9). It is also dubious to present the research on food and drink and other interlinked issues "as academic reflection on hospitality" (Brotherton & Wood, 2000, p.139) by scholars belonging to various disciplines such as Visser (1991) and Beardsworth & Keil (1997). In this context, it should not be forgotten that hospitality is a false identification of an industry that has existed for only twenty years and which has transitioned into almost a critically to education, research and knowledge. However at the bottom of the transfer lie the motives of power and commerce more than the academic thirst of education and information. Chefs are in a business where they are most likely to accrue social capital for the community. They must teach the community about matters such as having a healthy diet, supporting the efforts of producers of the country and conviviality therapy among others.
Hospitality is seen as "related" to drinking and eating however you are mistaken if you think the vice versa i.e. drinking and eating are seen as related to hospitality stands true.
AN OVERLOOKED STREAM OF STUDIES
The above mentioned formulation perfectly fits the area of Commercial hospitality or its specific branch which is related to food and/or drink provision. (Brillat-Savarin, 1994, p. 54) describes hospitality professionals, educators, workers and researchers among those who look for, offer or prepare things that can be converted or cooked into food - a quest which is provided direction to by the field of gastronomy and for the same reason is the commercial production of meals targeted as a primary field that is being investigated for gastronomy studies. However it is unfortunate that little or no reference to any gastronomy writers, contemporary or historical for that matter, has been made.
QUESTIONING THE HOLY TRINITY
Provision of food and/or drink and/or accommodation i.e. The hospitability business is highly questionable from the perspective of gastronomy studies. In-fact the sacredness and indissolubility of the hospitality "trinity" is questionable. Brillat-Savarin (1994, p.14) states that it is the responsibility of the host to entertain and make guests happy until he or she is living with the host. The link of hospitality and gastronomic activities such as culinary arts with the provision of accommodation is rather weak.
The concepts of provision of medical, sexual, and entertainment options for customers as an addition to the basic services as practiced in commercial hospitality are unknown of in the main areas of concern in gastronomy. In the gastronomic "act of contributing to and sharing in the collective food supply" (Lashley, 2000a, p. 4) lies the foundation of hospitality more than it is in the production and consumption of accommodation. In (Visser, 1991, p.53)'s opinion the sharing of food and not that of accommodation makes the foundation of civilized behavior that links together individuals, villages, families and tribes (Visser, 1991, p.53).
The role of cooks in gastronomy has been deliberately focused on as "sharers" (Symons, 1998) and the new hospitality would reap benefits from the same.
POWER AND CREDIBILITY ISSUES
Hospitality business has been generally treated more favorably then gastronomy. This highlights an underlying issue of power which has managed to generate favorable behavior for one and vice versa for the other. In search of a new framework, the intrinsic weakness and narrowness of hospitality of present times has been highlighted time and again and there is no denying of the fact that the commercial brand of hospitality is highly inadequate.
The imbalances in this industry can be checked with the help of gastronomy studies framework. Therefore the hospitality department of all universities must include gastronomy studies as important instructive strategies on both research and teaching levels.
Scarpato has stated that gastronomy studies are specifically committed to deal with insufficiency of modern training systems for professional staff of restaurants particularly cooks (Scarpato, 2000a, p. 184). And there is no denial of the fact that the strategy of professional training is crucial to the establishment of a new and independent academic discipline. The new hospitality should reflect the thoughtful practice which is an exceptional way defining cooking and eating activities along with research.
Scarpato has defined commercial hospitality as a social industry that is not only driven by dollar (Scarpato, 2000b). In accordance, the focus of gastronomy studies is on the integration of the hospitality industry in the large educational system of the community:
Professional chefs or designers should have a say on issues encircling environment, social improvement and ...
Chefs should be invited to schools for lectures on hygiene and other important issues. The role of mothers and grandmothers should be taken over by chef designers. In this way, a more knowledgeable customer base would be built up who would support the production of quality ingredients and this would help in educating people a lot and better. It is the same as exposing children to classical music which results in their "consumption" of the same in the later stages of their life (Scarpato, 2000b).
HOSPITALITY -- Cultural Industry
According to Barthes the meal is a cultural artifact (Barthes, 1979) and it is also one of the main constituents of gastronomy. Therefore meal productions are a primary investigation area for gastronomy studies (Scarpato, 2000a). The strong interlink between gastronomy and hospitality research and education is undeniable and the relation of hospitality and the industry which produces meals is evident in itself.
Scarpato states that gastronomy studies see the production of meals, and consequently hospitality, as a cultural industry (Scarpato, 2000a). Little attention has however been paid to the cultural perspective of commercial hospitality however it has been known for a long time that the two are interlinked. Miller acknowledged that operating a restaurant indeed has "cultural value" (Miller, 1978). Fine (1996) has indicated that a restaurant industry allows organizations to be managed for their cultural rewards. He further added that the restaurant is very similar to any business or any organization where labor works to produce food. Restaurants should be recognized, by the new hospitality, as providers of cultural artifacts which share the characteristics of other cultural industries (Scarpato & Daniele, 2000), such as the publishing industry (Coser Kaduhin, & Powell, 1982).
Gastronomy and Hospitality studies have a lot more in common than the struggle to becoming independent fields of academics. Both are closely interlinked to one another. Hospitality has a strong and close link with the eating and drinking activities. Where on one hand Gastronomy studies can serve to become a basis of support for the Hospitality studies in terms of cultural, historical and social capital. On the other hand the commercial hospitality of today can play a major role in facilitating the long sought admission of gastronomy studies into universities. Therefore it would be in the best strategic interests of both gastronomy and hospitality researchers to work together in order to achieve mutual benefit.
Barthes, R. (1979). Toward a psychosociology of contemporary food consumption. In R. Forster & O. Ranum (Eds.), Food and Drink in History (pp. 166 -- 173). Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press.
Beardsworth, A., & Keil, T. (1997). Sociology on the menu: An invitation to the study of food and society. London: Routledge.
Brillat-Savarin, J.-A. (1994). The physiology of taste (Trans. A. Drayton). Harmondsworth: Penguin.
Brotherton, B., & Wood C.R. (2000). Hospitality and Hospitality Management. In C. Lashley & A. Morrison (Eds.), In Search of Hospitality: Theoretical perspectives and debates (pp. 134 -- 156). Oxford: Butterworth Heineman.
Chuang, H. (2009).The Rise of Culinary Tourism and Its Transformation of Food Cultures: The National Cuisine of Taiwan, The Copenhagen Journal of Asian Studies, 27(2), 84-108.
Fine, G.A. (1996). Kitchens: The culture of restaurant work. Berkeley: University of California
Lashley, C. (2000a). Towards a theoretical understanding. In C. Lashley & A. Morrison (Eds.), In Search of Hospitality: Theoretical perspectives and debates. Oxford: Butterworth Heinemann.
Miller, D. (1978). Starting a small restaurant. Harvard: Harvard Common Press
Scarpato, R. (2000a). New Global Cuisine: The Perspective of Postmodern Gastronomy. Unpublished asters thesis, Melbourne, RMIT University.
Scarpato, R. (2000b). Cultural designers: The new role of the Australian chefs. Divine: Food and wine, 21, 61-65.
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