Time Management in Organizations: A Review of Literature
Time management as a process and research construct have numerous dimensions that makes it dynamic and, from the researcher's perspective, susceptible to being measured incorrectly when tested for cause-and-effect study types. In this review of related literature on time management, focus would be on how this process and construct is implemented at the organizational level. Application of time management in organizations would be a more dynamic and challenging study of interest, since the time management construct, by itself dynamic, is also integrated into a more dynamic and culturally diverse environment, which are characteristics of organizations (specifically, business organizations).
Discussions in this literature review will have the following structure, which are all relevant dimensions to exploring, describing and analyzing time management as applied in organizations: (i) usefulness of time management in organizations, (ii) causes that result to project delays resulting from ineffective time management in organizations, (iii) effects of effective/ineffective time management in organizations, and (iv) actionable plans known to have improved time management in organizations.
a. Usefulness of Time Management in Organizations
Time management is a critical element in organizations because value in money and effort, which are time-dependent, are anchored in every activities and tasks that contribute to the organization's success, profitability, and effectiveness. This usefulness from a 'macro standpoint' is essential to establish, because even though time management is considered important in organizations, it is usually taken for granted because it is integrated in the daily activities of members/employees in the organization. Taking for granted the usefulness of time management in organizations, however, could lead to complacency and stagnation of learning among its members, inevitably resulting to inefficiency and poor employee/member satisfaction.
Further into the study of time management -- that is, assuming a 'micro' perspective to this construct, Fleming and Koppelman (1998) recognized that time management acts as an "early warning signal" to management, wherein unmet deadlines of activities, projects and programs become indicators of ineffective organizational management and operations (19). Blackstone (2009) seconded this line of argument, positing that...
In his study of time management and quality of delivery in organizations, he identified the following factors that signify ineffective time management in an organization: lack of leadership, low user (member/employee) involvement, poor competencies and skills, poor stakeholder management, lack of top management support, and poor requirements definition (7030). Incidentally, in uncovering these 'signals' of ineffective time management, these also become factors or causes by which time is poorly managed in the organization. The following section thoroughly discusses these causes of ineffective time management in organizations.
b. Causes of Ineffective Time Management in Organizations
The major cause of ineffective time management in organizations is usually the inability of managers and teams to fully operationalize and 'deconstruct' their programs, projects and activities into tasks. Tasks are more actionable, time-driven, and assign a person or team responsible for its completion, which makes task assignment a responsible way of handling critical role functions and time management. Ding (2008), in his study of project management in organizations, determined that teams must be process-oriented in order to ensure that delivery of a project will be on time. For the author, a process-oriented team incites "collaborative decision-making," which in turn results to "teamwork pedagogy," and inevitably, effective time management (459-461).
Treyer even went further in his discussion of time management, identifying effective time management as a result of an action-oriented or "strategic change implementation"-oriented organization (354). What sets this concept of 'strategic change implementation from other causes of effective time management is the role that "foresight" plays in it (360). At the management level, having the ability to foresee project or program outcomes is no longer enough; what is required instead is an actionable plan that will help implement and realize the manager's foresight about the directions his/her business will take in the coming years.
Indeed, supporting Ding and Treyer's findings in their studies, Vakkayil (2010) confirmed that deconstruction results to effective time management in organizations. Managers, according to Vakkayil, must know the different levels of "contradicitions" that may occur in specific times during…
Time Management At ResCare Inc. The time consumed between the auditing processes and conducting training is substantial. This time could be used more efficiently and there are opportunities to reduce the time frame between those two processes. There are methods that can be used to manage and reduce this time which fall under the realm of time managing process. Time management is processes of planning, creating awareness, and harnessing control over
A reduction in farm subsidies is stated to be necessary in order to improve access to market along with Common Agricultural Policy reforms, which should be "de-linked from production." Finally, stated as a requirement is that of a commitment for a 20% reduction in greenhouse gas emissions, which may be achieved "through market mechanisms..." (OECD, 2007) the OECD additionally states that structural reforms are required in addressing the challenges that
c) Change support In the context of the closing of the Orlon manufacturing operations, a useful approach to the problem would be constituted by the action research. This type of research specifically implies that the individual assesses the situation, but in doing so, also seeks solutions to resolving the problem (Saunders, Lewis and Thornhill, 2009). This type of research combines the theoretical stance with the practical stance. Through its lenses then,
Managing Organizations/Hotel Management Managing Organizations The Marriot Corporation A look at Six Sigma and the 7S McKinsey Framework The Marriott Hotel Chain is a global brand offering resort and luxury hotel furnishings at popular vacation and business destinations. As the Events & Kitchen Management for global operations, my responsibility includes the overseeing of banquet operations including the process management of the cooking and serving efficiency. I receive complaints from hosts and others that contract
Time management: A proposal I once read in a biography about Benjamin Franklin that he rested for 45 minutes per day around 2.00 in order to rejuvenate his energy. A treatise on cognitive neuroscience affirmed his belief albeit in a different way and with elaboration. It opined that particular moments of the day carried specific energy levels; that the morning provided the greatest resources of energy intensity, that midday (between 1:00
And this is also a valuable lesson for my future as a marketing director, when I will have to make sure that the final outcome of my coordinated product will have a beneficial impact upon the company, but it will also be realized through reduced usage of the company's resources. Finally, the results of my work changed in the definite meaning of improvements. With reducing the procrastination and keeping the