Humanistic vs. Social-Cognitive Perspectives That is because applying humanistic strategies -- like person-centered counseling, existential counseling or Gestalt therapy -- helps patients manage their lives. And the use of humanistic approaches leads patients to " ... responsible decision-making and the growth of the wholeness and completeness of the human being" (Scholl).
This paper compares and contrasts the main themes of the social-cognitive perspective with the themes of the humanistic perspective. Both perspectives are reviewed and presented and the differences are made clear as well. The limitations of each perspective will also be presented.
The Humanistic Perspective
The authors of Humanistic Perspectives on Contemporary Counseling Issues (a book with no page numbers) explain that humanistic approaches to mental health used to dominate the profession of counseling -- and that humanism should not be "placed on a shelf in the intellectual museum of the profession" nor should it be seen as a "bygone trend" (Scholl, et al., 2013). And rather than putting humanism on the list of perspectives that have been "eclipsed" by newer trends in the field of psychology, the authors believe that humanism is "not just a theory or treatment orientation, but also a 'moral imperative'" (Scholl).
Why should humanism be viewed as a moral imperative? The authors believe that the "beauty of the humanistic approach is its emphasis on individuals as decision makers"; in addition, humanistic interventions help give patients the skill to "control their own growth and development" (Scholl). But the authors do not claim that humanism is the only intervention that is viable.
Indeed, while patients struggling with ...
Summing up humanism, it is the focus on a person's subjective experience that leads to " ... respect for each person's dignity"; and humanism is the belief that: a) there should be an emphasis on the "critical role of empathy" as it relates to the quality of every person's experience; b) individuals should have the ability to actively and "intentionally" create meaningful patterns in their lives; c) people should have "freedom, right, and ability" to make their own choices and to learn how to reach their goals; and d) every human should believe in the dignity of humanity (Scholl).
According to Scholl's approach to humanism, people should be understood "only as whole beings" and should never been viewed "as by-products of other processes" (Scholl).
The Social-Cognitive Perspective
Meanwhile, a major thrust of the social-cognitive perspective -- which is reflected and defined though the work of Albert Bandura -- is self-efficacy. Self-efficacy, according to the Consumer Health Information Research Resource (nih.gov) -- a component of the National Institutes of Health --…
That is because applying humanistic strategies -- like person-centered counseling, existential counseling or Gestalt therapy -- helps patients manage their lives. And the use of humanistic approaches leads patients to " ... responsible decision-making and the growth of the wholeness and completeness of the human being" (Scholl).
This work provided an intensive discussion historical forces that were to lead to modern humanism but also succeeds in placing these aspects into the context of the larger social, historical and political milieu. . Online sources and databases proved to be a valid and often insightful recourse area for this topic. Of particular note is a concise and well-written article by Stephen Weldon entitled Secular Humanism in the United States.
Another near-contemporary of Rogers and Maslow is Albert Bandura, whose social learning theory is more part of the behaviorist school than the humanist, though these are not as dissimilar as is often thought (Bandura 2010; Ricks & Wandersman 1982). Ultimately, though Bandura's work is most famous for explaining aggression and other behavior developments, it is truly concerned with how people develop into functioning and satisfied human beings (Bandura 2010; Bandura
147). Therefore, the therapist and counselor should be aware of the subjective view or interpretation of reality of the patient. This has important implications in many fields; for example, in education. Using Adler's theory, "…apparent under-achievement in school is to be understood more in terms of the student subjective interpretations than in terms of standardized test results" (Dunn, 1971, p. 8). This also relates to Adler's emphasis on the uniqueness of
Ethical Practice Involves Working Positively Diversity Difference Counseling is a profession that involves associations based on principles and values ethically. Patients are able to benefit by understanding themselves better and through creating relationships with others. Through counseling, the clients are able to make positive alteration in life and enhance their living standards. Communities, organizations, couples and families are different groups of individuals are main sources of relationships (BACP Ethical Framework, 2013,
Theory of the self-monitored students and CSCL Another popular theory associated with the concept of CSCL is the self-monitored student s (Benbunan-Fich, 2002 ). Benbunan-Fich (2002 ) in their study give students the chance to explore and discover their abilities and then guide through ways that they can polish them. In the case of CSCL, the students realize that they will need guidelines and principles in order to attain a set objective and
From the fact that two individuals were able to keep their hands in for 5 seconds longer than that of the other participants it seems as though the motivational approach may be more effective than sensory discriminative in quelling pain. Nonetheless, this study is severely limited in that the sample was extremely small, and that I was a biased facilitator (ideally such a study should be conducted with at