Role and Importance of Effective Term Paper

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Heckman, James J. "Doing it Right: Job Training and Education." Public Interest Spring 1999: 86+.

This journal article assesses the value of offering parents choices in the education of their children. It compares the cost effectiveness and the relative value of training vs. education to the clients.


Holton Iii, Elwood F., Reid a. Bates, and Sharon S. Naquin. "Large-Scale Performance-Driven Training Needs Assessment: A Case Study." Public Personnel Management 29.2 (2000): 253.

This case study covered the assessment of needs for government performance driven training programs on a large scale for annual implementation and continual availability to employees. The purpose of this paper is to report on the methodology developed and the pilot implementation.


Hornik, Bryan. "Listening to Experience: 10 Steps to Successful Online Training; How Do You Reap the Benefits of Online Training While Avoiding the Pitfalls That Can Derail a Program? A Safety Training Expert Offers a Proven Strategy for Success." Occupational Hazards Apr. 2004: 41+.

This is an excellent journal article covering the selection of online training programs. It covers the methodology of choosing and implementing these programs in a useful cost-effective manner and how to implement continual assessment of programs. It does not cover pegagogy.

Ineffective Training Kills the Bottom Line." USA Today (Society for the Advancement of Education) Dec. 1998: 14.

This magazine article from USA Today details how poor training programs are not only not cost effective, but are actually counter productive. It does not include methodology.

Informal but Effective Learning." Western Mail (Cardiff, Wales): 6.

This journal article examines informal learning in a small business setting and assesses the value of training programs.


Kozlowski, Steve W.J., et al., eds. Improving Training Effectiveness in Work Organizations. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 1997.

This book is a very helpful guide to improving the effectiveness of training on the job. It details methodology, assessment practices and pedagogical theories.


Laird, Dugan. Approaches to Training and Development. Reading, MA: Perseus Books, 1985.

This book covers all the aspects of creating a training program, and includes considerable information concerning feedback.

Leonard, D.C. (2002). Learning Theories, a to Z. Westport, CT: Oryx Press. Retrieved October 16, 2006

This is a reference to use for the definition of terms in learning theory.


Long, Donna, and Renee Perrin. "Successful Training on a Shoestring Budget." Public Management Apr. 2005: 28+.

This journal article covers how to create efficient training programs on a tight budget.


Salas, Eduardo, et al. "A Methodology for Enhancing Crew Resource Management Training." Human Factors 41.1 (1999): 161.

This journal article is aimed at the airline industry and the problem of improving crew performance with training. Sources for methodologies and pedagogical theory are included, but the precepts are not discussed.


Salas, Eduardo, Clint a. Bowers, and Eleana Edens, eds. Improving Teamwork in Organizations: Applications of Resource Management Training. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 2001.

This book is centered upon improving the training for airline personnel, but it discusses the importance of feedback throughout the book. Actual pedagogical theory is not covered as a subject in itself, but the suggested procedures and assessments are based upon sound training principles and training methodology. It is aimed at a non-academic audience to help airline HR people devise better training programs and is written more in a prose format than a textbook or academic work.


Salas, Eduardo, and Janis a. Cannon-Bowers. "THE SCIENCE of TRAINING: A Decade of Progress." Annual Review of Psychology (2001): 471.

This journal article covers the advances made in training during the decade from 1991-2001 and indicates the new methodologies develops, new information derived from research and changes in the industry. It include information about the best training and its components, including feedback.


Salt, Allan. "Training Programs: The Key to Achieving ILO Goals." Monthly Labor Review 117.9 (1994): 32+.

This journal article covers the history, development and value in international training programs to international economies. It includes what types of training with what attributes are the most cost effective and give the most return on investment and even covers who will support the cost. However, there is little actual pedagogical information provided.

Serving Up Training: Sometimes the Most Effective Training Involves Only a Few Practical Principles." T&D May 2003: 35+.

This journal article details the process in the creation of the "steps" guides created for customers and employees in Zingerman's deli. It is business oriented and does not cover actual methods.


Sexton, David, et al. "Early Intervention Inservice Training Strategies: Perceptions and Suggestions from the Field." Exceptional Children 62.6 (1996): 485+.

The purpose of this study was to examine the current status of inservice training strategies experienced by early interventionists and their perceptions about the link between training methods and, actual practice changes. More specifically, this descriptive study addressed two research questions: What are the inservice training experiences as reported by a sample of early intervention service providers? What is the perceived relative effectiveness of various training methods in promoting actual practice changes as reported by these service providers?"

Sexton et al.) Pedagogy is not covered.


Sims, Ronald R. "Developing the Learning Climate in Public Sector Training Programs." Public Personnel Management 21.3 (1992): 335+.

This article covers both the need for new training programs in the public sector, but also the valuable characteristics sought and their justification. It is aimed at training developers for the public sector.


Sims, Ronald R. "The Enhancement of Learning in Public Sector Training Programs." Public Personnel Management 22.2 (1993): 243+.

This journal article covers how to improve public sector training programs, including certain methods which are often missing is training. Sims emphasizes that sound pedagogical theory and methodology must still underlie training programs, just as in educational settings, because the learning process is still based upon them.


Sims, Ronald R. "Evaluating Public Sector Training Programs." Public Personnel Management 22.4 (1993): 591+.

This journal article give excellen guidelines for evaluating public sector training programs which could easily be applied to all training programs. He covers how to evaluate both the return on investment and the methodology and effectiveness of the programs.


Sims, Ronald R. An Experiential Learning Approach to Employee Training Systems. New York: Quorum Books, 1990.

This book is a collection of the research Sims has done concerning training programs, especially in the public sector. He includes considerable useful information on pedagogical methodology and the usefulness of feedback both to the trainees and the training designer.


Sims, Ronald R. Reinventing Training and Development. Westport, CT: Quorum Books, 1998.

This book makes suggestions for modifiying training methods to match the current needs of employers. It covers both the developments in educational theory and the changes in industry which require modification of training programs. Sims supplies methods for evaluation and assessment of programs and covers the changes which have made modification imperative.


Sims, Ronald R., and Serbrenia J. Sims. "Improving Training in the Public Sector." Public Personnel Management 20.1 (1991): 71+.

This article examines how to provide improved training in the pubic sector and the factors which affect training. Sims especially concentrates upon the matching of learning styles among the trainers, trainees and the methodology and materials in the programs.


Statt, David a. Using Psychology in Management Training: The Psychological Foundations of Management Skills. London: Routledge, 2000.

This book examines the pedagogy and methodology which is useful in management training. Statt covers a range of pedagogical and methodological theories and how they apply to management training. He includes the underlying theories.


Wheelan, Susan a. Facilitating Training Groups: A Guide to Leadership and Verbal Intervention Skills. Westport, CT: Praeger Publishers, 1990.

This book is a guide to training facilitation in business. Ms. Wheelan has identified a factor she titles verbal intervention, which often equates with feedback. She coved the underlying pedagogical theory and methodology attached.


York, Darlene Eleanor. Cross-Cultural Training Programs. Westport, CT: Bergin & Garvey, 1994.

This book covers the problems and needs of cross-cultural training programs. It deals with the unique problems caused by the mixture of different cultures in creating and implementing effective training programs. It does not cover generic pedagogical theory or methodology.


Zaleznik, a. Foreman Training in a Growing Enterprise. Boston: Harvard Business School Press, 1951.

This research is an attempt to direct a critical inquiry into the assumptions in back of supervisory training compared with the problems which confront supervisors on the job. The starting point is an acceptance of the fundamental objective of training which is to help supervisors behave more effectively." It does not cover basic educational or training theory, but concentrates upon the differences between this and other types of training.

Of these resources I have selected those with information pertaining to my selected area of study for this project, and these are cited as sources at the end of this article.


Sources Used in Document:

Bibliography to show the extent of my preliminary research on this subject and have identified the sources used in the final sources cited to follow.

I have looked at feedback as a part of training and identified its role and importance. I have consulted many sources in order to documents my findings. In addition I have described the value of feedback and where and when it is important. I have also defined the various types of feedback and the difference between positive and negative feedback. I have shown that positive feedback is necessary for effecting learning.

I have also shown how positive feedback can be delivered and, in fact, insured within a training program or module. Suggestions as to how the trainer can compensate for lack of positive impressions of the trainee or a perceived lack of respect for the trainer. Ideas have been explored for modifying either the attitude of the trainer or the trainees.

The final conclusions are that feedback is absolutely critical in the effectiveness of any learning process, including training. Positive feedback has more value than negative, which can be counter-productive. It is in the delivery and acceptance where feedback becomes positive or negative, and this is based upon attitudes and perception. A positive perception of the deliverer of feedback will weight the positive factor of the feedback. Positive feedback can strengthen motivation, allow trainees to create or modify goals, and raise self-confidence. It provides a measure against which further actions can be taken. These may include modifying the program according to feedback from participants. Feedback from computers is, at best, perceived as neutral, so a human trainer to back up these responses is valuable. If positive feedback is not being delivered, changes need to be made to the perceptions of either trainer or trainee to adjust this, because positive feedback is essential to the learning process and the effectiveness of the training depends upon it as much as the three other essential factors, which are: relevance, demonstration and practice.

Annotated Bibleography

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