Framwork for Practise and Presentation Sociology -- Term Paper

Excerpt from Term Paper :

Framwork for Practise and Presentation

Sociology -- Social Work

There are several factors that contribute to seeming intractability and complexity of social issues. We cannot retrieve an actual picture of any problem considering a single issue. The root causes of social issues are related to individual circumstances and some are beyond the individual control. Central goal of social work profession is the social justice. Social workers can better serve all the needs of the service users if they will have the tools that are required to analyze the existing social policies and problems. This term paper is based on the ideology and the theories embraced by social workers; also their practice strategies and inclusiveness of cultural diversity is discussed in detail.


We find several social issues in our surroundings. Every social issue does not depend on a single cause rather there are specific root causes that ultimately give rise to social problems. Such problems are handled by social work professionals and social agencies. They are the ones, who can help shape practices and policies, legitimacy of the social work as a dedicated profession and nature of services delivery system. It is vital to first understand the social policy in order to get practically engaged with social work; confidently dealing with ethical and political questions about rights and responsibility as a society. Social workers should have the required tools to effectively promote social justice; they should understand impact of social policy and social structures upon service users. Also they have to be involved in the policy practice. This term paper tells about the true ideology, embraced theories, practice strategies, goals and objectives, understanding of cultural diversity and self-determination of social workers.


Social workers are the ones, who can help people to transform their living conditions. The core function of this profession is to aim at human progress, equality, democracy, social justice and self-determination. Social workers work as a community or under an organization. They have diverse goals that ultimately meet at one point. Social problems rise due to lack of housing and other resources for youth outreach programs and mental health. The social workers have to work as a counselor; they are awarded responsibilities on the basis of their qualification and experience.

They carry out various sessions for rehabilitation but what actually is the rehabilitation counseling? "Rehabilitation counselors are uniquely skilled to provide a wide variety of services to individuals with disabilities and are grounded with commendable values and beliefs which mediate the profession. The profession has traditionally provided counseling and consulting services" (Marchionda 2011). Basically the process of counseling involves setting of goals, growth of benefits and communication; also involved are psychological, behavioral, social and vocational interventions. The modalities and unique techniques utilized during rehabilitation counseling process include diagnosis and planning of the treatment, self co-ordination, and case management, and appraisal, interventions in order to remove attitudinal, employment and environmental barriers and adjustment to psychosocial and medical disability.

The social workers are reminded that "Rehabilitation services should no longer be imposed without the consent and participation of people who are using the services. Rehabilitation is now viewed as a process in which people with disabilities or their advocates make decisions about what services they need to enhance participation" (Community-Based Rehabilitation 2004).

Every social agency has a mission statement for example it wants to transform the service delivery system and all the programs to protect youth and children in a much better way and to support their development. Two of the main reasons of rise in social problems are poverty and lack of educations. "Adversity can take multiple forms for children. It may stem from constitutional vulnerability; from parental and familial difficulties and dysfunction or from environmental stressors. All of which may jeopardize children's development and affect their mental health." (Pacione, Measham, Kronich & Meloni 2012)

The social agencies mark their goals that they have to achieve with time. Some of them that have community and health services and three or four health authorities target their goal as transforming into a huge operational department. There they plan to share a common identity and culture of excellence. They aim at strengthening their service delivery framework. Dedicated social agencies prioritize key values as a part of their planning cycle. These key values may include the developing of a social agency that is collaborative, responsible, child plus youth centered, respectful, knowledgeable and responsible.

Social agencies have some primary client groups; this may include the concerns, needs or problems that cause people to come to them. The primary client groups include maltreated children, homeless children and adults, substance abused children and adults, families that require services for child care and adoption of children whether locally or nationally. Social agencies provide protection intervention to youth and children in need of high protection from a parent. They find permanent homes for these children; provide rehabilitative services and handle their educational, residential and financial issues. The social workers and agencies pay a lot of attention regarding rehabilitation services (to drug abuse children and adults). "People with addictions remain vulnerable during the middle phase of treatment; cognitive capacity usually begins to return to normal, the mind can still play tricks. Clients may remember the comfort of their past use of substances yet forget just how bad the rest of their lives were" (Flores & Georgi 2005).

A few years later some drug dealers were caught, they were offered rehabilitation services by a social agency. Instead of a punishment they were offered a deal; either they could live a tough life in jail or could go for a rehabilitation course in the respective social agency. This alternative approach was adopted in order to cure addiction and to stop this social problem. The deal stated, "Either complete an experimental long-term rehabilitation program and be treated like an addict with all the struggle of self-reform, or face mandatory prison time as just another common criminal with all the attendant lost freedom and wasted life" (Clines 1993).


Social workers widely embrace the Cognitive Behavioral Theory (CBT). "CBT targets the thoughts, choices, attitudes, and meaning systems that are associated with antisocial behavior and deviant lifestyles. It uses a training approach to teach new skills in areas where offenders show deficits, such as interpersonal problem awareness" (NICIC 2007). The cognitions of individuals impact their behavior. The social workers remove these cognitions; they naturally turn the individual's attention towards positive approach. This brings motivation and a positive change in the individual's behavior.

Social workers embrace theories such as Cognitive Behavior Therapy and Aboriginal Theory. The elements of Structural and Critical Theory also played a major role while developing this framework of practice and presentation. The approaches of Cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) are rooted in one principle. It says that the cognitions of an individual play a primary and a significant role in development of behavioral and emotional responses to all the situations of life. The primary determinants of an individual's actions and feelings in CBT models are the cognitive processes. CBT approaches are efficient in the treatment of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). These approaches follow three fundamental assumptions. Assumption number one is that the cognitive processes can be known. One can become aware of them with proper practice and training. Assumption number two is that we always respond to the environmental due to our actual thinking.

The Cognitive-behavioral Theory holds that our thinking behind the reality of our life is connected to our reaction to that reality. Assumption number three is that cognitions can be targeted intentionally; they can be modified and changed. In order to increase the functionality and adaptability of the individual, cognitions are changed into more balanced, relieved thinking. The rehabilitation counselors learn emotions through a process that has two parts. They are operant conditioning and classical conditioning. This is stated in the "Two-factor Theory." Operant conditioning and Classical conditioning are used to observe the behavior of individuals during the rehabilitation sessions. Sociology is a rich study of various theories that have changed with time but their fundamental principles are still the same.

Emotional-processing theory is based on an integrated framework for the analysis and explanation of maintenance. Basically this theoretical approach is a combination of cognitive, learning and behavioral theories of PTSD. It is built on the idea that the behaviors of individual are affected by emotional experiences. The emotional processing is the modification and activation of memory structures. Emotional processing includes creation of an access to complete memory of any particular event; it reactivates the structure of fear through process of exposure. This also it helps the individual to access new information with existing maladaptive information. There are two mechanisms in cognitive therapy. These are namely the Socratic Method and the Collaborative empiricism. Collaborative empiricism refers to formation of therapeutic alliance. On the other hand the Socratic Method employs some open-ended questions. These questions assist the client to recover knowledge, which is purely relevant to targeted problem.

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