Role and Process of Suburbanization in Creation Term Paper

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Role and Process of Suburbanization in Creation of Metropolitan Areas

The divide between city and rural areas and the rise of the metropolis were features of the previous century. While the development of cities had its own problems, the development of the cities into metropolises created new hinterlands that other cities did not have. The new type of development across the metropolitan areas and its periphery came to be called urbanization. The process of suburban development in the United States was a result of the growth of the middle and upper classes. But there was also urbanization in industrial cities resulting in employment by the working-class that created settlements in industrial suburbs. Modern scholars identify three types of suburban growth- One the residential suburbs created by the rich and the second the industrial suburbs and the third, the development of 'unincorporated districts at the urban fringe.' (Harris; Larkham, 91)

One important factor that shows proper development and planning is the way the land use criterion is seen in development. Land use came to be institutionalized more after the Second World War. There were thus non-market controls on the economics of land. In the United States, the suburbanization has brought about changes in the institutions that govern the metropolis, and has also changed the nature of infrastructure and transport. Thus public travel and commuting facilities has made populations seek suburban areas for residence which thus spawned housing colonies and various types of residential real estates far from the metros. Thus while the metro is where the business and work is, the commuting and 'living away ' from the city essentially made it necessary to extend the facility of the metropolis to the suburbs. (Fellmann; Getis; Getis, 396) The process thus became interdependent and suburbs grew with the area that was in proximity to it-industries created industrial suburbs, and so on. The suburbanization is a historical process.

The suburbanization and metro areas:

All metropolitan areas have suburbs today and like wise all of them have governing bodies that govern all aspects of the metropolitan issues and requirements and many have jurisdiction on the suburbs. This often causes hindrance to the growth of suburbs, especially in the areas of housing. There are thus multiple governing systems seen in metropolitan areas that create a lot of regulation especially in housing. Thus it results in poor building, zoning, and enforcement. One of the ways of controlling land use is through zoning. In most metropolitan cities the independent governing bodies that are seen to exist within a single metropolitan area often create problems for which the business and the residents blame the administration. Thus business is saddled not only with a plethora of conflicting laws, but also would have to put up with different communities that function with different systems. Thus there has been growth without planning. (Banfield; Grodzins, 30)

The urbanization also brings with it other issues like the public services needed or for the suburban developments. Thus the need for schools, hospitals, sewers, water disposal and drinking water and many other facilities like transport and other infrastructure that have to be provided are usually public services that is created by a government authority or as an extension of the metropolitan authority. (Clawson, 141)

Case of Chicago:

In Chicago, the changes and urbanization has historical, demographic and ethnic consequences, and are historically the result of these forces. These factors changed the way of the city life and also the growth of the suburbs. The physical topography and the individual communities that chose to segregate into the various suburbs have dictated the way the suburbs in Chicago grew. However there was a poorly planned administration of the housing needs of the people and this led to the conditions inside…

Sources Used in Document:


Banfield, Edward C; Grodzins, Morton. Government and Housing in Metropolitan Areas.

McGraw-Hill: New York.

Clawson, Marion. Suburban Land Conversion in the United States: An Economic and Governmental Process. Resources for the Future: Baltimore, 1971.

Fellmann, Jerome Donald; Getis, Arthur; Getis, Judith. (1997) Human geography: landscapes of human activities. William C. Brown Pub.

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