The fact that getting back into these activities will remove the negative reinforcement of somebody else doing her job around the house might change her behavior and get her to move around much faster.
As previously mentioned, all of these things that were mentioned are decided by an evaluation and a decision of the things that still motivate Dorothy's mother, assuming that she has not reached an age where she is indifferent about things. Dorothy can promise, as positive reinforcements, small gifts as well, such as books or music, which can grow in importance and value once the willingness to become independent again starts manifesting with Dorothy's mother. Some of the negative reinforcements will simply include things like removing some of the bitter medicine from the list of medicines that needs to be taken under all conditions.
There are several situations or conditions when punishment will fail to enforce the desired finality. One of these situation occurs when punishment is administered either inappropriately or mindlessly, in other words, when punishment is administered instead of another instrument that would have a positive result or is administered without thought, without having in mind the final objective of imposing or encouraging a change in behavior.
The rationality of punishment needs to follow a certain logical path. One cannot apply a punishment without having some prior premise on which to act in this manner. For example, the punishment will be applied to a child or student after a certain fact occurs rather than before that, because otherwise the consequences might be exactly the opposite of those actually expected to happen. At the same time, it is important to also keep track of the result of the punishment, so that this is used only in those situations when it is likely to pay off.
Second, punishment will not positively work when the recipient is not likely to take the punishment for an educational act or an act by which a finality is observed, but will take it as a personal attack on his individual. This is often the case with physical punishments. The incapacity to adapt the punishment to the behavior and characteristics of the individual, as well as his background (someone who has been physically abused in the past is always likely to look upon this form of coercion as something abusive and negative) and past experiences, will lead to the individual not being able to respond positively to the punishment.
Third, the punishment should not be tied to certain particular circumstances, because it will lose its effectiveness of correcting...
The example with the children getting caught and being punished while eating sweets in the kitchen before dinner is a good example of a punishment that will not work: the children will probably still eat sweets before dinner, but will do it in a different place, so as not to get caught.
At the same time, we can notice that this third particularity in which a punishment may not function properly is also tied to the gravity of the deed itself. If the children had been caught stealing before dinner and would have gotten caught and punished, it is probable that they would not have done that again, rather than just change the time of stealing, as in the first example. They would have the capacity to discern between the gravity of two acts and, thus, understand the reaction they would need to have upon a certain punishment on whether to change or not the behavior. The punishment would have also been proportional to the behavior and the consequences of the behavior itself.
Fourth, some punishments need to take some time before they actually produce a change in the behavior. The example with the sweets is again quite eloquent: the children will feel no deterrence to no longer eat the sweets, given the fact that the sweets are great and the punishment is really worth enduring given the reward. However, repeatedly using the same punishment might change their behavior, because the sum of all punishments would no longer make the reward worthwhile.
Fifth, if the punishment does not let the individual being punished of the reasons for which he is punished and what he needs to do in order to avoid this in the future, that the punishment is useless, because the behavior is less likely to change if the subject does know what he needs to achieve. All this information needs to be in the act of punishment or in the subsequent discussions that follow the punishment.
Sixth, the punishment should not be considered a reinforcement by the punished individual. Being punished for something someone does by an act by which he actually feels encouraged to continue, perhaps because of the way the punishment was attributed or because of the fact that it is much closer to a reward for the individual, should be avoided.
As such, the general guidelines for punishment should include the fact that punishment should convey information on why the punishment occurs in the first place, as well as on the steps to be taken so as to be avoided in the future. The punishment should additionally be sufficiently unpleasant not to turn into an incentive or encouragement for continued action.
It should also be proportional to the gravity of the event that has been produced and should be clearly emphasized as an educational, corrective act rather than a brutal form of coercion.
Psychology first developed as a formal discipline in the late 19th century, even though its origins actually date back to ancient Greece (Wright, 2011, p.407). As philosophers began to probe the nature of the human mind, the theory of psychology and its overall acceptance in society began to evolve. As we look back at psychology's early beginnings, evidence of the emergence of several different schools of thought are revealed and
Because of the speed of change in today's society, as well as the ramifications from psychological problems such as major depression, suicide, violence toward others and substance abuse, there is a need to help people more quickly and effectively deal with their psychological issues. The emphasis in more modern approaches is in self-development and self-actualization. Cognitive behavior therapy, CBT, for example, is an approach for people to better handle the
Psychology is considered to be an area of study that involves behavior. Behavior is demonstrated in a lot of diverse areas in the field of psychology. Some of these examples are mental illness, relationships, sexuality, depression, family dynamics, or culture. Accepting of behavior is picked up by various techniques and it could be from society or changes in individuals or the overall population. Psychologists look at various factors such as
Psychology of the Consumer Behavior Consumer behavior is a complex phenomenon to study and analyze. When it comes to the psychology of the consumer behavior, it is even complicated. Since the individual differences affect the biasness of the people towards certain brands therefore generalizing the things is much difficult. Consumer goods can share a same apparent purpose but the real meaning can be different for different people. Psychology of the consumer
In this, the individual does soak up the behaviors of those he or she is associated with. Yet, this is out of mimicking others behavior, with no regard for self gain. On the other hand, Bandura placed more emphasis as development being based on a balance between the environment and one's internally set goals. From this perspective, the individual mimics behaviors that lead to the achievement of certain goals,
Psychology Statement of Purpose with a Brief Personal Statement My interest in psychology has over time been stimulated by a number of experiences. Top amongst these is my reading of a book I stumbled upon several years ago. The book, The Metamorphosis by Franz Kafka, essentially concerns itself with a character by the name Gregor Samsa who one day finds himself turned into a giant vermin. As a result, Samsa ends