¶ … treatment modalities for conduct disordered adolescent males has primarily been focused on comorbidity. Adolescent males with conduct disorder typically receive individual and family therapy, but when overt behaviors are extreme, pharmacotherapy may supplant insight-based therapy. Cognitive Behavioral Therapy and social skills training are complementary approaches to intervention. Using an experimental approach, this study examines the impact of combined intervention approaches on perceived and observed improvement in the expression of problem behavior and life change strategies of adolescent males with conduct disorder.
Adolescents, across the board, experience a range of emotions. Negative impacts of these emotions include struggling with acceptance, self-esteem, isolation, confusion, anxiety, and depression, which can also be a result of instability at home (Searight, et al., 2001). In addition to these social effects, many adolescents experience a distorted perception of reality (Searight, et al., 2001). On occasion, this distortion may cause them to make poor choices, which demonstrates an "acting-out" behavior (Searight, et al., 2001). All of these behavior conditions can lead to a diagnosis of Conduct Disorder (CD) (Searight, et al., 2001). A diagnosis of CD is based on DSMR-IV_TR criteria, which include the presence of aggressive conduct, non-aggressive conduct, deceitfulness, theft, severe violations of rules, and difficulty responding appropriately to negative experiences (Searight, et al., 2001).
Many types of interventions and treatment modes have been applied to the therapeutic challenge of assisting adolescent males with CD (Searight, et al., 2001). This research proposal, addresses two of these therapeutic processes: Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy and Pharmacotherapy. The research compares these intervention types, each of which is considered best practice when working with individual adolescent males between the ages of 14-16 who exhibit conduct disorder.
Research shows that various therapeutic modes and methods can positively impact the expression of problem behaviors and the disordered thinking of patients with CD. However, there is a...
Therapeutic interventions that address the expression of problem behavior in social settings, that provide methodical approaches to altering patients' destructive thinking, and pharmacological support for mood lability have been utilized by therapists in clinical settings -- however, these interventions have not been systematically combined with this population.
Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT) is a comprehensive theory of psychopathology and personality, in which specific disorder treatment models were developed (Beck & Weishaar, 2000). An empathic and active clinician, who is typically a psychotherapist, collaborates with patients to define specific treatment goals and a therapeutic life changing plan (Beck & Weishaar, 2000). Treatment sessions are structured to enhance the development of new cognitive and behavioral skills in the patient's repertoire (Beck, 1987; Beck & Weishaar, 2000). Application of Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT) reduces symptoms and learned disordered thinking in cooperative patients, and it has been shown to be effective for individual, couple, family, and group therapy (Beck & Weishaar, 2000; Corey, 2009). CBT is based on the premise that feelings and behaviors stem from thoughts, not external things, like people, situations, and events. Thus, CTB can be used by to change the irrational thinking patterns of individuals with CD to more rational and constructive thinking, through self-counseling and correcting underlying assumptions (Pucci, 2010).
A recent study (Ducharme & Shecter, 2011) found that "modification of keystone behaviors leads to collateral improvements in a range of other behaviors" (p. 273). Moreso (XXXX) argues that, "by improving attention and increasing inhibitory activity, medication may improve children's capacity to benefit from other treatment modes" (p. XX ). Most studies of the use of pharmacological interventions for conduct disorder involve patients with cormorbid conditions, such as ADHD or depression (Riggs, 2007; Searight, Rottnek, and Abby, 2001; Trowell, 2007). Although stimulants, anti-depressants, lithium, anticonvulsants and clonidine have all been used in the treatment of conduct disorder, there are no formally approved medications for CD. Research is needed to evaluate the role of pharmacotherapy for individuals with conduct disorder.
Further, while many adolescent males with CD require pharmacological intervention to cope with their underlying social and emotional impairments, counseling has been shown effective in increasing the ability of patients with CD to adapt and cope with the pressures and demands of their environments. Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy (CBT) is a structured and collaborative means of providing self-help strategies that can be utilized during individual and family therapy and carried over to daily living.…
Treatment of Conduct Disorder in CBT in Combination With CBT and Fluoxetine In the first paper, this author discussed therapeutic processes (cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) and pharmacotherapy) which could be employed as the best practices when working with individual adolescent males between the ages of 14-16 who exhibit conduct disorder. Since the approach previously centered around individuals, it would seem to be prudent to explore what type of group treatment modes
Discussion Depression can have profound and devastating effects on individuals, including the elderly. Since the elderly population is continually aging, it is important that factors involved in treatment interventions for depression among the elderly be investigated to its fullest extent. The purpose of this study is to illuminate the effectiveness of different treatment modalities among the elderly and the influence that personality traits have on outcomes. This proposal aimed to ask
At one point or another in our lives, we are all beginners. We begin college, a first job, a first love affair, and perhaps a first dissertation project. We bring a great deal to these new situations, including our temperament, previous education, and family situations. Yet, as adults, we also learn. In romantic relationships, couples report having to learn how to interact successfully with their partners. College students routinely report
, 2010). This point is also made by Yehuda, Flory, Pratchett, Buxbaum, Ising and Holsboer (2010), who report that early life stress can also increase the risk of developing PTSD and there may even be a genetic component involved that predisposes some people to developing PTSD. Studies of Vietnam combat veterans have shown that the type of exposure variables that were encountered (i.e., severe personal injury, perceived life threat, longer duration,
Treating Adolescents With Anorexia Nervosa Anorexia nervosa is an eating confusion described by a terror of fatness experienced during the adolescence period that leads to them to starving themselves leading to harmful low body weight, a moody fear of being fat and compulsive hunt for thinness. Though not limited to a certain age or sex, it mostly affects the female. The eating disorder affects both the physical appearance; thin appearance and
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