¶ … Lens of Ravitch & Riggan
What and where is theory?
According to Hoffman (2013) theory has a lot to do with something that is causal, For instance from the chapter they mentioned the case if X represented smoking and Y symbolized lung cancer. The authors went on to make the point that this is more than likely the most extensively assumed meaning of what theory is supposed to be. However, the chapter goes onto make the point that it could also be interpretive. It brings up the point that X symbolized race and Y denoted identity. It is unlikely that you would be suggesting that race is somehow formed by identity.
Also, the authors would be arguing the meaning of race is somehow shaped by identity. It could be, however, that a person working the theory cannot figure out whether it is X or Y that is doing the determining, or if they should imagine that the two are equally influential. In this case, the person theory would be predominantly relational. The chapter went onto to make the point that irrespective of the kind of relationship that goes on among between X and Y, all of these theories have two things that are exactly in common. According to the first chapter, one of these things is that they are a logical assembly of conceptual pieces. (Duncan, 2011). (Clayton, (2010) makes the suggestion that these pieces...
The chapter even presented a scenario, then the drawing on the page that was supposed to be able to represent either a plan or a theory, depending on "that X and Y indicate and the difficulty of the relationship among them. Second, they arc guarded to what is in the diagram.
When it comes to theory the chapter also brought up the point that the concepts X and Y exist as independent constructs, treated as objects under study and more or less accepted at face value. In the examples above, this means that it is assumed that we all have just about the exact thoughts in regards to what race and id entity (or cancer and smoking) are, or as a minimum what conceptual building blocks establish them. This assessment of ideas and the relationships among them is repeatedly known as the postpositivism (Creswell, 2005). This word has turn out to be something of a political big word in the academic world; those who desire to more completely involve this dispute are invited to review the (numerous) journals in disagreement for or against it. With the chapter purposes, they simply just noted that the describing specific of this view of theory is that it involves itself with philosophies or ideas as they are thought to occur, and places less importance on questions of how or why they are thought to exist by itself.
The many levels of theory: a thought experiment
According to Riggan (2011) the different levels of theory range from informal hunches to formal sets of plans that have guided, and been subject to, extensive empirical examination. The chapter made the point that suggests that theory ranges from informally held notions in regards to why things work the way they do, to theoretical orientations used for "recognizing, outlining, and solving problems," to substantiue theories concentrated on exact content instead of just relationships, to formal theories, which in principle are practical theories that have achieved a level of generalizability.
The chapter goes on to make the point that there is nothing wrong with any of these levels. Or characterizations,…
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