Hezbollah Essays (Examples)

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Terrorist Group Factors for Formation and Continued Operations

Words: 2787 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 38291069

Hezbollah

The Formation and Perpetuation of Hezbollah: Successful Politics and Successful Terrorism

The decade following the terrorist attacks on the World Trade Center in New York City has seen some dramatic changes in U.S. And global policy towards terrorist groups and terrorist action, and to public sentiment and attitude regarding these groups and their actions, as well. From the semi-official War on Terror to the recent "Arab Spring" and the attendant turmoil in the Middle East, the global context within which terrorism exists -- the way in which the world responds to terrorism and the way in which terrorist organizations present themselves to the world -- has changed dramatically in the recent past. This has necessitated certain changes amongst terrorist organizations, or those organizations labeled as terrorists by the international community, that hope to remain viable and relevant forces in the modern world. Though it can be impolitic to discuss…… [Read More]

References

Baranovich, Nadia, and Ravichandran Moorthy. "The Dynamics of Terror Strategies by Hezbollah and Hamas in the Israel-Palestine Conflict." Tamkang Journal of International Affairs 14, no. 4 (2011): 28-61.

Byman, Daniel. "Should Hezbollah be next?" Foreign Affairs (2003): 54-66.

Cohen, Ariel. "Knowing the Enemy." Policy Review 145 (2007): 40-53.

Feldman, Shai. "The Hezbollah-Israel War: A Preliminary Assessment." Middle East Brief 10, no. 2 (2006).
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Hizballah Terrorist Group Hizbollah Also

Words: 2401 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 25858984

Husayn al-Musawi, a member of a contingent of the Hizbollah party, said that "Even if we, the people of Islamic Amal, do not have relations with those who committed these attacks, we are nevertheless on the side of those who defend themselves, by whatever means they have chosen." (Kramer 1990) Additionally, Musawi stated that "I supported their glorious attacks against the U.S. And France," (ibid.). This more-than-tacit support of terrorist actions such as suicide bombings and other clandestine attacks on peacekeeping or other troops is more than enough to define the organization as one which supports terrorist actions and condones their use against innocent soldiers, peacekeeping troops, and civilians.

After this condoned attack, Hizbollah terror has not achieved such a marked event in one act of terrorism; however, they have supported terrorist actions that have grown in number each year since the Israeli pullout of Lebanon and which have, as…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Diaz, T., and Newman, B., 2005. Lightning out of Lebanon: Hezbollah Terrorists on American Soil, Presidio Press.

Y., 1989. Israel's Fateful Hour. New York, NY: Harper & Row

Information Division article of Israel Foreign Ministry, published online at http://www.ict.org.il/inter_ter/orgdet.cfm?orgid=15#documentsand accessed 10/29/05.

Kramer, M., 1990."The Moral Logic of Hizballah." In Origins of Terrorism: Psychologies, Ideologies, Theologies, States of Mind, ed. W. Reich (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1990), pp. 131-57.
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Criminal Justice and Terrorism Specifically it Will

Words: 315 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 69499217

criminal justice and terrorism. Specifically it will discuss whether Hezbollah is a terrorist organization or merely acting in self-defense. Hezbollah is a Lebanese organization made up of Shi'a Muslims that participates in political and social issues throughout Lebanon. The group formed after the 1982 Israeli invasion of Lebanon, and it began as a resistance organization. The original mission of the organization was to gain an Islamic regime throughout Lebanon and to do away with the colonial expansion of Israel. They have repeatedly stated they would like to do away with the Zionist (Israel) state, as well, and that makes them a terrorist organization.

Hezbollah has grown from an entirely military organization to one with incredible power and funding. The group owns television stations, holds seats in the Lebanese government, and funds many social activities, such as schools and hospitals for the Lebanese people. However, they were formed as a militant…… [Read More]

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Realism and Liberalism in U S

Words: 1425 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 30462303

President Obama's remarkable ability to combine his liberal inclinations on humanitarian issues with expertly wielded applications of America's economic and military superiority was presaged in an article published by Harvard Magazine before ballots had been cast in the 2008 election. When professor of international relations Joseph S. Nye Jr. boldly declared that "the old distinction between realists and liberals needs to give way to a new synthesis that you might choose to call 'liberal realism'"4, (2008, pg. 36), he

3 Douthat, oss. "Obama the ealist." The New York Times, February 07, 2011.

4 Nye, Joseph S. "Toward a Liberal ealist Foreign Policy: A memo for the next president." Harvard Magazine 110 (2008): 36-38.

provided a startlingly accurate prediction of President Obama's methodically effective strategy of relying on liberalist motivations to enact firmly realist foreign policy directives in relation to Iran.

Other commentaries on American public opinion towards Iran have focused…… [Read More]

References

Cohen, Warren I. "The Dispensable Nation: American Foreign Policy in Retreat' by Vali Nasr." The Washington Post, May 03, 2012. http://www.washingtonpost.com/opinions/the-dispensable-nation-american-foreign- policy-in-retreat-by-vali-nasr/2013/05/03/b7b01178-ac14-11e2-a198- 99893f10d6dd_story.html (Accessed May 4, 2013).

Douthat, Ross. "Obama the Realist." The New York Times, February 07, 2011. http://www.nytimes.com/2011/02/07/opinion/07douthat.html?_r=0 (Accessed May 5, 2013).

Esfandiary, Dina. "Why Iranian Public Opinion Is Turning Against the Nuclear Program." The Atlantic, March 16, 2012. http://www.theatlantic.com/international/archive/2012/03/why- iranian-public-opinion-is-turning-against-the-nuclear-program/254627 / (Accessed May 5, 2013).

Nye, Joseph S. "Toward a Liberal Realist Foreign Policy: A memo for the next president." Harvard Magazine 110 (2008): 36-38. http://harvardmag.com/pdf/2008/03- pdfs/0308-36.pdf (Accessed May 4, 2013).
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Terrorism Situation Analysis - Preemptive

Words: 2173 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 49912757

In the event the intelligence detailed by the Israeli administration proves to be accurate with respect to nuclear weapons development, this office is reminded of the words of the late President John, F. Kennedy, spoken almost exactly 45 years ago to the day, on October 22, 1962, addressing the Soviet threat in Cuba:

We no longer live in a world where only the actual firing of weapons represents a sufficient challenge to a nation's security to constitute maximum peril. Nuclear weapons are so destructive and ballistic missiles are so swift that any substantially increased possibility of their use or any sudden change in their deployment may well be regarded as a definite threat to peace." (Sorensen, 1965)

Extraordinary risks to national security demand (and justify) extraordinary actions to prevent them from materializing. A military response will be required to participate with Israel in destroying Iranian nuclear facilities either in possession…… [Read More]

References

Allison, G. (2004) Nuclear Terrorism: The Ultimate Preventable Catastrophe.

Henry Holt: New York

Dershowitz, a. (2002) Why Terrorism Works: Understanding the Threat,

Responding to the Challenge. Yale University Press: New Haven
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Indian-Israeli Relations Valuable to India's

Words: 9235 Length: 26 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 99898853

' Indians across the political spectrum, especially the country's powerful nuclear weapons establishment, are critical of the NPT, arguing that it unfairly warps international hierarchies to the disadvantage of the non-nuclear-weapon states" (1998:15). In its efforts to balance the pressures from the international community with its own self-interests in formulating foreign policies, the position adopted by India has been starkly different than other countries. In this regard, Karp concludes that, "Most states party to the NPT accept the unfairness of the treaty as a tradeoff that serves their own and global interests. India's leaders insist that fair and genuine nuclear disarmament must start with the nuclear-weapon states themselves, a demand formalized by former Prime Minister ajiv Gandhi in his 1990 global nuclear disarmament initiative" (Karp 1998:14).

As a result of these events, the 20th century witnessed the formation of various positions in Indian foreign policy that would endure throughout the…… [Read More]

References

Berlin, D.L. 2006 "India in the Indian Ocean." Naval War College Review 59(2): 58-59.

Chollett, D. & Lindberg, T. 2007 "A Moral Core for U.S. Foreign Policy." Policy Review 146: 3-

4.

Davis, C.B. & Rill, L.A. 2008 "Testing the Second Level of Agenda Setting: Effects of News
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Terrorism Chapter 10 of Jonathan R White's

Words: 928 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 97453933

Terrorism

Chapter 10 of Jonathan . White's Terrorism and Homeland Security focuses exclusively on terrorism in Israel and Palestine. However, the author begins the chapter with the Six Day War to immediately discuss the rise of the Palestinian Liberation Organization (PLO). Factionalism in Palestinian terrorism, the rise and function of Hezbollah and Hamas, Jewish fundamentalism, and the controversial counterterrorism policies in Israeli domestic and foreign policy comprise the bulk of this chapter. Especially given the paucity of space dedicated to this complex topic, White does a good job addressing both sides of the conflict and does so fairly, accurately, and with a minimum of bias.

eaction

One of the only faults with Chapter 10 is that the author does not have enough space with which to properly engage the reader in the multilayered complexity of the issue. The chapter begins as if in media res, with the 1967 war as…… [Read More]

References

Barhoum, K. (n.d.). The origin and history of the PLO. Trans-Arab Research Institute. 17 May, 2014. Retrieved online: http://tari.org/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=10:the-origin-and-history-of-the-plo&catid=1:fact-sheets&Itemid=10

"Hezbollah: History and Overview." Retrieved online:  http://www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org/jsource/Terrorism/hizbollah.html 

White, J.R. (2012). Terrorism and Homeland Security. Wadsworth Cengage.
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Combating Terrorism a Policy

Words: 3748 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 42684376

Policy ecommendation in Combating Terrorism

Policy Project Part 1: Project outline

In the aftermath of the September 11 terrorist attacks, the U.S. government and the international community reviewed typologies for the financing of transnational terrorism and examined ways to combat such financing. Unfortunately, evidence indicates that al Qaeda and other terrorist groups apparently affiliated with or inspired by al Qaeda have worked quite economically, using low-budget methods to operate. After reviewing two typologies, this part of the paper discusses applicable legal mechanisms for preventing and prosecuting the financing of transnational terrorist networks and considers proposals for improving the effectiveness of efforts to combat foreign-affinity terrorist financing (euter & Truman, 2004; Carter, 2008).

Typologies

The evolving effects of globalization and the transnational nature of terrorism have combined to create almost limitless possibilities for terrorists looking to finance operations (Sheppard, 2008). One problem with combating terrorist financing is that many forms of…… [Read More]

References

Alexander, Yonah, and Donald J. Musch, eds. (2012). Terrorism, Documents of International and Local Control. Vol. 35. Dobbs Ferry, New York: Oceana.

Andreas, Peter, and Ethan Nadelmann. (2013). Policing the Globe: Criminalization and Crime Control in International Relations. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Carter, Barry E. (2008) International Economic Sanctions: Improving the Haphazard U.S. Legal Regime. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Cesari, Jocelyne. (2009) Muslims in the West after 9/11. New York: Routledge.
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U S Role in the Present

Words: 2152 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 46272056



Double Standards:

The U.S. role in the current Lebanese crisis is beset with blatant double standards. For example, the Bush administration has accused Syria of being in violation of the UN Resolutions and, therefore, liable for international sanctions, while completely ignoring Israel's disregard of several UN resolutions that called for its withdrawal from Gaza and the est Bank. (Zunes) hile calling for immediate withdrawal of occupation forces from Lebanon, it conveniently forgets the fact that Syria has only 14,000 troops in Lebanon while the U.S. has a 150,000 strong occupation force in Iraq. Israel's invasion of Lebanon in 1982 and its occupation of Southern Lebanon until 2000 with U.S.'s tacit approval are not even mentioned in passing. Moreover, the U.S. democratization rhetoric vis a vis its policy in Lebanon and Syria does not carry much credibility as a number of authoritarian regimes in the Middle East continue to be supported…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Auken, Bill Van. "The assassination of Rafiq Hariri: who benefited?" World Socialist Web Site. 17 February 2005. March 13, 2005. http://www.wsws.org/articles/2005/feb2005/hari-f17.shtml

Cole, Juan. "Lebanon Realignment and Syria." Informed Comment

March 01, 2005. March 13, 2005

http://www.juancole.com/2005/03/lebanon-realignment-and-syria-it-is.html / 'Lebanese Civil War." From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. 2005. March 13, 2005. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lebanese_Civil_War
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Countermeasures and Neutralization of Weapons

Words: 4042 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 88212223

This when the Army must spread out its resources to engage threat WMDs and WMD networks. The concept applies to counterforce operations, sensors, protection, and training.

Leveraging new technologies. Many of the required capabilities presented in the strategy will be possible only through applications of new technology. The Army must leverage these new technologies.

Enhance training. Unit training is currently more flexible and quickly adaptive in comparison with institutional training. but, it often lacks valuable consistency and standardization.

Institutional training content updates, approval, and resourcing it is tied to processes too slow to remain current. Future training will prepare soldiers and leaders to exercise sound judgment in the analysis of data / information, understanding cultural impacts on operations and to act in periods of uncertainty.

These ideas are providing a background for implementing new technology and key strategies for improving the countermeasures and neutralization of WMDs. However, this research is…… [Read More]

References

"Disarmament." UN. http://www.un.org/cyberschoolbus/briefing/disarmament/disarmament.pdf (accessed January 30, 2013)

Michael, Vane, " Combating Weapons of Mass Destruction," U.S. Army, http://www.dtic.mil/cgi-bin/GetTRDoc?Location=U2&doc=GetTRDoc.pdf&AD=ADA496736 (accessed January 20, 2013).

Barry, Ezill. "Identifying Factors that Influence Terrorist Decisions." Journal of Homeland Security 1, no. 1, (2012): 1- 15.

Brookes, Peter. A Devil's Triangle. Lantham: Rowman, 2005.
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Exist for Wood and Veneer Manufacturer Chabros

Words: 2886 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 81663518

exist for wood and veneer manufacturer Chabros International. he company is located in Lebanon which could cause problems due to the new political unrest which has plagued the country over the past four years. However, Chabros has positioned itself well by diversifying its business to other countries in the region. he business has grown in the past two decades, largely due to its emphasis on growth outside of Lebanon and its focus on the veneer industry. his report use Porter's five forces, a PES analysis and a SWO analysis to determine the advantages of moving to other areas of world. he issue at hand is that the companies sales have been greatly affected by the economic downturn which stopped many projects in its largest area of growth, Dubai. Because the economic situation has been tenuous for the past three years, Chabros has had to study its situation and try to…… [Read More]

The company could also use the fact that they have a large portion of the veneer business in a lot of countries to just expand that part of their business. Veneer seems to be the most desired of its products, so the company could focus its attentions on selling more of that product while continuing to conduct the wood business also. The main advantage to this is that they are not committing their entire operation to one country or one region. Since their hardwood and softwood products are selling well in the regions they are already in, and they account for about two-thirds of all sales, the company could use its veneers to open the door in places like Morocco, and then add products as the customers in the country or region become more familiar with its quality. The SWOT of Morocco said that one of the weaknesses for Chabros was that no one knows who they are in Morocco. Chabros can change this by just following a more gradual product introduction curve than it has at other times.

Conclusion

The reality is that the company has positioned itself well by using a time of relative political calm to grow it business beyond the borders of Lebanon. With the war small war that took place between Hezbollah who occupied the Lebanon side of the border and Israel in 2008, and the subsequent unrest caused by Hezbollah, it is good that the company has diversified to other countries as well as Lebanon. It is also good that the company has succeeded in establishing itself in Eastern Europe, but they may also do well by expanding to areas in Asia. The opportunities seem to exist if Chabros pushes its competitive advantage, especially with its veneer lines, and continues to expand its business beyond the confines of Lebanon.
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Issues of Terrorism

Words: 687 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 42298553

terrorist groups; besides Al Queda and Al Jihad that possess both the motive and capability to implement a terrorist attack on the United States and decide which of these two groups pose a greater threat. Examine both the likelihood and potential impact. It will also assess the likelihood of another terrorist attack by the Al Queda and the Al Jihad terrorist groups. Identify and provide examples of the most likely targets in a future terrorist attack.

It seems two of the most dangerous terrorist organizations facing America today are Hezbollah and the Abu Nidal Organization (ANO). These groups are particularly dangerous because they are well funded, and they consistently target the United States in their attacks. Perhaps most dangerous of these two is Hezbollah, also known as the Party of God, who are credited with numerous terrorist activities against Americans since the 1980s. These included kidnapping several Americans in the…… [Read More]

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Islam in the Media Traditionally

Words: 1457 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 53661711



Apparently, Islamic terrorists are the media marketing executives.

Once more, the tendency is to project American viewpoints and values on to supposed Islamist enemies. The same individuals and groups that are utterly alien to America's most cherished beliefs are also masters of manipulating Americans' views of themselves and of using the media to their own advantage. The idea that Islamist groups might possess some sort of legitimate grievance, or might be railing against actual conditions is dismissed in favor of complex marketing ploys. Terrorism is a product, just like everything else that is promoted on American television and in American newspapers and magazines. The only difference is that the Islamist product is a bad product. Other estern media too have taken up the general theme of Islamic terrorism as but the ultimate expression of Islamic failure to grasp the potentialities of the modern world. As presented in the French Canadian…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Albritton, James S. "The Technique of Terrorism." Forum on Public Policy: A Journal of the Oxford Round Table (2006).

Belkhodja, Chedly, and Chantal Richard. "The Events of September 11 in the French-Canadian Press." Canadian Ethnic Studies Journal 38.3 (2006): 119+.

Dunsky, Marda. "Missing: The Bias Implicit in the Absent." Arab Studies Quarterly (ASQ) 23.3 (2001): 1.

Vaisman-Tzachor, Reuben. "Psychological Profiles of Terrorists." The Forensic Examiner 15.2 (2006): 6+.
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Protecting Ourselves Against Terrorism

Words: 3671 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 83464042

S. has to be active in supporting the International Law. He argues that our effort should not be to defeat a set of criminals, Osama in Laden, his Al-Qaeda network and a few like-minded groups, but we have to undermine the notion that any action is acceptable for a cause and slaughter of civilian is an acceptable political act.

The fight against terrorism has to be based not on destroying a certain group of terrorists but as a campaign of human rights. Geneva Conventions and international human rights law specifically establish that terrorism is not a legitimate act of war or politics. These rules specify that civilians should never be deliberately killed or abused, regardless of the cause. Mr. ush's refusal to condemn Israel's bombing of civilian targets in an impotent Lebanon may be politically expedient but it says that United States considers it all right to deliberately bomb civilian…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Reisman, W.M., International Legal Responses to Terrorism, Houston Journal of International Law, Volume 22, Issue 1, 1999

Grebinar, J., Responding to Terrorism: How Must a Democracy Do It? A Comparison of Israeli and American Law, Fordham Urban Law Journal, Volume 31, Issue 1, 2003

Roth, K., Misplaced Priorities: Human Rights and the Campaign against Terrorism, Harvard International Review. Volume 24, Issue 3, 2002

Charters, D.A. (Editor), The Deadly Sin of Terrorism: Its Effect on Democracy and Civil Liberty in Six Countries, Greenwood Press, Westport, CT. 1994
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Deductive and Inductive Theory Construction

Words: 1381 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 51400370

Deductive Logic and Theory Building

Theory

Poverty is often a significant element influencing individuals to take on a life of crime, taking into account that organized crime leaders tend to recruit their subordinates from underprivileged environments. Poor persons have lesser options in comparison to others and gradually come to consider that committing criminal acts is the only solution they have in order to survive. From the perspective of organized crime leaders poor areas are thus perfect recruitment spots. There is a complex relationship between poverty and organized crime and by analyzing a series of organized crime communities from around the world one is likely to observe that many tend to focus on recruiting underprivileged individuals.

hat the theory will address

hen considering the idea of organized crime, one needs to gain a better understanding of why people resort to joining such groups in order to understand their dynamics. Many organized…… [Read More]

Works cited:

Bruneau, T., Dammert, L., and Skinner, E. (2011). Maras: Gang Violence and Security in Central America. University of Texas Press.

Kelly, R.J., Chin, K., & Schatzberg, R. (1994). Handbook of Organized Crime in the United States. Greenwood Publishing Group.

Ramsey, G. Poverty a Recruitment Tool for Mexico's Criminal Gangs. Retrieved September 8, 2013, from  http://www.insightcrime.org/news-analysis/poverty-a-recruitment-tool-for-mexicos-criminal-gangs 

Rosenthal, T. "LOS ZETAS AND HEZBOLLAH, A DEADLY ALLIANCE OF TERROR AND VICE," Retrieved September 8, 2013, from  http://www.theamericasreport.com/2013/07/08/los-zetas-and-hezbollah-a-deadly-alliance-of-terror-and-vice/
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Iran Has Suffered Enormously From Sanctions

Words: 3120 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 95696358

Sanctions in the OPEC World

What sorts of sanctions and punishments should an OPEC nation -- whose petroleum production bring riches almost beyond imagination, and hence is a player on the world's economic battleground -- receive if it launches programs aimed at acquiring nuclear weapons? That is the central question for this paper to review and critique. The best example for what would happen to an OPEC nation that works towards building a nuclear weapon can be viewed by examining what has happened to Iran and its fledgling nuclear program. This paper delves into the sanctions against Iran, and reports the political, economic, social, technological, environmental and legal consequences of the sanctions that are now being rescinded. This paper also projects what those painful economic and social / political realities would impose on other oil-producing nations planning a nuclear program. This narrative leads to a clear understanding of the question…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Aghazadeh, Mahdieh. 'A Historical Overview of Sanctions on Iran and Iran's Nuclear Program. Journal of Academic Studies. Vol. 56, 137-160, 2013.

Berliner, Uri. 'Crippled By Sanctions, Iran's Economy Key In Nuclear Deal." NPR. Recovered November 26, 2015, from http://www.npr.org. 2013.

Byman, Daniel L. 'Iran's Support for Terrorism in the Middle East.' Brookings. Recovered November 25, 2015, from http://www.brookings.edu. 2013.

Farshneshani, Beheshteh. 'In Iran, Sanctions Hurt the Wrong People.' The New York Times. Recovered November 26, 2015, from http://www.nytimes.com. 2014.
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Terrorism and Raymond James Stadium

Words: 3212 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 76452618

According to Stefanie Olson (2001), the Act provides government with increased electronic surveillance, search and data gathering power. Under the guise of tracking down "potential" terrorists, the expansion of Internet eavesdropping technology provides the government with full viewing rights into any private life they choose. In this way, immigrants who enter the country and conduct their business in a perfectly legal manner are now targeted for such surveys (White, 2008).

Local and National Changes in Law Enforcement - the basic mission of law enforcement and foreign/defense policy in the United States has dramatically changed since the events of 9/11 and the subsequent "War on Terrorism." Since 9/11, policies across the United States and abroad have changed from being reactive to being intensely proactive. There, are, however, several challenges faced by law enforcement and the legal issues of defense and foreign policy regarding this new approach to terrorism (Simonson, 2006).

Even…… [Read More]

REFERENCES

"After 9-11, Security Job Openings Abound," cited in:

http://usgovinfo.about.com/library/weekly/blsecurityjobs.htm

Bergen, P. (December 5, 2008). "WMD Terrorism Fears are Overblown." CNN

Politics.Com. Cited in:
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Yom Kippur War the Long-Term

Words: 3961 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 4051183

This unity generally took the form of diplomatic and military opposition to the state of Israel. Egypt's leading role in the acceleration of Arab political unification would have a long-term effect of philosophically influencing such movements as the liberation front of Yasser Arafat in the Palestinean territory, and the host of other terror organizations which have waged guerilla campaigns in search of political recognition.

These examples will be relevant in discussion hereafter on the long-term effects of the conflict. In the immediate aftermath of the attack, it would become clear that these political implications were not accidental. Quite to the contrary, the Arabs understood quite well that they could not anticipate a military victory. Still, "in October 1973, Arab nations led by Egypt and Syria chose war as their instrument of policy -- their primary policy objective in waging war: to recover Arab lands occupied by Israel since the 1967…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Anti-Defamation League (ADL). (2005). The 1973 Yom Kippur War. ADL.org.

Ehrenfeld, R. (2002). IRA + PLO = Terror. National Review Online. Online at http://www.nationalreview.com/comment/commentehrenfeld082102.asp

Horovitz, D. (2005). The Iran-Hezbollah Nexus. Chicago Jewish Community Online. Online at http://66.102.7.104/search?q=cache:6aPKBoRz9Q0J:www.juf.org/pdf/horovitz.pdf+iran+hezbollah&hl=en

Israel 1967-1991. (2004). Israel-Egypt Peace. Palestine Facts.
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Political Science Iraqi President Saddam

Words: 2492 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 68598460

But the opportunity for a broader, regional conflict was still decades away in the Yom Kippur War and Six Day War.

Today, the threat posed by weapons of mass destruction makes the region in a more significant condition for war. With Syria and Iran attempting to build nuclear facilities capable of enriching uranium, and receiving support from North Korea in this endeavor, the opportunity for devastating warfare is made all too clear. Not only nuclear, but chemical and biological agents, perhaps carried by Iranian Shahab missiles, pose a grave security threat to not only Israel, but also to the Lebanese government, and moderate rab states such as Turkey. lso, the possibility of Pakistani nuclear weapons being controlled by Islamic hardliners, or falling into (intentionally or not) the hands of terrorist entities makes the possibility of war in this period more compelling. While stability in Iraq and Lebanon is in question,…… [Read More]

Also, although the Israeli-Palestinian conflict is worthy of considerable attention, it is important to remember that most other Arab nations in the Middle East actively discriminate against Palestinians. Although the Arab politicians often cite Palestinian mistreatment as a key reason for resentment against Israel, the real motivation underlying Arab militancy is concealed. It is simply a window-dressing for militant propaganda. The reality of the matter is that Palestinians in Israel are guaranteed the broadest freedoms, both religiously and politically, when compared to every other nation in the region. And although Palestinians' economic status is often lower than average Israelis, the same is true of Arab nations, which specifically target Palestinians for discrimination because of their status as a separate ethnic group. When it joined several other Arab states in expelling 400,000 Palestinian refugees since 1991, because of PLO support for the Iraq invasion, Kuwait became a good example of this discrimination. Egypt has also curtailed Palestinian settlement to the Gaza strip, where Palestinian militants continue to launch attacks on Israel,

Most revealing of all, however, is the Arab League's policy of refusing to grant Palestinians citizenship in any of its member states. Instead, Palestinians become international refugees in the region, living in camps by the thousands and growing more resentful all the time -- which is probably League's goal, as the displaced Palestinians then serve as proxy warriors against Israel.

The most effective appraoch is to pursue more aggressive action in preventing the Iranian state from acquiring WMDs, and in isolating Iran from its influential position as terrorist and militant financier and supporter. President Ahmedinejad has expressed very harshly and openly the intentions of the Iranian government to eliminate Israel and to pursue radical Islamic hegemony. This provides the international community with a dramatic glimpse of Iranian goals. In assessing the threat posed by Iran, the international community must realize that Iran will not easily be deterred by threats of sanction or isolation. Instead, it must be made absolutely clear to the Iranian regime that its current course will result in consequences. Also, the Iranian dissident movement must be supported and encouraged in order to undermine the support of the hard-line Iranian regime.
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Iran God Has Planted in

Words: 1616 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 46272761

The advocator of the Iran Democracy Act incorporates the Iranian Monarchist groups, The American Israeli Public Affairs Committee -- AIPAC, and the Jewish Institute for National Security Affairs -- JINSA.

It also includes the well established organizations that may get sanctions under the Bill such as Coalition for Democracy in Iran -- CDI- which was formed by Morris Amitay of JINSA, ob Sobhani, President of Caspian Energy Consulting and Michael Ledeen of the American Enterprise Institute who were recognized as the staunch supporters of the change in the rule of Iran. Moreover, the advocators also put forth that the previous U.S. funding of opposition groups in other countries was important to promotion of democracy in such countries and Iran cannot be an exception to this. This necessitates the U.S. To include human rights and democracy on its agenda in respect of Iran. (Senator Brown Back Announces Iran Democracy Act with…… [Read More]

References

Afrasiabi, Kaveh L. Regional Obstacles to Democracy in Iran. 24 January, 2001.

Retrieved from  http://www.payvand.com/news/01/jan/1144.html  Accessed on 7 May, 2005

Chomsky, Noam. Promoting democracy in Middle East. Khaleej Times. 4 March, 2005. Retrieved from http://www.khaleejtimes.com/DisplayArticle.asp?xfile=data/opinion/2005/March/opinion_March6.xml& section=opinion& col= Accessed on 7 May, 2005

Kazemzadeh, Masoud. Political culture and obstacles to democracy in Iran. The Iranian. 30
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U S Foreign Policy and the

Words: 3110 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 52890666

They however fail to see the strategic linkage in the U.S. foreign policy. Israel is the most trusted ally of United States in the region. It has the same strategic interest as the United States and has a firm foundation of democratic support.

The Arab governments on the other hand are unpopular, non-democratic and are in power due to the western interest in maintaining the status quo. Overthrow of the Shah of Iran, a most trusted ally of United States shows that the governments maintained in power by western support without the popular support could not be relied upon for maintaining U.S. strategic interests in the region.

Saddam Hussein of Iraq is another example of a government following pro-U.S. policy and then working against its strategic interests in the region. Dictator Saddam Hussein was a virtual proxy in the Iran-Iraq war (1980-1988) and protector of the pro-American dynastic regimes. His…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Aruri, N., The U.S. And the Arabs: a woeful history - U.S. Middle East policy, Arab Studies Quarterly (ASQ), 1997

Nakhoul, S., Arabs Seethe with Anger at U.S. Mideast Policy, Washington Report on Middle East Affairs. Volume: 21. Issue: 9. Publication Date: December 2002.

Nixon's State of the World Message, The New York Times, 4 November 1969

Prestowitz, C., Rogue Nation: American Unilateralism and the Failure of Good Intentions, 2003, Cited by Pasquini, E., Washington Report on Middle East Affairs, Volume 22, Issue 8, October 2003.
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Terrorism Is a Global Problem That Most

Words: 1260 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 25892252

Terrorism is a global problem that most Americans only vaguely recognized prior to September 11th. We had been aware of the occasional international flight hijacking or a bombing at an embassy far removed from our everyday lives. It also fell low on the Bush administration priority list during the president's first year in office, as Attorney General John Ashcroft favored an agenda far more active in the war on drugs and domestic criminal prosecution than threats of fundamentalist violence. However, when the World Trade Center came tumbling down, the fact that America has enemies became inescapable. Moreover, these enemies were not the bumbling camel jockeys we had been persuaded to dismiss. Rather, they were units of a network both diabolical and sophisticated enough to orchestrate an attack that simultaneously froze the world in shock, shattered the American economy, devastated a cocky culture and did so all in the space of…… [Read More]

4. Goodenough, Patrick.

Philippine Group Believed to Be Funding Al- Qaeda" CNSNews.com. Apr. 2, 2002.

5. Oscapella, Eugene. "The Links Between Drug Prohibition and Terrorism" Canadian Foundation for Drug Policy. Oct. 29, 2001.
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Narco-Terrorism a Global Scourge

Words: 610 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 13716895

Forum on Terrorism

International relations refer to interactions among countries and other global entities. These interactions almost always center on international issues or problems like crime, which affect all of them. Through international relations, nations can influence one another reach decisions most beneficial to all. One most disturbing issue, which affects all nations and impact international relations, is narco-terrorism.

Billions of dollars have been infused into the war on drugs yet too little has been achieved (Cillufo 2000). More than 50 federal government bodies have pooled their resources into this war but chronic loopholes remain. No defined authority lines, overseeing agency, a drug czar or a mandate account for it. Experts believe that a unifying strategy is called for with sustained international cooperation. Diplomatic initiatives must support it unrelentingly. The United States cannot stage this fight aloe. All affected countries need to strengthen their respective legal institutions and social organizations.…… [Read More]

References

Cilluffo, F. (2000). The Threat Posed from the Convergence of Organized Crime, Drug

Trafficking, and Terrorism. Center for Strategic and International Studies, 10-17.

Sanderson, T. (2004). Transnational Terror and Organized Crime. SAIS Review, 49-59.

Schmid, A. (2004). Links between Terrorism and Drug Trafficking: A Case of "Narco-terrorism"? Global Security, 1-33.
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Terrorist Groups

Words: 2750 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 71392632

causes of terrorism have attracted huge concern among policymakers and the public given the increase in terror attacks across the globe in the recent past. The modern society has been characterized by the increased emergence of terrorist groups and organizations in various places in the world. These organizations have continued to use sophisticated methods to accomplish their goals due to rapid technological advancements. Some of the major examples of terrorist groups include Baader-Meinhof, the Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam, and the alleged Iranian state-sponsored terrorism. Following my analysis of these groups, I have chosen as my theoretical framework, Margolin's argument that, 'much terrorist behavior is a response to the frustration of various political, economic, and personal needs or objectives' (Joseph Margolin, 1977, 273-4).

My discussion will involve analysis of three terrorist groups across three categories i.e. ideological, nationalist, and religious terrorism. I will use Baader-Meinhof gang, the Liberation Tigers of…… [Read More]

References

Brynjar, L. & Katja, S. (2000). Why Terrorism Occurs -- A Survey of Theories and Hypotheses

on the Causes of Terrorism. Retrieved September 21, 2014, from  http://www.ffi.no/no/rapporter/00-02769.pdf 

"Chapter 3: State Sponsors of Terrorism Overview." (2013, May 30). Office of the Coordinator

for Counterterrorism. Retrieved from U.S. Department of State website:  http://www.state.gov/j/ct/rls/crt/2012/209985.htm
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Narcoterrorism and the Future

Words: 18088 Length: 70 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 91167730

Mexico faces an array of drug-related problems ranging from production and transshipment of illicit drugs to corruption, violence, and increased internal drug abuse. Powerful and well-organized Mexican organizations control drug production and trafficking in and through Mexico, as well as the laundering of drug proceeds. These organizations also have made a concerted effort to corrupt and intimidate Mexican law enforcement and public officials. In addition, the geographic proximity of Mexico to the United States and the voluminous cross-border traffic between the countries provide ample opportunities for drug smugglers to deliver their illicit products to U.S. markets. The purpose of this study was to develop informed and timely answers to the following research questions: (a) How serious is the trade in illicit drugs between Mexico and the United States today and what have been recent trends? (b) How does drug trafficking fund terrorist organizations in general and trade between Mexico and…… [Read More]

References

Delaware fact sheet. (2014). Friends of Narconon, International. Retrieved from http://www.friendsof narconon.org/drug_distribution_in_the_united_states/delaware_drug_facts/delaware_fact

sheet/.

Drug threats in Wilmington. (2014). Drug Enforcement Edu.org. Retrieved from http://www.

drugenforcementedu.org/delaware/wilmington/.
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The Shiite Islamic Sect in Nigeria

Words: 6077 Length: 20 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 90828462

Shi'ism in the World & the Shiite Islamic Sect in Nigeria

Shi'ism in the World

History, Objectives & General Outlook

Shiite Muslims make up the second biggest denomination of Islam, with the biggest numbers being represented by the Sunnis. The Shiite Muslims form about fifteen percent of Muslims. However, they are dominant in the nations of Iran, Azerbaijan, Iraq and Bahrain. In addition, Muslims have a plurality in Yemen and Lebanon too (Cave, 2006). These two distinct groups within the Islam community first differed and deviated from each other following the death of Prophet Muhammad in 632. The divide arose from the fact that the followers were not able to come to an agreement as to whether it was right to select bloodline successors or able leaders most capable of following and propagating the tenets of the Muslim faith (Fuller and Francke, 2000).

The Shiite community commenced during the 650s,…… [Read More]

References

Akhavi, S. (1983). The ideology and praxis of Shi'ism in the Iranian revolution. Comparative Studies in Society and History, 25(02), 195-221.

Campbell, J. (2015). "Massacre" of Shia in Northern Nigeria an Opening for Iran. Council on Foreign Relations. Retrieved 5 January 2016 from: http://blogs.cfr.org/campbell/2015/12/16/massacre-of-shia-in-northern-nigeria-an-opening-for-iran/

Cave, D. (2006). Telling Sunni from Shiite. The New York Times. Retrieved 5 January 2016 from:shttp://topics.nytimes.com/top/reference/timestopics/subjects/s/shiite_muslims/index.html

Center for Security Policy. (2014). Will Sunni-Shia tensions spread to Nigeria? Retrieved 5 January 2016 from: https://www.centerforsecuritypolicy.org/2014/11/03/will-sunni-shia-tensions-spread-to-nigeria/
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Can There Be Justification for Terrorism

Words: 1889 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 79535389

Terrorism Be Justified

Is terrorism justified?

A definition of terrorism is hard to put forth, mainly because it depends on which side the definition comes from. However, the UN definition could be successfully used. As such, terrorist acts are "criminal acts, including against civilians, committed with the intent to cause death or serious bodily injury, or taking of hostages, with the purpose to provoke a state of terror in the general public or in a group of persons or particular persons, intimidate a population or compel a government or an international organization to do or to abstain from doing any act" (UN Security Council Resolution 1566)

Arguments pro-terrorism lack Rhetorical Power because they involve the violence and death of innocent people. These people cannot be collectively guilty because (1) they are not making the contested decisions and (2) the scope of terrorism is usually to intimidate and not to target…… [Read More]

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Terrorist Attack on September 11th

Words: 3019 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 46157556

He was paraded at the front of the news media, knowing very well that he will not be able to say anything critical about his captors. When he was put to speak, he passed message by blinking his eyes in Morse code which spelled out T-O-R-T-U-R-E.

In computers, images are array of numbers representing light intensities at various pixels or points. Digital pictures have either 8 bit or 24 bit per pixel. Each bit represents an association of palette or color index. In color image of the 8-bit, every pixel that points out to only one of the 256 colors is represented by a single byte (sellars). 0's and 1s are bits whereby 8 bits create a byte. An example, of a byte is the 111 11110. The less significant bit is the position where zero is located. The least Significant bit (LS) way is the staganography technique that is…… [Read More]

Bibliography

B.W. Lampson, (1973), a note on the confinement problem, Communications of the ACM, vol.16, no. 10, pp. 613 -- 615.

Declan, McCullagh. (2001) Bin Laden: Steganography Master?

URL: http://www.wired.com/news/politics/0,1283,41658,00.html

Dibbell, Julian. (2001) Pirate Utopia.
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Open Source Intelligences Robert M

Words: 2211 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 83690517

The F-16s can be used if bigger warheads are necessary. The F-16s can carry bunker buster missiles, which can penetrate anything that might be protecting the nuclear sites. A-10s are fighter planes that are used against tanks and in close combat support.

4. Have the political options run out?

As it relates to the issue of Iran obtaining nuclear weapons, the political options have not run out. This statement is made despite the fact that any hope for a peaceful resolution to this problem seems unlikely. The Iranian President, Mahmoud Ahmadinejad, has made a number of negative statements against the United States and Israel in the last five years. His statements reveal a clear, deep hatred against these so-called "Zionist" countries. He has even gone so far as to vow that a new Middle East will arise, one without the presence of Israel. However, his comments seem to be based…… [Read More]

References

Balad Airbase. (2010). Globalsecurity.org. Retrieved from:   http://www.globalsecurity.org/military/ world/iraq/balad-ab.htm 

Berman, Ilan. (2007). The Iranian Nuclear Crisis: Latest Developments and Next Steps.

Retrieved from: http://www.rightweb.irc-online.org/profile/Berman_Ilan

Clark, Robert M. (2003). Intelligence Analysis: A Target-Centric Approach. Washington,
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Global Social Economic Perspective Global

Words: 1087 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 35188312

Where, many can be able to acquire and construct such materials that can be purchased on the black market. As a result, this increases the odds that these types of weapons will be used in the future, to create a super terrorist attack. This is significant, because it can be used to corroborate other research on terrorists seeking to acquire and use WMDs. Where, they could be purchased on the black market or one of the state sponsors of terrorism could pass this material to these groups. (Campbell, 1997, 24 -- 50)

usch, N. (2008). Force, Preemption and WMDs. Combating Weapons of Mass Destruction. (pp. 156 -- 175). Athens, GA: University of Georgia Press.

In this piece of literature, the author discusses how there are confusing international standards for dealing with WMD's and how to control them. This is because approaching the problem has been difficult. Where, some nations try…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Busch, N. (2008). Force, Preemption and WMDs. Combating Weapons of Mass Destruction. (pp. 156 -- 175) Athens, GA: University of Georgia Press.

Campbell, J. (1997). Weapons of Mass Destruction and Terrorism. Terrorism and Political Violence 9 (2), 24 -- 50.

Kan, S. (2009). China and the Proliferation of Weapons of Mass Destruction. Congressional Research Service. http://www.au.af.mil/au/awc/awcgate/crs/rl31555.pdf

Krauthammer, Charles. (1991). The Unipolar Movement. Foreign Affairs 71 (1), 23 -- 33
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IRA and Farc the Irish

Words: 1876 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 61955958

The RIRA on occasion attacks a British army base, or bombs a civilian site just to show it is still out there while FARC is a powerful force that the government has no choice but to negotiate with. Also, the RIRA does not recruit young children for its violent terrorist activities, while FARC recruits and kidnaps thousands of young boys and trains them in guerrilla warfare. The RIRA does not have thousands of acres of poppies (to make into cocaine) that it can within its territory -- the RIRA has no established territory -- that it can exploit (tax) in order to raise money. That said, the RIRA does do some drug smuggling, according to credible sources.

There is an interesting connection between FARC and the RIRA: Evidence shows that the RIRA has been training FARC in "new technology" (bombs/mortars) (www.bbc.co.uk).

orks Cited

Center for Defense Information. (2007). Revolutionary Armed…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Center for Defense Information. (2007). Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia (FARC).

Retrieved Feb. 6, 2009, from http://www.cdi.org/terrorism/terrorist-groups.cfm.

Global Security. (2008). Real Irish Republican Army. Retrieved Feb. 5, 2009, from  http://www.globalsecurity.org/military/ world/para/nira.htm.

Global Security. (2009). Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia -- FARC. Retrieved Feb.
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Bosnia Islam the Islamic Faith

Words: 2530 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 84161527



The armed activities of resistance or assault committed in these contexts tends to drive a view of Islam as a radical force counterintuitive to the philosophical aims of western capitalism. As Malik (2004) contends on this point, "it is not surprising that islamophobic authors frequently resort to the concept of secularism which they say needs to be defended against an increasing influence of political Islam in Europe." (Malik, 148) It is under this very set of terms that we are given over to a proclivity where the Islamic identity of Bosnia is concerned. Specifically, the secular society in which this Islamic faith has achieved cultural dominance is belied by a brewing discontent in Bosnia.

A history of ethnic tension, a war still fresh in the memories of all inhabitants, and the new infusion of religious exploration produced by the withdrawal of communist authority are having the effect of diversifying and…… [Read More]

Works Cited:

Bougeral, X. (?). Bosnian Islam as 'European Islam.' Islam in Europe.

Cesari, J. (2006). When Islam and Democracy Meet: Muslims in Europe and in the United States. Palgrave.

Malik, J. (2004). Muslims in Europe from the Margin to the Centre. Transaction Publishers.

Yavuz, M.H. (2004). Is There a Turkish Islam? There Emergence of Convergence and
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Lebanese Politics

Words: 1687 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 82482530

Lebanon's politics today, and how Lebanese politics has evolved over time to become what it is today. Lebanese politics is extremely complicated, and revolves around several different political parties that essentially are formed around religious beliefs. One common element of Lebanese politics is violence, from civil war to Syrian occupation over Lebanon's history. Today, Lebanese politics is complex and volatile, a combination that is not healthy for the country or her people.

Modern Lebanon came to be in 1920, when the League of Nation mandated France to create Lebanon and Syria. Lebanon is made up of what used to be the province of Mount Lebanon, along with the provinces of north Lebanon, south Lebanon, and the Biqa, which was historically part of Syria. This set the stage for ongoing conflict between Lebanon and Syria. By 1926, the State of Lebanon had formed, and they had enacted a Constitution. In 1940,…… [Read More]

References

Arsan, Andrew. "Lebanon's Shi'as: A Long March out of the Shadows While Hezbollah Again Hit the Headlines during the Summer, Its Historical Roots Are Less Familiar." History Today Dec. 2006: 12+.

Editors. Lebanon Election Guide. Middle East and North Africa Election Guide. 2009. 11 Aug. 2009.

.

Editors. "Timeline: Lebanon." BBC.co.uk. 2009. 11 August 2009.
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FISA Improving Counterterrorism Through Modernization

Words: 4187 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 85446657

FISA's recent rise to fame has been due to attempts by the Bush Administration to apply the law as justification for warrant-less wiretaps of U.S. citizens in apparent disregard of their Fourth Amendment protections. This issue will be examined in more detail below, however, it is important to first discuss some of the key court cases that help establish the Constitutionality of FISA. Specifically, this report will address three cases that directly feed into the Constitutional requirements of FISA: Olmstead v. U.S. (1928), Katz v. U.S. (1967), and U.S. v. U.S. (1972).

Olmstead v. U.S. (1928)

For the civil libertarian, the case of Olmstead v. U.S. (1928) is a nightmare violation of constitutionally guaranteed Fourth and Fifth Amendment rights. In the case, oy Olmstead was convicted of bootlegging during the Prohibition years of U.S. history. Without obtaining any kind of judicial approval, federal agents placed wiretaps in the building Olmstead…… [Read More]

References

Fein, B. (2007, March). Presidential authority to gather foreign intelligence. Presidential Studies Quarterly, 37(1), pp. 23-36.

Katz v. United States. (1967). FindLaw for Legal Professionals. Retrieved March 25, 2008, at http://laws.findlaw.com/us/389/347.html

Malooly, D.J. (1998, Winter). Physical searches under FISA: a constitutional analysis. American Criminal Law Review, 35(2), pp. 411-424.

Olmstead v. United States (1928). The Oyez Project. Retrieved March 25, 2008, at http://www.oyez.org/cases/1901-1939/1927/1927_493/
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Israel Unlike the Historical State

Words: 958 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 47732073

Egypt took control of the Gaza Strip and Jordan took control of Israel's West Bank. In 1949 the Green Line was the name of the boundary between Israel and its Arab neighbors. However, the end of the war did not bring peace. he 1950s were marked by a series of skirmishes between Israel and various Arab countries, but none of these skirmishes resulted in significant boundary differences.

he next significant war occurred in 1967, when Egypt, Jordan, and Syria expelled UN peacekeepers and blocked Israel's access to the Red Sea. Israel struck out against these countries, in the Six-Day War. his was had a dramatic impact on Israel's borders, because Israel captured the West Bank, the Gaza Strip, the Sinai Peninsula, and Golan Heights from its neighboring Arab Countries. By the 1970s, Palestinians were engaging in violent anti-Israel protests, such as murdering Israeli athletes at the 1972 Summer Olympics. However,…… [Read More]

The next significant war occurred in 1967, when Egypt, Jordan, and Syria expelled UN peacekeepers and blocked Israel's access to the Red Sea. Israel struck out against these countries, in the Six-Day War. This was had a dramatic impact on Israel's borders, because Israel captured the West Bank, the Gaza Strip, the Sinai Peninsula, and Golan Heights from its neighboring Arab Countries. By the 1970s, Palestinians were engaging in violent anti-Israel protests, such as murdering Israeli athletes at the 1972 Summer Olympics. However, the next official act of war began on October 6, 1973, when Egypt and Syria attacked Israel. This attack exacerbated the existing religious tensions, because it was launched on the high holy day of Judaism, Yom Kippur. Israel managed to repel the Egyptian and Syrian forces, but suffered territorial losses. In the late 1970s, Israel withdrew from the Sinai Peninsula and began negotiating its withdrawal from occupied Palestine. The withdrawal never occurred, and in 1982 Israel because involved in the Lebanese Civil War so that it could destroy Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO) bases, which had been used to attack Israel. Israel's involvement transformed the Lebanese Civil War into the First Lebanon War. Israel withdrew from most of Lebanon. In 1987, Palestinians again protested the Israeli occupation, with six years of violence in occupied territories that is now referred to as the First Intifada.

The 1990s brought hopes of peace to Israel. First, in 1993, Israel and the PLO signed the Oslo Accords, giving Palestinians a limited right to self-government and formal recognition of the state of Israel. Israel later withdrew from Hebron, and gave even more autonomy to the Palestinian National Authority. In the early 2000s, Israel withdrew forces from southern Lebanon, unilaterally withdrew from the Gaza Strip, and began constructing the Israeli West Bank barrier. However, peace was short-lived. When two Arab groups, Hamas and Hezbollah, kidnapped Israeli soldiers, Israeli launched the Second Lebanon War, which lasted five weeks.

Israel currently is bordered by Lebanon, Syria, Jordan, and Egypt. Israel continues to control the West-Bank, though its government is ostensibly Palestinian. Israel continues to occupy some Arab territories, including the Gaza Strip, the West Bank, East Jerusalem, and Golan Heights. Golan Heights and East Jerusalem are treated as a future part of Israel, while the Arab territories, the West Bank and the Gaza Strip, are part of the proposed future independent state of Palestine. The United Nations is currently attempting to work with Israel and the Arab nations to negotiate an Independent Palestine.
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U S Iran Relations and Iran

Words: 1606 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 8869033

In addition, he said there could be protocolsfor intrusive monitoring" (Isaacson 2007).

Conclusions

In the scenario of international pressure coupled with domestic forces that do not favor UN sanctions and economic hardships, some believe that Iran would agree to a plicy that only supports uranium enrichment for civilian energy production. The trouble on the other hand is U.S. stance that doubts that Iran would stick to a civilan program and would not use it for its weapons program. The Iran's stance from its weapons program to civilan prgram could be considered a compromise but how far is U.S. willing to go to accept Iran's situation remains to be seen. U.S. is already entagled in Iraq and pursuing a war in Iran does not seem to be a viable option. Mid term results in U.S. have also caused a blow in the Bush administration's position. The threats of sanctions and diplomatic…… [Read More]

References

Isaacson, W. March 2007. An offer on the Table.Time. 169(11):31

Macleod, S. March 2007. Iran's War Within. Time. 169(11):28

Hirsh, M. & Bihari, M. February 2007. Rumors of War. Newsweek.

Adas, J. April 2002. Revisiting U.S.-Iran Relations. Washington Report on Middle East Affairs. 21(3): 90
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Roots of Terrorism in the

Words: 4050 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 27156827

Middle East countries, and also former colonies around the world, struggled to find their freedom and independence from any imperial forces. Therefore, being once again in charge of their own natural resources became "paramount to the extent that dictators and human rights abusers were supported"(Shah, 2000). People were sensitive to radical messages and a violent, anti-foreigners speech. Dictators and terrorist groups speculated that "weak spot" and provided the right set of words. Concentrating their message on the fight for liberation and independence from the "invasive" West, cleverly giving it a religious and profound spiritual meaning, fundamentalist rulers became popular and managed to take control over countries like Iraq, Iran or Syria, sponsoring the planning and performing of terrorist acts against symbols of Western civilization. Terrorism cannot do without the help of dictatorial regimes in the region, or without the tacit approval of the people, explained by the common religious beliefs…… [Read More]

References

Global Connections -- the Middle East. (2002). Retrieved February 12, 2007, from PBS Web site:  http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/globalconnections/mideast/questions/resource/index.html 

Levitt, M., a. (2002). The Political Economy of Middle East Terrorism. MERIA Journal, 6(4). Retrieved February 11, 2007, from MERIA Web site: http://meria.idc.ac.il/journal/2002/issue4/jv6n4a3.html

Middle East. (1993-2006). Retrieved February 10, 2007, from Microsoft Encarta Encyclopedia Web site: http://encarta.msn.com/encyclopedia_761579298/Middle_East.html

Shah, a. (2000). The Middle East. Retrieved February 10, 2007, from Global Issues Web site: http://www.globalissues.org/Geopolitics/MiddleEast.asp
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Terrorism Encyclopedias and Dictionaries Define

Words: 4573 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 21286311

At times terrorist succeed and at times they fail. Some times they have larger and long-term goal and some times they have short-term aims. For example, a group hijacking a plane wanted some immediate results like release of the prisoners or financial gain but blowing a plane into a building would definitely mean that terrorists wanted something big out of it. Sometimes terrorists want to just cause panic and fear. They attack to make people realize that they are vulnerable. They just want people to become fearful & terrified to go about their usual and routine activities.

War on Terror

War on Terror' is the phrase that has been used and abused since Americans were attacked on their soil on September 11 in New York's Twin Towers. Today America's foreign policy is defined by the term 'War on Terror'. The attack on twin towers made America vulnerable and they had…… [Read More]

References

The Washington Times. 2006. Defining Terrorism at the U.N. March 23.

The Washington Times. 2005. Defining Terrorism; Conferences Produce Meager Results. December 2,

Palti, L. December 2004. Combating Terrorism While Protecting Human Rights. UN Chronicle. 41 (4): 27+.

Leader, S. April 1997. The Rise of Terrorism. Security Management. 41(4).
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Terrorist Organizations and Its Threat

Words: 2902 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 60360951

Osama announced that they have gathered based on the will of God Almighty. Nothing that the countries like America does can stop them from what Al-Qaeda does under the will of Allah (Gunaratna 2003). The countries can do nothing to be safe from the fury of the Muslims. Osama has added that the war was begun by America and now the consequences will be faced by America by losing the war with the permission of Allah. Implementation of divine will seems to be the main rationale of Al-Qaeda. Clearing the west of anti-Islamic ideologies is the main rationale of Jeemah Islamiyah based on which they believe in use of all kinds of terrorist activities to 'correct' the nations.

3.1.4. ecruitment

The recruitment policies of the group are based on the social, cultural and historical context of the new 'terrorist'. A young man who abandons his home has to be recruited…… [Read More]

References

Akbarzadeh, S and Yasmeen, S 2005, Islam and the West: reflections from Australia, UNSW Press, New South Wales.

Bobrow, BD 2004,'Losing to Terrorism: An American Work in Progress', Metaphilosophy, vol. 35, no 3, p. 362-3.

Caldicott, DGE and Edwards, NA 2003 'Medical preparation for terrorism in Australia. Is luck running out for "The Lucky Country"?', Prehosp Disast Med vol. 18, pp. 57 -- 65.

Gunaratna, R 2003 'The Post-Madrid Face of Al Qaeda', The Washington Quarterly, vol. 27, no. 3, pp. 91 -- 100.
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Homeland Security and Information Technology Security and

Words: 2061 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 58722985

Homeland Security and Information Technology

Security and Technology

iometrics

Cyberterrorism

Geospatial Information System

The 9/11 bombing of the World Trade Center raised the awareness of the American public relative to the need for increased national security. The agency that is in the forefront of providing this security is the Department of Homeland Security. This agency is responsible for a broad range of security issues and, as a result, is confronted with a wide range of technological needs. The agency is forced to confront individuals and organizations who have availability to the latest technological innovations available on the market and the Department of Homeland Security must not only be prepared to confront the latest technology it must also anticipate future innovations.

Security and Technology

In today's world dominated by technology possessing information is even more important than it once was. The old adage is that information is power and the adage…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Federal Bureau of Investigation. (n.d.). Cybercrime. Retrieved March 3, 2011, from The FBI: http://www.fbi.gov/about-us/investigate/cyber/cyber

Goodchild, M.F. (2010). Twenty years of progress: GI Science in 2010. Journal of Spatial Information Science, 3-20.

John D. Woodward, N.M. (2002). Biometrics: Identity Assurance in the Information Age. Columbus, OH: McGraw-Hill Osborne Media.

Jussi, P. (2007). Digital Contagions: A Media Archaeology of Computer Viruses. New York: Peter Lang.
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Bradley Curtis A And Jack L Goldsmith

Words: 1412 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 26852785

Badley, Cutis A. And Jack L. Goldsmith "Congessional Authoization and the Wa on Teoism," Havad Law Review 118.2047 (2004): 2047-2133.

This aticle eviews the legal popiety of the United States actions in Ian and Afghanistan in esponse to the actions of the teoists. It aises concens whethe the Ameican actions wee appopiate and whethe actions against teoist who ae unaffiliated with any national authoity ae legally appopiate. The authos also conside to what extent the U.S. govenment has authoity to detain and ty teoists. Afte setting the stage on these issues, howeve, the aticle goes on to justify the actions of the Bush administation and defend the ight of the executive banch to asset the authoity of the U.S. militay without congessional authoity when the cicumstances demand it. Futhe, the authos defend the ight of the United States to pusue teoists in attempt to defend the nation's integity and safety.…… [Read More]

references. The studies' sample size was 973 individuals, both male and female, between the ages of 13 to 88. The results of the study were that fear and angry associated with terrorism altered the beliefs and attitudes in regard to matters involving national interest. Those tested who exhibited more anger also eventually felt more optimistic about the future while those who experienced more fear triggered greater pessimism. The study also found that these affects remained consistent without regard to whether the risk was originated by terror activities or non-terror activities.

Li, Quan and Drew Schaub "Economic Globalization and Transnational Terrorism: A Pooled

Time-Series Analysis." The Journal of Conflict Resolution. 48.2 (2004): 230-258.

Research regarding the effects of terrorism has increased substantially since the events of 9/11 and the purpose of the research underlying this paper was to measure the effects of how terrorism works and how governments work to avoid being negatively affected by the effects of terrorism. The author's primary efforts were to review the applicable literature on the issue of terrorism's effect on the affected society. The literature that the author depended upon was limited entirely to that which was published in the last ten years. The article was generalized in nature and was intended to promote further research in the area of terrorism and its effect on society.

Mallaby, Sebastian "The Reluctant Imperialist: Terrorism, Failed States, and the Case for American Empire," Foreign Affairs 81.2 (2002): 2-7.
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U S Foreign Policy -- Middle

Words: 1158 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 86202465

S.; b) assess correctly the readiness of America's partners to back up the sanctions; and c) engender the support of minor trading partners ("black knights") to increase their willingness to trade with Iran as the big players leave in obedience to the U.S. led sanctions (Kozhanov, 145).

The Russian writer uses some of the space in his article to review the history of U.S. sanctions against Iran, and mentions a brief thaw in the bitterness between the two countries. That came in 1998, when a team of American wrestlers visited Tehran and were welcomed with flowers. In that moment of detente, the U.S. lifted the ban on exported medical and agricultural goods to Iran, and allowed imports (dried fruits, caviar, and carpets) from Iran into the U.S. But along came the new Iranian president, hard-liner Mahmoud Ahmadinejad, who took up the slogan "Death to Israel and the U.S.A." And made…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Economist. (2011). The Wretched Middle East. 401(8763), 1-3. Retrieved January 23, 2012,

From EbscoHost.com.

Kozhanov, Nikolay a. (2011). U.S. Economic Sanctions Against Iran: Undermined by External

Factors. Middle East Policy, XVIII (3), 144-158.
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Invisible Cities All Over the World Like

Words: 2215 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 30735065

invisible cities all over the world like Ahwaz in south of Iran, that suffer through horrible tragedies and the world won't pay attention to. They are the real life invisible cities. Through literature one is able to empathize to people and situations that otherwise would never be seen or known. Calvino's Invisible City explores the imaginative world of Kublai Khan and Marco Polo.

The book discusses the descriptions of cities by an explorer, Marco Polo. The book is put together as a conversation between the aging and busy emperor Kublai Khan, a busy man with many emperors who talk to him about the state of his expanding and vast empire, and Polo, the boundless explorer. The largest percentage of the book is of short prose poems describing 55 cities, narrated by the explorer Marco Polo.

Every five to ten cities, there are small dialogues that act as transitions between the…… [Read More]

References

Invisible cities cyclopedia of literary characters, revised third edition. (2012) . Retrieved from http://www.enotes.com/invisible-cities-salem/invisible-cities

Calvino, I. (1974). Invisible cities. New York: Harcourt.

(2009). Refugee review tribunal australia. DOI: www.mrt-rrt.gov.au/ArticleDocuments/89/irn35261.pdf.aspx
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Water in the Middle East

Words: 22307 Length: 75 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 58217118

While on one hand, the Nile gets the highest discharge from rainfall on the highlands of Ethiopia and upland plateau of East Africa, located well outside the Middle East region; on the other hand, discharge points of the other two rivers, Euphrates and Tigris, are positioned well within the Middle East region, prevailing mostly in Turkey, Syria along with Iraq. In other areas, recurrent river systems are restricted to the more northern upland areas of Iran and Turkey, in common with the coastline of Levant (Peter eaumont, Gerald H. lake, J. And Malcolm Wagstaff, 1988).

The conflict in the Future

It is widely believed by many experts that those who control the waters in the Middle East; control the Middle East; and those who control the Middle East; control the oil supply of the world (David M. Hummel, 1995). From the above mentioned facts it is clear that the water…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Anthony H. Cordesman. Peace is Not Enough: The Arab-Israeli Economic and Demographic Crises. Part Two. Population Growth, Fertility and Population Doubling Rates, Regional Trends, National Trends, and the "Youth Explosion" Center for Strategic and International Studies, 1998.

Adel Darwish. Troubled waters in rivers of blood. Water Issues. 3 December 1992. http://www.mideastnews.com/water004.html

Adel Darwish. Inadequacy of international law. Taken at http://www.mideastnews.com/WaterWars.htm

Ashok Swain. A new challenge: water scarcity in the Arab world. Arab Studies Quarterly (ASQ). January, 1998.
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Terrorism Has a Long and Violent History

Words: 3383 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 12639816

Terrorism has a long and violent history and incidents of terrorism have been recorded from at least 2,000 years ago. Acts of terrorism have included political assassinations, violent political revolutions, hijackings, skyjackings, and bombings intended to attract attention, shock, intimidate and instill fear. Before the 911 terror attacks the threat of terrorism, though always a potential danger, was of an episodic nature, and seemed to be under control. The devastating attacks on the orld Trade Center and the Pentagon on September 11, 2001, however, have brought terrorism to the center stage of world politics and exposed the vulnerability of soft civilian targets to a small but determined group of terrorists. The issue of terrorism and home security now dominates the foreign policy of most countries including the United States. The focus on terrorism has also forced people to think deeply about its root causes, which may have historical, cultural, political,…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Ali, Abdullah Yusuf. "The Holy Qur'an." Translation in English. Wordsworth Classic of World Literature. UK: Wordsworth Edition Limited: 2000

Chomsky, Noam. "Who are the Global Terrorists?" Z-Net. May 19, 2002. April 22, 2005. http://www.zmag.org/content/ForeignPolicy/chomskyglobeterr.cfm

Cohn, Marjorie. "Understanding, Responding to and Preventing Terrorism." Arab Studies Quarterly (ASQ) (2002): 25+.

Hoffman, Bruce. "Terrorism." Article in Encyclopedia Encarta. 2005. April 22, 2005. http://encarta.msn.com/encyclopedia_761564344/Terrorism.html
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Inter-Parliamentary Union and Its Role

Words: 16130 Length: 59 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 43330627

8).

Likewise, the Institute of Agriculture required a quorum of two-thirds of its members for voting purposes and for the balancing of votes according to the size of the budgetary contributions (owett, 1970). While this analysis of these early forms of public international unions is not complete, it does suggest that they were beginning to identify the wide range of interests involved in modern international commerce and what was required to mediate disputes rather than war over them. According to owett (1970), despite the growing body of research into the history and purpose of international public unions, the authorities have not reached a consensus on their classification; however, the constitutional developments and innovations made by the public unions are important considerations for policymakers today because they presaged those made by contemporary inter-governmental organizations (owett, 1970).

In the first instance, the trend towards permanence of association was distinct, no matter whether…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Armstrong, D., L. Lloyd and J. Redmond. 2005. International Organization in World Politics, 3rd ed. New York: Palgrave-Macmillan.

Avruch, Kevin, Peter W. Black and Joseph A. Scimecca. Conflict Resolution: Cross-Cultural Perspectives. Westport, CT: Praeger.

Bar-Siman-Tov, Yaacov. 2004. From Conflict Resolution to Reconciliation. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Bell, Lynda S., Andrew J. Nathan and Ilan Peleg. 2001. Negotiating Culture and Human Rights. New York: Columbia University Press.
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Disrupting Terror Group Finances to

Words: 2847 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 20790868

Financial and law enforcers, military and reporting of intelligence are carried out by respective agencies drawn on limited coordination efforts (Whitmore, 2002). While agencies can pull and push intelligence data, these structures lack a centralized system for collecting intelligence. This limits the ability to conduct a meta-analysis of data across inter-agencies systems. Lack of proper coordination efforts reduces the usefulness of financial intelligence thus making it difficult to link the financial intelligence with other useful information. Critics claim that financial evidence is useful in supporting a case; it does not lead to prevention of terrorism attacks (Linden, 2007).

However, a centralized system of coordination may be an effective way of exploring financial data through linking it with other useful information. This can be made useful if the agencies improve their overall understanding of the financial networks of terrorists. The new homeland security departments are signals that there are efforts for…… [Read More]

References

Amos, M. & Petraeus, D. (2009). The U.S. Army Marine Corps Counterinsurgency Field

Manual. New York: Signalman Publishing

Center for Excellence Defense against Terrorism (2008). Responses to Cyber Terrorism.

California: IOS Press
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Political and Economic Prospects for

Words: 2558 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 49816111

Thus, weak institutions, frequent military takeovers, and corruption in government ranks, both civilian and military has resulted in present state of affairs of Pakistan. Syria: Syria's history has been one that was dominated by family rule, foreign interventions, and inability to successfully run the affairs of the country by the ruling elite. The Assad family has held the power in Syrian since last four decades and this has caused significant deterioration in institutional and other forms of governance (Zisser 2003, 15-19).With independence from the French forces in 1946, Syria remained internally polarized and externally vulnerable to the tensions of Middle East. Her confrontation with Israel and support for Hezbollah has considerable historical background. Thus, the issues today being faced by Syria are a continuation of its acts of historical omissions and commission by ruling elites.

Influence of leadership: Influence of leadership on both Syria and Pakistan has been largely negative…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Berger, Mark T. 2004. "After the Third World? History, destiny and the fate of Third Worldism." Third World Quarterly 25: 9-39. Accessed July 11, 2013. doi: 10.1080/0143659042000185318

Judah, Ben. Assessing stability in Syria. International Relations and Security Network ISN. Aug, 2008. Retrieved from: [http://www.isn.ethz.ch/DigitalLibrary/Articles/Detail/?lng=en&id=88666]

Nasrallah, Jana. 2011. "The impact of external intervention on power sharing agreements. (c2011)." Masters Diss., Lebanese American University. Accessed July 11. [https://ecommons.lau.edu.lb:8443/xmlui/bitstream/handle/10725/337/Jana_Nasrallah_Thesis.pdf?sequence=1]

Rosenlund, Stephen. 2013. "A Bright Light on Syria's Horizons." Center for International Private Enterprise. CIPE Development Blog, March 4. [ http://www.cipe.org/blog/2013/03/04/a-bright-light-on-syrias-horizons/#.Ud5fcztHK_p ]
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Geopolitical Analysis of China From

Words: 3969 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 85714287

America's engagement with China, with historic ice-breaking between the two countries carried out by Henry Kissinger, has been complicated. I would suggest that it were the U.S. domestic preoccupations and compulsions that did not allow me to take any bold stance on the issue of Dalai Lama. I disagree with notion that U.S. betrayed the cause of human rights while not choosing to visit Dalai Lama.

It must not be forgotten that unlike ussia, China's geography allows her to exert much more influence than the former. In the words of Kaplan (2010), China is both a land and a sea power. Thus, my foreign policy towards China has been reflective of this potential next power of the world. The U.S. has benefited from the Chinese market significantly in the wake of financial crisis. The author failed to acknowledge the huge compulsions that China faces in meeting its energy and other…… [Read More]

References

Barber, BR 1992 "Jihad vs. McWorld," the Atlantic Monthly 269, no. 3 (March 1992): 53 -- 65.

Cohen, MA, 2011, 'Think Again: The Two State Solution', Foreign Policy, Viewed on 18 June 2013, [http://www.foreignpolicy.com/articles/2011/09/14/think_again_the_two_state_solution]

Gettleman, J 2010, 'Africa's Forever Wars,' Foreign Policy, 22 Feb 2010.

Gilboy, GJ and Read, BL 2008, 'Political and Social Reform in China,' Washington Quarterly, summer 2008, pg 143-164.
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Shift of Terrorism to the International Level

Words: 1693 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 40654289

shift of terrorism to the international level. It defines terrorism, the reasons it is carried out, and the parties involved in terrorist acts. It also discusses the reasons due to which, certain states are covertly sponsoring terrorism to fight against their rival states without starting a conventional full scale war, and saving huge costs. It highlights how the military actions involved in the global war against terrorism are fuelling the terrorist movements and strengthening their numbers.

War and Terrorism

War can be defined as an armed conflict between two states, where both the states' main focus is to impose their own will on the rival state. During the last two centuries, the conventional ways of fighting a war have changed immensely due to technological advancements, but the reasons to initiate and fight a war remains the same. A war is fought in order to occupy and control a piece of…… [Read More]

References

Hudson, R.A. (1999) The Sociology and Psychology of Terrorism: Who Become a Terrorist And Why?. The Library of Congress. Retrieved on February 2nd, 2013 from  http://www.loc.gov/rr/frd/pdf-files/Soc_Psych_of_Terrorism.pdf 

Payne, J.L. (2008). What Do the Terrorists Want?. The Independent Review, 13. Retrieved from  http://www.independent.org/pdf/tir/tir_13_01_2_payne.pdf 

Morgan, M.J. (2004) The Origins of the New Terrorism. Parameters. Retrieved on February 2nd, 2013 from http://www.carlisle.army.mil/usawc/parameters/Articles/04spring/morgan.pdf
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Persecution of Early Christians Under the Roman

Words: 6839 Length: 20 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 3738537

persecution of early Christians under the oman Empire is a matter of great interest and intrigue to many, even today; as is the matter of distinction and distrust between early Jews and Christians. Furthermore, the ironically similar behavior of orthodox Christians towards heretics rouses the curiosity of many scholars. This paper will discuss the effect of Christianity on omans and their perceptions towards Christians, Christian perceptions and treatment of Jews. The relationship between orthodox Christians and heretics will also be discussed.

ome before Christianity

The empire of ome, at the time of Christ's birth, was one of the two greatest kingdoms and was steadily continuing to flourish and expand, even then. Soon, it covered most of what we now know as Western Europe. The conquered land began from Spain in the west and ended in Syria in the east, while the great countries of England, France and Greece, and the…… [Read More]

References

Badnewsaboutchristianity.com (n.d.). Christian Persecution of Heretics - Bad News About Christianity. [online] Retrieved from:  http://www.badnewsaboutchristianity.com/gbc_heretics.htm#_edn4  [Accessed: 10 Dec 2012].

Bainton, R.H. (1960). Early Christianity. Princeton, N.J: Van Nostrand.

Fitzgerald, T. (1998). The Orthodox Church. Westport, CT: Praeger Publisher.

Hackl, . (2012). Israel Considers Drafting Its Arab Citizens . Christian Science Monitor, August 1.