Lithium Transition Metal Oxides As Article Review

Length: 20 pages Sources: 15 Subject: Chemistry Type: Article Review Paper: #32701294 Related Topics: Chemistry, Nano Technology, Electric Vehicle, Hot Plates
Excerpt from Article Review :

The energy it stores (?180 Wh kg?1) at an average voltage of 3.8 V is only a factor of 5 higher than that stored by the much older lead -- acid batteries. This may seem poor in the light of Moore's law in electronics (according to which memory capacity doubles every 18 months), but it still took a revolution in materials science to achieve it. Billions of lithium-ion cells are produced for portable electronics, but this is not sustainable as cobalt must be obtained from natural resources (it makes up 20 parts per million of Earth's crust). (Armand & Tarascon, 2008, p. 653).

Fu investigated the lithium-ion conductivities of glasses and glass-ceramics in the LI2O-AlO3-TiO2P2O5 system. Fu's samples revealed high conductivity, albeit when Abrahams and Hadzifejzovic similarly investigated the LI2O-AlO3-TiO2P2O5 glass and glass-ceramic systems, their findings revealed "a maximum room temperature conductivity of 3.98 x 10-6 S/cm in their crystallized cast-gas pellet sample. When Fu later investigated the...

...

The ionic conductivities of the glass-ceramics, albeit, significantly decreased while the ionic radius of the M3+. atom increased (Lee & Komarneni, 2005).

Table one depicts characteristics of the primary processes planned for ceramic membranes use.

Table 1: Ceramic Membranes Main Characteristics Processes (Lee & Komarneni, 2005 p. 631).

Process

Nature of Feed/Strip

Pore size

Origin of selectivity

Pressure Gradient

Elemental Operation

Microfiltration

0.1-10µm

Sieving effect

1-3 bars

Clarification, debacterization, separation

Ultrafiltration

Liquid/liquid

1 nm-0.1 µm

Sieving effect

3-10 bars

Clarification, purification, concentration

Nanofiltration

Sources Used in Documents:

REFERENCES

Armand, M & Tarascon, J.M. (2008). Building better batteries. Nature. Volume 451. Retrieved

April 17, 2010 from http://www.uio.no/studier/emner/matnat/kjemi/MENA5020/h08/undervisningsmaterial

BATTERIES.pdf

Battery power. (2010). Royal Society of Chemistry (RSC). Retrieved April 17. 2010 from http://www.rsc.org/Education/EiC/issues/2008Mar/BatteryPower.asp
from http://rutgersscholar.rutgers.edu/volume04/chopxu/chopxu.htm
Nature Publishing Group. Retrived April 17, 2010 from http://www.nanoarchive.org/417/1/opr001OE.pdf
Retrieved April 17, 2010 from http://www.eoearth.org/article/Gassner,_Carl
Flux. (2010). Merriam Webster Dictionary. Retrieved April 17, 2010 from http://www.merriam webster.com/dictionary/flux
How do batteries work? (2010). Northwestern University. Retrieved April 17, 2010 from http://www.qrg.northwestern.edu/projects/vss/docs/Power/2-how-do-batteries-work.html
Kang, B. & Ceder, G. (2009). Battery materials for ultrafast charging and discharging. The Nature Group. Volume 458. Retrieved April 17, 2010 from http://burgaz.mit.edu/PUBLICATIONS/nature07853.pdf
Retrieved April 17, 2010 from http://gradworks.umi.com/33/41/3341327.html
Kumara, B., et al. (2010). A solid-state, rechargeable, long cycle life lithium -- air battery. Journal of the Electrochemical Society. Volume 157. The Electrochemical Society. Retrieved April 17, 2010 from http://www.dtic.mil/cgi bin/GetTRDoc?AD=ADA515393&Location=U2&doc=GetTRDoc.pdf
Lithium Oxide. (2010). American Elements. Retrieved April 17, 2010 from http://www.americanelements.com/liox.html
Corporation (RBRC). National Geographic Society. Retrieved April 17, 2010 from http://www.panasonic.com/environmental/rbrc_lesson_plan.pdf
Wang, L., Maxisch, T. & Ceder, G. (2006). Oxidation energies of transition metal oxides within the GGA+U framework. The American Physical Society. Retrieved April 17, 2010 from http://burgaz.mit.edu/PUBLICATIONS/prb_73_195107.pdf
Retrieved April 17, 2010 from http://depts.washington.edu/solgel/documents/pub_docs/journal_docs/2008/08
Chemistry. Volume 15, pp. 3362 -- 3379. Retrieved April 17, 2010 from http://www.rsc.org/delivery/_ArticleLinking/DisplayArticleForFree.cfm?doi=b501961c


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