Tesco UK and WAL-MART U S  'Literature Review' chapter

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The leadership is also defined in terms of its capacity to influence employees in achievement of organizational goals. The leader member theory efficiently defines the role of leaders and mechanism through which they influence employee's behaviors. The leaders are capable of forming a high quality exchange of social components based on the trust and likings with some employees result into a high performance. Similarly on the contrary the leaders also exchange a low quality of economic factors result into a low performance. It is noted that the leader member exchange theory highlights the effect of high and low exchanges in terms of influence on employee work ethics, productivity, satisfaction, and perceptions. Numerous studies confirm that the employees that are placed in supportive relations with their leadership tend to perform higher than then the compared members of organization (Bai 2011; Cameron 2012; Yee, Lee, Yeung & Cheng2013). The high quality leader member exchange effects employee performance, job satisfaction, and organizational commitment. It is a relationship-based perspective of leadership in order to perform their roles. The intensions of the opinion seekers in order to gain a positive quality of leader member exchange are attributed towards seeking a reflection on their work in order to improve performance. However at the same time it is also noted that opinion is also sought to understand the personal attitude of the leaders by employees (Lussier&Achua2009).

The goal achievement is facilitated through effective usage of powers to influence employees and motivating in deployment of increased efforts. The leadership within an organization uses several combinations of powers in order to influence and motivate employees. The employee performance is also based on the position and a mix of amount and kind of power exerted through the organizational settings. The individuals and higher management reflects on the behaviors and as a result they exert influence on other to respond in different ways. The higher management and individuals within businesses adopt various leadership styles in order to motivate and influence employees. The leadership styles are also regarded as the consistent behaviors and habits in which they influence others (Gitman, & McDaniel 2008).

The style of leadership followed through the organizational structure is also reflective of the mission, values, and culture of the business. The corporate culture is also developed over several years and most of the times it is due to the style followed by the top management (Weber&Tarba2012). According to Agrawal and Hockerts (2013) the reflection of business culture and policies can be observed throughout the history and vision of its founders. It is mostly the case in entrepreneurships and small to medium sized business settings. The corporate culture is associated with the practices followed by the business in large organizations including multinational organizations. It is conformed through the study of multinational organizations working in Russia (Koveshnikov, Barner-Rasmussen, Ehrnrooth&Makela (2012).The conceptual, human relations and technical skills are required for various grades of management positions. The skill set of management also changes as per the requirements from front line, middle, and top level management. The organizations deploy various methods for skills improvement including appraisals, trainings, and courses for professional development. These techniques are deployed in order to increase business performance and promote professionalism in employees (Gitman et al. 2008).


The theoretic perspectives are based on various concepts and the concepts are regarded as indispensable in terms of theory and practice. The research in theory of communications is required to be tested in accordance with its applicability. The historical research is denoted as the information that is related to the past individuals, events, documents, and scholarly work. The messages presented in the past are interpreted in accordance with today's perspective. The applicability of historical research is relevant to compare current and previous theoretic perspectives. The survey research is aligned with the requirements of collecting data from people and a group of individuals based on the ability, opinions, and attitudes. Questionnaire and survey forms are developed to undertake the qualitative and quantitative information. The researchers present different meanings to communications. The communication definitions are divided into two foundations including the technical view of communications and a meanings centered view (Anderson 2010). The concept misses an important point of reference as the message also has a perspective to be perceived as a meaningful interpretation. The dependability of the message in terms of its interpretation is related to the human phenomenon. The meaning centered theories are mainly based on the concept of the ideas that are relevant in terms of motivation for human beings to communicate the meanings associated with each message and the treatment of the communications functions during the process (Baran&Davis2011).

The technical requirements of communications as means for delivering a message across various individuals are also a notable factor. The dependency of the audience evaluation is also required. The applicability of the communications theory in terms of its reliability and validity should be tested before implementation (Daft 2008). The usage of technology and changing means of communications has played a significant role in business world. According to Mao and Hale (2011)organizations and employees use various means across the corporation's structure to communicate a message. The composition of the message and conversation is based on various related factors including the intellectual level of targeted audience and interpretation of the message. The organizations recognize the important nature of the message and communications. Hence the importance of message, selection of communication message, and composition of message is given its required importance.

The scholarly agreement on corporate communications as a collection of communication paradigms reflects that it is one of the essential elements of organizational structure. Communications has a primary role in defining corporate image and engaging employees for increasing business performance (Hawabhay, Abratt & Peters 2009; Keyton 2010; Welch 2011).The significant role played by communication as an underlying factor for successful marketing, organizational, and management of a business. The internal and external elements also exert their influence on effective communications. There are also a variable number of channels used to communicate effectively. The formal and informal communications also have various perspectives. The applicability of the communication in terms of its relevance is determined based on the importance of the message. The strategic conversations in leading the organizations play an important role in defining the boundaries of decision making. The effective communication within and outside the organizations creates a significant role for image and perception (Dolphin & Reed 2012).

The importance of message within the communications cannot be underestimated in terms of its relevance with the context and target audience. It is essential for the decision makers to reflect upon the composition and significance of communication message. The key factors playing a role in successful communication are dependent on a selection of messages, channel for communication, and timing of delivery. The formal communications within the company are followed through e-mail, fax, and written, however, at the same time the organizations also follow a verbal mechanism for communicating within the business settings (Wei, Gong&Zhu2012). The verbal communication is also according to the organizational structure and environment. Powell (2011) defines that the nature of the message is also dependent on the form of communication and message. The formal means of communicating with employees are influenced through implementation of protocols and standard operating procedures. The message for outside stakeholders including customers is also delivered using the most efficient channels. It is also applicable for normal communications, perception building, and most importantly the marketing messages. The communications models are based on various theoretic structures. The planning of scientific research and knowledge of communications theory provides a perspective that is relevant for a certain periods of time. It is also argued that various communication theories are relevant for today's perspective while in coming days it can be changed. It is also dependent on the nature of means used and innovated throughout the communication structure. The communication is denoted as a multifaceted and multidimensional subject. It also contains various perspectives and paradigms.


Agrawal, a & Hockerts, K2013, Institutional Theory as a Framework for Practitioners of Social Entrepreneurship, in Social Innovation (pp. 119-129), Springer Berlin Heidelberg.

Anderson, PV 2010, Technical communication: A reader-centered approach, Wadsworth Publishing Company, USA.

Bai, Y2011, August, How could leader inspire front-line employee's trust and service performance in service team: Evidence from China. In Management and Service Science (MASS), 2011 International Conference on (pp. 1-4), IEEE.

Baran, SJ & Davis, DK 2011, Mass communication theory: Foundations, ferment, and future, Wadsworth Publishing Company, USA.

Cameron, K2012, Positive leadership: Strategies for extraordinary performance. Berrett-Koehler, USA.

Daft, RL 2008, the leadership experience, South-Western Pub, USA.

Dolphin, R & Reed, D 2012, Fundamentals of Corporate Communications, Rutledge, USA.

Gitman, LJ & McDaniel, CD 2008, the future of business: The essentials, South-Western Pub, USA.

Hawabhay, BB, Abratt, R & Peters, M 2009, the role of corporate communications in developing a corporate brand image and reputation in Mauritius, Corporate reputation review, Vol. 12, No. 1, pp. 3-20.

Hayes, B, Bonner, a…

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