The energy it stores (?180 Wh kg?1) at an average voltage of 3.8 V is only a factor of 5 higher than that stored by the much older lead -- acid batteries. This may seem poor in the light of Moore's law in electronics (according to which memory capacity doubles every 18 months), but it still took a revolution in materials science to achieve it. Billions of lithium-ion cells are produced for portable electronics, but this is not sustainable as cobalt must be obtained from natural resources (it makes up 20 parts per million of Earth's crust). (Armand & Tarascon, 2008, p. 653).
Fu investigated the lithium-ion conductivities of glasses and glass-ceramics in the LI2O-AlO3-TiO2P2O5 system. Fu's samples revealed high conductivity, albeit when Abrahams and Hadzifejzovic similarly investigated the LI2O-AlO3-TiO2P2O5 glass and glass-ceramic systems, their findings revealed "a maximum room temperature conductivity of 3.98 x 10-6 S/cm in their crystallized cast-gas pellet sample. When Fu later investigated the incorporation of a number of other M2O3 type constituents where M = Y, Dy, Gd, and LA to extend the research, Fu found that the parent glass' ionic conductivity basically remained consistent with increasing ionic radium of M3+. The ionic conductivities of the glass-ceramics, albeit, significantly decreased while the ionic radius of the M3+. atom increased (Lee & Komarneni, 2005).
Table one depicts characteristics of the primary processes planned for ceramic membranes use.
Table 1: Ceramic Membranes Main Characteristics Processes (Lee & Komarneni, 2005 p. 631).