Urban Planning and Trade in Kushan: The Silk Road at its Prime
The Kushan Empire was a "key player" in the Silk Roads era, from about 100 BCE to 250 CE (Craig 119). Along with the Yuezhi and Xiognu, the Kushan were key players in Central Asia. The Kushan Empire did not evolve in isolation, but rather depended on exchanges in ideas, technologies, and products to grow and expand its wealth, power, and influence. As a result of its centralization of power and amassing of great wealth, the Kushan Empire developed an urban social and political landscape. The Kushan blended traditions from Hellenistic Greece, India, and Central Asia to develop its own unique approach to Urban Life and Urbanization characterized the Kushan Empire, setting it apart within the realm of Central Asian history. As Litvinsky puts it, "at no time in the ancient history of Central Asia had there been so many cities" as there were from the first century BCE to the third and fourth centuries CE (291). Pakistan now is less urban than it was when the Kushan Empire existed (Litvinsky). Taxila was an early capital of Kushan; later capitals included Purushapura, modern-day Peshawar. Kushan cities were divided into three distinct parts, including the citadel, the urban core, and...
Borrowing from Indian models of urban planning and development, Kushan cities were most often rectangular in shape and well planned (Litvinsky).
Religious buildings like Buddhist temples would have been situated in the suburban areas. As the Indian religion of Buddhism became more popular in Kushan, Kushan cities responded in turn with lively Buddhist art scenes and monasteries especially during the second century CE (United States Department of Defense). Both urban and suburban areas enabled the development of extensive commercial activities. The citadel symbolized the power center of each urban area, and was heavily fortified, protected not only by impenetrable walls but also militaristically monitored. Therefore, Kushan city planners borrowed their town planning aesthetic and engineering concepts from India.
The Kushan Empire was "at the center of the Silk Road, midway between China and India in the east and the Mediterranean world in the west," making trade was a critical component of its success (United States Department of Defense). However, the Kushan's trade network had already been established by the time the empire became urbanized. The Kushan Empire learned to master trade from the Central Asian nomadic traders…
Buddhist Art and further, to explore the characteristics of Art in Buddhism as well as naming two Buddhist artists and their works from this period. Buddhist Art has within it several periods within the scope of what is termed Buddhist Art. Buddhist Art sprang from the religion Buddhism, which is a religion based on the teaching of Buddha. Dragons, flowers, as well as Buddha himself are portrayed in paintings, statues,
With only one front these tensions should be lessened and a more cohesive effort should be expected by the various forces comprising the Coalition. Jones acknowledges that America is stuck in Afghanistan for some time and, therefore, must take a special effort to effectuate changes that will be long-lasting. The key to any lasting change in Afghanistan, Jones believes is to build it from the bottom-up. This requires that America
Therefore, this particular stupa is emblematic of a literal quality in its representation of the final triumph over the stages of life and death of Buddha. This temple was used to perform religious rituals and was visited as a pilgrimage site. Adherents would circle it with their right shoulders facing it, indicative of a correctness aligned with this religion. Although this and other stupas covered religious artifacts, they served