studies in which perceptions about poor people are measured, all of which find that the stereotypical depiction of the poor as lazy or lacking in initiative is pervasive in our culture.
Lott also covers institutional distancing, which is comprised of distancing in education, housing, and health care, and politics. She found research that suggested that dramatic differences existed in the way that government funding and…
Lott, B. (2002). Cognitive and behavioral distancing from the poor. American Psychologist, 57(2), 100-110. doi: 10.1037//0003-066X.57.2.100
Motivation in the High School Classroom
How to Keep Kids from Vegging Out Perhaps the largest problem in education is the fact that students are not motivated to participate in classroom activities. A large percentage of the problem comes from the fact that there is so much stimulus outside the classroom. When kids go home they play on the internet, play videogames, watch television, listen to the stereo, and talk on the phone. Some kids are active and play sports, ride their bikes, or do skateboard tricks. Sitting in front of a chalk board while a teacher explains things in a dry and less than engaging manner tends to reinforce the fact that school is boring.
Teacher's really cannot compete with a student's outside activities. The activities that a student engages in on her own time is something that she enjoys doing. Most kids feel as if they have…
Motivation in the Workplace
My needs are being satisfied by a combination of being provided with the opportunity to do something that I am particularly fond of and being given a satisfactory sum of money for the respective activity. My life has largely been based on a trial-and-error system in which I came across a series of experiences and gradually filtered them until I was satisfied with my condition.
My first jobs involved enthusiastic managers who seemed to believe that bonuses are one of the most effective methods to motivate employees. As a consequence, they were inclined to encourage employees to do everything in their power in order to finish their projects earlier. Profits are obviously one of the most important things in a business and managers are thus sometimes inclined to believe that by providing employees with appealing bonuses they are more likely to make the business as a…
... led me to suggest, as an alternative to assimilation, the value of being asimilao.
IV. eminders to Help
Kim & Lyons (2003) report that games can be successfully used to instill and enhance individuals' abilities to succeed in a multicultural firm. Game playing possesses numerous characteristics which could enhance the learning of competencies areas of skills, attitudes and beliefs, and knowledge. Games which include low-risk potential can increase a sense of safety, reduce vulnerable feelings, while also, and enhancing multicultural awareness.
For example, the use of games can balance out the inherent hierarchy between the trainees and the instructor (i.e., it levels the playing field) and potentially lead to an increased sense of safety on the part of the trainees" (Kim & Lyons, 2003). Increasing an individual's sense of safety can work tom eliminate prejudices and allow students and trainees to more readily examine their personal norms; cultural values;…
Chang, C.Y. (2003). Chapter 5 Counseling Asian-Americans. In Counseling Multicultural and Diverse Populations: Strategies for Practitioners, Vacc, N.A., Devaney, S.B., & Brendel, J.M. (Eds.) (pp. 73-92). New York: Brunner-Routledge. http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=91054568
Cunningham, M.J. (2001). B2B: How to Build a Profitable E-Commerce Strategy. Cambridge, MA: Perseus Publishing. http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5000786585
Diversity or Diversion? Experts Express Their Views about the Effectiveness of Diversity Programs and Offer Suggestions on How to Improve Them. (2002, July). Black Enterprise, 32, 82+. http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=14677163
The final piece of the puzzle clicked for me during the recent (and possibly ongoing) recession, when I viewed the extra strain that was placed on my parents due to cutbacks at work, worries about pensions, and the falling value of their home. Their lack of education severely limited my parents' options in terms of dealing with and recovering from the recession, as there were fewer occupational opportunities available should one of them lose their job, and moving into a different area of work would also have been more difficult both for lack of experience and because employers so often look for a college degree simply as a prerequisite during the application process. Witnessing their fears and the very real change in their lifestyle that occurred due to my parent's lack of a sense of financial security made me increasingly determined to never be in this situation myself, and to…
Motivation for the Primary Health Care Nurse Practitioner (PHCNP) Comment by babyliza: Part 2 of 3 not answered: How are NPs important in the delivery of primary health care to diverse populations?
In my opinion, the profession of nursing is more of a degree in changing habits. Nurses are essentially individuals who are extraordinarily enthusiastic when it comes to their own and others' wellbeing and health. Nurse practitioners (NPs) are individuals who apply appropriate knowledge to aid patients in identifying and adopting suitable health and food habits to suit their bodies' unique needs. I am personally keen on utilizing the established system to ensure patients develop healthy, lasting behaviors and habits with positive global health effects. I would proudly make a difference in people's life, effectively differentiating between theoretical knowledge on what is good and bad for people's health and practically applying my knowledge. Nurses function as guides, empowering individuals…
Gagnon, C. (2016, July 27). What is a Health Coach and why would we need one? Retrieved from LinkedIn Pulse: https://www.linkedin.com/pulse/what-health-coach-why-would-we-need-one-catherine-gagnon
Jeffreys, M. (2015). Dynamics of Diversity. NSNA.
Skar, R. (2010). How Nurses Experience Their Work as a Learning Environment. Vocations and Learning, 1 - 18.
Zarshenas, L., Sharif, F., Molazem, Z., Khayyer, M., Zare, N., & Ebadi, A. (2014). Professional socialization in nursing: A qualitative content analysis. Iranian Journal of Nursing Midwifery, 432 - 438.
Many psychologists have put forward theories to advance the concept of motivation. Some of the psychological theories and models that explain motivation include incentive theory, drive theory, self-control model, push and pull model, intrinsic and extrinsic model, and rational motivations among others. Motivation stems from a number of sources, which dictate the way a person acts. It is paramount to note that motivation is one of the greatest determinants of motivation, and one can tell the level of motivation of a person through the way one behaves. The discussion below is an insight into this concept for a better understanding of motivation.
Motivation is a term in psychology that is hard to define; a number of theories have different views of motivation. These views of motivation include drive theories, incentive theories, and homeostasis, and one can draw a common definition of motivation from these views (Kalat, 2011). According to…
Bernstein, D.A. (2007). Psychology. Boston, Mass: Houghton Mifflin.
Dinibutun, S.R. (2012). Managing Effective Motivation. GSTF Journal on Business Review, 1(4). Retrieved from http://dl.globalstf.org/index.php?page=shop.product_details&flypage=flypage_images.tpl&product_id=1671&category_id=73&option=com_virtuemart&Itemid=4
Kalat, J.W. (2011). Introduction to psychology. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth Cengage Learning.
Katzenbach, J.R. (2006). Motivation beyond money: Learning from peak performers. Leader to Leader, 2006(41), 59-62. Retrieved from http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=aph&AN=22223121&site=ehost-live&scope=site
Employment otivation and Engagement: How to Recruit and Retain Top-Quality Talent in a Competitive arketplace
Because employee performance and productivity are closely aligned with corporate profitability, there has been a great deal of research over the years concerning optimal approaches to motivating people in the workplace. The analysis of what motivates people to perform to their maximum effort, though, has becoming increasingly complex as the result of a growing number of theories concerning the antecedents of motivation and optimal job performance and motivational methods to achieve it. While the debate concerning which motivational approaches produce the best results continues, there is a consensus among organizational behavior researchers that pay ranks among the top factors that include employee motivation, perhaps the overarching factor in most cases. Despite these findings, studies have shown time and again that money talks when it comes to employee motivation. When people become convinced that their efforts…
Murphy, C., Ramamoorthy, N., Flood, P. & MacCurtain, S. 2006, July 1. Organizational Justice Perceptions and Employee Attitudes among Irish Blue Collar Employees: An Empirical Test of the Main and Moderating Roles of Individualism/Collectivism. Management Revue, 17(3), 329.
Reaction to the source
The authors presented a well developed and cohesive approach to analyzing the manner in which young people learn a foreign language.
Kartal, G. (2006). Working with an imperfect medium: Speech recognition technology in reading practice. Journal of Educational Multimedia and Hypermedia, 15(3), 303-305.
Description of the focus of the source
The focus of this study was the read-aloud behaviors of learners who were assigned an experimental computer-based program that used speech recognition software for reading practice that provided novice students with immediate feedback.
Usefulness of the source
The useful of this source was primarily for classroom ESOL teachers using speech-recognition applications.
Limitations of the source
Many ESOL classrooms may not feature speech-recognition software, making this study purely speculative for these educators.
Description of the intended audience
Primary school ESOL teachers.
Although speech-recognition software has become more accurate in its interpretation of speech, the technology…
While there is almost an external side to personal accomplishment it remains truly internal. There is a thrill that bathes the soul when you accomplish something you aspired to achieve. This thrill is at times inexplicable to another and is only apprehended by those who have themselves accomplished. It is not the pleasing of parents or the attainment of subsequent employment that drives this approach. Rather, it is the personal knowledge that against the odds and through difficult trials you are able to succeed. You fought with yourself and you were victorious. There is nothing comparable to it.
While those two internal motivational pillars dominate the landscape, there is place for external forces also. The most obvious external force is the desire to please some significant other. This may be a parent or other family member, who has been an inspiration and source of encouragement to you. This external source…
" (p. 90)
Total Quality Management (TQM) is called by Aragon to be "an invaluable leadership technique that assists in developing a positive, customer-oriented culture and a genuine level of employee commitment that pervades the entire work environment." Additionally stated is that the method of TQM is one that "relies on the capabilities of both labor and management, working as a team, to continually improve quality and productivity." (2004) The TQM method provides "opportunities for participation, problem solving, and teamwork, it creates a tremendous level of motivation within each employee...employees are more than motivated -- they are empowered." (Aragon, 2004) Aragon additionally states that: empowered employees."..take a personal interest and responsibility in setting and achieving the department's goals. ecause they know they have a way in how tasks are accomplished, they feel a sense of pride and ownership in their work. In addition, empower employees improve the overall performance of…
Foster, Raymond E. LAPD (ret.) Morale: Whose Job Is It Anyways? - Leadership, Technology and Tactics: Themes from the Street PoliceOne.com Online available at http://www.policeone.com/writers/columnists/RaymondFoster1/articles/119446/ .
Brown, Edward (2003) The New Frontier: Police Motivational Training. Online available at http://www.calea.org/newweb/newsletter/No72/police_motivational_training.htm .
Meeting Law Enforcement's Responsibilities: Solving the Serious Issues of Today" (2001) Major Cities Chiefs Association - Critical Issues Studies Group, October 2001. Online available at http://www.neiassociates.org/seriousissues.pdf.
Aragon, Robert (2004) Positive Organizational Culture: A Practical Approach. Online available at http://www.security-protocols.com/textfiles/law/93dec004.txt .
Overall it is evident from this discussion that the prevention vs. promotion focus has an important affect on how individuals act and interact with each other. The above discussion looked at the general application of such systems reflect individual behavior, however, a much more specific look at the effects of such actions within the workplace must be reviewed before a test study can be conducted to answer our hypothesis.
Promotion vs. Prevention: Application within the Workplace
The full implication of promotion vs. prevention focused mentalities is on the explicit strategy decisions individuals make within this framework. The impact on strategy decisions within employee-employer relations is extremely important. In this section, we will look at how strategy decisions are different between promotion and prevention mindsets.
One area that has specific application to workplace environment is the consideration of alternatives and new ideas. Promotion focused individuals tend to be much more eager…
Higgins, E.T., & Bianco, a.T. (2003). Speed/accuracy decisions in task performance: Built in trade-off of separate strategic concerns. Organization Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 90.
Higgins, E.T. (1998). Approach and avoidance strength during goal attainment: Regulatory focus and the "goal looms larger" effect. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 75.
Friedman, R.S (2005). Effects of motivational cues on perceptual asymmetry: Implications for creativity and analytical problem solving. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 88.