They argue that the U.S. Constitution is color blind and while conceding that racial diversity is a noble goal, seek to achieve it through 'race-neutral' means. They also insist on a level playing field for all American citizens, regardless of their race. Such arguments can be found in the concurring opinion of Chief Justice Roberts and Justice Thomas, who wrote a separate opinion endorsing the ruling. The liberals point out that the long history of slavery in the U.S., racial discrimination against the blacks, and the Jim Crow laws make it necessary that the Affirmative Action laws should continue in order to counter the social and economic disadvantages of the black community. They fear that the conservative insistence on 'equal opportunity' and a 'level playing field' is just another manifestation of the deep-rooted racism in American society. The dissenting opinions in this case, too, are largely based on such an underlying philosophy of the liberals.
Both sets of Judges, the conservative and the liberal, have also interpreted and relied on the Supreme Court's landmark decision Brown v. Board of Education (1955) in diametrically opposite ways, while citing it in their opinions. By quoting previous judgments of the Court, Justice Roberts argues in his opinion that the U.S. Constitution "protects each citizen as an individual, not as a member of a group"; that this fundamental principle goes back to the decision in Brown itself, which interalia states: "At stake is the personal interest of the plaintiffs in admission to public schools... On a nondiscriminatory basis." Justice John Paul Stevens, in his separate dissent, on the other hand, dubs the...
This cannot be justified in the name of the Equal Protection Clause." ("Parents Involved..." Find law)
The majority decision in Parents is an accurate reflection of the recent swing in the U.S. Supreme Court towards Conservatism. Nevertheless, it falls short of the full expectations of the right wingers, partly due to the 'swing' vote of Justice Kennedy, who despite endorsing the majority opinion in the case, has tried to soften its effect by writing a separate opinion, which keeps the door partially open for public schools to consider race for ensuring equal educational opportunity in certain circumstances.
Parents Involved in Community Schools v. Seattle School District No. 1 Et Al." No. 05-908. Find Law for Professionals. 2007. August 5, 2007. http://caselaw.lp.findlaw.com/cgi-bin/getcase.pl?court=U.S.&navby=case&vol=000&invol=05-908
Lieberman. Jethro K. "Supreme Court of the United States." Microsoft Encarta Online Encyclopedia. 2007. August 5, 2007. http://encarta.msn.com/encyclopedia_761574302/Supreme_Court_of_the_United_States.html
This desire of the Presidents has not always worked according to plan: Justice Earl Warren, for example, who was nominated by President Eisenhower (a Conservative) turned out to be one of the most liberal judges in U.S. history
In the popular perception, Chief Justice Roberts and Justices Scalia, Thomas, and Alito are the Court's "conservative" judges, while Justices Stevens, Souter, Ginsburg and Breyer are categorized as "liberal"; Justice Kennedy is generally considered as a "moderate conservative"
In Grutter v. Bollinger (2003) and Gratz v. Bollinger (2003), the Supreme Court had decided that race-based classifications must be directed toward a "compelling government interest" and must be "narrowly tailored" to that interest.
Justice Kennedy observes in his separate decision: "...a district may consider it a compelling interest to achieve a diverse student population. Race may be one component of that diversity, but other demographic factors, plus special talents and needs, should also be considered."
Justice Roberts observes in his majority opinion: "The way to stop discrimination on the basis of race is to stop discriminating on the basis of race."
Justice Thomas is the only black member of the Supreme Court but is well-known for his ultra conservative views
The facilitator spoke directly to individuals, as well as the group therefore extrapolating the true meaning behind some of the participant's comments. For the most part, the facilitator kept the personal bias out and asked tailored and appropriate questions. Surveys and Focus Groups Focus groups are interesting, yet hard to deal with. On the one hand, they allow the public the chance to speak, thus portraying the abstract symbolism and concentrations
Parents and Education Select three educational settings in your community. Contact members of the program staff and interview them to determine the following: How does their program de-ne parent involvement? Do they have a policy statement or mission statement? What does their choice of parent involvement activities reveal about their philosophy of parent involvement? Parent involvement is defined as the parent's attendance to meetings, reviewing their child's reports from the school and assisting
From the school staff perspective, the identification badges would be a useful instrument to recognize who is a student and who is a teacher. Additionally, somewhat related to the identification purpose, as well as to the security perspective that one parent has mentioned, the staff can easily recognize who is actually meant to be on school grounds and who isn't. If we consider the global terrorist threat, this is a
School Counseling Professional School Counseling Until recently school counseling was more of a byword because most believed that the position could be filled by any qualified teacher, and, generally, it was. Teachers would get a master's degree in guidance or vocational counseling, and be considered able to work as a school counselor. The reason for this was that counselors in schools were not seen as a person who needed to deal with
Parent Education Program Children and young adults have a strong connection with their environment. The concept of parenting determines the outcome of a child's growth and development. Parenting education is, therefore necessary in strengthening families through provision of signs, efficient education and support and ensuring maximum environment for stronger growth and development of parents/nurses and children. Caregivers link effective parental educational programs with reduced rates of child mistreatment and abandon, normal
The research of Wofendale (1991) demonstrated the effectiveness of parents who provided support for the learning process of their child and holds that involvement in schools by parents is likely the primary indicator of performance of the child in school. The Michigan Department of Education reports that the "most consistent predictors of children's academic achievement and social adjustment are parent expectations of the child's academic attainment and satisfaction with