Dhimmis (minorities of other religions) participated as equal citizens in this renaissance and Muslim scholars made more scientific discoveries during this time than in the whole of previously recorded history (Goldschmidt & Davidson, 2007). The break between the Shiis (those who considered Ali to be legitimate ruler of the nation) and the Sunnis (those who revered Muhammad and all four rashidun) occurred during this period. Mystic Islam (best known as Sufism), or esoteric groups were born during this period as well as Muslim philosophy.
Today, approximately 80-90% of Moslems are Sunnis whilst 10-20% are Shiites. The key difference between Sunnis and Shiites is that Sunnis believe that the first four caliphs were rightful successors to Mohamed and that caliphs should be chosen by the whole community. The Salafi sect (otherwise notoriously known as Wahabbissm) is an extreme Islamic movement derived from Sunnism. Shiites, on the other hand, believe in the leadership of Imams from Ali, Mohamed's assassinated son-in-law, and that the caliphate is a result of divine will. The Twelver Shiites are one of the several groups that emerged from Shiiism.
Sufism, a mystical, ascetic and very moderate and tolerant derivation, is not considered Islamic by many Moslems (although it, itself, insists that is follows the Koran). Believing that goodness can be found from all religions, Sufism accesses God through the emotions and intuition.
Incidentally, many people erroneously confuse Moslems with 'Arabs', but the latter belong to a country in Saudi Arabia, whereas there are about 1.41-1.57 billion Muslims all over the world in countries that range from Europe to America to sizable communities in South and Central Asia, the Middle East, and in sub-Saharan Africa. All are Moslem due to the fact that they practice their Moslem faith, but are not Arabs since they do not live in Saudi Arabia.
From 1500 -- 1700, Islam seemed invincible. The Safavid Empire was succeeded by the Mogul Empire, which reached its climax under Suleiman the magnificent and then imploded in on itself, leaving the West to take over in 1750.
The alien cultural influence of the West...
Fundamentalist movements, such as the Taliban, and fundamentalist-inclined individuals, such as Khomeini and Osama ibn Laden, have all been influenced by Qutb where there is a resurgence of a return to alleged traditional Islam, in some countries more radically than in others (Armstrong, 2000).
Euro-American perceptions, as Brown (1999) argues, categorizes Islam in general, often faulty ways and these misperceptions carry across in the media. Most people think of Jihad as a crusade to destroy non-Moslems, but as Goldschmidt and Davidson (2010) argue, Mohammad's concept of Jihad did not call for conversion of massacre of Christians or Jews. It was a jihad of a different kind, dedicated to self-improvement. Americans are still confused about the character of the religion. Whilst some see it as intolerant and aggressive, others view it as a relation to their Judeo-Christian past. This clash was exemplified by the recent conflict over the building of a Mosque near Ground Zero. Whilst Obama seconded the motion on the grounds that Muslims have the choice to build their house of worship wherever they wish, about six out of ten New Yorkers opposed the idea on political and ideological grounds. The problem here was that Islam was being confounded with Islamism, otherwise known as fundamentalism. There is a huge historical tradition of tolerance, however that many individuals of the West are ignorant about (Goldschmidt & Davidson, 2010). As Goldschmidt and Davidson (2010) show, understanding the true context and background of Islam and Islamic belief may corrode this intolerance and may stimulate a meeting of different faiths and cultures where we can begin to understand one the other and draw a distinction between Islamism and Islam.
Armstrong, K. (2000). Islam: A Short History The Modern Library: UK.
Brown, D. (1999). Rethinking Tradition in Modern Islamic Thought Cambridge: Cambridge Univ,. Press
Goldschmidt, A. & Davidson, L. (2010) A concise history of the Middle East Boulder, CO: Westview Press
Hourani, A. (1991) A History of the Arab People London: Penguin
Lapidus, I. (1998).…
By delving into and categorizing the different treatments, Social psychologists test and arrive at conclusions of socially helpful interventions and treatments. Other professionals such as social workers and therapists can then incorporate these treatments in their practices whilst policy makers can formulate laws (if applicable) incorporating them into the institution. A) select one that makes use of the distinction between automatic cognitive-processes and controlled processing, and by using that article explain
Students Will Select a Construct of Interest My construct of interest is whether there are any prejudice tests that can accurately measure prejudice to races other than Blacks. Do the currently available standardized tests on prejudice measure prejudice to individuals other than Black people? Conduct research on other assessments used to measure the same or similar construct, The Modern Racism Scale According to the SAGE Handbook of prejudice, Stereotyping and Discrimination (Dovidio, 2010), the scale
They can also measure avoidance, as there are people who are so fearful of the Muslim culture that they will go out of their way to avoid Muslims and not have to interact with them in any way. There is a social stigma to Muslims in the eyes of many people, and that stigma is not always about hatred. It is much more often about fear, but that fear
Muslims have been hospitalized and, one Muslim paralyzed. The anti-Muslim spirit is also represented by the media. Despite localized differences within each member nation, the recurrence of attacks on recognizable and visible traits of Islam and Muslims was the report's most significant finding, and the report concluded that "a greater receptivity towards anti-Muslim and other xenophobic ideas and sentiments has, and may well continue, to become more tolerated"( Allen
Immigration and the Muslim Population 9/11 changed the world -- especially in the U.S. in terms of Muslim-American relations and the way the word "terror" and "terrorist" is used to identify or refer to a group of people.[footnoteRef:1] The issue of Islamaphobia became more pronounced and anti-Muslim immigration policies began to be discussed as a matter of national security.[footnoteRef:2] As -- has shown, the media has been complicit in both demonizing
stratification and what evidence is there to suggest that contemporary Australia is or is not stratified? Social Stratification refers to the division of society into various hierarchical layers based on their socio-economic conditions. Some groups are given more power and prestige than others, whilst lower groups are dominated by the higher (Homes; Hughes, & Julian, *). Social stratification is founded on four principles: It reflects society rather than individual differences and therefore