The disparity in income of male vs. female heads of household is striking. Analysis of census data revealed that, in 1949, approximately thirty percent of households headed by white males were living in poverty, compared to just under thirteen percent a decade later. For women, more than half lived in poverty in 1949; by 1959, that figure declined to thirty-eight percent. The prosperity of the 1950s was not universally enjoyed. Female heads of household at the end of the decade were not better off than their male counterparts had been ten years earlier.
Financing for decent, inexpensive homes was readily available to servicemen returning from World War II. Coontz (1992) argued that this boom in home ownership led to "increasingly pervasive and sophisticated marketing [that] contributed to socially constructed perceptions of "need" and to unprecedented levels of consumer debt (Edwards, 2001). It was new consumer values that helped propel mothers into the work place, not a sudden devaluing of family values. Women did not go into the work place because they no longer considered their families important. In fact, one can argue that their motivation was just the opposite. As Americans' perception of "needs" changed, women felt the pressure to go to work to help them provide for their families.
In 1947, women were admitted to Britain's Cambridge University as equal members. Acker (1984, p. 51) noted "the slow but steady progress of women in education started due to women's dedication and willingness to study despite sub-par compensation when finishing school." Women with Cambridge degrees did not have the same opportunities as male graduates. Times had not yet changed that much. In the United States, the most prestigious institutions were slower than Cambridge to offer equal status to women. At Yale University, women were admitted in 1969 (as they were at Princeton University), although the School of Fine Arts enrolled women a century earlier (www.yale.edu). Harvard University admitted women to graduate programs in the 1940s, but did not admit women as undergraduates until 1973.
What Happens Now?
Education and workplace opportunities afford today's young women with choices their grandmothers did not have; those choices have made marriage itself a choice, and not merely an economic necessity. Society's once-harsh stances against cohabitation and divorce have softened, again making marriage a choice rather than an expectation. Advances in biomedical technology -- infertility treatments, birth control, abortion -- have given couples control in family planning as they have never had before. The very definition of "family" is in flux, with a decade-by-decade increase in the number of single-parent households and the struggles of states to define "marriage." As society has changed, and continues to change, American women have many of the same opportunities for education as do men. This achievement has been hard won. Solomon (1985, p. xix) wrote "the fight for adequate women's education is far from over." Fortunately, progress has been made since the 1980s.
There is still work to do. Johnson (2009) noted that there are still achievement gaps between male and female students, in addition to the gaps that tend to receive greater national focus: the gaps along racial and ethnic lines and according...
Although Title IX has mandated gender equality in school sports programs since 1972, women's programs still lag behind. Lipka and Wolverton (2007) noted gaps in coaches' salaries, scholarship money, and overall university sports budgets along gender lines. The issue of women in the science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) disciplines has long simmered across various levels in academic institutions (Hopewell, McNeeley, Kuiler, & Hahm, 2009). They also noted disparities in employment opportunities and salaries, even in these high-demand fields.
Since the nineteenth century, American women have made gains with respect to access to higher education. Progress, especially in the nineteenth century, was slow. A few brave and outspoken women managed to make advances for women in a society that was still very resistant to such a radical idea. Greater gains were made in the twentieth century, particularly when women finally secured the right to vote. Women in the workplace during World War II demonstrated they could be successful outside the traditional roles of wife and mother. The feminist movement of the 1960s and 1970s helped women make further gains. As a group, they showed they could still be wives and mothers but they could also gain admission to the world's most rigorous and prestigious institutions and they could be successful attending graduate and professional schools as well. Title IX enabled women to participate in sports on a level that had previously been unavailable to them. Women have successfully gained entrance to schools, jobs, and opportunities that were once men-only. It is a testament to the women and men who helped make it possible for women to enrich their lives with higher education.
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Johnson, K.A. (2009). Gender and race: Exploring Anna Julia Cooper's thoughts for socially just educational opportunities. Philosophia Africana 12 (1), 67-82.
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Women in Higher Education -- 1785-1890 Higher educational opportunities for women in the U.S. were scarce in the late 18th century through the nineteenth century, and even into the 20th century as well. Women were expected to stay in the home, raise the children, cook and clean for the husband, not go out and get an advanced education. This paper reflects the few opportunities that were available to women and how
His proposals received a strong opposition from the side of the religious leaders who were dissatisfied both with the fact that women were given the right to vote and the land reforms (idem). After Khomeini was sent into exile, the shah's leadership, greatly supported by the U.S., became dictatorial. By choosing to put the country under an authoritarian regime with little or no real opposition, Mohammad-Reza Shah, like his father,
This is a small step towards the improvement of opportunities for women in the Middle East. However, Turkey is considered a "soft" power in the Middle East (Altunisik, 2005), so this small step alone is unlikely to result in immediate sweeping change. However, this does represent a small step and demonstrates that the women's movement is gaining strength. Middle Eastern culture centers on the village and the local conditions Societies
And it cannot be denied that there is evidence to support that concern in many respects. But for women, it would help to open certain pathways to personal advancement. According to Mackie, "the women's liberation movement developed out of a critique of modern Japanese capitalism, a dissatisfaction with the sexism of the New Left, and the need of women in Japan to theorise their place in East Asia." (p.
(2006). Children and Youth Services Review, Vol. 28, 1459-1481. The study in this research piece evaluated the adult education, employment and financial successes (or failures) of 659 adults (20 to 33 years of age) who had gone through intermediate and long-term foster care stays in their youth. These kinds of studies are important for present and future agencies because a fuller understanding of shortcomings -- and strengths -- in policy
On the other hand, women view danger associated wit achievement at the workplace, as being left alone or isolated by other employees (Wirth, 2001). VI. Turning point in history From my point-of-view, I see that much has happened on the changing role of men and women at home. Both women and men can be found doing the dishes, laundry, cleaning (these were regarded as female work by tradition), and it is