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Anti-Imperialist League, formed in 1899 by prominent citizens such as Andrew Carnegie and William James, held the belief that American Imperialism went against the spirit of those that fought the evolutionary War and participated in the creation of the Declaration of Independence (Halsall, 1997). Specifically, they asserted that the American government's actions in places such as Cuba, the Philippines, and Puerto ico represented a hostile attitude toward liberty and step in the direction of militarism (Halsall, 1997). Moreover, they argued, the American Government derived its power from the consent of the governed, and imperialism denied man's natural right to either govern himself or choose to be governed (Halsall, 1997). Instead, it promoted a form of despotism (Halsall, 1997). They maintained that, through imperialistic policies, the United States was practicing truth-suppressing censorship and the deliberation of war, and they called for an immediate end to the United States' presence in the…
Halsall, Paul. (1997). Modern History Sourcebook American Anti-Imperialist League, 1899.
Retreived from http://www.fordham.edu/halsall/mod/1899antiimp.html
Library of Congress. (1998). Chronology of the Spanish-American War. Retrieved from http://www.loc.gov/rr/hispanic/1898/chronology.html
Library of Congress. (1998). The World of 1898: the Spanish-American War. Retrieved from http://www.loc.gov/rr/hispanic/1898/intro.html
country experienced European-American Imperialism. I a paper effects European Imperialism Bahamas. Please give a historical background Bahamas discuss impact colonization's political, social, economic, cultural institutions.
The Bahamas in a colonial context
Imperialism has had an effect on most countries from around the world, with colonies that belonged to some of the world's greatest powers being particularly affected as a consequence of being actively involved in a rapidly changing society. The Bahamas saw a lot of turmoil as a result of being colonized by the Spanish and the English throughout the recent centuries. In spite of this, conditions generally improved in a series of domains on the islands as a result of their strategic position and because of the fact that people there could exploit the fact that tourists expressed significant interest in the location.
The Bahamas were considered to be an important strategic location ever since the first interactions between…
Craton, Michael, A History of the Bahamas (London: Collins, 1962)
Greene, Jack P., Pursuits of Happiness: The Social Development of Early Modern British Colonies and the Formation of American Culture (Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Press, 1988)
Strachan, Ian Gregory, "Theater in the Bush: Art, Politics, and Community in the Bahamas," Social Justice 34, no. 1 (2007)
Stuart Olson, James and Shadle, Robert, Historical dictionary of European imperialism, Greenwood Publishing Group, 1991
In Amy oodman's 2006 interview with Stephen Kinzer, she does an outstanding job of guiding the course of the conversation in such a way that allows Kinzer to demonstrate his expertise while also maintaining the interest of the listening and reading audiences. oodman asks Kinzer questions in the beginning of the interview that establish location, area of Kinzer's expertise, and topic of the current discussion. This way, any listener or reader, despite their level of sophistication on the issue, is able to readily jump into the discussion and following along with intrigue.
Kinzer's first lengthy response comes after a question regarding the reasoning behind the United States' involvement in multiple coups around the world and throughout the nation's history. Kinzer reveals that in his current project he studies these coups not as isolated incidents, but rather as a succession of events along a continuum revealing meta-objectives and patterns…
Goodman is clearly well versed in political history, military history, and media history from a global perspective. Her questions are challenging, yet not impossible. She demonstrates a sincerely inquisitive nature and a critical, philosophical mind. The interview concludes with attempts to connect the early sections of the discussion to contemporary issues in Iran stemming from the U.S. government's involvement in their coup in 1953. Kinzer's responses reveal the cultural biases of the west that affect political decisions with rippling consequences around the world. Kinzer very distinctly states his positions on the issues in his book and the answers to Goodman's questions gracefully yet powerfully. This is an effective interview that draws in audiences and primes them for the next installment which will be all the most focused on similarities in the U.S.' involvement in Hawaii and Iraq.
The excerpt/article by Chalmers Johnson begins as a dark or sardonic fairly tale that traces the magical journey of imperialism via global basing by the United States of America. It is a creative and attention grabbing method to seize the attention of the reader and hold it for the duration of the reading. The primary argument that the majority of the text supports or explicates is the methods by which the United States government colonizes the world through implementation of global bases and how this crusade to base the world leaves "imperial footprints." The writing is direct, succinct, and Johnson contextualizes the wit and the creative presentation with staggering financial statistics.
He writes of how many countries keep their U.S. bases a secret, fearing the reactions of neighboring and allied countries & cultures of being in cahoots with the great American empire. The complete piece is intended to shock and it does so effectively. This is a startling expose piece about the intentions and methodology of the U.S. government in its attempt to colonize and control the planet, expressing without the knowledge of the American people. Moreover, Johnson includes shocking quotations about several presidential administrations' plans for making war and succeeding as a strategy for conquest. In light of the 21st century landscape that is of a global culture, this article should be shocking to Americans and to citizens around the world who believe that technology is bringing the world together in a more altruistic manner while the U.S. government, in conspiracy with many governments around the world, use technology to bring the world together under one imperialist regime.
European and American imperialism from 1900-1918
Empire is the term from which the word imperialism is carved. Government implies the act of mastery of one nation by another one, with the sole intention of expanding region, power and impact. It conveys with it the thought of social prevalence from the radical, judging the lifestyle, cultures and convictions of those colonized as sub-par and in need of changeover (Encyclopedia, encyclopedia.com).
Nonetheless, Imperialism normally posits as a political control and making monetary subservience. In Europe, the time of dominion coincided with patriotism and unification when prior political units were assembled under governance that asserted the privilege to keep rule over them. "I rehash that the elite races [European] have a privilege in light of the fact that they have an obligation. They have the obligation to socialize the downtrodden races [non Europeans] (South Africa History, n.d.)"
Ashley Smith the journalist isolated hypotheses…
Encyclopedia. "Imperialism." Encyclopedia.com. HighBeam Research, 1 Jan. 1968. Web. 25 Jan. 2015. http://www.encyclopedia.com/topic/imperialism.aspx
Grafs History. Word War 1: Consequences of the Great War. (2014). Retrieved from: https://grafshistory.wordpress.com
Humbold. Goal. The American Quest for Empire. Retrieved from:
The cultural practices are evolved and based on the financial, social and moral understanding and capabilities of the local population, and it has been observed that Americans, Asians and Africans share extremely different perspectives and understanding on these issues, therefore the cultural adoption has been intense in countries where the technological revolution has been of the same intensity as in North America (Zelli, 1993). In some of the cases, the Americans companies has attempted to nullify the concerns and shortcomings of the American culture, by incorporating the cultural values of the local region, and has therefore evolve a different taste for the customers to avail, this has further delighted and fascinated the local population of different regions towards the American culture, for example the American culture has major differences with the Islamic culture adopted in Arab countries, therefore to compensate for such difference the American companies introduced the concept of…
David W. Noble. Death of a Nation: American Culture and the End of Exceptional-ism. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press. 2002
Tafarodi R., Swann W. Individualism-collectivism and global self-esteem: Evidence for a cultural trade-off. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology. 1996
Trubisky P, Ting Toomey S, Lin S. The influence of individualism collectivism and self-monitoring on conflict styles. International Journal of Intercultural Relations. 1991
Huesmann, Zelli, Fraczek, Upmeyer. Normative attitudes about aggression in American, German and Polish college students. Presented at Third European Congress of Psychology. Tampere, Finland. 1993
Alexander Hamilton carried on an affair with the wife of "a notorious political schemer," Maria Reynolds. Andrew Jackson married Rachel Jackson before her divorce from Lewis Robards was finalized and therefore was accused of marrying a married woman. Jackson's opponent in 1828, John Quincy Adams, was in turn accused of "corrupt bargaining" during his term. Jackson also championed Margaret O'Neill Timberlake, who married his secretary of war, John Eaton. "Peggy O'Neill" was considered a woman of "questionable virtue," and as a result Martin Van Buren became Jackson's successor in the presidency. After the death of Jackson and Eaton, Peggy married a 19-year-old dance teacher (which raised eyebrows, as she was 59), who embezzled her money and ran off to Europe with her 17-year-old granddaughter.
Other scandals concerned Richard Mentor Johnson, who ran for vice president in 1836 with Martin Van Buren. He supposedly shot Tecumseh during the ar of 1812,…
Ferling, John. Adams vs. Jefferson: the tumultuous election of 1800. New York: Oxford University Press. 2004.
A recent artifact that came as a product of this intercultural relationship is an article concerning an American woman's imprisonment -- which included beatings from the police and forcing her to sign false confessions -- simply for being seen eating in public with her male business partner. Even though the woman (who allowed her name to be printed only as "Yara," fearing retribution for telling her story) was wearing the traditional full-length gown and headscarf required of women when in public or in the company of men in Saudi Arabia,
she was approached by several men "with very long beards and white dresses" and told that what she was doing was "a great sin," a statement that reflects the disparity between the two cultures (Dhimmi Watch 2008). Ironically, the event took place at a Starbuck's, a place that has come to be a symbol of America's capitalism, freedom, and to…
Dhimmi Watch. (2008). "American woman jailed in Saudi Arabia for sitting with men at Satrbuck's." Reprinted from Fox News. Accessed 10 May 2009. http://www.jihadwatch.org/dhimmiwatch/archives/019844.php
The underside of affluence
The period is in the early years of the twentieth century. America is now experiencing economic and political expansion as it became the model of an imperial superpower for all nations, both in the Western and Eastern regions. Economic growth spurred as a result of the industrial revolution, while political structures strengthened due to the numerous successful conquests of the Americans to colonize nations in the Asian and southern American regions.
However, despite the affluence that American society had experienced during this period, a considerable half of the American population is suffering from poverty. With the rise of urbanization, many people flocked to the cities in search of a high-paying job and steady source of income as factory workers. However, the rapid incidence of migration to the cities made them crowded with people, hence, living conditions began to deteriorate, which includes the lack of…
" (Iyengar, 2001) Lastly, the manner of presentation of a news story "significantly affects its ability to set the public agenda." (Behr and Iyengark 1985; Dearing and Rogers, 1996) Concluded is that: "In the current regime, American politics is almost exclusively a mediated experience. The role of the citizen ahs evolved from occasional foot soldier and activist to spectators. Those who seek public office invest heavily in efforts to shape news coverage of their candidacy. The returns from this investment provide them with leverage over public opinion, by setting the public agenda or by projecting a general impression of competent leadership..." (Iyengar, 2001)
The report published by the "ediaatters for America' website entitled: "According to aher, CBS's "Free Speech" is a isnomer" states that Bill aher, HBO's Real Time with Bill aher show host states that "CBS rejected his request to comment on religion for his planned "Free Speech" segment…
Miles, M.B., & Huberman, a.M. (1984). Qualitative data analysis, a sourcebook of new methods. Newbury Park, CA: Sage.
Miller, W.L., & Crabtree, B.F. (1992). Primary care research: A multimethod typology and qualitative road map. In B.F. Crabtree & W.L. Miller (Eds.), Doing qualitative research. Research methods for primary care (Vol. 3). Newbury Park, CA: Sage.
The American Media Representation of Islam & Terrorism Post 9-11
The USA Patriot Act: This was a law that was passed after September 11th. It is giving the police and intelligence officials the power to go after terrorists organizations easier. As it lifted various Constitutional protections when investigating these offenses.
Counter Terrorism: These are the activities that: federal, state and local officials are taking to prevent future terrorist attacks.
Weapons of Mass Destruction (WMD): These are weapons designed to inflict large amounts of casualties. These include: chemical, radiological, biological and nuclear.
These different terms are important, because they will help to avoid confusion and will focus the reader on understanding the overall scope of the problem.
Limitations of the Study
The limitations of the study are that the information we are presenting, could be pointing out a number of different problems. Yet, beneath the surface they are failing to identify possible changes that could have already been implemented by federal…
39% Say Government. (2011). Rasmussen Reports. Retrieved from: http://www.rasmussenreports.com/public_content/politics/general_politics/march_2011/39_say_government_not_focusing_enough_on_threat_of_domestic_islamic_terrorism
Al Shabaab American Recruits. (2010). ADL. Retrieved from: http://www.adl.org/main_Terrorism/al_shabaab_american_recruits.htm
Comparative Analysis. (2011). Business Dictionary. Retrieved from: http://www.businessdictionary.com/definition/comparative-analysis.html
Jose Padilla. (2009). New York Times. Retrieved from: http://topics.nytimes.com/top/reference/timestopics/people/p/jose_padilla/index.html
American evolution Was Modeled After evolutions in France and England
The American quest for freedom, modeled after reform movements in England and France, has resulted in the most revered democratic society in the world. We are free of the religious and political tyranny that plagued Europe in the 18th Century and early colonialists would approve of our government in 2002.
While the American evolution and the quest for freedom was modeled after revolutions in France and England, the United States has done something that its European relatives admire - it achieved a stable democracy free of aristocratic and religious tyranny - and this was accomplished in a relatively bloodless fashion.
Our success would meet with accolades from European philosophers and historians including Jean-Jacques ousseau, Thomas Hobbes, John Locke, Thomas Paine and Francois Furet. However, our success has also many developing nations and Middle East nations to regard us as arrogant…
1. J. Rousseau, The Social Contract, 1762, Chapter 18
2. F. Furet, paraphrased from Interpreting The French Revolution, 1970
3. F. Bastiat "What is Seen and What is Not Seen," in Selected Essays, pp. 1-50.
4. J. Rousseau, The Social Contract, 1762, Chapter 18
53). He points out that four countries (in 1917) -- England, France, Germany, and the United States -- own 80 per cent of the world's finance capital; thus, in his view, the whole rest of the world is subjugated, that is, indebted to and tributary to those four "international banker countries."
Where once monopolists exported goods to other countries to make a profit, now they export finance capital. This is another symptom of the imperialistic stage of capitalism -- what to do with excess wealth? Lenin states that it would not be capitalism if the excess wealth were used to improve the quality of life for the millions of people who are still underfed and leading lives of misery. Instead, the capital is exported to "backward" countries and used to make more profits. In backward countries (now called developing nations) where there is a shortage of capital, labor is cheap,…
This sort of behavior and scapegoating was the intellectual and cultural "easy way out" for many Americans looking for solace from the events taking place thousands of miles away, affecting the entire country. In the fog of war, as writer Barbre (2000) puts it, mistakes are made and generalizations are easily placed into existence. hen Americans were confused and scared, they looked to the easiest form of comfort, the alienation of the outsider or the "other."
Sexual Projection and the Internment of the Japanese-Americans
riter Renteln (1995) explores the role that sexual projection had in the dealing with Japanese-Americans in internment camps during II. This can be directly related to the themes within the book Snow Falling of Cedars due to the fact that Americans used their fear of the outsider (Japanese and Japanese-Americans) to project their own fears and misgivings about their sexuality and feelings of inadequacy. As author…
Barbre, C. (2000). "Review: Films: The Straight Story, Snow Falling on Cedars."
Journal of Religion and Health. Vol. 39, No. 4. pp. 383-385.
Renteln, A.D. (1995). "A Psychohistorical Analysis of the Japanese-American
Internment." Human Rights Quarterly. Vol. 17, No. 4 pp. 618-648.
In other words, once our leadership gains office, then whatever was said goes the way of special interest, because the interest of the greater society becomes lost in the quest of self-interest.
e are perhaps for the first time in our nation's history attempting to understand our own path to the power we are perceived by the rest of the world as having. In fact, as Harvey so succinctly demonstrates in his discussion on the political maneuvering, because America could not have by any stretch of the imagination have accomplished its present act upon the world stage without a supporting cast of world players (28). hen they built America up for purposes of pursuing their own self-interest, then their support of America quickly began deteriorating, disintegrating to a lack of control of their own political forces, economies, and even inability to mobilize their human resources as they would have previously…
Harvey, David. The New Imperialism, Oxford University Press, 2005.
imperialism is necessary for cultures to progress. The United States is not often thought of as an imperialistic nation, because we like to think that we would not subjugate or take over other countries. However, that is just what we did when our forefathers came to this country and shoved aside the Native Americans. We subjugated and eradicated a culture and way of life, and that is the textbook definition of imperialism. Imperialism is wrong and shameful, but it seems that as much it may be hard to say, it is necessary for securing our way of life, and it is crucial in developing new trade and commerce.
First, it is necessary to define imperialism. Imperialism is the name for larger, more powerful nations to take over smaller, weaker nations, usually because of the promise of wealth or resources they can exploit. There is a long history of imperialism throughout…
Alam, M.S. "U.S. Imperialism and the Third World." Northeastern University. 2006. 14 Dec. 2009.
Amin, Samir. "Imperialism and Globalization." Monthly Review June 2001: 6.
Bonner, Robert E. "Slavery, Confederate Diplomacy and the Racialist Mission of Henry Hotze." Civil War History 51.3 (2005): 288+.
92). Pope Innocent X lamented the procedure, of course -- for it served to subvert the truths which the oman Church strove to propagate.
Thus, the modern world was built not upon the majesty of kings and religion, but upon treaties and revolutionary ideals. The philosophical fruit of Protestantism would spring up in the age of omantic/Enlightenment doctrine, which would produce the American and French evolutions. "Liberty, equality, fraternity" would be the modern world's ethos -- in theory. However, capitalist ethics would undermine the romantic ideology. Imperialism -- for gold, God, and glory at the end of the medieval world -- would be based, in the modern world, upon sheer greed (as a principle). America defined this principle well with the notion of "manifest destiny," which by the end of the 19th century was expanded beyond the American frontier to encompass the whole globe.
The new Imperialism of America (and…
Elliot, J.H. (2009). Spain, Europe and the Wider World: 1500-1800. Yale Universtiy
Haaren, J. (1904). Famous Men of the Middle Ages. New York, NY: American Book
In 1838 there were 200 locomotives in the United States, by 1880 that number had risen to 1,962 and to 3,153 by 1900. (ogers, 2009, p. 21) The expansion of the railroad system helped to increase American industrialization, and industrial output, which increased American overseas trade. But there could not be overseas trade without American ships to carry American products to foreign nations. While primitive iron ships had come into existence during the American Civil War, it was the period after the war that iron ships became numerous. For example, "The number of iron and steel ships built in a year increased from one in 1867 to 31 in 1880, and to 90 in 1900." (ogers, 2009, p. 21)
The 1800's were a time of development for the United States; as a nation it began as an agricultural country and developed into an industrialized nation. As the population of American…
"A History of American Agriculture: 1800." Agriculture in the Classroom.
Barney, William. A Companion to 19th-century America. 2006. Malden, MA: Blackwell
Imperialism was always seen as positive for Westerners, but as destructive by the peoples of Africa and Asia." To what extent does this statement appear to be true?
Rudyard Kipling's "The White man's burden" seems to be an ironic condemnation of imperialism. Whilst most Westerners of the viewed imperialism as a necessary fact and as a boon to the 'savages', Kipling was a pre-contemporary in more ways than one and saw the 'Whites' as simply one more other race populating the world. The White man in his greed and folly was perpetrating needless wars and occupying another's land as well as stealing their wives, children, property, and money for the benefit of themselves. Kipling, however, was unique in that most Westerners disagreed with him. To them, they were not only doing their duty but many defined their acts as charity. They were educating the illiterate; teaching the savage the ways…
Aristotle, and C.D.C. Reeve, (translator) (1998) Politics. Indianapolis, IN: Hackett Pub
Bartolome de Las Casas, 1550. Apologetic History of the Indies. Columbia University. http://www.columbia.edu/acis/ets/CCREAD/lascasas.htm
Fromkin. D (1989) The Peace to End All Peace: The Fall of the Ottoman Empire and the Creation of the Modern Middle East. New York, NY: Avon,.
Said E. (2003). Orientalism, New York, NY: Vintage Books
Iran and Iraq
Analysis of the Impact of Imperialism on Iran and Iraq
The modern nation of Iraq was formed in 1932 when the Kingdom of Iraq gained independence from the United Kingdom. It had been placed under the authority of Great Britain as the British Mandate of Mesopotamia by the League of Nations in 1920. Prior to that, it was part of the Ottoman Empire. This delineates the history of imperialism in Iraq as beginning with the arrival of the Ottomans the 15th century, through independence from the Great Britain. These two stage of imperial rule had several different impacts on modern-day Iraq.
The first is the borders of the current state of Iraq were the direct result of British rule. The Ottomans had administered Iraq differently, with three main provinces. Under Ottoman rule, Baghdad, Mosul and Basra were all provinces within the Ottoman Empire. Iraq was not Iraq…
Butch, T. (2015). Why China will intervene in Iraq. Asia Times. Retrieved May11, 2016 from http://atimes.com/2015/09/why-china-will-intervene-in-iraq/
CIA World Factbook (2016). People's Republic of China. Central Intelligence Agency. Retrieved May 11, 2016 from https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/ch.html
Dawson, J. (2014). Why Britain created monarchies in the Middle East. New Statesman. Retrieved May 11, 2016 from http://www.newstatesman.com/politics/2014/08/why-britain-created-monarchies-middle-east
Dehghan, S. & Taylor, R. (2013). CIA admits role in 1953 Iranian coup. The Guardian. Retrieved May 11, 2016 from http://www.theguardian.com/world/2013/aug/19/cia-admits-role-1953-iranian-coup
1 Industrial Revolution
The Industrial Revolution began in the 18th and 19th centuries and is responsible for the moving of nations away from farming to industry and manufacturing. The Industrial Revolution introduced trains, more advanced shipping, steel production, communications systems, cars, planes, and military equipment, and construction. The skyscraper came into existence, people moved to urban areas away from the countryside. Wars broke out as nations fought over natural resources like oil fields, minerals, and sea lanes to support the new industries.
The nations of the world were able to engage in Industrialization because of another rise—the rise of finance. Banks began to exert more and more influence over the activities of nations. They financed big productions and helped businessmen develop companies that would go on to dominate industries. Banks started working with governments too and together they started redrawing international territories, with wars financed by banks that led to…
right' in the light of Alexis De Tocqueville's book, Democracy in America. The paper further expands on the idea of right as presented by other thinkers including Hegel, Bancroft and most recently Hardt and Negri.
Every person is born with an inherent sense of right and born which may later be altered, shaped or influenced by the society and person's own experiences. Philosophers have always been concerned with what they term the 'idea of right' and have expounded theories on how it is acquired, why it is needed and what happened when it ceases to exist. Alexis De Tocqueville was one such thinker who in his Magnus opus, Democracy in America, instructed readers to acquire an idea of right for he argued that it was impossible to build a great nation without a sense of right and wrong. Here idea of right must not be confused with 'rights' of people…
1) DEREK H. DAVIS, EDITORIAL. God and the Pursuit of America's Self-Understanding: Toward a Synthesis of American Historiography. Journal of Church and State, VOLUME 46 SUMMER 2004 NUMBER 3
2) Alexis De Tocqueville, Democracy in America, Book I: Chapter 14: Retrieved online 6th December 2004: http://www.americanreformation.org/Tocqueville/1_ch14.htm
3) Extracts from Hegel, "Hegel on Right" Retrieved online 6th December 2004: http://www.mdx.ac.uk/www/study/xhegel.htm
4) "The Sovereignty of Ethics" by Ralph Waldo Emerson: from the North American Review, of May, 1878. Vol. X. 12. Emerson, Ralph Waldo. Lectures and Biographical Sketches. pp. 175-206
American history is an exercise in country branding and national identity construction. Through a careful editorializing and curating of historical documents, events, and places, historians contribute to the shaping of American identity, ideology, and culture. Revisiting the process of history making shows how historians and history educators can encourage critical thought, shifting away from the use of historiography as propaganda toward a discursive process. Historians can define and interpret evidence in different ways based on their own historical and cultural context, and the influences of prevailing social norms.
American history has long been a myth-making process, rather than a discursive exercise. Westad (2007), Dudziak (2004) and Manela all points out how the United States has cultivated and crafted an identity based on the tenets of liberty, justice, and freedom. Yet in practice, the nation has been an exercise in exploitation, imperialism, and racism. "From its inception the United States was…
American Way of War
The history of the American Way of War is a transitional one, as Weigley shows in his landmark work of the same name. The strategy of war went from, under Washington, a small scale, elude and survive set of tactics practiced by what seem today to be relatively "quaint" militias, to -- in the 20th century -- a full-scale operation known as "total war." True, "total war" was not a concept invented by the Americans in the 20th century. The North eventually practiced "total war" against the Confederates when Sherman's campaign left utter destruction of civilian territory in its wake. The ancient Romans practiced it when, under the direction of Cato, they destroyed Carthage because its mere existence, they felt, posed a threat to their prosperity. In the 20th century, however, "total war" received an enormous boost of technical support when the inventors of the atom…
Butler, Smedley. War is a Racket. LA: Feral House, 2003.
Chollet, Derek and James Goldgeier. America Between the Wars. NY: Public Affairs,
Debs, Eugene. "Anti-War Speech," 16 June 1918. Web.
Conflict and Cooperation: Native Americans and European Settlers in Early America
The early history of the settlement of what would eventually become the United States has many competing narratives. Many people view the relationship between Native Americans and European settlers as fundamentally combative. hile at times the relationship between the colonists and the Native Americans was certainly one of conflict, this period was also full of significant curiosity, education and cooperation that went on between both groups. Many times, each group was inquisitive about the other and knowledge was exchanged. The Native Americans were often portrayed as brutal savages, but current literature shows that this was not often the case. The apparent viciousness of the European settlers towards the native peoples, particularly in terms of cultural destruction and land acquisition, is also more complicated than it initially seems. Though the eventually dominance of the Europeans over the Native Americans lead…
Kupperman, Karen Ordahl. Indians and English: Facing Off in Early America. New York:
Cornell University Press, 2000.
-- . "English Perceptions of Treacherym 1583-1640: The Case of the American 'Savage'." The Historical Journal. Vol 20. No. 2. (June 1977) pp. 263-287.
-- . Roanoke: The Abandoned Colony. 2nd Edition. Lanham, Maryland: Rowman and Littlefield
Free Are American Media
Events occur and become news, news circulate all around the globe. In early times it was almost impossible to convey these happening with in short period of time but with the advent of time technology grew exponentially and gave a fast source of communication called "media."
Media has played a very important role throughout. Any event occurring in one side of the globe gets to the other side within a span of minutes. They cover events such as politics, sports, entertainment etc. And telecast it to the other regions. Every event that had occurred in the past has been covered by the regions local and international media. The point lies in the contradicting news telecasted by the media i.e. one event coverage contradicting to the same event covered by another channel.
The process of broadcasting consist of many events such as coverage, filtration, etc. A channel…
Czitrom, Daniel J. Media and the American Mind: From Morse to McLuhan. Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Press, 1982. Questia. Web. 28 July 2012.
Davis, Richard, and Diana Owen. New Media and American Politics. New York: Oxford University Press, 1998. Questia. Web. 28 July 2012.
Entman, Robert M., and Kimberly A. Gross. "Race to Judgment: Stereotyping Media and Criminal Defendants." Law and Contemporary Problems 71.4 (2008): 93+. Questia. Web. 28 July 2012.
Fox, Julia R., and Byungho Park. "The "I" of Embedded Reporting: An Analysis of CNN Coverage of the "Shock and Awe" Campaign." Journal of Broadcasting & Electronic Media 50.1 (2006): 36+. Questia. Web. 28 July 2012.
Postcolonial Theory on Imperialism
The Strains of Living in a Postcolonial orld
In the wake of Colonialism and Imperialism, much of the world still finds itself in pieces -- unable to remember life before being conquered. hat has resulted is great turmoil in many areas of the world caused by a confusion of cultural identity and a complete lack of national identity. Yet, this move to revive individual cultures has also set off a sharp debate within the field of postcolonial theory; these cultures become protective blankets which then keep nations separated in their own twisted visions. Conquerors such as the United States and Great Britain continue on this bravado of the superior nations who still power over their former colonies. This then results in estern literature romanticizing the East as to reaffirm those chauvinistic beliefs. Thus, the conquered people face a crucial internal dilemma -- adoption into what the…
Bahri, Deepika. "Introduction to Postcolonial Studies." Department of English. Emory College. 1996. Retrieved 9 Dec 2008 at http://www.english.emory.edu/Bahri/Intro.html .
McLeod, John. "Postcolonial Fictions of Adoption." Critical Survey. 18(2). 2006. 45-63.
McCormack, Brian. "Postcolonialism in an Age of Globalization: Opening International
Relations Theory to Identities in Movement." Alternatives: Global, Local, Political. 27(1). 2002. 99-136.
globalization and imperialism and argues that globalization is actually nothing more than imperialism under a new guise. The writer uses several sources to illustrate the definition of imperialism and then holds it against globalization to prove they are one and the same under different names. There were nine sources used to complete this paper.
Globalization = U.S. Imperialism
As mankind continues with the process of globalization, many world leaders point to it as an indication of peace on earth. Proudly discussing the coming together of nations, cultures, ideas and technology, the leaders of the world relay to their constituents that globalization is a positive step toward worldwide cohesiveness. Those who live in the nations, taking part in the process, look at technological advances, the ability to widen their market bases and other things and wholeheartedly agree with what they are being told. While there are many aspects of globalization that…
Risks of globalization stressed during Second Committee Debate; Under-Secretary-General for Economic and Social Affairs participates in Question and Answer Session with Delegations.
The Real Reasons for War In Yugoslavia: Backing up Globalization with Military Might.
Imperialism and Globalization.
The possibility of deteriorializing democracy: Agonistic democratic politics and the APEC NGO forums.(Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation)(non-governmental organizations)
Modern science and all the various process that are involved with the modernization process evolved because of the progress made by the western countries and the progress made in the field of science, medicine and the notions held in respect of human rights and liberty. There are several sections of individuals who state that dissatisfaction that people seem to have is that they are troubled with their daily life. But when analyzing we can realize that the actual dissatisfaction of individuals arises forms the modern life that they need and in comparison to that the others around the world lead. The term globalization is used to describe the various changes that have taken place in the social, economical and political scenarios that has brought about change in the current situation.
To explain, globalization is the termed used to describe the technique in which the various far away parts…
Barlow, Maude and Clake, Tony. Global Showdown. Toronto: Stoddart, 2001.p.66-68
Clarkson, Stephen. Uncle Sam and Us: Globalization, Neoconservatism, and the Canadian State, Univ of Toronto Pr; September 2002, p.21
Ellwood, Wayne. The No-Nonsense Guide to Globalization. New Internationalist Publications Ltd., 2001, p. 14
Escobar, Arturo. Encountering Development (Princeton 1995), Chapter 5, pp. 192-211.
In Lenin's view, 19th century industrialized colonialism was different than previous colonial endeavors in that it was far more economically driven: nations had once used colonies as political and military buffers against their enemies. Now they needed colonies to ensure that the system that enabled the capitalist elites to prosper would survive. Without colonies, the capitalist system would topple. Lenin was prescient in seeing that colonialism made the world inherently unstable -- secret alliances and colonial conflicts were two of the major causes of World War I. Ironically, the Cold War would also be spawned by a kind of colonialist conflict -- not only did the Soviet Union strive to use Eastern Europe as a political buffer, it also economically exploited many of the Eastern European nations in its sphere of influence and forced members of the Warsaw Pact to adopt the Soviet economic system. (Lenin pointed out that colonies…
The faith allows for stoning of people, torture of women and the suicide bombings that the world has grown accustomed to suffering (Hoagland, 2001).
Islamic fundamentalist believe that their faith instructs them to seek out and destroy Americans. They also believe that if they are suicide bombers they will be rewarded in heaven ten fold. As America continues to fight against the human rights violations that Persian Gulf nations continue to support, the fundamentalists believe it is their calling and duty to act against American interests. They want American interests out of their area and they will do what it takes to get it done including acts of terrorism.
As the world watched in wonder the Soviet Union collapsed. It dismantled its government, it started over and it began to rebuild as a democracy after many years of being in a cold war with the United States.
For some the…
Farrar, L.L., Jr.(2003) Aggression vs. apathy: the limits of nationalism during the Balkan wars, 1912-1913. East European Quarterly
Hoagland, Jim (2001) Mysteries in the Persian Gulf. The Washington Post
Novotny, Patrick (1999) the Post-Cold War Era, the Persian Gulf War, and the Peace and Justice Movement in the 1990s. Social Justice nuclear terrorism (Accessed 5-17-07)
My father's parents first operated a Laundromat, then a small general store. My father is now a civil engineer.
School was always a priority in my household. I did not have to work in a family business like my parents, but it was always expected that I would get high marks and devote my attention to keeping at the top of my class and pursuing extracurricular activities that were valuable and enriching, including soccer and music. However, this did not mean there I had no fun as a child. I have many happy memories of my family watching my sports games and concerts and preparing traditional foods with my grandmothers.
Sometimes the pressure I felt was quite intense. My parents had succeeded against all the odds and were determined that I would succeed as well. However, I felt that I needed to pursue a different path. ather than going to…
Korean-American History. (2010). Curriculum guide: Unit 1. Retrieved August 6, 2010 at http://apa.si.edu/Curriculum%20Guide-Final/unit1.htm
Rusling, Matt. (2006, April 21). Comics stoke Japanese-Korean tensions. Asian Times Online.
Retrieved August 6, 2010 at http://www.atimes.com/atimes/Japan/HD21Dh01.html
In this encouragement, American would help to touch off something
perhaps all the more miraculous given the proximity to its oppression to
the European peasantry at large. First in the doctrines which would be
formulated in the wake of French independence and secondly in the way that
Napoleon Bonaparte would begin the spread of such doctrines to a continent
driven by inequality, America's revolution could be said to have been the
opening round in the deconstruction of colonialism and feudalism throughout
Europe and thus, the world.
Drafted in the image of the American Declaration of Independence,
though perhaps more ambitious and sweeping even in its trajectories, the
Declaration of the Rights of Men would dictate a universal principle
arguing that all men are born equal and that any distinctions made between
men according to the social conditions must be terms agreed upon by all
parties. The constitutional document underscoring the…
Center for History and New Media (CHNM). (2005). Monarchy Embattled.
George Mason University. Online at
Chew, Robin. (2004). Napoleon I: Emperor of the French. Lucid Caf?.
Online at http://www.lucidcafe.com/library/95aug/napoleon.html.
Locke, John. (2003). Two Treatise of Government, 14th. ed. Cambridge
Blassingame, John W. 1979. The slave community: plantation life in the antebellum South. New York: Oxford University Press.
The most overt explanation of the author's research problem is when he states: "To argue, as some scholars have, that the first slaves suffered greatly from the enslavement process because it contradicted their 'heroic' warrior tradition, or that it was easier for them because Africans were docile in nature and submissive, is to substitute mythology for history," (p. 4).
The struggles of African slaves are the topic for Blassingame's entire book, and it is impossible to indicate one page number describing all the travails that are detailed in the tome. However, the first chapter of the book does provide examples of the suffering of slaves in Africa, during the transatlantic voyages, and in the New World. Pages 6 and 7 describe in some detail the brutality of the slave boat…
Blassingame, John W. 1979. The slave community: plantation life in the antebellum South. New York: Oxford University Press.
Center of the American West. "About Patty Limerick." Retrieved online: http://centerwest.org/about/patty
Duke University Libraries (n.d). Biography of John Hope Franklin. Retrieved online: http://library.duke.edu/rubenstein/franklin/bio.html
Franklin, John Hope, and Alfred A. Moss. 2000. From slavery to freedom: a history of African-Americans. New York: A.A Knopf
African-American in the Media
The comedy Barbershop, starring Ice Cube juxtaposes the harshness of city life with the resiliency of the people living in the city. The movie with its black cast has an impressive standing in the movie industry for the year 2002. I'm not sure that I agree that this specific film means a breakthrough for African-Americans in the industry. The Black person has after all been part of the industry for a long time, and there are many African-American stars, not featured in this movie, who have made a great success of their movie careers.
The "integration period" for example is determined to be around the years 1949-1969. During this period there is an integration of Black people into the societies depicted in films. Thus the African-American is portrayed in a more positive way. Also, "black" themes and issues of conflict among races and peers are depicted…
Representation of Asian Women: American Television Sitcoms and Media
American Asian women exist within a culture that is at times resistant at providing a realistic portrait of what an Oriental woman is and how she expresses herself. This can be seen in personalities like Margaret Cho, whose sitcom, All-American Girl forced her to see the reality of how America perceived Asian American women and Oriental people in general. These negative images, stereotypes of Asian American women as 'demon women', 'hookers', and submissive, are translated not just in television sitcoms, but in movies like Ghost in the Shell and force cultivation of beliefs that stick to the minds of people long-term. It is through these shows and movies that people understand what is an Asian American and unfortunately, how badly they are depicted. This essay will shed some light on the potential origins of these negative stereotypes and why they…
European exploration the world was undertaken in the 1500's in an attempt to reach the markets of Asia. And once they reached the East, the Europeans quickly found that their technological superiority gave them a strategic advantage over the Asian countries they encountered. As a result, the West began a period of Colonial Imperialism whereby European nations, followed later by the Americans, occupied and administered entire regions of Asia as colonies to be economically exploited. The Asian countries of India, China, and Japan reacted differently in response to the predations of the West, with differing results. India was completely conquered, China ended up conquered to a degree, and Japan started conquering. These three different results were in due, partially because of the stability of their nations, and partially due to the ability of each to adapt and modernize.
The origins of British rule in India began with the British East…
Beeching, J. (1975). The Chinese Opium Wars. New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich.
Busch, N. (1972) The Horizon Concise History of Japan. New York: American Heritage Pub.
Danielou, A. (2003) A Brief History of India. Rochester, VT.: Inner Traditions.
Dugdale-Pointon, TDP. (2004, September 19), The Boxer Rebellion, 1900, http://www.historyofwar.org/articles/wars_boxer.html .
There is a lack of regulation to protect the ability of American workers to secure well-paying, decent jobs, which form the backbone of the middle class. There are a great number of threats to the stability of the American middle class as more and more businesses make decisions that are to the benefit of their profitability than to the welfare of their workers. Opportunity, health and wealth are most certainly spread equitably on a global level, nor can they be while countries that have been the dominant social and economic forces since WWII set the global agenda for to benefit their own middle class workers to the exclusion of the subsistence workers of underdeveloped nations. The policies are set through international policies including trade agreements, United Nations policy briefings, and regional agreements. Countries with little bargaining power are unable to influence the international policies which are set to…
Shooting an Elephant - Orwell
I clearly got the impression that Orwell was caught between a rock and a hard place, to understate the situation. He raged at the Burma residents who hated the British and took it out on British police -- and on the other hand, he knew imperialism was a bad policy and he did not have positive thoughts at all about his duty in a British uniform. I was very attentive to his narrative, and I was impressed too that the narrator knew he was "ill-educated" (which is quite an admission) and was living day-to-day with rage and hatred.
My predictions for the rest of the essay include the thought that the protagonist will not be able to handle the situation well at all. First of all, I hate it that elephants are chained up and made to do humans' work, and I can't blame that…
Orwell, George. "Shooting an Elephant." 1936.
In some regards, the idea of 'culture' is highly mutable and subject to widespread variations in characterization. Quite in fact, the concept of culture is highly implicated in the weaponzation of words that may be used by one nation to subjugate another. Ideas about how cultures interact, about which cultures are superior and indeed about whether or not the practices of some peoples should even be called 'cultures' have been subjected to rationalization as colonialist nations have subjugated various parts of the developing sphere. It is this understanding that inclines Said's (2002) perspective in "The Clash of Definitions."
Here, Said opposes the idea that there are distinct incompatibilities which persist between civilizations. Instead, he argues that this is the impression which has been foisted upon us by the shifting notions of what is meant by culture, particularly as this depends upon the perspective of hegemonic ethnic groups. This…
Bederman, G. (1995). Manliness & Civilization: A Cultural History of Gender and Race in the United States, 1880-1917. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Bender, T. (2006). A Nation among Nations: America's Place in World History. New York: Hill & Wang:
Cabral, A. (1973). National Liberation and Culture. In Return to the Source: Selected Speeches of Amilcar Cabral. New York: Monthly Review Press: 39-56.
McClintock, A. (1995). Imperial Leather: Race, Gender and Sexuality in the Colonial Contest. London: Routledge.
Fresia's contention that the United States failed to live up to its revolutionary democratic promise and instead was captured by the powerful plutocratic elite has appeal, it oversimplifies the process by which the elite take and retain control over resources and governmental power. In reality, at the time of the American evolution, there was little dispute that the outcome of the evolution would be to give greater power and freedom to those leading the evolution; the founding fathers. While the promise of democracy was offered to common men, it was members of the ruling elite of the colonial Americas that made the decisions to declare America independent from England and drafted both the Articles of Confederation and the United States Constitution. Therefore, it is unsurprising that the Constitution does not engage in the type of re-distribution of wealth that Fresia appears to believe is necessary in order to establish a…
Fresia, Jerry. 1988. Toward an American Revolution: Exposing the Constitution and other
Illusions. Boston: South End Press.
Writing Guidelines for History Identifications and Essays
Your essay should have an introductory paragraph that in some way summarizes, encapsulates, suggests, shapes, and/or sets up the ideas, themes, facts, or whatever you are going to discuss in the main body of your essay. In other words, you should set forth your thesis.
Here, in the main body of your essay, you should develop the principal ideas and themes, and support them with the appropriate facts. The main body will inevitably be several paragraphs long, perhaps a page or two or more, depending on what you want to say and the amount of material you include. Basically, the main body consists of as many paragraphs as you need to discuss the question at hand.
Also let me note that individual paragraphs generally begin with a topic sentence for that paragraph, follow that by a couple of sentences of development,…
In short, the United States became more aggressive in attaining foreign resources and access to trade. This was a result of the expansive nature of empires, and the fact that America, as characterized by Boot, was gradually becoming a "great power."
Largely, the Great Powers of the modern world have come into being as emerging economic and political trends have allowed. The ever shifting tides of the world's social foundations have tended to produce successive powers that rise and fall over the course of history. Generally, what make these powers great are their military capabilities, but of course, these are commanded by the economic base supporting them. A powerful economy can allow for enormous military expenditures, and generate vast influence across the planet.
Naturally, the economic crux of a great power can vary in form. Most obviously, the great power of the ancient world -- Rome -- relied upon the…
Boot, Max. The Savage Wars of Peace: Small Wars and the Rise of American Power. New York: Basic Books, 2002.
End Game of Globalization
"Nothing is more insidious than the liberal fain of equality between people who are demonstrably and desperately unequal…American liberalism, in other words, remade itself to fulfill the task that social democracy fulfilled elsewhere. It became a progressive force, absorbing yet dampening the leftward impulse of socialism…a liberalism quite at home with racism and class exploitation, yet one which responded when necessary to political pressure (as in the granting of female suffrage). Liberalism expanded into a bipolar role of co-opting any progressive urge among the multiracial working class while also viciously repressing that same force when it organized too much of a challenge to the power of capital or the liberal state."
There are many countries that perceive the United States of America as an example of imperialism. There are many cultures that adamantly resist western culture, western practices, and western ideals. They are enraged…
Smith, Neil. (2005) The End Game of Globalization. Routledge: United Kingdom.
In From a Native Daughter, Haunani-Kay Trask's purpose could not be clearer in that she has written a highly political and ideological work from a left-wing nationalist perspective that denounces the colonization of Hawai'i by the United States. Even more, every word she wrote is absolutely true, even though many whites either do not know this history or do not want to know it. In fact, they might even wish that Trask had written more about the 'positive' or 'beneficial' side of Hawaiian interaction with the U.S. except of course she finds that there has been none. Her entire history is an expression of moral outrage and indignation and what whites have done to the Native people of these islands, to the air, land and water, and to the history and culture of the Hawaiian people. Most tragically, she describes Hawai'i today as a "dying land," crushed by…
Trask, Haunani-Kay. From a Native Daughter: Colonialism and Sovereignty in Hawai'i, Revised Edition. University of Hawai'i Press, 1993, 1999.
Alamo," in History in the Making: An Absorbing Look at How American History Has
Changed in the Telling over the Last 200 Years, (New York: The New Press, 2006): 146-151.
The siege of the Alamo is an example of a historical event that has taken on a symbolic significance far in excess of its actual importance. The facts of the Battle of the Alamo are as follows: the outnumbered supporters of Texas independence, garrisoned in the Alamo, were eventually overcome by the Mexican forces. For many years, Texans perceived the Alamo as an example of Texan spirit and determination to secure independence; for the Mexican nation, the loss of Texas became a symbol of American imperialism.
xamples from History in the Making: An Absorbing Look at How American History Has Changed in the Telling over the Last 200 Years show how the American understanding of the Alamo has shifted over…
Examples from History in the Making: An Absorbing Look at How American History Has Changed in the Telling over the Last 200 Years show how the American understanding of the Alamo has shifted over the years. In 1867, the Texas patriot Davy Crockett was portrayed in an ostensibly objective history book as being surrounded by bloodthirsty Mexicans. But, the book said, spirit of Crockett could not die with his body and lived on to inspire others to fight for freedom (146-147). In some history textbooks in the 1880s the Battle of the Alamo was not acknowledged at all, given that the battle ended in defeat. Another textbook noted that although Mexicans triumphed in the battle, American fortitude was simply too strong to withstand the determination of the Texans to secure independence in the long run (148). One textbook from 1915, with clear racial overtones, openly stated that the 'Anglo-Saxon blood' of the Americans and the independent spirit of the frontiersmen inevitably came in conflict with the weak, dictatorial government of Mexico. Well into the 1950s and 1960s, textbooks stressed how the superior numbers of Mexicans (2,400 strong) were held off by the handful of Texans led by William B. Travis, David Crockett, and David Bowie (151)
This one-sided perspective was challenged in the 1990s. "Myths about that battle have magnified the rebel's valor at the Mexican's expense," noted one contemporary textbook (150). A 1995 rendition tried not to take a particular side but presented the facts as dispassionately as possible: 187 rebels did indeed hold off a Mexican assault for days. But the most famous heroes of the conflict -- Davy Crockett included -- did not fight to the death but were rather executed by the Mexican Army after the fact. The book notes that at the time, an equally inspiring event to spur more men to join the Texan independence movement was when a 350 men-strong Texan detachment were killed by the Mexican forces (151). However, it is the memory of the Alamo that has been memorialized in the historical imagination.
However, even this 1995 account is not entirely satisfactory. To understand the determination of Mexico to continue to keep the Texas territory within its national borders, the Mexican-American conflict must be presented as a whole, without undue weight given to the events at the Alamo. The Alamo has become part of the iconography of the taming of the West, and the dominion over the frontier has become synonymous with defeating nonwhite people who symbolize more primitive, less democratic cultures. The fact that the Alamo stood for a long time in a surprising fashion seems to confirm an ideal of American superiority, and by giving it undue weight -- even without racial overtones or inflated language -- tends to confirm this myth in the eyes of students, unless the story is properly contextualized.
Cuban Missile Crisis: Why we need more balance of power in the world.
Cuban Missile crisis in 1960s may raise a serious political question in retrospect i.e. should America be allowed to exist as the sole superpower and what could be the repercussions of such an existence? Now fifty years or so later, we are in a much better position to answer this question. United States or any other nation for that matter must not work as the sole superpower because it can cause many political upheaval as we recently witnessed. We will discuss the Cuban Missile crisis in detail but first we must establish that American history is fraught with events and wars that were fought on the false belief of America's superiority which made it an imperial power. Examples of these events include the Mexican-American War, the Spanish-American War and not to mention the current conflict with Iraq.…
Rothernberg. R.S. "Crisis Time." USA Today 130.2676 (2001)
Meagher. MR."In an Atmosphere of National Peril': The Development of John F. Kennedy's World View." Presidential Studies Quarterly 27.3 (1997):
Krenn ML. "Robert Weisbrot. Maximum Danger: Kennedy, the Missiles, and the Crisis of American Confidence." International Social Science Review (2002):
Nigro Jr. LJ. "High Noon in the Cold War: Kennedy, Khrushchev, and the Cuban Missile Crisis." Parameters 35.3 (2005)
S. responded to the Great Depression by electing FDR, who brought out his Alphabet Programs which were supposed to put the nation back to work with public works projects. When that failed to restore the economy, the world elected to start with a new war: WWII. Germany had been buried by the Western powers following WWI -- and now the country threatened to assert itself once more. Russia was in the middle of its own revolution: Stalin was liquidating the kulaks and rounding others up and shipping them off to the Gulag. That did not help Russia's economy any more than FDR's Alphabet program -- but it did not matter: war was on the horizon. Japan was being strangled by Western powers: the American military-industrial-congressional complex essentially forced Japan to attack -- and then sat back and let it happen when Japan finally decided to bomb Pearl Harbor. Thus, America…
All of these together constitute the full relationship, and it is confusing and contradictory" (1998, 3). The cast of public characters included U.S. diplomats, Navy and Marine officers, and congressmen. Private citizens, including bankers, journalists, lobbyists, and businessmen, rounded out the ensemble. All these groups interacted to influence U.S. relations with Trujillo, although rarely in a consolidated fashion. hile the Dominican Republic became a difficult place to do business, a querulous participant in negotiations, and a major cause of Caribbean disquiet, including genocide, war scares, and assassinations" Trujillo still continued to obtain U.S. support (1998, 3). Even after the Trujillo government was overthrown, the U.S. government insisted on maintaining its power over the region by insisting on "approving the new head of the army and keeping the military intact." In short, ashington moved to create a "guardian system" it could control or manipulate (McSherry 2003, 2). The United States support…
Atkins, Pope and Larm Wilson. 1998. "The Dominican Republic and the United States from Imperialism to Transnationalism." The U.S. And the Americas. Athens: University of Georgia Press.
Chester, Eric Thomas. 2001. "Rag-Tags, Scum, Riff-Raff, and Commies: The Intervention in the Dominican Republic 1965-1966. NY Monthly Review Press.
Desmarais P., Norman and James McGovern. "Essential Documents in American History, President Ulysses S. Grant's appeal for the Annexation of Santo Domingo, 1492-Present." Providential College.
Farmer, Richard S. 1985. "Economic Policy Toward the Caribbean Basin: The Balance Sheet." The Journal of Inter-American Studies and World Affairs, Vol. 27, No.1.
They are so shrouded in mental and spiritual darkness, say the oppressors that they require outside assistance in the form of religious missionaries and military personnel. Christianity and the armies that propagate it are here to help the "Persons Sitting in Darkness," to save them from themselves. Thus, Twain uses the printed word to demonstrate how American foreign policy is founded on principles of social Darwinism and thinly concealed racism.
Throughout "To the Person Sitting in Darkness," Twain concentrates on lambasting the notion that America stands for freedom, liberty, and Civilization. According to Twain, these concepts are "only for Export." Moreover, they are costly. Twain makes sure to bring up the financial motives for American political maneuvers: "The Actual Thing that the Customer Sitting in Darkness buys with his blood and tears and land and liberty." The word "Customer" drives home the point that money, not concern for the well…
In each one, he uses descriptive language and situations to represent the millions of uprooted Europeans coming to America for a better life and opportunities unavailable to them at home. He writes, "Now they would learn to have dealings with people essentially different from themselves. Now they would collide with unaccustomed problems, learn to understand alien ways and alien languages, manage to survive in a grossly foreign environment" (Handlin 1973, 35). Throughout the book, he uses this almost sentimental style to illustrate the difficulties these people faced, and how they managed to survive and thrive in spite of them.
He describes the cramped living conditions in urban ghettos where most of the immigrants first ended up, the difficulties in finding employment, and how they always remained separate and separated from the Americans all around them. He writes, "This street was apart as if a ghetto wall defined it. On other…
Bodnar, John. The Transplanted: A History of Immigrants in Urban America. Bloomington, in: University of Indiana Press, 1985.
Handlin, Oscar. The Uprooted: The Epic Story of the Great Migrations That Made the American People. Boston, MA: Atlantic Monthly Press, 1973.
Jacobson, Matthew Frye. Barbarian Virtues: The United States Encounters Foreign Peoples at Home and Abroad, 1876-1917. New York: Hill and Wang, 2000.
One of the best points is brought forth by Higgins, who writes that an estimated force of 1500 men were sent to take on no less than 25,000 Cubans (Higgins 1987). "In the end, of approximately 1300 men who actually landed on the beaches from the Brigade, almost 1200 were captured and about 100 killed in combat (Higgins 149). The Brigade, if they failed, were expected to escape into the protected areas that connected to the Bay of Pigs; when in fact those areas, the conditions of the terrain, the poor training and preparation of the Brigade, made such escape impossible (Higgins 149).
Years later, declassified papers and tapes from the hite House would lend insight into the fiasco, but not clarity. One thing that was evidenced from the hite House tapes is that the Bay of Pigs continued to be a source of humiliation and annoyance to President Kennedy…
Works Cited www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=105514152
Blight, James G. And Peter Kornbluh, eds. 1999. Politics of Illusion: The Bay of Pigs Invasion Reexamined. Boulder, CO: Lynne Rienner. http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=105514456 .
Chomsky, Noam. 1993. Rethinking Camelot: JFK, the Vietnam War, and U.S. Political Culture. Boston: South End Press. http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=24098683 .
America at War 1865-Present
A Survey of America at War from 1865 to Present
Since the Civil War, America has seldom seen a generation of peace. In fact, a nonstop succession of wars has kept what Eisenhower termed "the military industrial complex" in lucrative business. From the Indian Wars to the World Wars to the Cold War to the war on Terror, Americana has expanded its foothold as an imperial power every step of the way -- even when isolationism appeared to be momentarily in vogue following World War I. This paper will look at the history of the progression of war in America from 1865 to present, showing how that history -- through social, economic, literary, political, and religious changes -- has both shaped and been shaped by American foreign and domestic policy.
Unit Once: 1865-1876
The Civil War had just ended on the home front, but that did…
Boyd, J.P. (2000). Indian Wars. Scituate, MA: Digital Scanning, Inc.
Jarecki, E. (2008). The American Way of War. NY: Free Press.
Jones, E.M. (2000). Libido Dominandi. South Bend, IN: St. Augustine's Press.
Morehouse, M. (2007). Fighting in the Jim Crow Army: Black Men and Women
United tates and Fidel Castro's Cuba, now more than forty years old, is still a source of great political and moral contention. The collapse of the oviet Union and, with it, the end of the Cold War, signaled a change in the implications of the type of socialism governing Cuba. The alleged threats that had hovered so close to the continental U.. throughout these paranoid and dangerous days of ideological impasse were now neutralized by the dismantling of the infrastructure that had brandished them. Cuba, once a unique and remote ally to the U...R., served as an outpost for anti-American hostilities and a potential vessel through which to deliver the devastating blows that may have turned the Cold War hot, now is an isolated bastion for ideals abandoned by most of the world. In the Western Hemisphere, they are alone, paying for what most American citizens will tell you is…
Sources can be found and printed at the following sites:
Source 1. http://www.state.gov/www/regions/wha/cuba/policy.html
Source 2. http://travel.state.gov/cuba.html
Source 3. http://qbanrum.tripod.com/cuba-1.html
Source 4. http://isla.igc.org/Features/Cuba/cuba2.html
hat he postulated was that their greatness came from the control of the sea, especially the vital sea lanes and points, such as coaling stations for the steamship navies of the world. He felt that this had never been fully appreciated before and that it was his job to expound upon it.
His work began in lecture format and later found its way into published book form. This led to his publication of The Influence of Sea Power upon History, 1660-1783 which became a classic text and basis for American imperialism. This and other succeeding works pounded home the need for a strong battleship navy to control the critical lines of communication for a maritime empire. Unlike many proponents of U.S. overseas involvement, Mahan did not coat his ideas in philosophically pleasing clothing. Very much the Social Darwinist, he had no problems arguing that in a world of struggle for…
Burner, David; Bernhard, Virginia and Stanley I. Kutler. A History of the United States.
6th Combined Edition. St. James: Brandywine Press, 2000. 661.
Nash, Gary B.; Jeffrey, Julie Roy; Howe, John R. et al. The American People: Creating
a Nation and a Society. 5th Edition. New York: Longman, 2001. 639.
spanned Old Highway 31, Broadway, State Route 119, High Street, and even the Champs-Elysees. They have elicited feelings of mouth-watering salvation from children in the backseat of cars for generations and tugged on the deeply imprinted visions of the American Dream from the adults in the front; having visited them already, adolescents on the streets of American cities clutch the greasy paper bags on the way home from school, gabbing with their friends and sharing their French fries; in downtown New York, they grace Wall Street with a top-hatted, white-gloved greeter at the front door. The Golden Arches permeate American culture, all walks of life, classes, ethnicities, social stratii, and geographies in a way that no other commercial space has. McDonald's, a leader in the worldwide fast food industry, has capitalized on its commercial ingenuity, successful marketing, globalization, and place in the American imagination by careful recognition of the cultural…
eapons of mass destruction are just an excuse. But is known that
"President George Bush and Vice-President Dick Cheney were both oil
company executives before entering politics, as was half the present US
administration," which means that not only do you have friends in the oil
business but that they dictate your policy (Vesely 2002). Having such
deceptive and underhanded policies and engaging an entire nation in a war
that not only kills Amerians, but also people of other countries and
encourages anti-American sentiment among even our allies is a horrible
foreign policy when all we receive in return is natural resources and
riches for a few Americans. Alternatives must be sought. No longer can
weapons of mass destruction be an excuse to involve the United States in
such costly polices.
And yet even more so now weapons of mass destruction are being hinted
at as an excuse to go…
Buckley Jr., William. "Looking Ahead-Oil." National Review (2005). 17 Apr.
"Imperialism Definition." Dictionary.Com. 17 Apr. 2007
Lewis, Bernard. "Did You Say 'American Imperialism'? : Power, Weakness, and
Globalization arguably began even before Marco Polo’s expeditions, possibly being traceable to Alexander the Great’s establishment of overland routes between Eastern Europe and India. The assumption that globalization equals Americanization is profoundly arrogant, and is also ignorant of the history, meaning, and implications of globalization. Globalization implies integration and interdependence of the world. Predating the United States of America, globalization nevertheless reached a peak in the 20th century, when a globalized economic, political, and cultural landscape became inevitable and entrenched. While it seemed that McDonald’s, Coca Cola, Shell, and other proudly American companies have dominated the corporate landscape of a globalized international economy, a wealth of non-American companies have likewise participated in the dissemination and distribution of ideas and neoliberal policies that characterize postmodern globalization.
In some ways, globalization is the antithesis of Americanization. As Collins (2015) points out, globalization “has led to the continuing deindustrialization of America,” as labor…
" For this reason, "Shooting an Elephant" is a bold political essay. Colonialism and imperialism were waning trends when the essay was written, but the author understood that the structures of political and economic power put in place by colonial governments were long lasting. From the British East India Company and the Dutch East India Company to British Petroleum, the ravages of colonialism are felt at ever level of every society worldwide.
Poverty and political disenfranchisement cannot in all cases be traced directly to British or European colonialism. However, most cases do reveal some indirect or direct influence of colonialism on prevailing social, economic, and political oppression. Orwell's essay is also about the way colonialism damages not just the societies that are oppressed and ruled over, but the rulers too. He states, for instance, "my whole life, every white man's life in the East, was one long struggle not to…
Cinema and American Politics
The modern politics of the U.S. and their imperialistic manifestations within the global political economy (GPE) have often been reflected in the mainstream Hollywood films of the era yet simultaneously criticized and satirized by auteur and/or independent filmmakers, such as Kubrick with his 1964 Dr. Strangelove or Oliver Stone's JFK. While political science is a field in which the dynamics of political discourse may be examined more directly, an analysis of the cinematic representation of American politics as depicted in film can provide an alternative assessment of the life of U.S. political forces, how they are perceived to operate in popular film, and how popular political beliefs are shaped and communicated to citizens as a result. For instance, Spielberg's Lincoln and his recent ridge of Spies are two films that celebrate some aspect of the American political ideal (such as freedom, unity, integrity, and democracy). Yet…
Benoit, William; Nill, Dawn. "Oliver Stone's Defense of JFK." Communication
Quarterly, vol. 46, no. 2 (1998): 127-143.
Cole, David. Republican Party Animal. WA: Feral House, 2014.
Elliott, William; Schenck-Hamlin, William. "Film, Politics and the Press: The Influence
This is the risk countries take by entering the world economy.
China is an emerging economic power in the world. This has come about due to the enormous market there -- almost two billion people -- and their gradual movement into the global economy. China, Malaysia, and Singapore are all entering the last stage of economic development and much of their success has been a result of foreign direct investment. "Foreign direct investment has played an important role in many -- but not all -- of the most successful development stories in countries such as Singapore and Malaysia, and even China," (Stiglitz 67). Advocates of the world economy suggest that the third world nations in sub-Saharan Africa and Central America follow these examples.
However, the relative "success" of the second world nations has come about through cooperation with tyrannical governments and the exploitation of the working class. By making a…
Bush, George W. "The National Security Strategy of the United States of America." Speeches delivered September 17 and June 1, 2002.
Downing, David. Capitalism: Political and Economic Systems. Chicago: Heinemann Library, 2003.
Friedman, Thomas L. The Lexus and the Olive Tree: Understanding Globalization. New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux, 1999.
Greenspan, Alan. "Banking in a Global World." Chicago: Delivered to the Conference on Bank Structure and Competition, May 6, 2004.