Neo-Confucianism Is a Philosophy Which Was Born TEST1 Research Proposal

Excerpt from Research Proposal :

Leadership and Human Resource Management in the Public Sector

The public sector consists of the section of the government, which attends to matters of production, ownership, sales, provision and delivery and allocation of services and goods to the government and the citizens of the state, nationally, regionally and locally. The public sector conducts activities such as delivering of social security services, overseeing urban planning and organizing the national defense among other services. The organizational structure takes various forms, which dictate the leadership formula of the countries sectors. Some of these forms of organization include the direct administration founded on the lines of direct taxation; in this form, the government does not have particular requirements but to meet the commercial success and production decisions of the country. Another structure of organization under public sector is the publicly owned corporations. These differ from the direct administration of the government as they have more commercial freedoms than the other organizational structures. They operate and make production decisions from their own criteria, although some directives come directly from the government. The last form of organizational leadership the, public sector, offers is partial outsourcing; which entails contracting with privately owned organizations. Public companies, despite their names, they are not public sector but rather a private arm that can offer shares to the public.

This paper thoroughly examines the various issues in the public sector department of leadership and the human resource management and the leadership. The country faces critical issues of underperformance and in efficiency in the process of delivering services to the public. The literature review examines the various aspects and issues in the public sector, reviewing past experiences within the sector. The methodology, procedures and measures determine the matters in discussion about the various issues in the public sector. The data analyses section discuses the findings of the whole paper and the expectations of the stakeholders in the topic of leadership in human resource management in the public sector.


In view of the public sector and the government of the country, the organizational structures in place determine the leadership the sector offers to the people. Additionally, these sectors do not operate in isolation; they work to with the public for the public. This means that they get the workmanship from the public. The challenges that face most of the public sectors are due to the management of the human resource in the sector. The workforce of the public sectors poses a challenge to the operations of service delivery to the people. The organizational leadership; therefore has the duty to ensure that they measure empirically and strategically the production power of the state. This is to ensure the public sector delivers services efficiently and effectively to the people. Therefore, the aim of this research is to examine and identify why the country faces critical issues of underperformance and in efficiency in the process of delivering services to the public. The core of service delivery is the leadership and management of the human resource, hence forming the base of the study. The quality and efficiency of the public sector causes the country to lose thousands of million dollars. Therefore, the study examines the issues leading to underperformance and in efficiency of the public sector, basing on the human resource management.

Literature review

According to the act of Public Sector Management in 1994, the commissioner dictates the minimum standards of merit, equity and probity that govern the public sector. The public sector has the obligation to ensure that it complies with these standards. Therefore, it is the duty of the organization leadership along with the department of human resource to ensure the organization complies accordingly. The standards outlined in the act, relate and dictate the number of human resource activities and are, therefore, the public segment principles in Human Resource Management. In the act, the standards cover the sections of employment, where it applies in the process of filling vacancies by means of recruitment, selection, transfer, seconding and temporal deployment. Moreover, it also incorporates the performance management of the sector, the process of resolving the grievances arising while at work, the process of redeployment, termination and discipline in the organization.

The standards in the act apply to the entire bodies of the public sector and their employees. However, they do not apply to the elected officials and local government authority. The public sector bodies have several responsibilities. These responsibilities include developing and implementing the human resource policies, practices and procedures consistent with the standards in the Act (Sullivan, 2004). The bodies also help in compliance with the standards, in the Act, by ensuring that their actions conform to the standards and raising the awareness of the employees on the standards.

In analyzing and understanding the human resource effect, it is vital to understand some key theories that can help in administrative tools. These are the theories X and Y, developed by Douglas McGregor (Berman, 2010). These theories help in the motivation of the workers to manage and perform as expected without the much-needed guidance. The theory X advocates for the autocratic management of people; because they assume that, the human being is naturally lazy and, therefore, they need to remain under strict control and supervision. The management in this theory thinks that people need regular and direct motivation to perform. The managers in this theory have the notion that workers are not smart enough and thus need good encouragement to make them perform. Characteristics of the managers in this theory include autocratic behaviors such as being result driven, their concern is the completion of the given task and; hence, they issue deadlines (Raffel, Leisink & Middlebrooks, 2009). The managers lack tolerance. Most of the managers in this theory distance themselves from the workers and they lack the attachment a worker needs to have with the supervisor. As such, they accuse the workers of the failures within the organization, without realizing that they could be the real issue in contention. The managers in this sector have a tendency of using barbaric administrative tools such as issuing threats and ultimatums to make the people they govern to follow their instructions. Moreover, it is visible that they do not contribute in the practice of team building. Their departments and teams remain divided, lacking the cohesion they need to work efficiently. The managers do not show concern in the morale and the welfare of the employees. An employee, whose welfare is in question, will most probably, not be motivated to deliver. The communication sector in the organization headed by such a manger remains impaired. With poor communication channels, the organization is most likely to achieve less, thus the need for better communication models. However, the managers in the theory X do not communicate as expected with the employees. They also withhold the rewards, pay, and remuneration of the employees from the workers. They are poor at the delegation of duties to the employees. Instead of delegating, they give orders. They, therefore, hold the responsibility of the objectives of the government, and yet they shift the accountability for failures to the subordinates.

Conversely, the Y theory is a more friendly leadership and management approach, assuming democratic management (Berman, 2010). In this theory, the people in leadership assume that the workers like to work. They assume that people have the self-control and motivation to do a good job. Moreover, the managers have a positive notion of their workers, and believe that people are smart. However, it is notable that, the managers have an orientation for results. This is understandable in that they have a concern and obligation to deliver the objectives of the organization. They involve themselves and relate with their subordinates in doing the activities of the organization. The characteristics in this theory include they are remarkably tolerant in nature. They actively tolerate and understand mistakes and allow for rectification. They do not distance themselves from the employees. They are of the view that teamwork is the motivation and encouragement workers need. They do not reproach their employees with threats and warnings, but rather engage in explaining the norms and issues of compliance of their expectations. The managers actively involve themselves in the process of teambuilding process (Bohlander & Snell, 2010). Therefore, they emphasize that employees are better in team than as individuals. They concern themselves with the interests of the employees and try to ensure they meet the grievances of the employees. The managers in this line are good listeners and thus take suggestions and views of others for better achievement of the organization. They are good at the delegation of duties, offering good directions and suggestions of completing the work. They are not accusers, but rather hold to both the responsibilities and accountability of the team they work with, capping their responsible character.

However, in view of the public sector in the United States, several discrepancies encompass the leadership and management of the various sectors. The public sector has troubles in both the leadership and management of the…

Sources Used in Document:


White, J.D. (2007). Managing information in the public sector. Armonk, N.Y: M.E. Sharpe.

Raffel, J.A., Leisink, P., & Middlebrooks, A.E. (2009). Public sector leadership: International challenges and perspectives. Cheltenham: Edward Elgar.

Berman, E.M. (2010). Human resource management in public service: Paradoxes, processes, and problems. Los Angeles: SAGE.

Berman, E.M. (2013). Human resource management in public service: Paradoxes, processes, and problems. Los Angeles: SAGE.

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