Why Humanism And Social Cognitive Perspectives Are Key Psychological Theories Term Paper

Length: 3 pages Sources: 2 Subject: Psychology - Cognitive Type: Term Paper Paper: #52044826 Related Topics: Gestalt Therapy, Albert Bandura, Social Norm, Health Informatics
Excerpt from Term Paper :

Humanistic vs. Social-Cognitive Perspectives

This paper compares and contrasts the main themes of the social-cognitive perspective with the themes of the humanistic perspective. Both perspectives are reviewed and presented and the differences are made clear as well. The limitations of each perspective will also be presented.

The Humanistic Perspective

The authors of Humanistic Perspectives on Contemporary Counseling Issues (a book with no page numbers) explain that humanistic approaches to mental health used to dominate the profession of counseling -- and that humanism should not be "placed on a shelf in the intellectual museum of the profession" nor should it be seen as a "bygone trend" (Scholl, et al., 2013). And rather than putting humanism on the list of perspectives that have been "eclipsed" by newer trends in the field of psychology, the authors believe that humanism is "not just a theory or treatment orientation, but also a 'moral imperative'" (Scholl).

Why should humanism be viewed as a moral imperative? The authors believe that the "beauty of the humanistic approach is its emphasis on individuals as decision makers"; in addition, humanistic interventions help give patients the skill to "control their own growth and development" (Scholl). But the authors do not claim that humanism is the only intervention that is viable.

Indeed, while patients struggling with

...

That is because applying humanistic strategies -- like person-centered counseling, existential counseling or Gestalt therapy -- helps patients manage their lives. And the use of humanistic approaches leads patients to " ... responsible decision-making and the growth of the wholeness and completeness of the human being" (Scholl).

Summing up humanism, it is the focus on a person's subjective experience that leads to " ... respect for each person's dignity"; and humanism is the belief that: a) there should be an emphasis on the "critical role of empathy" as it relates to the quality of every person's experience; b) individuals should have the ability to actively and "intentionally" create meaningful patterns in their lives; c) people should have "freedom, right, and ability" to make their own choices and to learn how to reach their goals; and d) every human should believe in the dignity of humanity (Scholl).

According to Scholl's approach to humanism, people should be understood "only as whole beings" and should never been viewed "as by-products of other processes" (Scholl).

The Social-Cognitive Perspective

Meanwhile, a major thrust of the social-cognitive perspective -- which is reflected and defined though the work of Albert Bandura -- is self-efficacy. Self-efficacy, according to the Consumer Health Information Research Resource (nih.gov) -- a component of the National Institutes of Health --…

Sources Used in Documents:

Works Cited

Heiphetz, L., and Young, L. (2014). A social cognitive developmental perspective on moral judgment. Behavior, Vol. 151, 315-335.

Luszczynska, A., and Schwarzer, R. (2005). "Social Cognitive Theory" in Predicting Health

Behavior: Research and Practice with Social Cognition Models. Editors Conner, M., and Norman, P. New York: McGraw-Hill.

National Institutes of Health. 2010). Consumer Health Informatics Research Resource -- Self


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