During the first era of American policing, constitutional standards of criminal procedure including formal policies of arrest, interrogation, evidence procurement, and the treatment of prisoners was substantially subject to local authorities and varied tremendously from jurisdiction to jurisdiction (Conlon, 2004; Scmalleger, 2008). So-called "street justice" was routinely administered by police officers either in conjunction with arrest or (more commonly) in lieu of formal arrest, mainly because it was more convenient for officers and considered more effective at motivating lawful compliance among career criminals (Conlon, 2004).
Contemporary American Policing
In terms of organizational structure, the modern era of American policing had already evolved by the early 20th century, but the industry would still have to endure the limitations of widespread political corruption and cronyism left over from the scandals such as the infamous Tammany Hall dynamics in 19th century New York City politics. Subsequently, the consequences...
By the latter part of the century, constitutional standards of police and criminal procedure had developed sufficiently to allow for uniform standards on a national level, but isolated instances of large-scale institutional corruption erupted periodically, such as that disclosed by the Knapp Commission in New York in the early 1970s (Conlon, 2004). While federal and local law enforcement authorities developed elements of mutual antagonism in many respects, the aftermath of 9/11 inspired substantial change in that regard and has resulted in considerable cooperation at every level, particularly but not exclusively in the counterterrorism capacity (Johnson, 2007; Spiller, 2006).
Today, American policing has evolved into a highly regulated field in which sophisticated methods are used to select and train the best qualified candidates (Schmalleger, 2008). At the local and state level, the quality and range of police resources is largely dependent on the economic variables in the communities that fund police agencies. For that reason, initial employment qualifications and salaries vary substantially with local officers earning a starting salary anywhere from $20,000 annually at the low end to as much as $70,000 at the high end in communities such as the Silicon Valley in California and Suffolk County in New York (Schmalleger, 2008).At the federal level, employment qualifications and salaries are more uniform because they are based on federal hiring standards and salary tables.
Conlon, E. (2004). Blue Blood. New York: Riverhead.
Johnson, B. "A Look at Fusion Centers: Working Together to Protect America." FBI
Law Enforcement Bulletin; Vol. 76, No.12 (2007).
Schmalleger, F. (2008). Criminal Justice Today: An Introductory Text for the 21st
Century. Hoboken, NJ: Prentice Hall.
History Policing, the Law Enforcement Industry America, Police Role Society and the Functions Policing America; a critical analysis A critical analysis: History Policing; the Law Enforcement Industry America; Police Role Society and the Functions Policing America History of Policing Formalized local government-based policing in America began in the late 1820s in the largest American cities. Early police officers were not considered to be professional with respect to social status. In fact, the terms
While he agrees that ethics training plays an important role in maintaining the integrity of the profession and insulating it from corruption, the detective believes that societal dynamics are more important in that sense than any kind of formal training. Theories of Police Misconduct: The special agent expressed the belief that criminality has many different causes and that they operate both individually and in myriad combinations in different people. He acknowledges
Q: Do you think continual education and/or training in police ethics would reduce incidents of police corruption? A: Again, it depends entirely on the type of continual education and training we're talking about: repeating simplistic ethical training scenarios originally presented in the academy is even less effective with respect to seasoned police veterans than with respect to rookies or trainees. On the other hand, if we're talking about a well-designed
Law Enforcement Interview Imagine studying the opinion of another law enforcement officer. What could one learn from that individual? Does he or she have any recommendations that are worth mentioning? How is discipline issues handled? One will discuss the various questions asked to Daniel Heinze with much analysis. Why are ethics and character so important in the field of law enforcement? Daniel (2011) believes that ethics and character is quite important in the
Law Enforcement Introduction The Modern Police Forces Prior to the formation of the Philadelphia force in 1833, policing primarily consisted of "night watches" and sheriffs recruited from the community (Sabeth). The role of law enforcement was ad hoc in nature to fight crime, night watch patrols, and not an organized or uniform organization. Incidentally, the rural nature of the country did not necessitate an established and robust policing force until the urbanization
Moreover, the risks posed by felons with known propensities (or stated intentions) to respond violently to law enforcement apprehension efforts are usually subject to judicially approved no-knock arrest warrants; therefore, they can be excepted from this particular element of analysis. However, a subject who is forewarned of officers' intention to breach his home's entrance by the amount of time required by knock and announce standards presents the worst case scenario