Organized Crime Uses Poverty to Facilitate Human Annotated Bibliography

Excerpt from Annotated Bibliography :

Organized Crime uses Poverty to Facilitate Human Trafficking

Clandestine Partnerships: The Link Between Human Trafficking and Organized Crime in Metropolitan Atlanta

The author had several research questions: 1)What proportion of the specified human trafficking cases involves organized crime; 2) What type of relationship is most prevalent between human trafficking and organized crime in metropolitan Atlanta; 3)What types of organized crime demonstrate a relationship with human trafficking in the specified cases; 4)What differences, if any, do the specified sex trafficking and forced labor cases exhibit in regards to their relationship with organized crime; and 5) What differences, if any, do the specified international and domestic human trafficking cases exhibit in regards to their relationship with organized crime?

The author's hypothesis is that human trafficking, while occurring in an organized fashion, may be conducted outside of traditionally established organized criminal organizations, and that the links may differ depending on whether humans are trafficked for labor of sexual purposes. The author did not hypothesize about the nature of the relationship, but left the research questions open-ended.

3. The study examined public court records of all-identifiable Trafficking Victims Protection Act

(TVPA) of 2000, between 2000 and 2012 were analyzed. The author looked at the proportion of human trafficking cases that involved known criminal networks.

4. The author found that, of the 20 human trafficking cases studied, 80% of them did not involve a tie to organized crime. Of the 20% involving ties to organized crime, only one of them was operated by an organized crime syndicate, while two of them relied upon assistance from existing criminal networks.

5. The findings from this article suggest that, although human trafficking is often conducted by people in organized criminal groups, those criminals are oftentimes operating outside of known criminal organizations. Therefore, my research should look outside of traditional

6. Tripp, Tara M. 2012. "Clandestine Partnerships: The Link Between Human Trafficking and Organized Crime in Metropolitan Atlanta." Masters Thesis, Kennesaw State University. Retrieved September 22, 2013 (

ARTICLE TITLE: Trade Secrets: Intersections between Diasporas and Crime Groups in the Constitution of the Human Trafficking Chain

1. Rather than pose a specific question, the authors seek to examine the connection between diasporas and four different typologies of human trafficking: integrated diasporic model; partially integrated diasporic model; instrumental diasporic model; and a fully open model.

2. In the integrated and partially integrated diasporic models, criminal organization is more critical because of a reliance on knowledge, trust, and loyalty.

3. Rather than a study, the paper presents a literature-review type overview of different elements of human trafficking.

4. Traditional views of organized crime are not the best way to describe most current human trafficking; instead law enforcement needs to look at the reasons that human trafficking continues to exist, which is often based in both gender and race imbalances in trafficked groups and in communities with a demand for forced labor.

5. The research suggests that examining vulnerable communities and how traffickers get their victims might provide significant clues into the operations of trafficking rings.

6. Turner, Jackie and Liz Kelly. 2012. "Trade Secrets: Intersections between Diasporas and Crime Groups in the Constitution of the Human Trafficking Chain." British Journal of Criminology 49(2):184-201.

ARTICLE TITLE: Economics of Human Trafficking

1. The overarching research question is: what is the connection between human trafficking and the larger economic structure of the country receiving the victims of human trafficking?

2. The author hypothesizes that there is a negative relationship between human trafficking and a country's overall economic health.

3. The paper models the human traf-cking market as a monopolistic competition consisting of many sellers and buyers dealing in differentiated products, because of the low entry barriers, which preclude a monopoly. Therefore, it examines supply and demand in the human trafficking market. It also looks at the marginal costs, such as the risk of punishment to the trafficker if he or she is caught.

4. The research concludes that human trafficking negatively impacts a country's economic healthy by tearing apart the structure of local economies, adding to the bureaucratic and law enforcement burden at all levels of government through local crime and immigration problems, and destroying people's lives. Furthermore, the shift in population that results from human trafficking negatively impacts source and destination countries. The authors conclude that greater awareness and more resources are necessary to fight trafficking.

5. Because of the manner…

Cite This Annotated Bibliography:

"Organized Crime Uses Poverty To Facilitate Human" (2013, September 22) Retrieved August 22, 2017, from

"Organized Crime Uses Poverty To Facilitate Human" 22 September 2013. Web.22 August. 2017. <>

"Organized Crime Uses Poverty To Facilitate Human", 22 September 2013, Accessed.22 August. 2017,