Political chiefs (zucama) from a few powerful families dominated Shici politics into the 1960s and continued their control through extensive support networks. The authority of the zucama varied on their clients' support, but by the 1960s hundreds of young Shici men and women became estranged from old-style politics and were attracted by new political forces. The vision of radical change could only have been appealing to a community whose culture emphasized its exploitation and dispossession by the ruling elites. In Lebanon, as in Iraq, Bahrain, Saudi Arabia, and Kuwait, Shica in great numbers were recruited in the 1950s, 1960s, and 1970s to secular opposition parties. In Lebanon the resistance took the shape of the Syrian Social Nationalist Party (SSNP), the Lebanese Communist Party (LCP), (Cooper & Erlanger, 2011) the Organization for Communist Labor Action, and pro-Syrian and pro-Iraqi factions of the Arab Socialist Bacth (or "Resurrection") Party. Predominantly in the case of the Communist organizations and the SSNP, there was an intrinsic ideological pull towards parties that damned the tribal, religious, or cultural bases of discrimination (Mazetti & Shanker, 2012). Without a doubt, it is notable that the leadership of these secular parties was mainly Christian. Even though support for secular parties has faded, significant numbers of politicized Shica keep on expressing a preference for them, more often than not in particular families, villages, or regions. For example, the Communists stay strong in the large village of Bra'sheet in the South, in an area now otherwise dominated by Hezbollah, plainly, the Party of God, and the Amal movement, an acronym for Lebanese Resistance Detachments, often rendered as "Hope." Amal, and especially Hezbollah, were practically late bloomers on the political scene and held sway on the Shica in clearly sectarian terms, in spite of their declarations of welcoming all comers (Parton, 2007).
Four main (and sometimes entwined) political trends distinguished the political enlistment of the Shica after the 1960s: secularism, freedom -- especially the view that the fortune of the deprived Shica was connected to the expelled Palestinians, Islamism, and reformism, often implied in demands for more access to supporting privilege and for rooting out corruption (Cohen, 2013). Even though Arab nationalism without doubt enjoyed Shici adherents, given that Sunni Muslims numerically control the Arab world, many of the Shica would not see a combined Arab nation as a very model solution. In 1997 a fifth, embryonic trend started from within Hezbollah, when Shaikh Subhi al-Tufayli, (Cooper & Erlanger, 2011) the organization's previous secretary general, started a populist nonconformist movement in the Beqaa valley among estranged farmers and tribesmen. Even though the fortunes of secular movements and parties have gone down, the devotion and understanding of the Shica remain extensively distributed, and no single association -- together with Hezbollah (Ellingwood, 2006) may claim a crushing majority following from among the Shica. By the 1990s, on the other hand, Hezbollah was without doubt the best-organized political trend and enjoyed the largest base of admired support (Parton, 2007).
Foundation and Rise of Hezbollah
Of the three characteristic trends prior to the emergence of Hezbollah in 1982, a number of secular parties, in addition to the reformist Amal movement, preserved a significant following. As the Lebanese civil war came up to in the early 1970s and the armed Palestinian existence grew stronger, several young Shica found their place in one or more of the fidaii, or guerrilla fighter groups. Support for the Palestinian cause has now shrunken but not vanished. Political loyalties within tribes are often shared between two or more groups or are not "loaned" (Cooper & Erlanger, 2011) to any political group in any way. Hussein Nasrallah, a brother of Hasan Nasrallah, a pioneering member of Hezbollah and its famous secretary-general, is a long-standing member of Amal. When the two groups were against each other in the late 1980s, Hussein was on the...
In spite of the long-term promises of the Nasrallah brothers, one usually meets individuals whose biography includes association in three or four dissimilar political organizations, more often than not in sequence. In Lebanon political support is provisional and political loyalty from time to time has a short shelf life. Be that as it may, ideological currents have changed noticeably in the last two decades in favor of Hezbollah, which gives an ideological vision that many Shica now find influential (Ellingwood, 2006).
The Palestine struggle group did more than openly challenge the supremacy of Lebanon's well-established elites; the resistance fighters were also compensated reasonably well. It is extensively known that many young men, and a small number of women, took up arms not only out of an ideological obligation but also merely to feed their families in a world offering few other economic prospects. On one occasion full-fledged civil war started in 1975, the Shica became the cannon fodder for the fedayeen. Without a doubt, more Shica died in the fighting than associates of any other sect (Ellingwood, 2006).
When juvenile Lebanese Shici men were chosen for a religious schooling, their conventional destinations had been the revered Shici seminaries of al-Najaf or Karbala in Iraq. By the end of the 1970s, on the other hand, as the revolution in Iran gathered force, Iraq had become unwelcoming for foreign Shica. In 1978 Ayatollah Khomeini was himself barred from Iraq at the assertion of the Shah, thus bringing about international notoriety in a village of Paris with much of the global media just a small number of steps away as the Iranian revolution picked up force (Cohen, 2013). Young Lebanese Shici clerics for instance Abbas al-Musawi and Subhi al-Tufayli, who later carried out important leadership roles in Hezbollah's early days, went back into Lebanon from Iraq. Al-Musawi established a hawza, or religious university, in Baalbak, where the potential Hezbollah leader Sayyid Hasan Nasrallah (Cooper & Erlanger, 2011) turned out to be his student and protege'. The returnees from Iraq did bring with them revolutionary dedication and the promise to alter their societies. They shared aversion toward Israel and faithfulness to Iran. The majority of the returnees were associates of the Hizb al-Da'wa party ("Party of the [Islamic] Call"), started in Iraq in 1958 as an Islamic substitute to the Communist Party (Mazetti & Shanker, 2012).
Iran has founded a consortium comprising four terror organizations: Hezbollah, Hamas, Islamic Jihad, and the Popular Front-General Command (Ahmad Jibril's organization). Until 2000, Iran supported each such organization separately, with increasing levels of support: finance, arms, instruction, and guidance. It founded Hezbollah as a military arm to take over Lebanon and to make war directly against Israel (Mazetti & Shanker, 2012). It gradually took over the Palestinian terror organizations, and the more it gave them, the harder it pressed them to carry out attacks that would suit its own needs. Since 2000, Iran has begun tightening operational coordination and cooperation among these organizations. This cooperation is expressed in joint instruction, and in operational and logistic assistance. For example, members of Jibril's Popular Front have carried out for other organizations major arms-smuggling operations to Gaza by sea, such as the case of the ship Santorini, which was captured by the Israeli Navy. Iran encourages these organizations to carry out terror attacks and rewards them financially for successful attacks (Cohen, 2013).
State Support to Hezbollah
Iran uses Hezbollah to set up terror cells among Israel's Arab citizens, with the goal of opening an additional terror front within Israel that will undermine Israeli society even more. If at first Iran directed Palestinian terror organizations to disrupt the peace process with Israel and make future reconciliation impossible, today its purpose is to undermine Israeli society from within by committing mass terrorist attacks that, it believes, will bring about despair and demoralization in Israel. Hezbollah did just this when Israeli forces were deployed in southern Lebanon. Its attacks caused serious losses of Israeli soldiers and led to public pressure to withdraw the army to the international border. Iran seeks to repeat that success in Israel itself (Ellingwood, 2006). Iran estimates that Israel's Arabs are potential recruits for this program.
Furthermore, this is the context in which Iran's attempt to deliver rockets and mortars to the Palestinian Authority on the arms ship the Karine -- A must be understood. It was Iran's attempt to use Arafat to menace the Israeli populace, especially that of its central and southern cities, with the threat of rocket and mortar attacks from within the West Bank and Gaza (Ellingwood, 2006).
A special arm of Iranian intelligence maintains, in cooperation with Hezbollah, an infrastructure for terror against Israeli and Jewish targets abroad (Kifner, 2006).
. The most deadly of these attacks were the bombing of the Israeli embassy in Buenos Aires on March 17, 1992, and the bombing of that city's Jewish community center on July 18, 1994. This infrastructure exists in other parts of the world as…
Hezbollah The Formation and Perpetuation of Hezbollah: Successful Politics and Successful Terrorism The decade following the terrorist attacks on the World Trade Center in New York City has seen some dramatic changes in U.S. And global policy towards terrorist groups and terrorist action, and to public sentiment and attitude regarding these groups and their actions, as well. From the semi-official War on Terror to the recent "Arab Spring" and the attendant turmoil
Mexico: Terrorism and Organized Crime The convergence in numerous means of organized criminal activities that include terrorism and drug trafficking is a developing concern in the United States and the entire world. Some professionals in this filed imply that the increasing number of cases of terrorism and organized crime groups are jointly coordinated and the trend is increasingly developing into a worldwide phenomenon (Rollins 2). These occurrences pose a great and
causes of terrorism have attracted huge concern among policymakers and the public given the increase in terror attacks across the globe in the recent past. The modern society has been characterized by the increased emergence of terrorist groups and organizations in various places in the world. These organizations have continued to use sophisticated methods to accomplish their goals due to rapid technological advancements. Some of the major examples of
Terrorist Groups: Discussion and Insights 1. Should separatist/nationalist terrorist groups be dealt with differently than religious or political terrorists? What strategies might be most appropriate? The approaches adopted in dealing with nationalist terrorist groups ought to differ from those used to repress religious or political terrorists. In essence, nationalist terrorism, according to Sanchez-Cuenca (2007) seeks enhanced autonomy or independence for a specified territory. For this reason, “the combination of territorial claims and
Husayn al-Musawi, a member of a contingent of the Hizbollah party, said that "Even if we, the people of Islamic Amal, do not have relations with those who committed these attacks, we are nevertheless on the side of those who defend themselves, by whatever means they have chosen." (Kramer 1990) Additionally, Musawi stated that "I supported their glorious attacks against the U.S. And France," (ibid.). This more-than-tacit support of
Hezbollah is a political organization involved in government affairs in Lebanon. Hezbollah may be militant and violent, but it is a far cry from Al Qaeda because it is part of the establishment in Lebanon. Meanwhile, Al Qaeda is very loosely organized and has splinter groups and radical cells in a number of places around the world. It is not known whether Al Qaeda or Hezbollah have access to WMD,