Test scores of ESL students taken over a pre-determined period, as noted by the parameters of the assessment
ESL Teacher surveys, conducted thrice over the course of the study, pre-intervention, during intervention, and post-intervention
Direct observation in the classroom of ESL students: types of information that are recorded include, body language of students (whether they are attentive or inattentive -- body language is described in qualitative terms, such as slouching, straight-backed, eyes focused, eyes unfocused, whether there is note taking, whether the student is reacting to the what the teacher says, whether there is obedience/understanding on the child's part, whether the face expresses confusion, frustration, whether the student asks questions or whether there are any obstacles to learning or challenges in the student's overall deportment that may be considered extraneous factors -- such as the student's makeup, attire, whether the student appears neat and tidy or disheveled and poorly groomed) (Creswell, 2007).
Interviews with ESL practitioners (this is...
Interviews will be conducted thrice -- pre-intervention, during intervention, and post-intervention (Merriam, 2002).
Historical documents from state records (used to provide correlation materials that can give some perspective to the records of the school)
De-identified school records (these preserve anonymity of participating children and provide scope and continuity in terms of progression results)
ESL Learner Surveys, also conducted thrice over the course of the study, pre-intervention, during intervention, and post-intervention (as with the teacher survey, this provides quantifiable data used to gauge strengths and weaknesses of ESL students)
ESL Learner Interviews, likewise thrice over the course of the study, pre-intervention, during intervention, and post-intervention (as with teacher interviews, these are used to garner in-depth qualitative data of ESL students based on responses to open-ended questions)
Direct observation of teaching methods (this is used to gauge teacher preparedness in the classroom, to see whether the teacher appears confident with resources and/or knowledge of the material, whether the teacher has command of the classroom, how the teacher interacts with students, and how the teacher's presence and delivery might impact the students' learning ability -- whether the teacher uses visual or audible teaching methodology or a mix, or whether the teacher emphasizes interaction among students (Baxter, Jack, 2008).
..control the environment by implementing a logical system (the teacher's, of course) of conditioning." (Tauber, 1999, p. 19) in this context the teacher is seen as an "interventionist" in that he or she has to control and dictate the learning and behavioral environment. "By accepting a position as a teacher, a person has not only the right but an 'obligation' to modify student behavior" (Axelrod, 1977, p. 158). In essence
According to Bales, 1999, the concept behind SYMLOG is that "every act of behavior takes place in a larger context, that it is a part of an interactive field of influences." Further, "the approach assumes that one needs to understand the larger context -- person, interpersonal, group, and external situation -- in order to understand the patterns of behavior and to influence them successfully." With SYMLOG, measurement procedures are
Classroom Media Citizens in Twenty-first century find the technological advancements as an inexorable support. Justified access; connectivity to technological advancement along with adequate training need to be provided to teachers in order to make them capable of utilizing the available technology to the fullest possible utilization of skills. Naisbitt states that Computers provide a cost effective method of personalizing education even though its capital intensive nature cannot be denied. Simplifications of
Good researchers tend to pull methods out of a tool kit as they are needed" (2006, p. 54). Notwithstanding these criticisms and constraints, though, most social researchers seem to agree that classification by some type of research paradigm is a useful approach based on the need to determine which approach is best suited for a given research enterprise. In this regard, Corby concludes that, "The contested nature of research
The more that your questions are descriptive or explanatory the more that the case study method will be relevant; How should I select the case to be studied?": According to Yin: "you need sufficient access to the potential data, whether involving people to be interviewed documents or records to be reviewed, or observations to be made in the 'field'. Given such access to more than a single candidate, you should
391). This, Vindovich (2002) both acknowledges the difference between traditional and distance education and validates this type of education as having the same academics as traditional education. Although studying distance education in terms of quality and quality comparison with classroom education is valid, another approach to determining whether distance education is of the same quality as classroom education is up to the students. Programs and teachers can influence school quality, but