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Austin, J., Johnson, K.D., & Weitzer, R. (2005). Alternatives to the Secure Detention and Confinement of Juvenile Offenders (pp. 41). Rockville, MD: Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention, U.S. Dept of Justice.
Bortner, M.A., & Williams, L. (1997). Youth in Prison. New York: Rutledge.
Commonwealth v. Fisher, No. 213 48 (1905).