Even an individual that is very good at managing his or her time will occasionally experience stress and anxiety in college simply because the workload is so heavy (Lahmers, 2000). However, older students that return to college often have less stress in their lives when it comes to their education and this is largely thought to be because they have better skills at managing their time (Lahmers, 2000).
When they manage time effectively they are not rushed to complete tasks and therefore they do not have the stress that the younger college students often face when working to meet a deadline. It is important for counselors and faculty members to help emphasize to students when they first start out on their college careers that managing their time is one of the most important things that they can do (Lahmers, 2000). This means that these students must not only make time to go to classes and study for exams, but they must also make time for research projects, hobbies and leisure activities, meals, and sleep (Lahmers, 2000).
This does not mean that students can expect to get a full eight hours of sleep each night or expect to eat three leisurely meals per day every day. Sometimes this simply does not work out and students that have very heavy class loads often struggle to fit everything in (Lahmers, 2000). Offering courses for college credit that deal with time management can help to enhance the lives of many of these students and this is something that colleges may want to consider. This would allow these students to be able to attend these types of classes just as they would a regular class and therefore they would not feel that they were taking still more time out of their already busy and crowded schedules to attend a seminar or some type of lectures that deals with managing their time effectively (Lahmers, 2000).
While time management and academic stress are not the only issues that college students face they are by far the most serious and time management relates to so many different things that it has many smaller sub-issues in it that all relate to stress and can provide many different stressors for the college student that is not wary of these issues and careful in what he or she does when it comes to balancing college and the rest of life (Lahmers, 2000).
Anxiety may sound silly to most people that do not understand the condition, but to those that suffer with it, it is a serious and often debilitating problem (Konig & Kleinmann, 2007). Quite frequently, people who have extreme cases of anxiety disorder are not even able to leave their home, even to take a walk around the block or go to the grocery store for milk (Konig & Kleinmann, 2007). Mild cases only cause nervousness or panic when in large crowds of individuals or unfamiliar surroundings. Individuals who have social anxiety disorder, also sometimes called antisocial disorder, often rely on others to go out and get the things that they need to survive such as groceries, medication, or clothing (Konig & Kleinmann, 2007).
Anxiety, however, can come from many things. One of the areas where it is being seen more commonly today is in the student population (Konig & Kleinmann, 2007). When individuals get into college, they often find that things are very different than they were in high school. Because of that, they cannot manage their time well, and when they start having problems in their classes they become anxious and even panicky about it (Konig & Kleinmann, 2007). If they are taught from the beginning to manage their time well, this will be much less of an issue.
Occupational stresses are very real in many professions and this is also true of those who 'work' as students (Konig & Kleinmann, 2007). When these students experience intense periods of stress that are more and more frequent most of these have to do with psychological, physiological, and behavioral responses (Konig & Kleinmann, 2007). That effect will continue to accumulate as these intense periods of stress continue and much of this will have influence on whether the student chooses to remain in the classroom or even in his or her chosen academic major in general (Konig & Kleinmann, 2007).
Eventually, it is possible that the level of stress will become so high that it will reach the stage of burnout (Konig & Kleinmann, 2007). The student is directly affected by stress and burnout and this can hurt others who need these students, such as family and friends, as well as the students themselves (Konig & Kleinmann, 2007). There may not be enough staff for these students who need them and services related to both education and other school ideals for students with these difficulties may be greatly reduced (Konig & Kleinmann, 2007). Because of this, the stress that these students face and the burnout that comes from it require educational reform that turns its focus not only on the students but also on the classrooms and teachers as well (Konig & Kleinmann, 2007). There are few direct indicators of student burnout but there are various indirect measures that are available (Konig & Kleinmann, 2007).
There are specific variables that students report as being very stressful (Konig & Kleinmann, 2007). Much of these have to do with student behavior but others can include a lack of materials and supplies, difficulty in meeting the instructional objectives that are put forth and the needs of various teachers, excessive amounts of unnecessary 'busywork,' salaries that are lower than they should be for the work that is done in part-time jobs, and very few opportunities available for not only growth in one's classes but professional interactions as well (Konig & Kleinmann, 2007).
In addition, they cite a loss of control based on what a student wants to do vs. what the teacher insists upon, a lack of recognition in their chosen career path, and interpersonal interactions between either the other students or students that are overly stressful (Konig & Kleinmann, 2007). As time goes on and many of these stresses are still unresolved students decide to leave the classroom because they become so stressed and anxious that they can no longer function in a way that they feel comfortable with. Managing their time correctly could work to avoid much of this (Konig & Kleinmann, 2007). Unfortunately, even with this information being documented in various studies there have not been any important fundamental changes carried out within most educational institutions to try to help students with their time management skills (Konig & Kleinmann, 2007).
It is important to review and critique existing research in order to shed light on many of the various variables that lead to anxiety, stress, and burnout of students (Marlowe, Koonce, Lee, & Cai, 2002). Various educational researchers have introduced various models that are intended to show stress and burnout as a conceptualized idea of what is going on in a particular student population (Marlowe, Koonce, Lee, & Cai, 2002). Social psychology is one of the most notable fields that has helped with these insights (Marlowe, Koonce, Lee, & Cai, 2002). Social learning theory was utilized in the general model in the late 1970s that helped understand the various processes that lead to anxiety, stress, and burnout (Marlowe, Koonce, Lee, & Cai, 2002). The school creates expectations for student and student performance but does not provide the resources that are necessary to create this, so students began to experience uncertainty in various degrees (Marlowe, Koonce, Lee, & Cai, 2002).
Because students have this uncertainty over what they are doing and how well their grades and classwork are ultimately doing they began to experience anxiety and stress that will ultimately influence not only whether the student stays in the classroom but whether the student stays with his or her particular professional goal at all (Marlowe, Koonce, Lee, & Cai, 2002). As important as these models of stress and burnout are, there have been no interventions created based on them to help to reduce the burnout that these students face and the rate at which they are leaving the classroom or suffering anxiety and stress because their time is managed ineffectively (Marlowe, Koonce, Lee, & Cai, 2002). This clearly indicates that time management and the way that it relates to anxiety and depression in college students must be reconceptualized in some way so that more about it can be understood and more can be done in order to help these individuals live fuller lives both in and out of the classroom (Marlowe, Koonce, Lee, & Cai, 2002).
There have been extensive amounts of literature that have documented many of the sources that students deal with when they face stress (Marlowe, Koonce, Lee, & Cai, 2002). Because of this, insights have been seen that indicate that there is a link between the demands that students must face in performing their collegiate duties and…