This reflected the very essence of absolutist thought. The Thirty Years War, which started as a religious battle between Protestants and Catholics, developed into a power struggle between many European powers, but most notably the French Bourbons and the Austrian Hapsburgs. The massive destruction that this war caused allowed new powers -- notably Austria, Brandenburg-Prussia, and Russia to emerge as powerful new empires in Europe. Meanwhile, Parliamentary limits on Charles I's power in England came to a head when he was denied funding for wars and other endeavors; his subsequent actions led to a revolution in which he lost his throne and head.
In the art world, religious scenes remained popular, as they had been during the Renaissance. Colors became richer, however, and styles more ornate, reflecting the economic growth of the time. Scenes other than religious scenes, ancient myths, and the extreme upper class began to appear also, reflecting…… [Read More]
Science and Religion in the 17th Century
he Interaction between Science and Religion in the Seventeenth Century:
ransforming our World
he world we know today has been shaped by many important events. Some people may see the industrial and the technological revolutions of the past two centuries as central pillars that have helped humanity not only survive, but also advance greatly. Others may see political revolutions as central to our society's progress, be they wars for independence in the colonies of the 20th century, or be they the mother of drastic political change, the French Revolution. Others yet may believe that cultural revolutions, such as the Enlightenment of the 18th century, a phenomenon that spurred great change and bore great thinkers, truly altered society. However, above all, one must note that without the interaction between science and religion and the issues this brought to light in the 16th and 17th…… [Read More]
While France relied on direct involvement of the royal power, either through the King or his ministers, ritain had a more formal royal patronage, that encouraged the activity, but did not sponsor or finance it. This also meant that in the former case, the activity was directed towards studies that could directly help the state, while in the latter case, the activity was much less directed by royal interest.
1. Saunders, Stewart. Louis XIV: Patron of Science and Technology. From The Sun King: Louis XIV and the New World, edited by Steven G. Reinhardt, pp. 155-67. (New Orleans: Louisiana Museum Foundation, 1984.)
2. History of the Royal Society. On the Internet at http://royalsociety.org/History-of-the-Royal-Society/. Last retrieved on July 22, 2010
3. Findlen, Paula. Founding a Scientific Academy: Gender, Patronage and Knowledge in Early Eighteenth-Century Milan. Republics of Letters: A Journal for the Study of Knowledge, Politics, and the Arts 1,…… [Read More]
Christopher Hill's ideology and opinion of historical analysis in terms of religion and economics
According to the British Marxist historian Christopher Hill in 1961, the then-common historical interpretation of the revolutionary events of the 17th century was "that the English Revolution of 1640-60 was a great social movement like the French Revolution of 1789," at least in the eyes of most liberal historians, while conservative or Tory British historians tended to see the entire movement as misguided. (Hill, 1961, Introduction) Thus, more often than not, the transformation of the English Civil ar is seen as a fight between the forces of reaction and the forces of democratic pluralism, with the forces of reaction embodied in "the despotism" of the British King Charles I, who "was defended by the reactionary forces of the established Church and conservative landlords," after the king was set upon by the forces of Parliament and the…… [Read More]
Exoticism in 19th & 20th Century Opera
Exoticism in 19th and 20th Century Opera
Exoticism was a cultural invention of the 17th Century, enjoying resurgence in the 19th and 20th Centuries due to increased travel and trade by Europeans in foreign, intriguing continents. The "est," eventually including the United States, adapted and recreated elements of those alluring cultures according to estern bias, creating escapist art forms that blended fantasy with reality. Two examples of Exoticism in Opera are Georges Bizet's "Carmen," portraying cultural bias toward gypsies and Basques, and Giacomo Puccini's "Madama Butterfly," portraying cultural bias toward the Far East. "Carmen" was developed from a single original source while "Madama Butterfly" was a fusion of several sources that developed successively; nevertheless, both operas remain distinguished examples of Exoticism in Opera.
Exoticism in History and Culture
Meaning "that which is introduced from or originating in a foreign (especially tropical) country or…… [Read More]
It wasn't always a matter of stealing the designs or the parts for a specific technology, Harris explains: "…the arts never pass by writing from one country to another," he quotes from a French official writing in 1752. "The eye and practice alone train men in these activities" (Harris, 43).
In 18th Century Italy Pope Innocent XII had set up a hospice in Laterano for the poor, and the Pope instituted reforms that were designed to "…convince the wealthy to give up direct almsgiving and contribute only to the official collectors" (Grell, et al., 2004, p. 255). In other words, there was an attitude against panhandlers profiting from begging in the streets. Indeed, those with financial means (if they followed the rules) would not be giving directly to beggars, but instead a network would be set up so the wealthy could contribute to a "hospice" where the poor were locked…… [Read More]
Education in America
The seventeenth century has been called, as an age of faith, and for the colonists a preoccupation with religion, as probably right. The religious rebel of the sixteenth century was severe and shaking as its impact was felt both on the continent as well as in America. However, intelligent Americans of the seventeenth century thought and realized that education could, and may be should, be a handmaiden to religion. Yet, humanism was there more than religion in the intellectual diet of the educated Americans 1.
The humanists preceded their work at a stable speed, which, affected education of northern, middle & southern colonies of America. However, many argued that without much attention given to education, and without even realizing that the books comprised illustrations of better life were taught into schools in order to affect the life and mind of students, how could the aspiration of humanism…… [Read More]
Witchcraft in the 16th & 17 Centuries: Response to Literature
At first glance, a logical 21st Century explanation for the "witch craze" (also known as a witch-hunt) during the 16th and 17th centuries in Europe was based largely upon human ignorance. That is to say, the belief that a sub-culture of the general population performed witchcraft (and other magic-related phenomena), and ate the flesh of children, helped the unenlightened explain the unexplainable, and helped the ignorant deal with the darkness. Witchcraft seemingly established a reason that a person had that bad luck and it explained illnesses, and probably it helped explain natural calamities such as tornadoes, seismic catastrophes and sudden killer bolts of lightning or sheets of rain turned into disastrous flooding. Or it could even explain a stillborn child and a puppy with a broken leg. Somebody put a spell on that poor dog. Mysterious events that had no…… [Read More]
Eighteenth Century was a time of profound change and upheaval in the western world. Alexander Pope, Samuel Pepys, Jonathan Swift were among the most prominent of 18th century writers, and each left his mark on literature. Importantly, the 1800s were characterized by the impact of social stratification on all aspects of life, including food, fashion, society, furnishings, and even literature.
Society and Culture
In 18th century Europe, the dominant powers were Russia, Prussia, France, Austria, and Britain. As such, any discussion of the 18th century usually focuses upon life in these leading nations. At the time, America was embroiled deeply in the development of a new nation, the shaking off of the shackles of slavery, and lessening English control in the American colonies. The United States Declaration of Independence was only signed late in the eighteenth century, in 1776 (ikipeda).
Lasting from 1701-1800, the 18th century is often synonymous with…… [Read More]
The eighteenth century is often thought of a time of pure reason; after all, the eighteenth century saw the Enlightenment, a time when people believed fervently in rationality, objectivity and progress. However, Moll Flanders by Daniel Defoe also shows an era of chaos, depicted by a sort of wildness inside of people. Moll Flanders, the protagonist of Defoe's story, has been an orphan, a wife, mother, prostitute and a thief. Paula Backscheider (65) urges that Moll Flanders symbolizes the vicissitudes that were frequently experienced by many people in what was supposed to be an enlightened age. This is an obvious juxtaposition in Defoe's work. Defoe depicts a world that is not very compassionate, despite it being the Enlightenment period. Moll should have been better taken care of as an orphan, but she wasn't and this shows a complete lack of social responsibility on the government's side. There seems…… [Read More]
The limitation of slave movement, was an action in response to the growing threat related to fugitive slaves (Selected records relating to slavery in early Virginia, n.d.). The conditions at the time and the harsh regulations concerning black slaves made them go in search for a different life, especially in Northern states (Petition to Governor, Council, and House of epresentatives of Massachusetts, 1773). Therefore, the Southerners were reluctant to offer any liberty that would somehow enable black people to gather and possibly plan insurrections or escape attempts. In addition, the tensions between the slaver states and the free ones were constantly growing because Free states were accusing slave ones of trying to use the slave population to increase its influence in the federal legislative body. In this sense, Northern states were somewhat ready to assist runaway slaves from South states.
Yet another reason, which influenced the way in which slaves…… [Read More]
Classicism manifested itself in the 18th century. There are five references used for this paper.
There have been a number of cultural styles over the last centuries from Baroque to Classicism to Romanticism. It is interesting to look at Classicism and determine how it manifested itself in the 18th century.
In order to determine the 18th century's manifestation of Classicism, it is important to understand what the term means. Classicism, or Neo-Classicism is used to "characterize the culture of 18th-century Europe, and contrasted with 19th-century Romanticism (unknown, Classicism)." In "art, music, and literature, it is a style that emphasizes the qualities traditionally considered characteristic of ancient Greek and Roman art, that is, reason, balance, objectivity, restraint, and strict adherence to form (unknown, Classicism)."
Ludwig van Beethoven demonstrated Classicism during the end of his life with his string quartets. Beethoven first earned the respect of the Viennese people as…… [Read More]
American Economic Thought in the Seventeenth Century by Edgar AJ. Johnson. (New York: Russell & Russell, 1961). 202 p., (HB119.A2J6).
This book is a global look at what motivated colonization economically in the New World, and how American thought began to diverge from English commerce and economic thought. In the book, the author outlines several common economic and political concepts of pre-Revolutionary philosophy. Mainly, Johnson states political and personal beliefs were not inevitably separate things, but rather social structures dictated by one's political ties and perceptions. In other words, during these times, the most elevated position a person could hold was that of a politician. The basic concepts of the book include that the political structure reflected fundamental social structures, and the people were still largely under the influence of parliamentary representation, and the British Crown consistently oppressed them. Unfortunately, the end of the Revolution did not help matters. In…… [Read More]
Dutch invasion of razil
In the 17th Century razil found itself the centre of contesting and warring European powers. The Portuguese colonization of razil was followed by the invasion from Holland as well as by French attempts to establish a presence in the country. Historians however describe the Dutch invasion of razil in the 17th century as one of the most damaging, imposing and far-reaching occupations of the country. This was mainly due to the well-organized and well-planned nature of the Dutch intrusion.
The Dutch invasion was an attempt not merely at establishing some fortuitous harbors for trade but was colonization in the true sense of the term. One of the obvious reasons was export of natural resources such as sugar.
The Dutch occupation of razil presents a number of pertinent and important questions that will form the fulcrum of the discussion in this paper. These are - the reasons…… [Read More]
Not only was this theme fully explored within the historical context, but thoroughly analyzed within Europe as well. The teachings of such notable thinker as Sigmund Freud points to this direction of development. He concluded that there modernism within Europe had become characterized by the disorder of the mind. More precisely, there was a lack of any fixed system of reference for living and thinking. Europe, which had formerly been the center of intellectual development and revolutionary thinking now suffered under the burden of a weak political infrastructure. As a result, many of their greatest talents and knowledge now flowed away from Europe to other developing nations such as the United States.
The Age of Anxiety was coined not by historian but by Europeans of the age themselves. They reflected upon the disturbing trends that were occurring within European nation-states. It gave rise to radical social, political and scientific ideas…… [Read More]
Alexander Pope and Jonathan Swift are two of the greatest satirists in literature because they capture elements of truth that force us to look at ourselves as a society. hile both authors reflect on political and economic conditions of the eighteenth century, their work is timeless because their topics ultimately return to humanity. Their achievements lie in the fact that they depict man in circumstances that are both thought provoking and amusing. Pope's "The Rape of the Lock" and "The Dunciad," along with Swift's "A Modest Proposal" and Gulliver's Travels demonstrate how satire takes its best form when its target is human nature.
The satirist is quite lucky in that he has many varieties of subjects when it comes to human nature M.H. Abrams observes that in most instances the satirist considers "prevalent evils and generally observable human types, not with particular individuals" (Abrams 2211). This is certainly true with…… [Read More]
17th Amendment to the U.S. Constitution was ratified in 1913. It altered the way in which Senators of the Congress were elected. Previously, under Article 1 of the Constitution, it was the state legislature's responsibility to elect senators to Congress. ith the 17th Amendment, however, the voting power was placed directly into the hands of the public. The Amendment also provided a way for states to allow governors to fill vacancies in their state's appointed seats in Congress by temporarily appointing a senator until a time in which a special election could be conducted.
The text of the Amendment states specifically that "two Senators from each State, elected by the people thereof, for six years" shall be the manner in which senators are now voted into office. This effectively made the process of electing senators more democratic and less representational, in the sense that that the voting public had the…… [Read More]
17th century and our contemporary world began with an early, optimistic outlook of hope and promise of a better future, exemplified by movements like the Enlightenment, the Scientific and Industrial Revolutions, culminating in the Information Age, environmental awareness and globalisation. It is during this period that a paradigm shift from faith (religion) to reason as the principal source of legitimacy and authority occurred (Badger). The shift occurred against the backdrop of ideals such as science, tolerance, liberty, democracy, secularism, free will and humanism. However, the period is also scared with false starts and failures, violent schisms, world wars, imperialism, terrorism, irrational nationalism, extreme religious war, information overload, pollution and the threat of nuclear annihilation that indicate failure of the rational model promised by the Enlightenment. On the premise of this dichotomy of hope and failure, this essay critically demonstrates the failure of the Enlightenment project, especially from a social and…… [Read More]
Boycotting British goods meant that American women were going to have to make sacrifices, and stop consuming goods that were imported from Britain. The cartoon of the women of Edenton, NC signing a non-consumption agreement represent American women involving themselves in the political and economic boycott of Britain by the American colonies. ("A Society of Patriotic Ladies") However, it is actually a criticism of women's involvement in political affairs by representing the women who signed as silly women engaging in silly activities. The entire cartoon is designed to give the impression that women are not able to take on political issues seriously and deal with them effectively. Instead, the women in the cartoon are engaging in sex, playing, drinking, and are generally distracted from the important issue at hand.
"A Society of Patriotic Ladies- North Carolina Digital History." LEARN NC. eb. 14
Oct. 2011. http://www.learnnc.org/lp/editions/nchist-revolution/4305
"Laws…… [Read More]
... In general, the further East one got, the slower new techniques were to spread. Thus there were supply-side reasons for grain exports from preemancipation eastern Europe to stagnate at a level far below what was ecologically possible" (Pomeranz 258). hile there were distinct differences involved in these regions, there were some commonalities as well.
According to Dean, Hann, Overton and hittle (2004), there remains a paucity of studies concerning the role of women and early economic history based on a misperception that women either did not have a role in the wider economy or that women were affected by economic and social change in the same way as men. An early study that challenged these assumptions conducted of women's work in the seventeenth century divided production into three co-existing types:
Domestic industry." This type of work was done exclusively for the use of the family;
Family industry." This type…… [Read More]
Education of omen in Renaissance
Several methods relating to the education of women in Renaissance changed the world. However, these methods of Humanists and the queries of religious reformers had no impact on the lives of early modern European omen. Education, changing drastically between the 15th and 17th centuries was certainly kept from women although the rich and powerful were able to receive some education: it was not always used. Opportunities arose for the daughters of the rich and wealthy. However, the eventuality of all their efforts in education narrowed down to the typical role of a woman: a housewife. They still faced choices and challenges unique to their gender. hile some women did receive this education alongside men, the options of what to do with that education were cut severely. It is evident from the study that women did not have a Renaissance because of lack of education and…… [Read More]
However, at the same time the onset of what many scholars regard as the first truly national event within the history of the fledgling United States of America took place throughout the 1740's, and indicated that the traditional religious beliefs that mandated a strict following of God would not so easily be overturned. The Great Awakening largely begin when George Whitefield, an Oxford-trained Anglican minster who came to Georgia in 1738, began touring through the lands pronouncing that people had limited time to repent before they were consumed by the fires of hell. This perspective certainly adhered to that which was shared by many of the pilgrims and puritans who initially began the colonies in the 17th century. Jonathan Edwards was another influential factor in this movement, and delivered a number of influential sermons during the early years of the 1740s in which he claimed damnation awaited anyone who would…… [Read More]
Women occupy conflicted and ambiguous roles in Middle English and enaissance English literature. Sir Gawain and the Green Knight, Chaucer's Canterbury Tales, and Shakespeare's Twelfth Night all show how male authors in particular grappled with the role of women in an increasingly patriarchal society. Women feature prominently in each of these stories, even if their status and perceived morality is questionable. Each of these stories features women who have a fair degree of power, albeit expressed within the confines of a patriarchal social and political construct. What's more, the women in Sir Gawain and the Green Knight, Canterbury Tales, and Twelfth Night create their own power; power is not "given" to them by self-serving benevolent men. In fact, women like Morgan Le Fay, Lady Bertilak, the Wife of Bath, and Viola all wield power effectively. Women and men occupy separate and distinct spheres, and each wields a different type…… [Read More]
17th century, a book inspired by Sir Walter Raleigh and written by Richard Hakluyt, entitled "Western Planting," built up great interest in American colonization. Focus of commercial explorations was possible trade with the East India Company for the West. The King of England formed and granted a royal charter to the London Company and the Plymouth Company (Interesting.com) to found a colony. In December 1606, the London Company, led by Captain Christopher Newport, reached a town and named it Jamestown, after the King of England. It was the first permanent settlement in North America, the whole of which was then Virginia. The first settlers in this new land consisted of 12 laborers, a few carpenters, a blacksmith, a mason, a barber and a tailor and 50 other men.
When Captain Newport returned England for a while and left the colony to the inefficient leadership of Governor Wingfield, trouble and misery…… [Read More]
St. Peter's Basilica is located in Vatican City, and was consecrated in 1626 (Saint). It is among the largest of the world's churches and is considered to be one of the holiest of Catholic sites on the planet. The church's namesake, St. Peter, is buried there, as well, and believed to be located directly below the altar (Saint). There has been a churched located on that site since oman Times, which is part of the reason St. Peter's in seen as so valuable when it comes to architecture and its place in the Catholic Church. Liturgical functions are held there, and it is also a common and very famous place for pilgrimage.
When the Pope gives services there, several times per year, between 15,000 and 80,000 people come out to hear him speak (St. Peter's). Even those who are not Catholic or religious in any way have often heard of…… [Read More]
These were comedies that appealed to the more conservative, middle-class, sentimental, moralistic, and upheld a newly optimistic view of human progress and political development. (ilson & Goldfarb, 1999)
The 18th century view generally held that people are good and that people could retain virtue by appealing to virtuous human feelings as expressed in Sheridan, Goldsmith, and Sir Richard Steele. Thus, this signaled the end of the aristocratic, brittle Restoration hero and heroine. Yet the return of the theater to the people also caused German theatrical aspirants such as Goethe to creator works such as "Faust," ambitious plays that addressed larger spiritual concerns of the people, and political ideologies that spanned far wider than the immediate social concerns of the court. "Faust," for all its pretensions, represents individuals within its characters, such as the heroine Gretchen, who come from ranks beyond the academic and social elites of the French and English…… [Read More]
The machines were used to create vertical and horizontal movements which had not been done before. In other words, a god could be pictured using the machine as floating down onto the stage, or boats moving across it. Night or dawn could appear, or ghosts (Lawrenson 92). Most of these machine-plays were produced at the Theatre du Marais. There is a difference here, too. The French machine plays reached the public, whereas the English masques of the early century were performed mainly for royalty. Certainly the stage sets for court ballets and opera were more elaborate and special than the public designs since they were subsidized by the royal coffers.
Both English and French theatre took over the new Italian techniques for changing scenery. The French theatre abandoned triangular prisms used in conjunction with painted backdrops. At the beginning, these were painted simultaneously and dropped over or pulled back to…… [Read More]
Between 1618 and 1648, there was an outbreak of war which was mainly caused by the struggle between a militant Calvinism and a militant Catholicism in fact it was referred to as the "last of the religious wars." Furthermore, prior to, all through, and after this three decades war, a sequence of civil wars and rebellions hit Europe. All this events and problems greatly affected Europe economically, socially, and even politically and actually qualify to be categorized as crises.
For the period of the 16th and 17th centuries, the European society did not respect women at all since they considered them inferior to men both mentally and morally thus were directly linked to witchcraft during the witchcraft craze. To make it worse was the fact that these low estimates were not just held by the witch hunter but also by the elites such as lawyers, theologians, and philosophers.…… [Read More]
This time period also marked a great deal of expansion for different European nations. This expansion occurred through the conquering of certain territories.
Machiavelli believed that great leaders had to possess certain attributes. He asserted that a "leader needs an analytical attitude without a sense of shame or guilt. Political calculation is required to control, rather than be victimized by events (Deluga, 2001)." In other words, a Machiavellian leader believes that the end justifies the means. These individual tend to have extremely charismatic personalities and that power to persuade large populations of people that there actions are justified.
The Machiavellian Leaders chosen for the purpose of this discussion will be Elizabeth I, Peter the Great and . Queen Elizabeth I was loved by the people of England to the extent that she had completely loyal subjects. She used her leadership qualities to defeat Spain. In addition she was…… [Read More]
Satan and Paradise Lost
In Paradise Lost by John Milton, Satan represents the royalist, Catholic and aristocratic enemies of the Puritans during the civil wars and religious wars of the 17th Century and reflects the culture and events of the era such as the Renaissance, Reformation and Scientific Revolution. Milton was a Puritan who had supported Oliver Cromwell in the English Civil ar and the overthrow of the king, aristocracy and Church of England. He was disappointed by the outcome of this revolution, and especially with the Restoration of the monarchy and the old order in 1660, which banned and censored many of his writings for being too radical. Not only is it a specifically Christian story of original sin, the fall from grace and hope for redemption, it should be considered as a revolutionary tract from the Puritan-Protestant side during the civil wars and religious wars of the 17th…… [Read More]
Looking at art and historical artifacts can tell us immense amounts of information regarding the society and culture from which these objects came from. Art can be revealing and informative in the same manner that books can tell readers about history and cultural conventions, many times providing specific details about its origin. These details can then provide viewers with an informed and comprehensive view of cultures and societies. Art is a reflection of not only the artist which creates the piece, but also a reflection of the atmosphere in which the artist lived. These reflections through art can point to specific themes and subjects that were important during the times that these artists lived. Power and Status are themes that can be considered universal in virtually all cultures regardless of their respective geographical location or historical era.
The intention of this essay is to provide the historical background…… [Read More]
world's nations and citizens was the Cold ar. Indeed, slave trade was important, and the formation of American colonies in the 17th century has had an enormous impact on the history of the planet. Also the Seven Years' ar and imperialism had enormous implications and impacts. But the years of the Cold ar stand out as more pivotal in terms of the history of the world. This paper will explain why the Cold ar was most important.
Slave Trade: The International Slavery Museum (ISM) explains that European slave traders "forcibly uprooted millions of people" from est African and est Central Africa between the years 1500 to 1900. In particular, the 16th century was a century in which millions of African peoples were forcibly shipped in cruelly over-crowded slave ships to the Americas. These individuals from Africa were "…farmers, merchants, priests, soldiers, goldsmiths and musicians" (ISM). hile crossing the oceans from…… [Read More]
An Analysis of Love in the Renaissance Art of Sidney, Shakespeare, Hilliard and Holbein
If the purpose of art, as Aristotle states in the Poetics, is to imitate an action (whether in poetry or in painting), Renaissance art reflects an obsession with a particular action -- specifically, love and its many manifestations, whether eros, agape or philia. Love as a theme in 16th and 17th century poetry and art takes a variety of forms, from the sonnets of Shakespeare and Sidney to the miniature portraits of Hilliard and Holbein. Horace's famous observation, ut picture poesis, "as is poetry so is painting," helps explain the popularity of both. Indeed, as Rensselaer . Lee observes, the "sister arts as they were generally called…differed in means and manner of expression, but were considered almost identical in fundamental nature, in content, and in purpose" (Lee 196). In other words, the love sonnets…… [Read More]
Colonial America: Questions
Unlike previous European settlers who came to the New World primarily to make a profit, the Puritans arrived with a commitment to create a new society and genuinely 'settle' on the land. They had no plans to return to England, given that they had been cast out of the Old World because of their religious beliefs. Unlike the settlers at Jamestown, they came prepared to work hard, and did not hope to simply make a quick profit and return to England rich, having done little labor. They believed in the value of hard work as part of their religious philosophy. They believed God had quite literally 'chosen' them to know the truth, which sustained them during times of suffering. During the first years, however, like previous colonists, they did struggle to stay alive. The winter was harsh, and they were forced to adapt their crops and…… [Read More]
Norton I Intro on the Restoration
Norton I Introduction on the Restoration and 18th Century
The Period of the 18th Century in England was a time of great expansion and change.
People began moving from the country to the city/town during this time.
New likes were established that varied from the traditional arts scene.
The people living in town began to more openly express their likes/dislikes and the monarch became less an influence in deciding what was appropriate and what was not.
The country of England became divided politically as new parties emerged to represent its citizens.
The Tories supported the Crown, while the Whigs formed with a more progressive outlook and included nobles and clergymen.
The Toleration act provided freedom of worship.
Such acts and provisions would eventually become more commonplace as people began to realize differing viewpoints of the world.
Theories of old such as those of Aristotle…… [Read More]
Agnes Meyer Driscoll
Like Yardley, Agnes Meyer Driscoll was born in 1889, and her most significant contribution was also made during World War I. Driscoll worked as a cryptanalyst for the Navy, and as such broke many Japanese naval coding systems. In addition, Driscoll developed many of the early machine systems. Apart from being significantly intelligent for any person of her time and age, Driscoll was also unusual in terms of her gender. Her interests led her to technical and scientific studies during her college career, which was not typical for women of the time (NA). When she enlisted in the United tates Navy during 1918, Driscoll was assigned to the Code and ignal section of Communications, where she remained as a leader in her field until 1949.
As mentioned above, Driscoll's work also involved remerging technology in terms of machine development. These were aimed not only at creating ciphers,…… [Read More]
John Dryden was one of the most important literary figures in the 17th century because he excelled in fiction, nonfiction, and poetry. Dryden was a master of many literary techniques, most particularly the extended metaphor. His poem "Absalom and Achitophel" is a political satire which deals with the then-current political situation in England in a most sly and intelligent way. The piece is an historical allegory wherein the author uses historical events to explore the deeper meaning behind more recent events that have shaped is own society. The rebellion of Absalom against King David is used to parallel the various plots to take over the throne of England through the Exclusion Crisis, the Popish Plot, and the Monmouth Rebellion. Dryden uses the relative safety of the allegory to make a scathing remark about the politics of his country and to subtly recommend ways in which the country could be strengthened…… [Read More]
Portugal 16th Century to Present
Portugal: 16th Century to Present
Portugal: 16th Century to Present
Portugal is a country a part of the continent of Europe. It is on the western coast of Europe sharing a boundary with Spain and the Atlantic Ocean. Portugal's independence and king (now there is a president and a prime minister) received formal recognition since the 12th century AD. The language is Portuguese and the people identify as Portuguese or of the Portuguese epublic (epublica Portuguesa). It is a mostly Catholic country and with mostly female citizens. There are nearly 11 million people living in Portugal according to the Central Intelligence Agency (2012). The capital city is Lisbon and most of the population lives in urban areas rather than rural areas. There are archipelagos, Azores, and Madeira, which are additionally a part of Portugal. The paper will provide insight into the country of Portugal,…… [Read More]
Irony and Humor in French Literature
Delphine Perret's analysis of irony and humor is apparently well-founded and well-supported by famous literature. Due to obvious differences in the French and English notions of irony, Perret explored irony by returning to its roots. Starting "at square one" with definitions of "irony" from notable dictionaries, Perret then traces irony through historical eras and developments with the aid of such great thinkers as Socrates and Aristotle. Her exhaustive analysis results in clearly defined types of irony/humor, basic elements of the phenomenon and dimensions that are or should be present in that form of writing. The intelligence of Perret's examination is illustrated in two famous French plays of the 19th and 20th Century: "Ubu Roi" and "The ald Soprano." Though written by different playwrights in different centuries, both plays fully support Perret's analysis and findings regarding irony/humor.
a. Perret's Applicable Points
Delphine Perret's "Irony"…… [Read More]
Clothing and Culture
Clothing, in the modern definition, is considered to be fiber or textiles that are worn on humans, and one of the anthropological features of human culture and society. The type (color, style, fit) of clothing is typically dependent upon a number of variables -- geography, weather, gender, status, physical state, work activities, and even status symbols. From a practical standpoint, clothing serves as protection from external weather, or for safety reasons (constructing, cooking, hiking, sports); it may protect the wearer from flora and fauna (nettles, bites, thorns); it may insulate against hot or cold conditions; and may even provide a hygienic barrier. Often, studying the aspects of clothing and society tells scholars a great deal about the particular culture -- not just in external appearance but in the technology of textile production, weaving, and adornment (oucher & Deslandres, 1989).
Evolution of Clothing Styles: Scholars are uncertain as…… [Read More]
The conflict evolved and his works burnt in ome, following the Pope's orders gave him the opportunity to extend his efforts of reformation over the entire Northern Europe. His excommunication in 1521 led to the birth of a new church and the separation finally took place.
Calvin, unlike Luther the monk, was a lawyer who came to Geneva to help in the reformation process. At first, his attempts failed, but after being forced to leave the city, he returned and his new philosophical views about the reformed church were accepted by Geneva that became the center of Protestantism in Europe.
Question 3: Was the religiously-framed warfare of the 16th and early 17th centuries avoidable, given the realities of that place and time?
After the first period of the separation between the Catholic and the Protestant Churches that took place peacefully, there came a period of ruthless fights between the two.…… [Read More]
European Voyages of Exploration of the 15th and 16th Centuries
For several centuries following Columbus's historic discovery the North American Continent, pain enjoyed riches from overseas that allowed it to be the most influential country in Europe. Originally inspired by a combination of a quest to prove that he could reach the Far East by sailing west and the desire to reap the rewards of precious metals and spices, Columbus left Portugal for pain, after failing to achieve the support he needed from the king to finance his first voyage (Hayes & Clark, 1966). With the eventual support of Queen Isabella in pain, he managed to stumble onto North and outh America while looking for the Indies. Initially, the silver, gold, and spices imported from the first panish conquests in the Americas enabled pain to become the most powerful nation in Europe.
That happenstance was fortunate for pain, at least…… [Read More]
mechanics of the mercantilist doctrine from the incipit of the early modern period in Europe, with special focus on the role of the North American colonies in the ritish mercantilist endeavors.
Mercantilism was the leading economical belief system to support the attempts of regimes and great European powers of the 17th century to organize their economic existence. The reasons standing behind mercantilism originated from the need to provide a solid structure for the financial foundation of "the nation-state -- the emerging post-medieval governmental mode that rapidly replaced feudal localism in northern and Western Europe after the mid-fifteenth century" (McCusker, 1996, p. 337), in order to ensure the survival and prosperity of the state. Specifically, nationalism held the promise of political stability and better living prospects for everyone, bringing considerable improvement to the prior era's imbalance.
The majority of early modern Europe countries, starting with Spain, Portugal, and Great ritain, adopted…… [Read More]
According to Ray, those explanations ignore what more recent research has identified as the principal cause of the witchcraft hysteria in Salem: religious paranoia, intolerance, and persecution.
In that regard, Ray details the historical record showing that the principal origin of the Salem Witch Trials was in the intense antagonism on the part of Reverend Samuel Parris toward village residents who refused to join his congregation. For months before the accusations about witchcraft against Tituba, Parris railed against the unconverted as "wicked" and referred to the "chosen" members of his church and those who had "betrayed" it and who sought to destroy his village church and, ultimately, the entire church of England. Ray also notes, significantly, that all of the young girls whose accusations were the initial spark for the witch craze were members of prominent church families. By the time their accusations first surfaced, Parris's audience had been well…… [Read More]
Gender in Mexican Intellectual History
Juana Inez Ramirez de Asbaje, also known as Juana Ines de la Cruz, was an amazing woman in both Latin American and world history. Here was a woman writing in the 17th century who was willing to discuss the sexual practices of the males around her and to criticize them. Being a nun, this was even more out of the ordinary and makes Asbaje an even more extraordinary figure. In the 1600s, a woman's place was at the home either as a servant or as a bearer of children to a proper husband. It was not proper for a female to be educated or to think. For many women who were born with an untimely and unfortunate intellect, the only venue for them to learn was by entering the church. In her "Response to Sor Filotea," she states that as a young girl, Asbaje asked…… [Read More]
English Civil War of the 17th century. Specifically, it will look at what the most important results of the English Civil War were, and how England in 1700 differed from England in 1600. The results of the English Civil War changed England forever, and altered many cultural aspects, from religious to government. Before the Civil War, England was divided from the inside, and after, it was more united, but stronger too, because of a better working relationship between the monarchy and the Parliament.
The English Civil War was really a series of wars fought during the mid-1600s in England, but also exacerbated by battles with the Scottish, the Irish, and the Welsh. In fact, modern historians often refer to the Civil War by several names, including, "Puritan evolution', 'English evolution', and more recently 'British Civil War(s)'" (Ohlmeyer, 1998, p. 16). It was a result of many things, including despotic rule…… [Read More]
A fact of history is that enaissance marked a new emerging base towards the already established architecture of antiquity that was rooted in thorough recovery of the past and new inventiveness, but it was because of this that the great cities of Europe gathered much of their form that is admired by the world today. The word renaissance has entered the minds of people with dominant positive connotations of pure genius and renewal. (Campbell, 2004)
enaissance architecture is the architecture of the early 15th to 17th centuries in different areas of Europe which demonstrated a revival of elements of the ancient Greek and oman thought and culture. First established in Florence by Filippo Brunelleschi, the renaissance spread like wild fire to other parts of Italy as well and from there the style was carried to France, England, ussia, Germany and other parts of Europe. (Gromort)
During the enaissance,…… [Read More]
Puritans and Native Americans
What scholars call the "captivity narrative" has had a remarkable life of its own in American culture: stories about this kind of "captivity" continued to be told as entertainment, in Hollywood films like "The Searchers" or "Dances With Wolves," long after anyone had been abducted by a Native American tribe and held captive. It is worth inquiring why this particular type of story maintains its fascination for an American audience, by returning to where these narratives first came from, and how they were told in the centuries before Hollywood movies existed. In Colonial America, the life of Mary owlandson presents an excellent way to examine the clash of cultures. owlandson was born in England but came to New England as a Puritan colonist: she was then abducted during the "First Indian War" and held for several months before a ransom was paid and she was released…… [Read More]
"Their superstitions are infinite, their feast, their medicines, their fishing, their hunting, their wars -- in short almost their whole life turns upon this pivot; dreams, above all have here great credit" (Foner 16). There are a number of value judgments within this quotation; almost all of them are negative. The religious beliefs and practices of the Micmac have been reduced to "superstitions" by the priest. hat is revealing is that almost all of the practices of these people -- including their means of providing food and health care and engaging in social conflict, are likened to "dreams." Yet all of these facets of the Micmac that de Brebeuf names are simply different points of culture that exist between the Europeans and the Native Americans. Because they are different, the priest himself does not believe in them and dismisses them as having a basis in fantasy.
It is interesting to…… [Read More]
Cried, You Didn't Listen: A Survivor's Expos of the California's Youth Authority. The paper should be 4 pages in length and should include a brief synopsis of the book. When writing your reaction to this book.
Please concentrate on the topics and questions below:
The impact of abuse on juvenile development.
How the family system affects juvenile development.
How peer relationships and gangs influence juveniles.
Would Dwight's life have been different had he been placed with a relative instead of in juvenile hall?(no separation between child welfare and juvenile justice at this time)
How could the California Youth Authority improve its work with juveniles?
What was your overall reaction to Dwight's story?
Long ago in the dying years of the 17th century, the authors of a satire on human society, called The Roaring Girl, criticized the jail system noting that it was a place that bred criminals rather than reformed…… [Read More]
Mind, Freedom and Knowledge
Descartes argued that that all humans had both a body and mind, and that the mind was eternal while the body was subject to physical and material laws. The universe was divided between the mind and matter, and the physical world could be explained by mathematical and scientific laws. Hobbes, Locke and other political and philosophical theorists of the 17th Century were also influenced by the new scientific thought of Descartes, Galileo and William Harvey to one degree or another, and had to incorporate them into philosophy (Ryle, p. 251). Ryle denied that any "ghost in the machine" existed, of that the immortal soul somehow operated the physical body. He admitted that explaining the link between bodies and minds was very difficult, although behaviorists had come to understand that expressions indicate moods and emotions, while vision, hearing and motion are all based on sensory inputs being…… [Read More]
Pilgrimage is a central element in religion. Ancient polytheistic religions like those in Greece and Rome used pilgrimage at certain times of year, often creating massive festivals. hile many pilgrimages have a social dimension, others can be profoundly personal and mystical too. Pilgrimage is inherently difficult, and the travails of the journey are part of the process. It is necessary to undertake pilgrimage as a rite of passage. This is especially true in Islam, in which hajj, the pilgrimage to Mecca, is one of the Five Pillars. There are several elements of religious pilgrimage, including the personal, political, and the spiritual.
Motivations for pilgrimage range from a need to prove one's spiritual strength and merit to a need to conform to the dictums of society. In some cases, the pilgrimage serves as an act of communion, prayer, or meditation. Buddhist approaches to pilgrimage, such as those described in Journey…… [Read More]
Political and eligious Boundaries
Byzantium historically was the eastern side of the oman Empire that was the result of the religious, political and cultural schism that occurred between East and West in the 2nd Century AD. The city of Byzantium, or Constantinople, was located in a major strategic trading area between the Adriatic, Black and Mediterranean Seas. As the Western oman Empire declined, the "New ome," or Constantinople, became a blend of cultures and viable for about a millennium. Most scholars agree that it was the only long-term stable state in Europe that protected most of Western Europe from the emerging Islamic Empire. It was the most advanced economy in the Mediterranean area until the enaissance, with trading networks that extended through most of Eurasia and North Africa, as well as the beginning of the Silk oad. Without this economic power, it is unlikely that there would have been funding…… [Read More]
Economic Depression of Europe
An economic depression is more severe than a recession due to the fact that a depression involves drastic decline in a national or international economy, characterized by decreasing business activity, falling prices, and high levels of unemployment.
There were economic depressions in Europe that were experienced before and after the 1870 but with a remarkable difference, being that those that were experienced before the 1870s were less costly in terms of life and resources and took relatively lesser period. Indeed it was a commonplace that every part of Europe experienced one sort of economic depression or the other.
One such economic situation before 1870 was the "little ice age" which began in the late 16th century till around 1950s as indicated by Big Site of History (2011). This was a time when a severe cold that could not be withstood by most crops set in most…… [Read More]
status of women in the pre and post revolutionary days. The paper also touches upon the current status of women to show how the changes that took place in the 19th century finally affected the life of American women in the 20th century.
THE STATUS OF WOMEN IN AMEICA IN THE 17TH AND 19TH CENTUIES
Women in the United States have worked hard to achieve some sort of equality to their male counterparts in every field of activity. Social economic and political conditions have undergone a massive change since the country attained freedom in 1776. Women were a significantly oppressed section of the society in the 17th and 18th centuries, there were no voting rights for them and they were kept out of armed forces and other businesses. This resulted in lack of economic resources for women, which further lowered their position in the country, as they had to depend…… [Read More]
hile Indian women and those of mixed races were certainly lower class citizens, they could easily become elite through their marriage to a white male of Spanish decent (Mabry 1990). Marriage was often seen to transcend any race or class issue, and thus prompted many women to act in non-virtuous ways in order to secure a future (Johnson 1998).
This difference in virtuous intent also relates to the very real danger for women in Bahia who committed acts considered to be sexually outlandish or improper, whether married or single. For married women, the punishment for adultery could include death until 1830. Prior to that time, men who killed their adulterous wives were often acquitted, since they were defending their honor in the eyes of the social system of the time (Caulfield 2000). Further, even single women found to be concubines could be killed by their families, to prevent a loss…… [Read More]
The play continues in a similarly tragic manner as all the children are shot without having any real guilt to defend themselves against. The play ends symbolically with Mother Courage pulling the cart in which there are now fewer supplies and no children, an overwhelming imagistic that the war practically takes away everything you have dear and leaves you empty.
While recht's play is very direct and uses a lot of imagery in order to describe the tragedy of Europe during the war, Montaigne uses, in fact, a parallel analogy by describing, in fact, the cannibals and wars in that society. His description of the devastation of wars in Europe during his time (Montaigne dies at the end of the 16th century, so he is not able to live and describe the Thirty Years War) are in fact comparisons of wars in another society.
According to his work "Of Cannibals,"…… [Read More]
For Marx, of course, economics and class conflicts were the base of society, and social change proceeded through revolutions, such as the French, American and English evolutions against feudalism in the 17th and 18th Centuries. In the future, capitalism would be overthrown by a socialist revolution, starting with the most advanced industrial economies in the West (Greene, p. 200). Comte argued that sociology should be concerned with the "laws of social evolution," though, and that science and technology had undermined traditional religion and the feudal social order. Society evolved in three distinct stages, theological, metaphysical and positive, with positivism representing urban, industrial society (Greene, p. 204).
Plato, Augustine and Descartes were the most important dualist philosophers in history, and all of them valued the mind and immortal soul far more than the physical body or the material universe. This view was dominant until the era of the Scientific evolution…… [Read More]
history slavery North Atlantic British colonies United States
Observations egarding Slavery
One of the primary methods of resistance for people of African descent who existed in servitude in the North Atlantic British colonies and in the United States was rebellion. Although far from occurring frequently, armed, violent revolt from chattel slaves helped to shape the history of their descendants in these locations. One of the most notorious of these uprisings was known as the Southampton Insurrection led by Nat Turner in Virginia's Southampton County in August of 1831. The effect of Turner's armed insurrection, and those of others in the Southern United States and in other North Atlantic British colonies can be evidenced in the amended legislature which ultimately influenced the future and perception of both slaves and former slaves for several years to come.
Turner's 1831 rebellion was just the latest in the lengthy list of historical uprisings slaves…… [Read More]
The trading situation between Great ritain and China in the early part of the 18th century continued to expand, yet the ritish were not satisfied and wanted to possess the ability to trade at any Chinese port and with any entity it wished. In 1793, the first formal diplomatic mission arrived in China under the leadership of Lord Macartney, a man often described as having a powerful influence on trade in India and with a vast knowledge of Eastern sensibilities. Macartney's main objective was to devise a treaty for a fair exchange of diplomatic representatives and the opening of all Chinese ports to ritish shipping while creating a set of tariff duties which were to be vigorously enforced in every Chinese port.
Unfortunately, Macartney's mission to China did not turn out as he had expected, for he was rebuffed by the emperor. In 1816, another attempt to establish formal trading…… [Read More]