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American Cancer Society
The foundation has possess the quality and fiscal support to focus on short-term goal setting by looking and focusing on identification and ways to cure and heal the patients that have cancer never leading toward concern and sympathy in putting a stop to malignant cells and prescribing the right medication to save lives. In reviewing the process of the Society and its decisions it needs to make and carry out for the next 6 months, it has done exceptionally well by starting to put more time and concern in to collecting donations and contributions that really make a difference in how the American Cancer Society, (ACS), can spend money. There is three ways in which this foundation is looking at improving the money they are funded with in order for them to carry out experimentations, look for cures, and afford research, as well as improve the facility's…
American Cancer Society. (2011, April 15). The American cancer society collaborates with key u.n. agencies and global health leaders to advance women's health worldwide. Retrieved from http://cancer.blogs.com/international/2011/04/the-american-cancer-society-collaborates-with-key-un-agencies-and-global-health-leaders-to-advance-w.html
Epsein, S. (1999). American cancer society: the world's wealthiest "nonprofit" institution. Retrieved from http://www.preventcancer.com/losing/acs/wealthies_links.htm
American Cancer Society (ACS) is one of the nation's best-known non-profit organizations. Like most Americans, I have had some contact with the American Cancer Society throughout my lifetime. I have given money to the ACS in various different charity drives. Furthermore, I have participated in the ACS's premier money-raising event, elay for Life, as part of a relay team. When I have had questions about cancer, I have used ACS's information hotline to find out information, and used that information and the links provided by them for research papers and other school projects. Finally, I have had family members with cancer who have used various programs offered by the ACS. These programs have included wig closets for cancer patients and programs aimed at assisting cancer patients with transportation to and from treatments. Therefore, I think it is fair to conclude that I have an enduring relationship with the ACS.
American Cancer Society. (2011). Explore research: groundbreaking cancer research.
Retrieved from http://www.cancer.org /Research/ResearchProgramsFunding/research-programs-and-funding-landing
American Cancer Society. (2011). Look Good….Feel Better. Retrieved from
The American Cancer Society (ACS) reports that one in five deaths in the United States is the result of tobacco use. The Surgeon General issued a statement in 1982 that is still true thirty years later: "Cigarette smoking is the major single cause of cancer mortality [death] in the United States" (Leo osen, 2011). The effects of cigarette smoking can be deadly and perhaps surprisingly, less than half the deaths associated with smoking are cancer-related. Emphysema, heart disease, and stroke are among the fatal consequences of smoking. The effects of cigarette smoking also can be seen in diseases that are not immediately life-threatening, such as asthma and peripheral vascular disease (PVD), but they nevertheless bring a great deal of suffering and cost billions of dollars each year to treat.
There are more deaths associated with smoking than from HIV, illegal drug use, alcohol use, motor vehicle injuries, suicides, and…
Buswell, N. (2009). Clearing the air." Current Health 36(2), pp. 18-21.
Centers for disease control and prevention. (2012, January 10). Retrieved from
Strategic Planning Process
Strategic management is the combination of plants that managers come up with in a bid to program work in an organization to the point where everything follows a predetermined pattern. In a management exercise, it is important to ensure that everyone is brought to terms with what is happening. Many opportunities for success are available for companies that plan their future appropriately. These are opportunities to do with the market, and the rest of what can accrue to the management and responsible managers must not undermine the importance of strategic planning. Some of the notable cases here are in the areas of market control and securing a better status in the workplace for employees.
Initiating a strategic planning process
Initiating this program falls as a responsibility under the hands of the managers and this role is such important to all the stakeholders in life. Managers in any…
Bryson, J. M. (2011). Strategic Planning For Public And Nonprofit Organizations: A Guide To Strengthening And Sustaining Organizational Achievement (4th ed.). San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.
McHatton, P. A., Bradshaw, W., Gallagher, P. A., & Reeves, R. (2011). Results From A Strategic Planning Process: Benefits For A Nonprofit Organization. Nonprofit Management and Leadership, 22(2), 233-249.
Cancer and Women’s and Men’s Health
Cervical cancer is a kind of cancer that takes place in the cells of the cervix, which is basically situated in the lower part of the uterus that links to the vagina. It is imperative to note that different strains or forms of the human papillomavirus (HPV), a sexually transmitted infection, have a role to play in giving rise to a great deal of cervical cancer.
Available Preventative Services
The United States Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) gives the recommendation of screening for cervical cancer in women between the ages of 21 years to 65 years with pap smear for every three-year period. It is also recommended for women between the ages of 30 and 65 years who wish to prolong the screening period, and therefore screening with a mixture of cytology and human papillomavirus testing for every five-year period. In the same manner,…
Cance Cae and Teatment
Diagnosis and staging of cance
In almost all cases, the disease, cance, is diagnosed by a specialist following a micoscopic examination of tissue o cell samples of a paticula individual. In a few instances, physicians may know of the pesence of a cance with the aid of tests pefomed on DNA (deoxyibo-nucleic acid), RNA (ibo-nucleic acid) and cell poteins. Such tests' outcomes pove highly citical when it comes to selecting the optimal theapeutic altenative. Tissue and cell examinations may also aid in the diagnoses of a numbe of othe foms of ailments. Fo example, if a physician is unsue of whethe a paticula lump o gowth in a patient's body is cance, he/she might extact a little bit of it fo testing to diagnose any one of many poblems, including cance, infections and othe issues which may lead to the development of cance-like lumps. This…
MFMER. (2017). Cancer Complications. Retrieved from Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research: http://www.mayoclinic.org /diseases-conditions/cancer/basics/complications/con-20032378' target='_blank' REL='NOFOLLOW'>
Quality cancer data is an important part of cancer management programs and efforts to prevent the disease and treatment measures. This article examines the significance of cancer registry and cancer registrars in the process of collecting quality cancer data. The discussion incorporates determining what a cancer registry is and the role of the cancer registrar in the process. AHIMA requirements for credentialing as a certified tumor registrar and maintaining the certification are also discussed. The author concludes with an evaluation of the role of certified tumor registrar in the American Cancer Society.
The availability of quality cancer data is integral to the fight against cancer throughout the country. The significance of quality cancer data has contributed to the development and establishment of cancer registrars that help in capturing such data. The registrars capture important information related to this disease i.e. history, diagnosis, treatment, and health status for all…
Jensen, O.M. & Storm, H.H. (1991). Cancer registration: principles and methods. Walton Street,
Oxford: Oxford University Press.
National Cancer Registrars Association. (n.d.). Become a Cancer Registrar. Retrieved November
10, 2014, from http://www.ncra-usa.org/files/public/BecomeaCancerRegistrar2014).pdf
Coping With Cancer
According to the American Cancer Society, cancer is the second leading cause of death in the United States. Half of all men and one-third of all women in the U.S. will develop cancer during their lifetimes. oday, millions of people are living with cancer or have had cancer. he numbers are dismal; according to most statistical data American's possess almost a fifty percent chance of developing cancer. With these alarming statistics it is unfortunate and inevitable that almost everyone will have to in some way or another learn how face and cope with the depressing hardships and obstacles of cancer. Whether an individual is diagnosed personally with cancer or a friend or family member is, it seems as though all of us at some point in time may have to learn coping mechanisms for this illness.
his paper addresses the various coping techniques that individuals can employ…
Telch, C.F. & Telch, M.J. "Group skills instruction and supportive group therapy for cancer patients: A comparison of strategies." Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology. 1966, 54, 802-808.
Kyngas, H.; Mikkonen, R. et al. Coping with the onset of cancer: coping strategies and resources of young people with cancer. European Journal of Cancer Care, Mar2001, Vol. 10 Issue 1, p6.
Coping with Cancer
African-Americans in the News
From some of the articles that I have studied, it seems that many articles on the African-American community focus on their problems, on analyzing them and on suggesting possible solutions by which the community can improve its condition.
One of these articles, for example, addresses the problem of HIV / AIDS as it is reflected in the African-American community, suggesting that the best solution may actually revolve around taking responsibilities rather than pointing fingers to the people who are to blame. Taken from the Philadelphia Inquirer and quoting directors from the lack AIDS Institute, the article is keen to point out that "in 2005, AIDS in America is mostly a black disease"
. However, even more worrisome is the perception existing at the community level according to which HIV / AIDS was a white manmade disease, specially created to eradicate and/or control the community. In this…
1. African-Americans Should Take More Responsibility in Fight Against HIV / AIDS, National Conference Speakers Say. March 2005. On the Internet at http://www.medicalnewstoday.com/medicalnews.php?newsid=20606
2. Spriggs, William. African-Americans and Social Security. Dollars & Senses. Issue #256, November/December 2004. On the Internet at http://www.dollarsandsense.org/1104spriggs.html
4. Study: Hispanics a Key News Target. On the Internet at
Care of Patients With Cancer
Diagnosis and Staging of Cancer
Because cancer is a complex disorder that often progresses over long periods of time -- including long periods before an actual diagnosis can be made -- it is very useful to medical practitioners to identify various stages in the progression of the disease. Diagnosis may occur as the result of presenting complaints that cause a patient to seek medical help, or diagnosis may occur when routine check-ups lead to a suspicion by a physician or a laboratory specialist that a more thorough investigation is indicated. Indeed, one of the reasons why certain procedures are included in routine annual physicals is because these tests result in a diagnosis at sufficiently high rates to make them worth conducting. As medical technology advances, the procedures are modified accordingly -- and sometimes the frequency standards for these procedures are modified, as well.
Diseases and Conditions: Cancer. Complications. Mayo Clinic Retreived from http://www.mayoclinic.org /diseases-conditions/cancer/basics/complications/con-20032378' target='_blank' REL='NOFOLLOW'>
In the daily diet; (5) Include cruciferous vegetables in the diet. (russels sprouts, kohlrabi and cauliflower); (6) Consume alcoholic beverages only moderately; and (7) Only moderately consume salt-cured, smoked and nitrate cured foods. (American Cancer Society, 1984, pp. 122-123) What little was understood about nutrition as it relates to cancer rates is summed up in the following specific food categories by the American Cancer Society in its 1984 report:
Food Additives -- chemicals of a variety are added to foods for improving the color and flavor of the foods and to preserve the foods. While some of these have been banned due to having been shown to cause cancer in animals others are believed to protect against carcinogens.
Vitamin E -- Vitamin E is an oxidant and while it may prevent cancer in animals more research is needed of the role Vitamin E plays in preventing cancer in humans.
American Cancer Society.: Nutrition for the Person with Cancer: A Guide for Patients and Families. Atlanta, Ga: American Cancer Society, Inc., 2000.
Brown, J. (2001) Nutrition During and After Cancer Treatment A Guide for Informed Choices by Cancer Survivors. Ca Cancer J. Clin. 2001; 551: 153.
Doyle, Leonard (2009) New Film Exposes Unsavory Side of U.S. Food Industry. 14 Jun 2009. Telegraph online available at: http://www.telegraph.co.uk/culture/film/film-news/5533075/New-film-exposes-unsavoury-side-of-U.S.-food-industry.html
Jemal, A. et al. (2009) Cancer Statistics, 2009. Cancer Journal for Clinicians. 27 May 2009.
diet and cancer. The orks Cited five sources in MLA format.
Food, Diet and Cancer
Diet is fuel for our body. On the same account a balanced nutritious intake is what a human body needs more than anything. Hence food is one of the most cardinal factors that determine the quality of our healthy as well as the longevity of our lives. Knowing which food to eat in what quantity and how food helps us in building our defence mechanisms is essential.
This argumentative essay based on thorough analysis as well as extensive research revolves around and proves the following thesis statement:
There is a correlation between diet and cancer
Correlation between milk as well as other dairy products and Cancer
There are several forms of cancer killing thousands of people worldwide. One of the most common types of cancer is breast cancer affecting women under the age of 50…
Got breast cancer. Available at: http://www.milksucks.com/breast.html (March 20,2003)
Cancer fighters for food. Available at: http://www.umdnj.edu/umcweb/hstate/fall99/cancer_f99.htm (March 20,2003)
Fried Food Link to Some Cancers Disputed. Available at: http://forum.lowcarber.org/t82676.html (March 20,2003)
Study doubts acrylamide in food causes cancer. Available at http://bhagh.nhshealth.org/HealthNews/reuters/NewsStory0128200320.htm (March 20,2003)
Dr. obb-Nicholson's data best supports the scenario that more incidents of breast cancer will be discovered due to the reduced number of screenings that the new guidelines suggest. According to the numbers she gives, the mortality rate for breast cancer decreases every year and this decrease can be attributed to the previous screening guidelines. She writes that the USPSTF has based the new guidelines on statistics rather than clinical data and the message that they are conveying to the public is that the number of deaths that regular screenings at beginning at the age of forty is too small to keep the guidelines as they were previously. (6)
The best approach would be to keep the guidelines the way they were before the change. There was not enough clinical data to support the change in guidelines. Also, because the mortality rate for breast cancer has steadily declined with women following…
1. Cancer Weekly. Concerned Federal Screening Mammography Guidelines to Limit Access for Younger Women. Susan G. Komen for the Cure. 2010: 1665.
2. Earthtimes.org. Stick with Older Mammography Recommendations. Stanford Experts Say. March 3, 2010 (Press Release from Stanford Hospital & Clinics).
3. Hoppel, Ann M. To screen, and when to screen: the mammography age divide. Clinician Reviews. 2009: 19.12.
4. Journal of the American Academy of Physicians Assistants. USP-STF: no routine mammography for women younger than 50 years. 2010; 23.2, p.66.
Screening for breast cancer before there are symptoms is very important. Screening helps doctors find and treat cancer in its early stages. Treatment is more likely to be successful when the cancer is detected early. A doctor may suggest any of the following screening tests for breast cancer: screening mammogram, clinical breast exam, beast self-exam (Stoppler, 2009).
Mammograms can often show a breast lump before it can even be felt. A mammogram is a picture of the breast that is made with an x-ray. It can also show a cluster of tiny deposits of calcium. These deposits are known as micro calcifications. Lumps can be from cancer, precancerous cells, or a host of other conditions. Further tests may be needed to find out if abnormal cells are present. Women in their 40s and older should have mammograms every 1 to 2 years (Stoppler, 2009).
During a clinical breast exam the…
Cancer Gap Between Whites, Blacks May Be Biological in Part. (2009). Retrieved August 11,
2009, from http://healthday.com/Article.asp?AID=628785
Carcinogen Found in KFC's New Grilled Chicken. (2009). Retrieved August 13, 2009, from News and Media Center Web site: http://www.pcrm.org/news/release090521.html
National Breast Cancer Awareness Month. (2008). Retrieved August 11, 2009, from American
This then leads to the activation of a number of genes whose products trigger cell-cycle arrest, apoptosis, or DNA repair" (Lakin 1999, p. 7644).
In research led by Hussain, he investigated the targets of free radicals, which are DNA, proteins, NA, and lipids. He noted that, "mutations in cancer-related genes or post-translational modifications of proteins by nitration, nitrosation, phosphorylation, acetylation or polyADP-ribosylation-by free radiacals or lipid peroxidation byproducts…are some of the key events that can increase the cancer risk" (Hussain 2003, p. 276). Furthermore, changes in DNA occur when the person has been exposed to high levels of nitric oxide or NO. p53 plays a role in that it acts as a mediator to stress but NO "causes p53 accumulation and post-translational modifications that inhibit cellular growth" (Hussain 2003, p. 278). His research has revealed that when exposed to NO during chronic inflammation sans wild-type p53, there might be increased…
American Cancer Society (n.d.) Cancer Facts & Figures 2010, [online] Available at: http://www.cancer.org /research/cancerfactsfigures/cancerfactsfigures/cancer-facts-and-figures-2010 [Accessed: April 19, 2011].
American Cancer Society (n.d.) What Causes Cancer?, [online] Available at:
, 2006). He visualized and described the malignancy process. He suggested that early that "cells of tumors with unlimited growth" would develop with the elimination of chromosomes, which inhibit the growth. The multiple genetic alterations in these inhibiting chromosomes are today known as TSGs. The theory supposes that cancer arises from functional defect or absence of one or more TSGs. Clinical trials of TSG gene replacement therapy for breast cancer include the viral wild-type p53, Rb, and mda7. Molecular chemotherapy involves the introduction of suicide genes. The concept evolved from the assumption that cancer cells could be made more sensitive to chemotherapeutics or toxins by introducing "suicide genes." It was a concept initiated in the late 80s. Suicide gene therapy is categorized into toxin gene therapy and enzyme-activating pro-drug therapy. Suicide gene therapy is also called gene-directed enzyme pro-drug therapy or GDEPT. GDEPT treatment consists of the delivery of the…
Abaan, O. D and Criss, Wayne E (2002). Gene therapy in human breast cancer. 32
(2002): 283-291 Turkey Journal of Medical Science: Tubitak. Retrieved on April 15,
2010 from http://journals.tubitak.gov.tr/medical/issues/sag-02-32-4-1-0204.pdf
Lowery, A.J., et al. (2009). MicroRNA signatures predict oestrogen receptor,
Anti-Cancer Drug Anaerobin
a) EFFECTS ON KIDNEYS, HEART AND BRAIN
Cytotoxic metabolites are created when bio-reductive drugs go through a metabolic process because they contribute to curing cancer by lowering oxygen to areas where the cancer affects the body. The local auto regulation process of the body provides the oxygen to all parts of the body where it is needed. The arterioles supplying that tissue for oxygen dilate to supply more oxygen than usual. This happens also in the case of the tumor when it demands more oxygen; it is supplied by the body and anaerobin affects the auto regulation process in all areas as it reduces the blood flow to all organs, except the lungs. It can reduce the oxygen and supply of nutrients to the tumor by up to 99%. Therefore this bio-reductive drug can help in treatment of cancer in modern therapy.
Anti-cancer drugs reduce the cell…
Linda Bren, 2005. Cancer Drugs: weighing the Risks and Benefits. FDA Consumer, 41(1), pp.10+.
Nootropic. Available at: Http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nootropic#Vitamins_and_supplements (Accessed at 2 December 2011)
Paual Ravasco, Isabel Monterio-Grillo, Pedro Marques Vidal & Maria Ermelinda Camilio, 2005. Dietary Counseling Improves Patient Outcomes: A Prospective, Randomized, Controlled Trial in Colorectal Cancer Patients Undergoing Radiotherapy. Journal of Clinical Oncology, 23(7), pp. 1431-1438.
Dietary Fibers on the Risk of Developing Cancer
Cancer is a genetic and complex disease caused mainly due to environmental elements. Carcinogen is a cancer agent that and can be present in water, food, air and in sunlight and chemicals as well. Almost ninety percent of the cancer occurs in epithelia because the epithelia cells cover the human's skin, lines the alimentary and respiratory tracts, and also metabolize ingested carcinogens. Currently, the causes of diseases are changing and infection can cause problems like cancer and cardiovascular diseases. There were more than ten million cancer cases in 1996 globally while six million people died from cancer. Unhealthy lifestyle like smoking cigarettes and adopting modern diet that includes fiber content and high fat is causing increased incidences of cancer in humans (Alison).
Development of Cancer
Cancer cells are different from normal cells and they continue to grow other abnormal cells in the…
ACS. "Genes and Cancer." American Cancer Society (2014).
-- . "Wilms Tumor ." American Cancer Society (2015).
Alison, Malcolm R. "Cancer." NCYCLOPEDIA OF LIFE SCIENCES (2001): 1.
Harras, A. "CANCER RISK FACTORS." NEW JERSEY DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH & SENIOR SERVICES (2002).
Treating and Coping With Pancreatic Cancer
Although significant progress has been made in diagnosis and treating many types of cancers, one type of cancer that remains highly intractable to treatment is pancreatic cancer. In fact, pancreatic cancer is difficult to detect because symptoms may not occur until the condition is well advanced, and even when it is diagnosed early, patient prognoses are poor. Although pancreatic cancer represents just around 3% of all types of cancers in the United States, the condition is responsible for approximately 7% of all cancer deaths (Key statistics, 2015). This paper provides a description of the diagnosis and staging of pancreatic cancer followed by a discussion concerning the complications and side effects that are associated with the disease. Finally, a description of the methods that are used to lessen the physical and psychological effects of treatment for pancreatic cancer is followed by a summary of the…
Cohen, P. J. (2006, May-June). Medical marijuana, compassionate use, and public policy: Expert opinion or vox populi? The Hastings Center Report, 36(3), 19-23.
Key statistics. (2015). American Cancer Society. Retrieved from http://www.cancer.org /cancer/pancreaticcancer/detailedguide/pancreatic-cancer-key-statistics.
MacNeil, N. S. (2009, November). Treat depression in cancer patients. Clinical Psychiatry News, 33(11), 64.
Marks. S. & Heinrich, T. (2013, August). Assessing and treating depression in palliative care patients: Antidepressants, psychotherapy can improve dying patients' quality of life. Current Psychiatry, 12(8), 35-41.
treatment using the drug, tamoxifen, and higher mortality rates in females aged over forty years. The peer-reviewed papers employed for this study reveal a dynamic scrutiny of the aforementioned link. Quantitative as well as qualitative research works have been utilized, with a comparison and contrast made of the most apt methodology employed by the researchers. The end goal is ascertaining whether or not it is a risky decision to not adhere to tamoxifen treatment and how much information patients possess with regard to the drug and its effects.
The esearch Question and its Importance
After the diagnosis of her health condition, Ms. Jones is prescribed tamoxifen as medication. For an entire year, Ms. Jones fails to consume this prescribed drug. Upon revisiting the hospital after a year of not complying with this recommended treatment plan, she is told that her cancer has reappeared and is much more lethal than before.…
ANS (2010) Cancer Facts And Figures 2010. American Cancer Society. https://old.cancer.org/acs/groups/content/@nho/documents/document/acspc-024113.pdf
Banerjee, S., Saxena, N., Sengupta, K. and Banerjee, S. K. (2003) 17 alpha-estradiol-induced VEGF-A expression in rat pituitary tumor cells is mediated through ER independent but PI3K-Akt dependent signaling pathway. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun.300, 209-215.
Banning M (2012). Adherence to adjuvant therapy in post-menopausal breast cancer patients: a review cc_1295 1.10
Etiology of Pancreatic Cancer
Pancreatic cancer has emerged as the most lethal human cancers. In fact, the World Health Organization (WHO) has termed it an unresolved health problem of the 21st century. The disease presently causes about 30,000 deaths in the U.S. per year (Yarbro et al. 2015). Despite past efforts, conventional interventions like radiation, surgery, chemotherapy and combination of these had minimal success in the course of this aggressive disease. It is imperative to develop an in-depth understanding of the molecular biology of pancreatic cancer to help us effectively diagnose, prevent and treat the disease. Nearly all pancreatic cancer patients experience metastases and die due to the frustrating metabolic effects of their unrestrained growth (Shrikhande et al. 2010). Hence, a crucial requirement for progress is the establishment of effective systemic interventions, can reverse the aggressive biology of the disease.
According to the WHO, pancreatic cancer is the fifth most…
Casil, A. S. (2011). Pancreatic Cancer: Current and Emerging Trends in Detection and Treatment. New York: Rosen Pub.
Gress, T. M. (2010). Molecular Pathogenesis of Pancreatic Cancer. Amsterdam [U.A.: IOS Press.
Hoff, D. D., Evans, D. B., & Hruban, R. H. (2015). Pancreatic Cancer. Sudbury: Mass.
Jeruc, J., Kos, I., & Vodovnik, A. (2012). Pancreatic Cancer: Epidemiology and Risk Factors. International Conference on Diseases of Pancreas, Biliary Tract and Duodenum, 17-19.
Working Night Shift and Getting Cancer
The increasing rate of women acquiring breast cancer disease has been an alarming issue in the medical history of cancer prevention and studies. The many research and studies conducted by medical professionals on breast cancer disease have found a number of cancer-causing habits and lifestyles. Among those that have been examined and found as risk factors of breast cancer on women is night-shift work.
Regularly working in night shift as a health-hazardous cause of breast cancer has been investigated by several studies of different cancer research institutions. Almost all studies were carried out based from employment histories of women diagnosed of breast cancer. In a population-based study conducted by Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, it was found that women who regularly work at night are at 60% risk of developing breast cancer. The most significant risk factor to this is the exposure to bright…
Davis, Jeanie Lerche. (2001). Breast Cancer and the Night Shift: Is There a Link?
Retrieved December 08, 2003, from Web MD Health.
Web site: http://my.webmd.com/content/article/35/1728_91195
DeNoon, Daniel. (2003). Hormone Melatonin Slows Breast Cancer.
Care of cancer can be a complex process and always needs the engagement of several specialists because treating cancer is multifaceted. The multifaceted and complex nature of approach to care of cancer is attributed to that fact that this process not only revolves around treating the condition itself but also focuses on dealing with non-cancer issues. Some of these non-cancer issues to address during treatment and care of cancer include the patient's coexistent illnesses, health behaviors, and preventive care initiatives. Moreover, the approach to care requires coordinated efforts from various healthcare providers such as oncologists, surgeons, and radiation oncologists. However, the identification a suitable approach to care of cancer requires examining diagnosis and staging of cancer, probable complications, side effects of treatment, and measures to reduce physical and psychological impacts.
Diagnosis and Staging of Cancer
The treatment of cancer begins with diagnosis, which involves a physical examination and medical history…
"Cancer Staging." (n.d.). Diagnosis and Staging. Retrieved from National Cancer Institute at the National Institutes of Health website: http://www.cancer.gov/cancertopics/diagnosis-staging/staging/staging-fact-sheet
"Complications." (2014, January 20). Mayo Clinic. Retrieved May 13, 2015, from http://www.mayoclinic.org /diseases-conditions/cancer/basics/complications/con-20032378' target='_blank' REL='NOFOLLOW'>
Nurse practitioners need to work with all types of people, from many different faith backgrounds. Generally, they are not expected to know the intimate details of any particular religion, but they should have a generalized knowledge of how different spiritual beliefs can influence the healing process. While this can be a fairly easy process to acquire knowledge about major religious groups, there are many minority spirituality groups in the United States, being a very diverse society. Three that come to mind are Wicca, Druid and Native American religious traditions. This paper will analyze these different systems of spirituality in the context of how they affect healing in particular, as this is the area that will most affect the nurse practitioner's role.
There are a variety of sources that provide insight into the Wicca view of healing. The Wiccan belief system is considered to be a pagan belief…
American Cancer Society (2008). Native American healing. American Cancer Society. Retrieved April 25, 2014 from http://www.cancer.org /treatment/treatmentsandsideeffects/complementaryandalternativemedicine/mindbodyandspirit/native-american-healing
Dragonsong, E. (2014). What is an energy healer? Wicca Spirituality. Retrieved April 25, 2014 http://www.wicca-spirituality.com/energy-healer.html
No author. (2014) Druidry and healing. Druid Healing Retreats. Retrieved April 25, 2014 from http://www.druidhealingretreats.co.uk/druidry-healing
Wattpad. (2014). Wiccan guide to healing. Wattpad. Retrieved April 25, 2014 fro http://www.wattpad.com/7388209-wiccan-guide-to-healing
" (Iyengar, 2001) Lastly, the manner of presentation of a news story "significantly affects its ability to set the public agenda." (Behr and Iyengark 1985; Dearing and Rogers, 1996) Concluded is that: "In the current regime, American politics is almost exclusively a mediated experience. The role of the citizen ahs evolved from occasional foot soldier and activist to spectators. Those who seek public office invest heavily in efforts to shape news coverage of their candidacy. The returns from this investment provide them with leverage over public opinion, by setting the public agenda or by projecting a general impression of competent leadership..." (Iyengar, 2001)
The report published by the "ediaatters for America' website entitled: "According to aher, CBS's "Free Speech" is a isnomer" states that Bill aher, HBO's Real Time with Bill aher show host states that "CBS rejected his request to comment on religion for his planned "Free Speech" segment…
Miles, M.B., & Huberman, a.M. (1984). Qualitative data analysis, a sourcebook of new methods. Newbury Park, CA: Sage.
Miller, W.L., & Crabtree, B.F. (1992). Primary care research: A multimethod typology and qualitative road map. In B.F. Crabtree & W.L. Miller (Eds.), Doing qualitative research. Research methods for primary care (Vol. 3). Newbury Park, CA: Sage.
The American Media Representation of Islam & Terrorism Post 9-11
It was during the same period that hostilities with the communist leadership culminated into the bombing of Libya, loggerheads with the Soviet Union and a stiff arms race with the U.S.S.R.
It is also significant to note that it was during the same time that he successfully engaged Mikhail Gorbachev who was then the Soviet General secretary and culminated into the signing of Intermediate-Range Nuclear Forces (INF) treaty that signaled the end in arms race and both countries agreed to decrease in nuclear weapons in their custody.
Upon ascending to presidency, Reagan was bent on introducing new political as well as economic dispensations radically. He advocated more for supply-side economics which saw him push for reduction of tax rates to speed up economic growth, money supply control to check inflation, reduction of regulation on the economy particularly business to encourage competitive and free-market free for all which as a matter…
It is also wise to have it reviewed by a doctor or attorney, the Family Doctor eb site suggests; that way you can be assured that what you wish to have done with you and to you if you become incapacitated is "understood exactly as you intended" (Family Doctor).
The advance directives are sensitive and private, and they are very important for seniors. But the advance directives can be controversial, so it is wise for older people to know the law and understand the facts. To wit, there have been rumors and falsehoods spread on the orld ide eb and elsewhere about the advance directives that are spelled out in the recent overhaul of the healthcare system. Former governor of Alaska Sarah Palin made news in the summer of 2009 by asserting that the advance directives in the healthcare overhaul created a "death panel" of bureaucrats who will "decide, based…
Binstock, Robert H., and George, Linda K. (2010). Handbook of Aging and the Social
Sciences. Maryland Heights, MO: Academic Press.
Black, Jane A. (2008). Notes: The Not-So-Golden Years: Power of Attorney, Elder Abuse, and Why Our Laws are Failing a Vulnerable Population. St. John's Law Review, 82(1), 289-314
Collier, Elizabeth. (2005). Latent age discrimination in mental health care. Mental Health
Comparison of Websites
Cancer, the very mention of the name triggers a feeling of hopelessness and void in the lives of people. Learning to face this dangerous disease in a positive manner is almost half the battle and it requires a lot of inner strength. In majority of the cases people lose the fight at the very mention of the disease, seemingly doomed to the inevitable, engulfed by an all-consuming fear. With the advancements in medical science that we have today we are better prepared now than ever before in dealing with the disease. However it is important to be knowledgeable about the disease in order to put up a positive fight. Today the Internet is perceived as a rich source of information. In this regard let us compare two websites that contain a lot information pertaining to the disease and its treatment methodologies.
This site carries exhaustive…
Designed by 'American Cancer Society', Accessed on 2nd March, 2003
Designed by 'Cancer Information and Support International', Accessed on 2nd March, 2003, http://www.cancer-info.com
Diversity of Aging Population -- Innovative Healthcare
Over the past several decades there has been an avalanche of research and scholarly narratives focusing on the aging of millions of Americans -- among them the "baby boomers" that were born between 1946 and 1964 -- including their numbers and their health vis-a-vis the impact on the sometimes struggling healthcare system. But there has been a dearth of research on how American healthcare services will respond -- and is currently responding -- to an increasingly diverse older population when it comes to racial, cultural and ethnic identities. This paper points to the numerous issues and challenges that not only face an increasingly diverse older American population when it comes to healthcare, but also the challenges that the healthcare system itself faces as these Americans move into the twilight of their lives.
hat should be the Vision and Mission of Healthcare Professionals in…
Administration on Aging. (2010). A Statistical Profile of Black Older Americans Aged 65+.
Retrieved April 2, 2014, from http://www.aoa.gov .
Bookman, A. (2008). Innovative models of aging in place: Transforming our communities for an aging population. Community, Work & Family, 11(4), 419-438.
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2007). The State of Aging and Health in America
Marketing in the biotechnology industry is critically important. The basic path to market involves receiving regulatory approval for products. From there, marketing is conducted to physicians directly, necessitating a relatively large sales force. The presence of competing treatments necessitates significant investment marketing, compounded by the impact of the need to recoup the sunk costs associated with product development. In addition, marketing in the biotechnology industry is strictly regulated by the Food and Drug Administration. The FDA exerts tight control over marketing -- a firm is only allowed to promote products for approved uses. Off-label marketing -- defined as marketing a product for uses not approved by the FDA -- is prohibited and firms found guilty can be subject to significant fines.
An example, of the strong regulatory influence on marketing can be found in the approval that United received in July for Tyvaso. The product, already delayed multiple…
MSN Moneycentral: UTHR. (2009). Retrieved October 29, 2009 from http://moneycentral.msn.com/companyreport?Symbol=U.S.%3aUTHR
2008 United Therapeutics Annual Report (includes Form 10-K).
United Therapeutics website, various pages. (2009). Retrieved October 29, 2009 from http://www.unither.com/
Press Release: United Therapeutics. (2009). FDA approves Tyvaso (treprostinil) inhalation solution for the treatment of pulmonary arterial hypertension. Retrieved October 29, 2009 from http://ir.unither.com/releasedetail.cfm?ReleaseID=400062
American Academy Pediatrics publication a critique a media portrayal substance, links made AAP statement material. The password EBook: apusstudent I uploaded rest material.
American Academy of Pediatrics' Policy Statement concerning media portrayal of substance abuse touches upon several important issues that arise along with the media products' influence on America's young population at large. The article's targeted list of open-access channels associated with messages of noxious substance use include advertisements, television shows, motion pictures, social websites and music. Attention is directed specifically towards the findings of broadly conducted research in the matter of harm inflicted on children and adolescents as a result of the entertainment industry's depictions of legal and illegal substances, such as alcohol, tobacco, marijuana and heroin. Based on these findings, Pediatrics proposes a set of familial, institutional and legislative measures designed to minimize or abolish the destructive influence that media effects on a child's and teenager's development…
American Academy of Pediatrics. (2010, October). Policy Statement -- Children, Adolescents, Substance Abuse and the Media. Pediatrics, Vol. 126, No. 4, pp. 791-799.
Levinthal, C.F. (2012). Drugs, Behavior, and Modern Society, Seventh Edition. New York: Allyn & Bacon.
Macdonald, A. (Producer), & Boyle, D. (Director). (1996). Trainspotting [Motion picture]. United Kingdom: Channel Four Films.
Roberts, D.F. et al. (1999). Substance Use in Popular Movies and Music. Office of National Drug Control Policy, Center for Substance Abuse Prevention (U.S.). Retrieved from www.ncjrs.gov
For the American community to open up to the less fortunate in the community, there is need to have a diverse leader and a pragmatic leader who will not only concentrate on the foreign affairs and the complex national economics and financial matrices but also on the basic misfortunes that face the average underprivileged America.
The best place hence to undertake American studies that will present me with the best shots at lifting our society from the disparity in lifestyle, by educating me on the details of the America that was, America that is and one that we want, is at the cradle of history itself; the university. This knowledge, combined with the zeal for information from around the world as I get updated through addictive reading of New York Times and continuous follow-up of updates on CNN, can surely make me climb to the apex of my career and…
The culture that I have chosen is Native Americans, which for U.S. government purposes are usually defined as Native Americans and Alaskan Natives. This is an umbrella group for all of the different tribes, and people descended from those tribes, so there can be significant cultural differences between the groups. This group often suffers from health care outcomes that are worse than those in the general population. The leading causes of morbidity/mortality among this group have been identified as motor vehicle accidents, suicide, firearms and homicide in order. While motor vehicle accidents are the highest cause among whites as well, the rate of such among Native Americans is more than double either whites or blacks. Suicide rates among Native Americans are nearly five times what they are for whites or blacks. Firearm rates are much higher than those of whites, but lower than those for blacks. The homicide…
CDC. (2003). Morbidity and Mortality weekly report. Center for Disease Control.
Guadagnolo, B., Cina, K., Helbig, P., Molloy, K., Reiner, M., Cook, E. & Petereit, D. (2009). Medical mistrust and less satisfaction with health care among Native Americans presenting for cancer treatment. Journal of Health Care for the Poor and Underserved. Vol. 2009 (1) 210-226.
ACS. (2008). Native American healing. American Cancer Society. Retrieved February 26, 2015 from http://www.cancer.org /treatment/treatmentsandsideeffects/complementaryandalternativemedicine/mindbodyandspirit/native-american-healing
advertisements for Harley Davidson both have the overall message that Harley Davidson's are for rebellious individuals and that societies rules do not apply to the Harley Davidson owner.
The text of the first ad, "in some circles, paisley and florals have yet to catch on" sets the tone for the ad and also conveys the meaning. Firstly, the text has an air of importance to it as well as an air of indifference. The "in some circles" is patronizing and suggests that these 'some' are not as good as the rest. The humor associated with 'paisley and florals' takes the edge of this patronizing feel, so that overall the text has a humor that means it is not to be taken too seriously. This creates a humorous and ironic tone to the ad. This text, without the picture, also captures the meaning of the ad. These 'circles' that haven't caught…
conflict which has repercussions in the present time or one that is indeed actual. The following chosen conflict can actually be regarded as conflictive on two grounds which makes it all the more so important. First, hydraulic fracturing has been demonstrated to have severe environmental consequences on a negative scale which subsequently affect people's well-being. Second, as a technological development of the twentieth century, hydraulic fracturing, provided that the aforementioned is indeed true, would constitute reasonable grounds to estimate that the effects of industrialization have been detrimental to the common interest of the mere population while it has only boosted more financial benefits for the rich. The two grounds mentioned before make hydraulic fracturing a very current dangerous conflict which is why it has been chosen here. Moreover, certain companies seem to be given the right to drill internationally while the population is not made aware of the consequences, especially…
Crises Calls at the American Cancer Society
The American Cancer Society (ACS) is the largest cancer-related charitable organization in the United States, and probably the world. It is one of the United States' two largest healthcare charitable organizations, along with the American Heart Association. It receives millions of dollars a year in donations and provides funding for research, information, and programs for cancer patients throughout the United States. One of the programs it runs is the cancer information center, a call-center where specially trained cancer information specialists handle calls about cancer. These cancer-information specialists (CIS) are college-educated, highly trained individuals with access to a database with extensive information about cancer. Most of them have backgrounds in the social sciences, such as psychology, sociology, and social work, and many of them have experience and training in crises counseling. In addition, the ACS employs nurses in the call-center to handle specific-questions that…
Anderson, D. & Anderson, L. (2010). Beyond change management: How to achieve breakthrough results through conscious change management. San Francisco, CA: Pfieffer.
Appelbaum, S., Habashy, S., Malo, J., & Shafiq, H. (2012). Back to the future: Revisiting
Kotter's 1996 change model. Journal of Management Development, 31(8), 764-782.
Cameron, E., & Green, M. (2012). Making sense of change management: A complete guide to the models, tools, and techniques of organizational change. Philadelphia, PA: Kogan Page Limited.
Healthcae and Divesity of Faiths
The objective of this study is to eseach thee divese faiths and to compae the philosophy of poviding health cae fom the pespective of these thee faiths with that of the Chistian pespective and the wite's own pesonal pespective. Fo the pupose of the study the thee faiths chosen ae the Native Ameican faith, Buddhism, and Shintoism.
Native Ameican Faith
The Native Ameican faith view on medicine is that healing is moe peson than disease-centeed. It is epoted that taditional heales have the objective of "making whole estoing well-being and hamonious elationships with the community and the spiit of natue, which is sometimes called God o the Geat Mystey. Native Ameican healing is based on the belief that eveyone and eveything on eath is inteconnected, and evey peson, animal, and plant has a spiit o essence. Even an object, such as a ive o ock,…
references does have a parallel in Christianity. The key distinction, of course, is that there is only one spirit -- that of God, which may be expressed via the
The First Nuclear Test
Of course, the first nuclear test occurred before the 1950s and was part of the United States' effort to develop an atomic weapon during World War II. This test occurred at 5:30 A.M. On July 16, 1945, at a missile range outside of Alamogordo, New Mexico. Even that test was enough to convince a large group of scientists that the atomic weapon was a dangerous and powerful weapon. "The Franck Report," a petition issued by Leo Szilard and 68 other scientists urged President Truman to first demonstrate the capabilities of the atomic bomb before using it as a weapon against the Japanese, because of the mass destruction that came with the bomb.
This test, known as the Trinity Test, was a tremendous success. "The energy developed in the test was several times greater than that expected by scientific group. The cloud column mass and top reached…
Adams, Cecil. 1984. "Did John Wayne die of cancer caused by a radioactive movie set?" The Straight Dope. http://www.straightdope.com/classics/a2_016.html (Accessed August 19, 2008).
American Cancer Society. 2006. "Radiation exposure and cancer." Cancer.org. http://www.cancer.org /docroot/PED/content/PED_1_3X_Radiation_Exposure_and_Cancer.asp?sitearea=PED (Accessed August 19, 2008).
Ball, Howard. 1996. "Downwind from the bomb." The New York Times. http://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?res=9A0DEED61438F93AA35751C0A960948260&sec=health&spon=&pagewanted=1 (Accessed August 19, 2008).
Brodersen, Tom. 2002. "Compensation available to fallout cancer victims." Sharlot Hall
acial and Ethnic Approaches to Community Health (EACH 2010 Program)
The health objectives for the United States for the 21st century have been described in The Federal Initiative to Eliminate acial and Ethnic Health Disparities and Healthy People 2010. The national interest in the areas of racial and ethnic disparities has been renewed with the public health initiatives with the leadership for the discussion being taken by the Center for Disease Control and Prevention. The overall health of the nation has improved a lot, but the members of the minority groups in the ethnic and racial areas have not been benefited. This includes the African-Americans, Alaska Natives, American Indians, Asian-Americans, Hispanic-Americans and Pacific Islanders.
This segment of our population is more likely to have poor health and premature deaths than the white Americans. During 1992 to 1998, the deaths from breast cancer have come down noticeably, but there are more…
Author Unknown) (n.d) Chronic Diseases, Risk Factors, and Preventive Services, Alabama. Retrieved at http://www.4woman.gov/owh/reg/4/overview.htm. Accessed on 15/10/2003
Author Unknown) (n.d) Health Disparities and Non-insulin Type 2 Diabetes. Retrieved at http://www.medicalnewsservice.com . Accessed on 15/10/2003
Author Unknown) (n.d) HHS Awards more than 65 Million to eliminate health disparities. Retrieved at http://apps.nccd.cdc.gov/BurdenBook/DeathCause.asp?state=alAccessed on 15/10/2003
Author Unknown) (n.d) Overview of Region lV. Retrieved at http://www.cdc.gov /nccdphp/exemplary/racial.htm. Accessed on 15/10/2003
Unexpected: Temporal, Situational, and Attributive Dimensions of Distressing Symptom Experience for Breast Cancer Survivors
Describe the data collection procedure.
The researchers for the study conducted a secondary analysis of data that was collected for an earlier study, Survivor Loneliness of Women Following Breast Cancer (osedale & Fu, 2010). The data collection procedure for the earlier study was based on interviews of volunteer participants. The interviews, which lasted approximately 90 minutes, included the participants completing a questionnaire, speaking freely on their experiences, and sharing any personal written or artistic material they wished, such as diary entries or poetry (osedale, 2009). The interviews were recorded and the researcher also recorded notes with their own impressions of the participants' demeanor, nonverbal behavior, and emotional responses (osedale, 2009).
How did the authors address the reliability and validity of their methods?
To address reliability and validity, the authors implemented a series of checks and balances…
American Cancer Society. (2010). Reach to Recovery. Retrieved from http://www.cancer.org /Treatment/SupportProgramsServices/reach-to-recovery
Rosedale, M. (2009). Survivor loneliness of women following breast cancer. Oncology Nursing Forum, 36(2), 175 -- 183.
Rosedale, M., & Fu, M.R. (2010). Confronting the unexpected: Temporal, situational, and attributive dimensions of distressing symptom experience for breast cancer survivors. Oncology Nursing Forum, 37(1), 28-33.
In 2003, another study conducted by researchers at Harvard University showed that drinking red wine in moderate amounts may help prevent or postpone diseases like Alzheimer's, a disorder associated with the brain's ability to store information and retain long-term and short-term memories, Parkinson's disease and other forms of dementia related to the brain and the central nervous system. In addition, a 2003 study published by the American Journal of Gastroenterology demonstrated that drinking moderate amounts of red wine "decreases the risk of peptic ulcers and may help to rid the body of the bacteria suspected of causing them." Also, the Harvard School of Public Health, after conducting a 14-year-long study involving more than 100,000 women aged 25 to 42 from 14 different states, found that women who drank red wine in moderate amounts (1 or 2 drinks a day) "had a 58% lower likelihood of developing diabetes." This study also…
Glanze, Walter D., Ed. Mosby's Medical Encyclopedia. St. Louis, MO: C.V. Mosby & Company, 2005.
LaMar, James. "Wine and Health." 2008. Internet. Accessed December 5, 2009 from http://www.winepros.org/wine101/wine-health.htm .
"Red Wine and Resveratrol: Good for Your Heart?" Mayo Clinic. 2009. Internet. Accessed December 5, 2009 from http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/red-wine/HB00089/
Not even 50 years ago, many people felt skeptical about the hazards of cigarette smoking. Although increasing numbers of studies showed that some connection existed between tobacco and lung and heart ailments, questions still remained about the true effects on health. In 1964, however, the United States Surgeon General Luther Terry confronted 200 media reporters in a State Department auditorium for two hours and completely changed the course of history. For the first time, the American government made it official: Smoking causes lung cancer. How much of an impact did this warning and other warnings to come by the Surgeon General and additional interested parties in the future alter the numbers of people smoking nationwide? The results are not too promising.
After the Surgeon General's first announcement, there was an immediate reaction. At this time, about 46% of people smoked in the U.S. When Americans heard the Surgeon…
Bowman, Lee. "Potomac Watch: 40 years ago, government linked smoking to cancer."
Scripps Howard News Service, January 10, 2004. 31. May 2005. http://seattlepi.nwsource.com/national/156042_pot10.html
Eckman, B, & S. Goldberg. "The viability of the Marlboro Man among the 18-24 segment." Bates no. 204462266-2024462292., 8, 1992.
Geoffrey Fong. "UW Researcher to get U.S. Grant to study Warning Labels." 31 May, 2005. http://www.adm.uwaterloo.ca/infonews/release/2002/153%20Cigarette%20warning%20labels%20studied,%20July%2024,%202002.html
McMillan, S.C., & Small, B.J. (2007). Using the COPE intervention for family caregivers to improve symptoms of hospice homecare patients. Oncology Nursing Forum, 34(2), 313-21.
Are there any HIPAA concerns that are evident in this study?
Both caregivers and patients were required to sign informed consent documentation in order to participate in the study. Were any concerns related to HIPAA indicated in the protocol or procedures for conducting the study, those concerns would need to be delineated in the consent documents and explained to the participants. Since caregivers were an integral component to the hospice care and quality of life measures for patients, patient privacy could be maintained just as with any other medical or healthcare services.
What methods were put in place to ensure that the subjects were giving true informed consent?
The inclusion criteria and protocol for participating in the study required that patients and caregivers both be…
McMillan, S.C., & Small, B.J. (2007). Using the COPE intervention for family caregivers to improve symptoms of hospice homecare patients. Oncology Nursing Forum, 34(2), 313-21.
Rosedale, M., & Fu, M.R. (2010). Confronting the unexpected: Temporal, situational, and attributive dimensions of distressing symptom experience for breast cancer survivors. Oncology Nursing Forum, 37(1), 28-33.
Anticipatory Guidance Project
Mammogram screenings guidelines
The suitability of screening mammography has been a contentious issue because of a number of reasons. For instance, the lack of consistency of screening guidelines reveals the complexities in coming up with definitive conclusions on the suitability of the procedure. Another issue with mammographic screening is the degree to which a mammography helps to reduce mortality among women. There have been arguments from some quarters that there is no evidence that mammography reduces mortality. In addition, sometimes screening can provide false-positive results resulting in needless additional testing, which may include the probability of invasive surgical processes. These controversies have elicited intense debates from various components of the society.
Background information about the guidelines
The American Cancer Society gives a number of guidelines on mammogram screenings (The American Cancer Society, 2013). First, it recommends that women who are 40 years and older of age should…
American Cancer Society (2013). American Cancer Society recommendations for early breast cancer detection in women without breast symptoms. Breast Cancer: Early Detection. Retrieved from: http://www.cancer.org /cancer/breastcancer/moreinformation/breastcancerearlydetection/breast-cancer-early-detection-acs-recs
Brant, W.E., & Helms, C.A. (2012). Fundamentals of diagnostic radiology. Philadelphia: Wolters Kluwer/Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Health.
Kwabi-Addo, B., & Lindstrom, T.L. (2011). Cancer causes and controversies: Understanding risk reduction and prevention. Santa Barbara, Calif: Praeger.
Nundy, S. (2010). Stay healthy at every age: What your doctor wants you to know. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press.
Physiological Effects of Hodgkin's Disease
In this paper I shall give an overview of Hodgkin's disease while focusing on its physiological effects. Specifically, the paper consists of an overview of the disease, describes how the disease affects the body cells and tissues, and how the treatment attacks the disease and affects the body, besides reviewing the treatments available.
Hodgkin's disease is one of the two (and less severe) types of cancer of the lymphatic system; the other type being non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. The disease is named after the British physician, Thomas Hodgkin, who first discovered the condition in 1832. Hodgkin's disease commonly occurs in young adults (between the ages of 15 to 35) and in older people (over 50-year-olds. However, about 10%-15% of cases have been diagnosed in children below 16 years of age. Statistics also show that more men than women are afflicted by it. ("What are the Key Statistics…
'Autologous Bone Marrow Stem Cell Transplantation" (2004). American Cancer Society. Retrieved on September 28, 2004 from http://www.cancer.org /docroot/CRI/content/CRI_2_4_4X_Autologous_Bone_Marrow_Stem_Cell_Transplantation_and_Peripheral_Blood_Stem_Cell_Transplantation_20.asp?rnav=cri 'Chemotherapy." (2004). American Cancer Society. Retrieved on September 28, 2004 from
A lower-stage cancer is in an early stage and which has a lower chance of cancer spread or metastasis. A low-grade sarcoma is less likely to spread than a high-grade sarcoma (Emory).
This presents 15 members of a family diagnosed with multiple tumors from the submucosa of the small intestines (Trent 2006). This suggests that this type of tumor runs in the family through a germ-line mutation, which affects all the body cells. The origin remained unknown. The chance of a child inheriting the mutant gene in the family was 50/50. Some may not currently have the tumor but each case in the multiple series of tumors is a separate and entire, primary tumor. Any of them can metastasize (Trent).
Surgery removes all or part of the tumor (Emory 2006). If the tumor is small, it is removed with some normal tissue from the affected body part,…
American Cancer Society (2007). How Are soft Tissue Sarcomas Staged? Cancer Reference Information. 2 pages. American Cancer Society: American Cancer Society, Inc. Retrieved on June 27, 2007 at http://cancer.org/docroot/CRI/content/CRI_2_4_3%_How_is_sarcoma_staged_38asp
Demetri, G. (2005). Sarcoma Facts. Sarcoma. Sarcoma.net. Retrieved on June 27, 2007 at http://www.sarcoma.net/facts.htm
Emory Winship Cancer Institute. (2006). Cancer Treatments - What to Expect? Emory Healthcare: Emory University. Retrieved on June 27, 2007 at http://www.emoryhealthcare.org/departments/wci/sarcoma/treatments.html
Understanding Sarcoma and Musculoskeletal Cancers. http://www.emoryhealthcare.org/departments/wci/sarcoma/understanding_sarcoma.html
Other places in the body where bone metastasis occurs is in the pelvic bones (70 of the cases), the ribs (65% of the cases), the upper extremities (48% of the cases) and in the sternum (in 43% of the cases of bone metastasis).
The Supportive Care article was reporting on a symposium in Boston, Massachusetts, during which Dr. Richard Loyd explained that "worldwide, over four million individuals will experience bone metastasis," which is the third most common place for metastasis to be located. It is perfectly normal for bones to be going through both "destruction" and "formation" - which is called the "normal remodeling cycle of bone." However, the "vicious cycle of bone destruction common with metastatic disease" actually originates when tumor cells secrete "excessive amounts of paraneoplastic hormones." Those hormones then activate "osteoclasts" which destroy bones, but in reaction to the osteoclasts, the bone produces certain proteins (like interleukin-6),…
American Cancer Society. (2006). What Is Bond Metastasis? Metastatic Cancer. Retrieved 19 Nov. 2006 at http://www.cancer.org .
Barrick, Mechelle. (2006). Case Studies in Metastatic Bone Disease: Understanding the Unique
Nature of bone loss Due to Malignancy. Supportive Care. Oncology Nursing Society News.
Vol. 21, p. 51-52. Retrieved 19 Nov. 2006 from AN #22263245 EBSCO Host.
If a driver ignored a road sign that said "Danger: Bridge Out!" and proceeded along the street, he would be labeled as an idiot by his community. If a fence had a sign on it that read, "arning: Vicious Dogs" and some adventure-seeking teens climbed that fence, no one would be surprised when they had their legs torn off by a pack of pit bulls. However, every single year 400,000 Americans die from ignoring one of the most infamous warnings: The Surgeon General's warning on cigarette packages. Smoking cigarettes may seem to be a part of the definition of being an American-- everyone from the street punk rebels to the successful big business CEOs are automatically visualized with a cigarette or fat Cuban cigar hanging from their mouths. These smokers see themselves as a better person for the momentary pleasure they receive from these tobacco products, but fail to realize…
The American Cancer Society. Who Is At Risk? "Tobacco and Cancer." 2001.
The American Heart Association. Publications and Resources. "Tobacco Smoke."
California Department of Health Services. Youth Media Network. "Effects of Secondhand Smoke." November 2001.
Emphysema Foundation For Our Right to Survive. Medical Info Pages. "About Smoking With Emphysema." January 2002.
This RIS includes Toshiba digital desktop telephones, plus 24 SpectraLink wireless telephones; these wireless phones were programmed to extend the features and capabilities of the users' desktop telephones to anywhere they roam at the 22-bed hospital; however, other wireless technologies such as cellular, could not be used due to the interference with sensitive medical equipment (Just the right prescription 24). The hospital's chief operating officer, Darryl Thornton, reported, "Being able to be mobile, yet still receive all our telephone calls, has greatly improved our efficiency and productivity. Toshiba's SpectraLink solution was the only one we found that would extend our desktop telephones to the palms of our hands" (Just the right prescription 24). The RIS also accommodated the needs of the hospital's remote users: "The system is so flexible that we were able to connect our remote users and still have it look like they are located at our corporate…
Abelha, Antonio, Jose Machado, Victor Alves, and Jose Neves. (2004). "Health Data Management in the Medical Arena." Universidade do Minho, Braga, Portugal. [Online]. Available: https://repositorium.sdum.uminho.pt/bitstream/1822/886/1/473-245.pdf.
Adelhard, K., S. Nissen-Meyer, C. Pistitsch, U. Fink and M. Reiser. (1999). "Functional requirements for a HIS-RIS-PACS-interface design, including integration of 'old' modalities." Method. Inf. Med. 38(1):1-8.
Albensi, B.C., E.V. Ilkanich, G. Dini and D. Janigro. (2004, December). "Elements of Scientific Visualization in Basic Neuroscience Research. Bioscience, 54(12): 1127-38.
Arenson, R.L., K.P. Andriole, D.E. Avrin and R.G. Gould. (2000). "Computers in imaging and health care: now and in the future." Journal of Digital Imaging 13(4):145-56.
Pressure on the superior vena cava may produce SVC syndrome, a swelling of the head and arms. SVC syndrome involving the brain can be fatal and must be treated immediately. But enlarged lymphatic tissue in the chest cavity generally tends to displace -- rather than press upon or encase -- adjacent structures. Therefore, compromised breathing and SVC syndrome are relatively uncommon signs of lymphoma. (Hodgkin's Disease, 1998-2008)
Effects on Bone Marrow
Night sweats, fevers or anemia (a low red-blood-cell count), fevers may indicate Hodgkin's disease has spread to an individual's bone marrow. In these scenarios, a physician may order bone marrow aspiration and biopsy. In biopsy, medical staff uses a large needle to remove a narrow, cylindrical piece of the patient's bone. In another option, medical staff performs an aspiration, a process utilizing a needle to remove small bits of bone marrow. Generally, in both instances, to help determine cancer…
Atlas of the Body: The Lymphatic System." (1999). American Medical Association. 2 June 2008 http://www.medem.com/medlb/article_detaillb.cfm?article_ID=ZZZG0S6CGJC&sub_at=518 .
Carson-DeWitt, Rosalyn S; Alic, Margaret. "Hodgkin's Disease," Gale Encyclopedia of Cancer, January 1, 2002. 2 June 2008 http://www.highbeam.com/doc/1G2-3405200219.html .
Detailed Guide: Hodgkin Disease What Is Hodgkin Disease? American Cancer Society. Revised: 08/30/2007. 2 June 2008 http://www.cancer.org /docroot/CRI/content/CRI_2_4_1x_What_Is_Hodgkin_Disease.sp?rnav=cri.
Hodgkin's Disease Signs and Symptoms. (1998-2008). 3 June 2008 http://www.oncologychannel.com/hodgkins/symptoms.shtml.
Luther Terry was the Surgeon General of the United States during the Kennedy Administration and the first part of the Johnson Administration, from 1961 to 1965. Terry changed the nature of the office, which until that time was obscure enough so that many Americans did not know there was such a post. Since Terry's time, and specifically because of one important action he took, the office of Surgeon General has been more prominent, taking the lead in public health issues and ruffling feathers in many American industries. Terry issued his report on smoking and its dangers in 1964, leading to the greater prominence of anti-tobacco forces, the warnings on cigarette packages, the banning of cigarette ads on television and radio, and recently court and legislative actions taken against the tobacco industry after decades of resistance.
Terry's action in issuing the report on smoking is much better known than Terry himself,…
History of the 1964 Surgeon General's Report on Smoking and Health. http://www.corporate-business-training.com/stink/Pro/1964SGR.html.
History of the Office of the Surgeon General." 2002. http://www.surgeongeneral.gov/library/history/sghist.htm .
Kluger, Richard. Ashes to Ashes. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1996.
Parascandola, John. "The Surgeons General and Smoking." Public Health Reports 112 (19 Sept 1997), 440-432.
(Human Genome Project, DNA Forensics, 2006) Examples of genetic testing use of DNA in forensic identification are: (1) identification of potential suspects from DNA left at crime scene; (2) exoneration of those wrongly accused of crimes; (3) identification of crime and catastrophe victims; (4) establishment of paternity and other family relationship; (5) identification of endangered and protected species in aiding wildlife officials and in prosecution of poachers; (6) detection of bacteria and other organisms that may be pollutants of air, water, soil and food; (7) matching of organ donors with recipients in transplant programs; (8) determination of pedigree for seed or livestock breeds; and (9) authentication of consumables such as caviar and wine. (U.S. Department of Justice, 2003; DNA Forensics, 2006) DNA typing is accomplished through obtaining DNA samples through designing "small pieces of DNA probes that will each seek out and bind to a complementary DNA sequence in the…
Advancing Justice Through DNA Technology (2003) Using DNA to Solve Crimes. U.S. Department of Justice. Executive Summary. Online available at http://www.usdoj.gov/ag/dnapolicybook_exsum.htm
DNA Forensics (2006) Human Genome Project. U.S. Department of Energy Office of Science, Office of Biological and Environmental Research. Online available at http://www.ornl.gov/sci/techresources/Human_Genome/elsi/forensics.shtml
Genetic Testing - Patient Privacy and Discrimination Considerations (2007) American Cancer Society. Online available at http://www.cancer.org /docroot/CRI/content/CRI_2_6X_Genetic_Testing_-_Patient_Privacy_and_Discrimination_Considerations_5.asp?sitearea=
Guidelines for Genetic Testing (2003) Genetic-Medicine Related Societies. August 2003.
HODGKIN'S VS NON-HODGKIN'S LYMPHOMA
The objective of this study is to examine Hodgkin's versus Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma and whether the treatment and prognosis has higher chances and if that is true then why.
Both Hodgkin's and Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma are stated to be "cancers that originate in a type of white blood cell known As a lymphocyte, an important component of the body's immune system." (Stippler, 2014, p. 1) Both of these malignancies are reported to result in symptoms that are similar although the conditions of Hodgkin's and Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma are differentiated through "biopsy or aspiration of the tumor tissue." (Stippler, 2014, p. 1) It is reported that "The type of abnormal cells identified in the sample determines whether a lymphoma is classified as Hodgkin's disease or non-Hodgkin's lymphoma." (Stippler, 2014, p. 1)
Hodgkin's Versus Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma
It is reported that the most common of the two is Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma however "In…
Survival rates and factors that affect prognosis (outlook) for non-Hodgkin lymphoma (2014) American Cancer Society. Retrieved from: http://www.cancer.org /cancer/non-hodgkinlymphoma/detailedguide/non-hodgkin-lymphoma-factors-prognosis
Stippler, MC (2014) Hodgkin's and Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma: Differences and Similarities. Medicine Net. Retrieved from: http://www.medicinenet.com/script/main/art.asp?articlekey=79261
Developmental perspective was the concept that the nursing students participating in this study were typically younger than they patients they were caring for. This made it difficult for them to ask the "older" patient questions about a lifestyle they had been practicing for many years.
Environmental constraints were noted that prevented the participants in the study from fully implementing best practice guidelines. The primary of which was time. They noted that because of other duties and paper keeping requirements, they had little time to properly present the best practice guidelines. Some noted that they had little time to do expected things such as breathing, much less introduce the patient properly to best practice guidelines.
During their third year of training the nurses were introduced to a comprehensive program concerning cigarettes and cessation programs. In addition they had already been taught more efficient time management training. With these new tools they…
10) Sanders, D., Fowler, G., Mant, D., Fuller, a., Jones, L., & Marziller, j.
Randomized controlled trial of anti-smoking advice by nurses in General practice. Journal of the Royal College of General
Practitioners, 1989, 39, pp 273-276.
An appointment will enhance a woman's life by providing peace of mind knowing that there is no sign of breast disease or cancer or assisting with detection of breast disease or cancer and allow for a plan of action to take place for treatment.
Studies consistently show that low income, low educational attainment, lack of health insurance, inability to speak English, lack of awareness of breast cancer risks and screening methods, acculturation level and lack of physician referral play important roles in the lower rates of screening utilization by Hispanic and African-American women. Hispanic women have lower breast cancer rates but are 20% more likely to die from the disease because they are less likely to seek health care services than other ethnic groups. Breast cancer is the most common cancer among African-American women and they are more likely to be diagnosed with larger tumors and more advanced stages of…
battle against cigarettes and tobacco has been around for a long time. As the authors A. Lee Fritschler and James M. Hoefler point out in their book Smoking and Politics there has always been a tug of war over the "golden leaf," the paradox that strict regulation of the business meant a windfall for the government.
Concern about the health consequences of smoking predates the "modern era" by nearly four centuries. In 1604, for example, King James I of England lambasted smoking as, "a custom loathsome to the eye, hateful to the Nose, harmeful to the braine, dangerous to the Lungs, and in the blacke stinking fume thereof, nearest resembling the horrible Stigian smoke of the pit that is bottomless" (as quoted in Sullum, 1998, p 18). King James subsequently raised the tax on tobacco by 1000%, deriving significant revenues for his coffers. This illustrates the profound dilemma that has…
American Cancer Society, et al. (2002) "Critical Elements of Any Legislation to Grant FDA
Authority to Regulate Tobacco Products." Viewed online on 11/25/2002 at http://www.tobaccofreekids.org/research/factsheets/pdf/0181.pdf
Center for Disease Control: National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health
Promotion (2002) "Chronology of Significant Developments Related to Smoking and Health." Viewed on 11/27/2002 at http://www.cdc.gov /tobacco/overview/chron96.htm
Bacterial vaginosis is one of the major contributors of vaginal infections during pregnancy and accounts for 40% of these cases. Generally, bacterial vaginosis is associated with several obstretic complications like pre-term labor and delivery, untimely rupture of membranes, postpartum endometrisis, and chorioamnionitis (Wang et. al., 2010, p.444). Metronidazole has traditionally been used as the drug of choice in the treatment of bacterial vaginosis because it is an agent of the nitroimidazole antibiotic family. This drug has been used for several decades because it efficiency in treating the condition ranges between 80 and 90% and can be administered across all pregnancy stages while tolerated by pregnant women. The ability of the drug to achieve the high levels of efficacy is attributed to the fact that it can be found in the cord blood, fetal tissue, and amniotic fluid in high concentrations.
The authors of the article reported the findings of two…
Academic Press. (2011). Genomics in cancer drug discovery and development. San Diego, CA:
Becker, C. & Lilja, H. (1997, January 3). Individual Prostate-specific Antigen (PSA) Forms As
Prostate Tumor Makers. Clinica Chimica Acta, 257(1), 117-32.
Their activities and support of the foundation; enable the league to demonstrate a higher purpose which is of greater social value. (Ferriter)
In the majority of cases, the NFL is using the various high profile marketing events to illustrate the importance of sports in promoting various charity related events. The Super Bowl is the biggest event with it using the game as an avenue to help the community which is hosting it. At the same time, it is an avenue for helping to promote social responsibility. Evidence of this can be seen with Babiak & olfe (2006) saying, "The NFL is becoming progressively more invested in corporate social responsibility (CSR) initiatives in an effort to establish itself as a socially conscious organization, one based on the twin pillars of football and the community. As the proverbial jewel in the NFL's crown, the Super Bowl is an institution composed of many…
"Community." NFL Foundation, 2014. Web. 22 Apr. 2014.
"Kirk Cousins of Washington Redskins Says He'd 'Welcome' Gay Teammate: 'Nobody's Perfect." Huffington Post, 2014. Web. 21 Apr. 2014.
"NFL Foundation Kicks Off Summer With Nearly $700,000 in Grants to Youth Football Camps." NFL Communications, 2013. Web. 22 Apr. 2012
Babiak, Kathy and Wolfe, Richard. "More than Just a Game? Corporate Social Responsibility and Super Bowl XL." Sport Marketing Quarterly. 15.4 (2006): 214-222. Print.
Cognitive Stimulation Therapy for Early Stages of Dementia
With an aging population, issues related to cognitive abilities and impairment, including dementia, are increasing in relevance to public health officials. Being able to delay the negative results of dementia can contribute to increased quality of life for a number of aging individuals and their families. At present, many health care professionals view dementia as a condition that will deteriorate over time and do not view it as something that can be effectively stalled or reversed (Hodges & Graham, 1999). Many of the programs available for individuals dealing with cognitive deterioration or dementia are designed to provide for their safety and contentedness, but do not focus much on improving or maintaining cognitive abilities. Furthermore, the emphasis of many day programs is on providing a safe place for individuals so that their caregivers can have the much-needed respite in their care routines. Caregivers…
Banks, M.R., & Banks, W.A. (2002). The effects of animal-assisted therapy on loneliness in an elderly population in long-term care facilities. The Journals of Gerontology: Series A, 57(7), M428-M432.
Barker, S. & Dawson, K.S. (1998). The effects of animal-assisted therapy on anxiety ratings of hospitalized psychiatric patients. Psychiatric Services, 49, 797-801.
Breuil, V., De Rotrou, J., Forette, F., et al. (1994). Cognitive stimulation of patients with dementia: preliminary results. International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 9, 211-217.
Cochran, S.D., Mays, V.M., Bown, D., Gage, S., Bybee, D., Roberts, S.J, Goldstein, R.S., Robinson, A., Rankow, E.J., & White, J. (2001). Cancer-related risk indicators and preventative screening behaviours among lesbian and bisexual women. American Journal of Public Health, 91(4), 591-597.
A Patient's Rights
There are a number of lists to go by when it comes to the patient's "Bill of Rights," including a patient's rights under the Affordable Care Act. In the American Cancer Society "Patient's Bill of Rights" it begins with the right every patient has to "…accurate and easily-understood information about your health plan, health care professionals, and health care facilities' (www.cancer.org). Of course a patient also has the right to choose health care providers and when it comes to emergency services, a patient has a right to be "…screened and stabilized using emergency services" when injured or seriously ill; so that when one's health is in jeopardy, access to emergency services can be a vital and stabilizing experience (www.cancer.org).
A patient also has the right to be part of decisions regarding what treatment is appropriate, and a patient has a right to be respected and treated…
American Cancer Society. (2011). Patient's Bill of Rights: What is the Patient's Bill of Rights?
Retrieved July 31, 2012, from http://www.cancer.org .
Torrey, Trisha. (2010). Patient's Responsibilities. About.com. Retrieved July 31, 2012, from http://patients.about.com .