Singapore Transnational Issue in the Country Type Book Report

Excerpt from Book Report :



Type of Governmental Structure in Singapore

Singapore, a sovereign republic; officially termed Republic of Singapore, is governed under the constitution of 1959 as amended, utilizes a parliamentary form of government. [footnoteRef:1]

Administrative Divisions of Government in Singapore [1: "Singapore." The Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition. The Gale Group Inc. (2008). (accessed February 11, 2011).]

The people elect the president, head of state, is for a six-year term. The president, in turn, appoints the prime minister to head the government. "The unicameral legislature consists of the 84-seat Parliament, whose members are popularly elected for five-year terms; additional members may be appointed. The supreme court, the nation's highest judicial body, has seven members." [footnoteRef:2] The People's Action party (PAP), Singapore's most significant political party, has been in power since 1959. [2: "Singapore." Government Section, ¶ 1.]

Based on the English common law, Singapore's legal system includes its Constitution which conveys the basic framework and fundamental principles for the three organs of state: The Executive, the Legislative and the Judiciary.[footnoteRef:3] [3: Singapore Government. "About the Singapore Government." (2011). (accessed February 11, 2011).]

Executive Branch of Government in Singapore

The Cabinet, accountable to Parliament and the entity responsible for the government's basic direction of the government, comprises Singapore's executive branch. "The Legislature comprises the Parliament and is the legislative authority responsible for enacting legislation."[footnoteRef:4] Acting on the Prime Minister's recommendations, the president also appoints other Ministers from among the Members of Parliament. The Prime Minister, the effective head of the executive branch of government, chairs the Cabinet, the primary decision-making body of Singapore's executive government. [4: Singapore Government. (2011).]

Judicial Branch of Government in Singapore

The function of the Judiciary, safeguarded by Singapore's constitution, is to independently administer justice.[footnoteRef:5] [5: Singapore Government. (2011).]

Political Parties and Leaders in Singapore

The People's Action Party (PAP), established November 21, 1954, depicts Singapore's ruling party. The PAP initially started as "a unity of two left-wing factions - the pro-socialist wing led by Lee Kuan Yew and the pro-communist wing led by Lim Chin Siong." Currently, the PAP, minus the group Siong led which broke away, comprises the longest-surviving; most successful political party in Singapore's history. Currently, Singapore reports having the sum of 43 active, dormant and historical parties. Singapore's active parties, to date, include:

1. Democratic Progressive Party

2. National Solidarity Party

3. People's Action Party

4. People's Liberal Democratic Party

5. Pertubuhan Kebangsaan Melayu Singapura

6. Reform Party

7. Singapore Democratic Alliance

8. Singapore Democratic Party

9. Singapore Justice Party

10. Singapore People's Party

11. Singapore National Front

12. Workers' Party. [footnoteRef:6] [6: Guide Me Singapore. "Introduction to Singapore's Political System." (2011). (accessed February 11, 2011). Singapore's Political Parties Section, ¶ 1-4.]

During 2006, Workers' Party (WP), the Singapore Democratic Alliance (SDA) and the Singapore Democratic Party (SDP) comprised the three primary opposition parties vying for election.

Political Pressure Groups and Leaders in Singapore

These groups and leaders are not applicable for Singapore.[footnoteRef:7] [7: Singapore Government. (2011).]

International Organization Participation by Singapore

ADB, AOSIS, APEC, ARF, ASEAN, BIS, C, CP, EAS, FATF, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICRM, IDA, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC, MIGA, NAM, OPCW, PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNMIT, UPU, WCO, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO.[footnoteRef:8] [8: East and Southeast Asia: Singapore. (2011). The World Factbook. Central Intelligence Agency United States of America. Economy Section (accessed February 14, 2011). ]

Diplomatic Representation in the U.S. For Singapore

Chief of mission: Ambassador CHAN Heng Chee

Chancery: 3501 International Place NW, Washington, DC 20008. [footnoteRef:9] [9: East and Southeast Asia: Singapore. (2011). Government Section.]

Diplomatic Representation from the U.S. To Singapore

Chief of mission: Ambassador David I. ADELMAN

Embassy: 27 Napier Road, Singapore 258508. [footnoteRef:10] [10: East and Southeast Asia: Singapore. (2011). Government Section.]

Flag of Singapore

Singapore National Flag formally adopted its national flag December 3, 1959. The red stands for Singapore's concepts of worldwide brotherhood and democracy while white signifies purity and virtuousness. The crescent of moon denotes Singapore, as a young country, in a development phase. The five stars on the flag correspond to Singapore's principles of equality democracy, justice, peace and progress.[footnoteRef:11] Figure 1 depicts the flag of Singapore. [11: Maps of World. "Singapore Flag." (2011). (accessed February 11, 2011).]

Figure 1: Flag of Singapore.[footnoteRef:12] [12: Maps of World. "Singapore Flag." (2011).]

National Capital Location of Singapore

Singapore city depicts the capital of Singapore as well as its largest city and primary port.[footnoteRef:13] Figure 3, in the next section of the paper, shows the capital's location. [13: Singapore. (2008).]

Date of independence and country from which independence was gained for Singapore

During the 16th century, Europe gained control of the Malaysian area. Britain founded Singapore as a British trading colony during 1819. "Malaysia itself was formed in 1963 when Singapore and the states of Sabah and Sarawak joined the Peninsular Malaysia Federation." [footnoteRef:14] In 1965, Singapore left the Peninsular Malaysia Federation; transitioning into a separate nation. [14: Singapore. World Atlas. (2011). (accessed February 14, 2011). A Brief Description Section, ¶ 3. ]

Constitution of Singapore The Constitution of Singapore, the supreme law of the country, positions the fundamental principles and constructs the framework for the Executive, the Legislative and the Judiciary. . Part IV of the 14th part of Singapore's Constitution guarantees the fundamental liberties of its citizens: "Liberty of the person; prohibition of slavery and forced labour; protection against retrospective criminal laws and repeated trials; equal protection under the law; prohibition of banishment and freedom of movement; freedom of speech, assembly and association; freedom of religion . . . ." [footnoteRef:15] This section of the constitution also protects rights of citizens in regard to education. Amending the constitution requires the approval of more than two-thirds Parliament's members on the second and third readings. Legal system in Singapore With Singapore's parliamentary system based on the Westminster Model, the roots of its legal system naturally evolved from the English legal system. Singapore's sources of law developed from its Constitution, "legislation, subsidiary legislation (e.g. Rules and Regulations etc.) and judge-made law." [footnoteRef:16] Singapore's Constitution, as noted earlier, which provides the basic foundation for the state's three organs, the Executive, the Legislature and the Judiciary, serves as Singapore's supreme law of the land. Figure 2 portrays Singapore's three legal organs. [15: Guide Me Singapore. "Introduction to Singapore's Political System." (2011). (accessed February 11, 2011). The Constitution Section, ¶ 1-2.] [16: Ministry of Law. "The Singapore Legal System." (2009). (accessed February 11, 2011). ]

Figure 2: Singapore's Three Legal Organs.[footnoteRef:17] [17: Ministry of Law. "The Singapore Legal System." (2009). (accessed February 11, 2011). ]

Suffrage in Singapore (qualification for voting)

In Singapore, voting is compulsory. On polling days, voters receive a poll card which designates where individual can cast the vote in person.[footnoteRef:18] Individuals qualified to vote include: [18: Guide Me Singapore. "Introduction to Singapore's Political System." (2011). (accessed February 11, 2011). The Parliamentary Elections Section, ¶ 2.]

A citizen of Singapore i.e. holder of a Pink-coloured Identity Card;

. . . At least 21 years old; and . . . ordinarily resident or deemed to be ordinarily resident in Singapore at an address that is in that constituency. [footnoteRef:19] [19: Elections Department Singapore. Government of Singapore. (2011) Section, (accessed February 14, 2011). Who can vote? Section, ¶ 2.]

When the election ends, the Returning Officer places the names of those who do not vote

On the list of non-voters and passes this to the Registration Officer who then removes the names of these individuals from the certified register of electors of the constituency they belong to. These individuals may apply to again qualify to vote. If the person who failed to vote does not give "valid and sufficient reason"; however, he or she will be fined before he or she may qualify to vote again.[footnoteRef:20] [20: Elections Department Singapore. Government of Singapore. ]


Overview of Singapore

Singapore, located at the southern tip of the Malay Peninsula, SE Asia, comprises the island of Singapore and encompasses 210 sq mi/544 sq km and approximately 60 small adjacent islands.[footnoteRef:21] Figure 3 depicts Singapore's location close up as well as its global position. [21: Singapore. (2008).]

Figure 3: Map of Singapore.[footnoteRef:22] [22: Singapore. (2011). ]

Table 2 presents the area Singapore encompasses as well as its population.

Table 1: Singapore: Land and Population.[footnoteRef:23] [23: Singapore. (2011). Population and Density Section, # 113.]


Area (Sq. Km.)

Population Density (Sq. Km.)

Area (Sq. Mi.)

Population Density (Sq. Mi.)




Gross domestic product (GDP) for country

Gross domestic product in dollars for country

292.2 billion (2010 est.)

$255 billion (2009 est.)

$258.3 billion (2008 est.).[footnoteRef:24] [24: East and Southeast Asia: Singapore. (2011). Economy Section.]

Real Growth Gross Domestic Product

4.6% (2010 est.)

-1.3% (2009 est.)

1.8% (2008 est.). [footnoteRef:25] [25: East and Southeast Asia: Singapore. (2011). Economy Section.]

Gross Domestic Product

Comparing Sectors for Singapore:

Agriculture: 0%

industry: 27.2%

services: 72.8%…

Sources Used in Document:


Doing Business in 2011 Singapore. (2011). The International Bank for Reconstruction and Development / The World Bank. (accessed February 14, 2011).

East and Southeast Asia: Singapore. (2011). The World Factbook. Central Intelligence Agency United States of America. (accessed February 14, 2011).

Elections Department Singapore. Government of Singapore. (2011) (accessed February 14, 2011).

Guide Me Singapore. "Introduction to Singapore's Political System." (2011). (accessed February 11, 2011).

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