Motivation Theory Intrinsic V. Extrinsic Research Paper

Excerpt from Research Paper :

Motivation Theory: Intrinsic v Extrinsic

The objective of this study is to examine intrinsic vs. extrinsic motivation. Toward this end this work will examine the literature in this area of study.

The work of McCullagh (2005) is reported to state that motivation "can be defined as the intensity and direction of effort." (Wilson, nd, p.1) Wilson reports that motivation is demonstrated in the evidence to promote "learning, performance, enjoyment, and persistent…" (nd, p.1)

The work of Covington and Mueller (2001) states that it has been believed that providing extrinsic rewards such as "praise, gold stars, and school grades -- inhibits the will of students to learn." (p.157) Covington and Mueller believe that this belief is upheld by "the widely held assumption that intrinsic and extrinsic motivation are not just separate processes, but in compatible, if not antagonistic." (p.157)

Intrinsic motivation, on the other hand is stated to be that which is derived "from within the person or from the activity itself" and as such has a positive effect on the individuals "behavior, performance and well being." (Bateman and Crant, nd, p.3) Bateman and Crant report that intrinsic motivation is a concept with roots in the competence motivation posited in the work of White (1959) and similarly addressed by Maslow (1949) and Alderfer (1969).

I. Intrinsic Vs. Extrinsic Motivation

The introduction of intrinsic needs by psychologists was followed by the emphasis on intrinsic motivation by management scholars and Herzberg (1966) provided a
Extrinsic motivation is a concept that experienced its evolution separate from and following the extrinsic motivation
theory. Deci (1971) however, posited that his laboratory results demonstrated that extrinsic motivation is not a requirement for motivation and that indeed that such extrinsic rewards in reality work toward undermining intrinsic motivation and upheld this belief through use of cognitive evaluation theory in 1980 which states that "the impact of extrinsic rewards on motivation depends on the receivers' interpretation of the rewards." (Bateman and Crant, nd, p.6)

A 2005 report from Ohio University professor Steven Reiss states that there is "no real evidence that intrinsic motivation even exists." (p.1) According to Reiss "the issue is more than academic." (Ohio State University, 2005, p.1) Reiss reports having "developed and tested a theory of motivation that states there are 16…

Sources Used in Documents:


Bateman, TS and Crant, JM (nd) Revisiting Intrinsic and Extrinsic Motivation. Retrieved from:

Covington, MV and Mueller, KJ (2001) Intrinsic vs. Extrinsic Motivation: An Approach/Avoidance Reformulation. Educational Psychology Review. Vol. 13, No.2 2001. Retrieved from:

Deci, E.L. (1971). Effects of externally mediated rewards on intrinsic motivation. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 18: 105-115 in: Bateman, TS and Crant, JM (nd) Revisiting Intrinsic and Extrinsic Motivation. Retrieved from:

Deci, E.L. (1980). The psychology of self-determination. Lexington, MA: Heath in: Bateman, TS and Crant, JM (nd) Revisiting Intrinsic and Extrinsic Motivation. Retrieved from:

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