Export Controls and Higher Education
Export controls and sanctions are often discussed in the context of research, but there are other contexts in higher education in which export controls arise. Can you think of other ways in which export control regulations/sanctions might apply?
Export controls are designed to prevent sensitive technology and information from being sent to rouge nations and unfriendly governments. This is because there is intense competition among stakeholders to gain some type of advantage over others. If they can reverse engineer or learn new techniques, these areas will improve their ability to keep up with changes in technology (both: economically and militarily). In the field of higher education, experts will go to different nations and have the potential to share insights with others throughout the process. This is when they are able to take this knowledge...
A good example of this occurred at the end of World War II. At the time, the West and the Soviet Union were competing against each other to gain insights about the secret weapons the Nazi's were using (i.e. The V-1 and V-2 rockets). Both sides wanted to have their scientists go to their respective countries and work on these projects for them. Werner Van Braun was the most notable, as he had access to over 200 V - 2 rockets and parts. The United States sent him to New Mexico to work on developing this technology. The result, is that the insights he provided, which ushered in a new era of research for the aviation and space industries. This was used to create jets and rockets for both civilian and military purposes. (Chapman, 2013)
As a result, export control regulations apply when experts are going to nations where they could share what they know. For instance, if someone with knowledge of nuclear weapons and rockets was going to Iran for a visit. They could arrest and interrogate them in order to gain insights that can be used in their own nuclear program and to develop intercontinental ballistic missiles. In these cases, export laws will restrict where this person can go and who they can speak with. This is designed to control the indirect or direct release of sensitive information. (Chapman, 2013)
Is there a situation you can imagine in your own field of work or interest in which these regulations…
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