Consumer Perception Essays (Examples)

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Consumer Subjective Personal Introspection of Your Own

Words: 1839 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 58591349

Consumer subjective personal introspection of your own buying behavior, and to relate this to the notion of products as extensions of the self and consumer behaviour theory.

buying behaviour

Subjective personal introspection of your own buying behaviour as an extension of the self and consumer behaviour theory

It has been noted in many studies on consumer behaviour that the products that the individual purchases are very often closely linked to the identity and values of that individual. Consumer behaviour has been defined as, "The psychology of how consumers think, feel, reason, and select between different alternatives (e.g., brands, products, and retailers)"and "The psychology of how the consumer is influenced by his or her environment (e.g., culture, family, signs, media)..." (Lerner).

In other words, the products that one purchases are in essence often seen as an extension of one's self. This means that the customer purchasing behaviour is often best understood…… [Read More]

References

Bloom P. et al. (2006). How Social-Cause Marketing Affects Consumer Perceptions. Mit Sloan Management Review, vol.47, no.2, viewed 28 February, 2012, http://elab.vanderbilt.edu/research/papers/How%20Social-Cause%20Marketing%20Affects%20Consumer%20Perceptions%20%5BBloom,%20Hoeffler,%20Keller,%20Meza%5D.pdf.

'Brand image: definition', viewed 28 February, 2012,  http://www.businessdictionary.com/definition/brand-image.html 

Burnett, J 2008.CoreConcepts of Marketing, viewed 28 February, 2012, http://globaltext.terry.uga.edu/userfiles/pdf/Core%20Concepts%20of%20Marketing.pdf. Date of access: 1 Nov. 2011.

Copely, P 2004. Marketing communications management: concepts & theories, cases & practices, Elsevier, Oxford.
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Perception of Customer Behavior

Words: 1112 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 52394843

Perception of Customer Behavior

The Psychological State of Consumer Behavior

The psychological state of the customer plays an important part in determining the consumer satisfaction. The perception and behavior of the consumer has an impact on the service climate as well as customer perception of service equality. According to Benjamin Schneider, Suzan White and Michelle Paul in the journal of applied psychology (Schneider, White & Paul, 1998), a given set of foundation issues that usually holds up employee work and service worth is conceptualized as essential cause of a climate for service. The climate for service is also reflected in the customer services. A cutthroat international competition, slower growth and mature markets characterize the current environment for many businesses organizations. Therefore, various organizations are making the perceptions of customers of quality of service a priority to in order to stay competitive and retain customers.

Apparently, it is relatively less expensive…… [Read More]

References

Hoyer, W.D., & MacInnis, D.J. (2008). Consumer behavior. Mason, OH: South-Western.

Kardes, F.R., Cronley, M.L., & Cline, T.W. (2011). Consumer behavior. Mason, OH: South-

Western, Cengage Learning.
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Perceptions of Foreign UK Retail

Words: 4329 Length: 13 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 17977919

133).

Marks & Spencer is currently met with a wide array of challenges, among which the emergence of the internationalized economic crisis which reduces the buying powers of the individuals, but also the incremental pressures for sustainable development. As the rest of the retailers, Marks & Spencer promotes its development through high levels of consumption, but given the unstable state of the environment, the governments militate for sustainable and limited consumption (Jones, Comfort and Hillier, 2007).

Another challenge is constituted by the need to adapt to the cultural values in the regions into which it expands and opens new stores (Amine and Smith, 2009). Also, the organization deal with financial and legal challenges derived from the international feature of business, such as the competition with local purveyors or the ability to combine and centralize the losses and profits of its international subsidiaries (Graetz and Warren, 2006).

2.5. Perceptions of Thai…… [Read More]

References:

Amine, L.S., Smith, J.A., 2009, Challenges to modern consumer segmentation in a changing world: the need for a second step, Multinational Business Review, Vol. 17, No. 3

Arize, a.C., Chooekawong, P., Prasanpanich, V., 2000, Foreign trade behavior in Thailand: stable or unstable? American Economist, Vol. 44, No. 2

Chang, T., Liu, W.R., Thompson, H., 2002, the viability of fiscal policy in South Korea, Taiwan and Thailand, ASEAN Economic Bulletin, Vol. 19., No. 2

Child, P.N., Heywood, S., Klinger, M., 2002, Do retail brands travel, the McKinsey Quarterly,
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Consumer Attitudes Towards Green Packaged

Words: 1701 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 37436479

This study will incorporate consumer perceptions and attitude green products, green values, green label and green environment. Finally, it will provide insights on areas of green buying commitment and green purchasing intention (Biel, Hansson & Ma-rtensson, 2008).

eferences

Abele, E., Anderl, ., & Birkhofer, H. (2005). Environmentally-friendly product development: Methods and tools. London: Springer.

Ahvenainen, . (2003). Novel food packaging techniques. Boca aton, FL: CC Press

Biel, a., Hansson, B., & Ma-rtensson, M. (2008). Individual and structural determinants of environmental practice. Aldershot: Ashgate.

Charter, M. (2009). Greener marketing: A global perspective on greener marketing practice. Sheffield: Greenleaf.

Denison, E., & en, G.Y. (2007). Thinking green. Hove: oto Vision.

Farnworth, C., Jiggins, J., & Thomas, E.V. (2008). Creating food futures: Trade, ethics and the environment. Aldershot, England: Gower.

Grunert, K.G., Thogersen, J., & O-lander, F. (2005). Consumers, policy and the environment: A tribute to Folke O-lander. New York: Springer.

Hoyer, W.D.,…… [Read More]

References

Abele, E., Anderl, R., & Birkhofer, H. (2005). Environmentally-friendly product development: Methods and tools. London: Springer.

Ahvenainen, R. (2003). Novel food packaging techniques. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press

Biel, a., Hansson, B., & Ma-rtensson, M. (2008). Individual and structural determinants of environmental practice. Aldershot: Ashgate.

Charter, M. (2009). Greener marketing: A global perspective on greener marketing practice. Sheffield: Greenleaf.
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Consumer Behavior During a Product Harm Crisis

Words: 1567 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 44949937

Consumer Learning and Product-Harm Crisis

Define a product-harm crisis

A product-harm crisis refers to a situation that can trigger serious damages to a company. A crisis can threaten an organization's system and cause drastic changes in a manner that that the firm's system operates. A crisis often has a disruptive impact on organizational, social, and environmental systems. In most cases, can lead to extensive damage accompanied by significant costs imposed upon the organization, individuals, and society. A succinct definition of a product harm crisis is best understood when the causative factors are identified as seen in this study. Besides comparing various studies on the phenomenon, the study offers recommendations on how the problem can be mitigated as it can severe the operations of even successful organizations.

For organizations, crises are higher consequences and lower probability events that can jeopardize the most important organizational objectives. However, the ability for an organization…… [Read More]

References

Chen, Y, Ganesan, S., & Liu, Y. (2009). Does a Firm's Product-Recall Strategy Affect Its Financial Value? An Examination of Strategic Alternatives During Product-Harm Crises. Journal of Marketing, 73(6), 214-226

Lei, J., Dawar, N., & Gurhan-Canli, Z. (2012). Base Rate Information in Consumer Attributions Of Product-Harm Crisis. Journal of Marketing Research, 49(3), 336-348

Vassilikopoulou, A., Lepetsos, A., Siomkos, G., & .Chatzipanagiotou, K. (2009). The Importance of Factors Influencing Product-Harm Crisis Management Across Different Crisis Extent Levels: A Conjoint Analysis. Journal Of Targeting, Measurement, and Analysis For Marketing, 17(1), 65-74

Yannopoulu, N., Koronis, E., & Elliot, R. (2011). Media Amplification Of A Brand Crisis And Its Effects On Brand Trust. Journal Of Marketing Management, 27(5/6), 539-546.
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Consumer Behavior for Marketing Understanding Consumer Behavior

Words: 3123 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 5001570

Consumer Behavior for Marketing

Understanding Consumer Behavior

Understanding consumers' perceptions is critical to marketing and advertising. Consumers are increasingly selective with regard to the advertising that they pay attention to and mass marketing is fast losing its effectiveness and appeal. There is any number of strategies that marketers can employ to increase positive consumer perception of their brands. Several suggestions follow: (1) Engage in socially responsible investing in causes that can reasonably associated with the company or the brand: Examples of this strategy can be seen in programs that Starbucks has established to give back to domestic communities and to engage in foreign communities in need. Sale of Ethos water provides a portion of the revenue to be used for infrastructure changes to communities that do not have reliable sources of clean water. The ed program -- a collaborative effort which extended to other firms -- used a portion of…… [Read More]

References

Cherry K (2012) Classical vs. Operant Conditioning. Retrieved http://psychology.about.com/od/behavioralpsychology/a/classical-vs.-operant-conditioning.htm

Pavlov IP. (1927) Conditioned reflexes. London: Oxford University Press.

Skinner BF (1953) Science and Human Behavior. New York: Macmillan.
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Consumers' Perspectives What Criteria Influence

Words: 12814 Length: 45 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 15669368

Fo instance, appoximately 33 pe cent of Thailand's wate souces ae categoized as having poo quality and the phenomenon is consideed a seious envionment poblem. Moeove, Thailand is anked among the last Asian counties based on amounts of fesh wate available pe capita (WWF, 2010).

In this context, the Thai govenment and the Thai people have commenced to pay moe attention to the effect of the envionmental poblems, as well as to the adjacent economics of the poblem. People make an effot to buy poducts which ae envionmentally hamless and, though them, to minimize the negative envionmental implications of consumption. A fist effot in this diection was the intoduction of the Thai Geen Label Scheme in 1993 and its fomal launch one yea late (Geen Label Thailand, 2010). In shot, the scheme suppots the development of the geen poducts secto by intoducing infomation fo consumes and standads fo businesses. Moe…… [Read More]

references and Marketing strategies for green shares: Specifics of Austrian market.' Journal of Bank Marketing 22, (4)

Grankvist, G., Lekedal, H., and Marmendal, M. (2007) 'Values and eco- and fair-trade labeled products.' Journal of British food 109, (2)

Green Label Thailand (2010) 'Thai Green Labal Scheme'. [online] available from [13 July 2010]

Gulf Daily News (2010) 'Toyota set to produce hybrid cars in Thailand.' [Online] available from [19 August 2010]

Gurau, C., and Ranchhod, A. (2005) 'International Green Marketing: A comparative study of British and Romanian firm.' Journal of International Marketing Review 22, (5) 547-561
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Baby Food Preferences Among Ethiopian Consumers

Words: 6884 Length: 25 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 86208361

Consume Behavio: Puchasing Local Baby Food vs. Impoted Baby Food in Ethiopia

Liteatue Review Desciption

A systematic eview of the liteatue is povided in this chapte in ode to develop infomed and timely answes to the study's guiding eseach questions and to confim o efute its guiding hypothesis. In this egad, Faenkel and Wallen (2001, p. 48) advise that, "Reseaches find out what has aleady been witten about the topic they ae inteested in [by] investigating the opinions of expets in the field and othe eseach studies. Such eading is efeed to as a eview of the liteatue." Likewise, Gatton and Jones (2003) epot that a well-conducted eview of the liteatue epesents an essential pat of vitually any type of scholaly eseach poject today. Fo example, Gatton and Jones (2003, p. 51) note that, "No matte how oiginal you think the eseach question may be, it is almost cetain that…… [Read More]

references for foreign and domestic products." Journal of Consumer Marketing, Vol. 16, No. 2, pp. 151-162.

Kucukemiroglu, O. (1997, March). "Market segmentation by using consumer lifestyle dimensions and ethnocentrism: An empirical study." European Journal of Marketing, Vol. 33, No. 5-6, pp. 470-491.

"Lifestyle definition." (2016). Business Dictionary. [online] available: http://www.business dictionary.com/definition/lifestyle.html.

"Lifestyle definition." (2016). Dictionary.com. [online] available: http://www.dictionary.com/browse/lifestyle.

"Lifestyle definition." (2016). Merriam-Webster. [online] available: http://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/lifestyle.
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The Consumers Behaviors Purchasing Local Baby Food Versus International Baby Food

Words: 785 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 14852622

Consumer Behavior: Purchasing Local Baby Food vs. International Baby Food (in Ethiopia)

Companies that manufacture and/or market baby formula employ various conventional and modern (i.e., web-based) media for advertising their products and capturing a large target audience. Studies indicate that the ability of market buyers to learn and remember specific brand names and keep them at the "top of their minds" results from advertising's effects, which can't be controlled by companies, particularly in case of media like television (Mazis & aymand, 2007). Okazaki, Nishiyama and Katsukura 2007 report that positive brand image influences consumer trust. Furthermore, Ajzen and Fishbein (1975) write that the presence of a positive attitude in connection with a product/brand in consumers helps reinforce their purchase intention. Still, empirical studies also reveal that many buyers doubt the claims made concerning products in their advertisements. Consumers are aware of the fact that the aim of advertisements is persuasion,…… [Read More]

References

Fishbein, M. & Ajzen, I. (1975). Belief, Attitude, Intention and Behaviour, Addison-Wesley, Reading, MA.

Fournier, S. (1998). Consumers and their brands: developing relationship theory in consumer research. Journal of Consumer Research, 24(4), 343-73.

Mazis, M. B. & Raymond, M. A. (2007). Consumer perceptions of health claims in advertisements and on food labels. The Journal of Consumer Affairs, 31(1), 10-26.

Moorman, C. (1996). A Quasi-Experiment to Assess the Consumer and Informational Determinants of Nutrition Information Processing Activities: The Case of the Nutrition Labeling and Education Act. Journal of Public Policy & Marketing, 15, 28-44.
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Consumer Behavior - Perception Perception

Words: 1837 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 5936205



Through the use of better marketing strategies and advertisements that are appealing to the customer, the executives use stimuli to grab the attention of the customer ("Consumers Behavior," n.d.). In most cases, such kinds of efforts by the executives are usually vividly clear and identified by the customers. Furthermore, executives can make better marketing and advertising decisions by understanding that customers are sometimes influenced by indiscernible stimuli which is also known as subliminal message. This is regardless of the fact that a customer only pays attention to few of the stimuli that he/she comes into contact with and usually interprets the messages he/she can recall.

Secondly, perception is important to executives in making better marketing and advertising decisions since it helps in devising marketing strategies. Executives make better marketing and advertising decisions by the use of a perceptual map which helps them to identify the characteristics that customers associate with…… [Read More]

References:

Babitski, I.V. (n.d.), What Is Perception?, Articleweekly.com, viewed 12 December 2010,



Consumerpsychologist.com (n.d.), Consumer Behavior: Perception, Consumerpsychologist.com, viewed 12 December 2010,

Icmrindia.org (n.d.), Consumer Behavior: Chapter 5, Icmrindia.org, viewed 12 December 2010,
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Consumer Bahavior Behavior of Customers

Words: 1875 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 77265576

Such customers are expected to be more influenced in purchasing more expensive organic products.

In the case of organic products, marketers have also focused on influencing the perceptions of consumers. Their objective is to determine consumers to perceive organic products of having higher quality and better effects in comparison with regular products. Their strategy was successful in the case of numerous customers. However, this situation can be attributed to several players. This situation is influenced by producers of organic products, by governments that have developed studies regarding the effects of organic products, and marketers that have developed strategies intended to determine such needs.

This objective was also reached by providing an increased level of information that is easy to access by customers. The purchase decision regarding organic products is usually based on higher involvement from the customer. This means that customers are highly motivated in finding information on these products,…… [Read More]

Reference list:

1. Kardes, F. et al. (2011). Consumer Behavior. Cengage Learning. Retrieved April 16, 2011 from http://books.google.ro/books?id=nwew7nJ6000C&printsec=frontcover&dq=consumer+behavior&hl=ro#v=onepage&q&f=false.

2. Butterick, K. (2011). Introducing Public Relations: Theory and Practice. SAGE Publications, Ltd. Retrieved April 16, 2011 from http://books.google.ro/books?id=kyoQ1R2jQ1IC&pg=PA12&dq=public+relations+women+smoke+in+public&hl=ro#v=onepage&q=public%20relations%20women%20smoke%20in%20public&f=false.

3. Industry Statistics and Projected Growth (2011). Organic Trade Association. Retrieved April 16, 2011 from http://www.ota.com/organic/mt/business.html.

4. Consumer Behavior (2011). Encyclopedia of Business. Retrieved April 16, 2011 from  http://www.referenceforbusiness.com/management/Comp-De/Consumer-Behavior.html .
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Consumer Financial Protection Agency This

Words: 3026 Length: 11 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 57475440

Potential Concerns about the Consumer Financial Protection Agency

Despite the multitude of benefits revealed by the CFPA, commercial banks and mortgage lenders continually present their growing dissatisfaction with the act. epresentatives of this side include reputable organizations such as JP Morgan Chase or Wells Fargo, as well as a series of independent mortgage brokers and mortgage lenders and local and regional banking institutions. Their most compelling reasons for the dismissal of the Consumer Financial Protection Agency are succinctly presented below:

1. The banks feel that there is no real necessity for new regulatory legislation as the economy is already showing sighs of recovery; these financial institutions feel that the resources would be better spent otherwise. Additionally, the CFPA does not introduce any real new elements, but politically enforces the lessons already learnt from the economic crisis

2. The state could abuse its power through the Consumer Financial Protection Agency in…… [Read More]

References:

Allen, M., Javers, E., Barack Obama to Create Consumer Financial Protection Agency, Politico, 16 June 2009, http://www.politico.com/news/stories/0609/23790.html last accessed on September 30, 2009

Andrews, E.L., Banks Balk at Agency Meant to Aid Consumers, New York Times, June 30, 2009

Geithner, T.F., Written Testimony of Treasury Secretary Timothy F. Geithner, House Financial Services Committee, Financial Stability, http://www.financialstability.gov/latest/tg231.html last accessed on September 30, 2009

Hall, K.G., Banks Fight to Kill Protection Agency, McClatchy, September 24, 2009, http://www.mcclatchydc.com/227/story/75997.html last accessed on September 30, 2009
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Consumer Behavior in His 2005

Words: 474 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 70129022

What is fascinating in this regard is the contention that Gladwell makes of "thin slicing" through a significant portion of the book also aligns with theoretical models of how consumers interpret and act on promotional and advertising content as well. The author also points to examples of how what he calls "rapid cognition" actually has prejudices and preferences already interpreted as part of the perceptual filters each person uses to interpret their environment. Gladwell points to both prejudices for specific types of products, messages, values and preferences for them as an example of how these attributes are part of every person's rapid cognition set of responses. These perceptual filters form the foundation of how a person also interprets advertising and promotional stimuli as well.

In summary, Gladwell (2005) has presented a fascinating set of precepts marketers need to keep in mind to earn and retain consumers' trust. The basics of…… [Read More]

References

Gladwell, M (2005). Blink: The Power of Thinking without Thinking. New York, NY: Little.Brown & Company (Back Bay Books Imprint).
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Consumer Every Year Economic Agents

Words: 1411 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 12496400



Scenario B -- the organizational staff member

4. Evaluate the factors that influence your selection of a package.

As an individual employee, impacted by the decision regarding the medical package, the staff member would be influenced by the following factors:

The extent of the medical coverage in order to reveal and assess its ability to serve the healthcare needs of the individual.

The costs involved by the coverage -- detailed throughout the following section.

The evolution of the current plan as opposed to the previous one. A negative evolution would traditionally trigger dissatisfaction, whereas a positive evolution would manifest as a motivational force.

The ability to actually influence the final decision regarding the healthcare plan. This factor is specifically important as it reveals the role of the individual in the decision making process. If the employee is listened and his opinions valued and integrated in the decision process, this is…… [Read More]

References:

Choufani, R., 2010, The 10 critical steps to selecting an HER, Health IT Exchange, http://searchhealthit.techtarget.com/healthitexchange/meaningfulhealthcareinformaticsblog/the-10-critical-steps-to-selecting-an-ehr / last accessed on May 6, 2011

Fisher, J.G., 2008, How to run successful employee incentive schemes: creating effective programs for improved performance, 3rd edition, Kogan Page Publishers

Krugman, P., Wells, R., The health care crisis and what to do about it, The New York Review of Books, http://www.nybooks.com/articles/archives/2006/mar/23/the-health-care-crisis-and-what-to-do-about-it / last accessed on May 6, 2011

Tancredi, L.R., 1974, Ethics of health care: papers of the Conference on Health Care and Changing Values, November 27-29, 1973, National Academies
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Consumer Behavior Consumers Use a

Words: 1626 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 37915623

Thus, the marketing message has impacted on consumer behavior in a specific and deliberate way. Marketers typically have significant control over the marketing message in the advertising, the packaging and sometimes even the placement of the product (ensuring Corona is available at every major beach resort around the world, for example).

In conclusion, there are a number of different ways in which firms can exert influence over consumer behavior. Among the most important levers are control over information, merchandising and control over the marketing message. That firms have so many powerful levers at their disposal reflects the nature of the impact of the firm on consumers. Consumer behavior is often not the direct outcome of a singular action on the part of the marketer, but as the outcome of a set of cumulative actions, each of which influences the consumers' behavior is a specific way. The ways in which marketers…… [Read More]

Works Cited:

Law, D. & Yip, J. (no date). The impact of visual merchandising on the consumer decision process for intimate apparel. Hong Kong Polytechnic University. Retrieved June 15, 2010 from  http://elearning.lib.fcu.edu.tw/bitstream/2377/3942/1/ce05atc902007000065.pdf 

Mullen, B. & Johnson, C. (1990). The psychology of consumer behavior. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Nelson, P. (1970). Information and consumer behavior. The Journal of Political Economy. Vol. 78 (2) 311-329.

Vinson, D., Scott, J. & Lamont, L. (1977). The role of personal values in marketing and consumer behavior. Journal of Marketing. Vol. 41 (2) 44-50.
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Consumer Behavior the Transition of

Words: 2900 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 89603188

Suppot fo global phones

Medium to High. Social events ae pevasive duing skiing season

Medium to High; on Tous thee is much planned out and taken cae of; a chance to enjoy the sites and visit histoic places

High fo shopaholics; boing fo anyone who doesn't enjoy this type of activity

Cost

Fom $2,000 to ove $10,000 pe peson

Less than $100 fo camping out in a tent to ove $2,000 fo a cabin ental

Fom $3,000 to ove $10,000 each depending on the package selected

$2,000 to $4,000 depending on the package selected

$650 to $1,000 fo high taffic aeas including London o Pais;

Fom $2,000 to ove $10,000 pe peson

Time

A full week including flights up and back

Fom a weekend to ove a week

A minimum of a week o moe due to tavel

Fom one week to a month

Fom one week to a month…… [Read More]

references. The need for self-actualization, consistent with applicability of Maslow's Hierarchy of needs to the travel industry as studies previously have successfully done (Huang, Hsu, 2009) illustrate how powerful the need for self-actualization and peak experiences are in differentiating one travel experience form another. Segmentation of travel alternatives by the layer of the Maslow Hierarchy of Needs Model is critical for travel providers to be effective marketers and speak in terms their clients can understand and act on. The provider of Alaskan cruises would be wise to discuss how the cruise is a "trip of a lifetime to reward the decades of service to others" as the Asian women has most likely given huge blocks of her time and effort to her family and the family business. The self-actualization and "grand experience" of the Alaskan cruise is exceptionally successful as a marketing and messaging strategy that aligns to the Maslow Hierarchy of Needs Model, hence the very high participation rates on these events from senior citizens who are empty nesters.

Likewise the Maslow Model when applied to the university student and successful businessman has comparable analysis and results. For the university student the need is less on self-actualization, more on safety and psychological needs to challenging one's self against foreign countries and getting a glimpse into what traveling globally in freedom are. The university student may aspire for a self-actualized and exceptional experience, yet their focus the majority of the time will be on the development of their own self-confidence in tackling challenges of getting around and potentially staying in a foreign nation for a period of time. In studies that have applied the Maslow Hierarchy of Needs to travel programs and initiatives, insights have been gained into which demographic and psychographic groups have the greatest need for self-actualization, self-esteem, love & belonging & safety (Huang, Hsu, 2009).

While the Asian woman is clearly most interested in self-actualization and the sense of accomplishment and reward that comes from the cruise to Alaska, the students are looking for the esteem and confidence of being able to navigate through foreign nations. For the business man and the exotic diving trip to Thailand the need for esteem of conquering or mastering the specific region or waters of interest, combined with self-actualization of confronting uncertainty and risk underwater and still being able to see incredible sights, the businessman is unique in his mix of Maslow Needs Assessments. Yet for travel marketers to excel in their selection and marketing of travel destinations and experiences, these factors all must be taken into account and communicated with clarity and focus. This is in effect best practices in travel marketing today; the integrating of needs assessment of behavioral models including the Maslow Hierarchy of needs and the relative market positioning of travel experiences relative to potential clients.

The Herzberg Two Factor Theory that integrates Hygiene Factors and Motivators into the same model has also successfully been integrated into the travel industry's knowledge base of research (Chan, Baum, 2007). Specifically concentrating on how to most effectively satiate or satisfy travelers with the Hygiene Factors to meet minimum expectations of travelers has proven to be critically important in the development and fine-tuning of marketing messages. The aspirational values of the Motivators of the Herzberg Model are what the Asian woman and the businessman are looking for. Herzberg primarily completed research on
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Perceptions of Health-Care Reform in

Words: 1415 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 26283579

. .] a sure recipe for a second wave of financial disaster" (Segal, 2010), has an overall nonpartisan tone. Instead of focusing on the controversy between the parties, Segal, like Balassa, draws attention to facts. He discusses the vast amount of bankruptcies declared every year in the U.S. As a direct result of health-care costs (Segal, 2010).

The most conservative, and by far the largest publication, in the region is the Denver Post; it too sees the issues surrounding of health-care reform apolitically. Turning away from slander and political infighting, the article "Health Care eform Bill Cuts Deficit," by obert Pear and David Herzenhorn, discusses what they believe to be the basic concern of the health-care bill as it stands today: the cost to the consumer (2010). Their primary consideration is that the health-care reform bill currently under consideration does little to ease the financial burden of the insured (Pear…… [Read More]

References

Associated Press (2010, February 26). After Summit Democrats push ahead with health care reform. The Colorado Daily. Retrieved from  http://www.coloradodaily.com/ci_14476700?!ADID=search.html 

Balassa, John (2010, March 19). Not-for-Profit financing is key. The Colorado Daily.

Retrieved from http://www.coloradodaily.com/ci_144767700?!ADID=search.html

Gay, Chris (2009, September 3-9). The Wrong Argument: the democrats approach doesn't explain why the market can't fix health care. The Boulder Weekly.
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Psychological State of Consumer Behavior Perception

Words: 2541 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 52209982

MANAGING CONSUME BEHAVIOS & UNDESTANDING CONSUME PECEPTIONS

Consumer Behavior

Understanding consumer behavior is a pursuit that answers why, when, how, and where people buy or do not buy products. Consumer behavior is an area that combines topics such as economics, media studies, sociology, and psychology. Predicting and understanding consumer behavior is a challenge for experts and novices alike. Perception can be a biological process by which a person's brain interprets and organizes stimuli so as to gain awareness and understanding of one's environment. Perception can also be psychological and social phenomena. The paper surveys literature that proves the correlations and implications between consumer perception and consumer behavior.

Managing Consumer Behaviors & Understanding Consumer Perceptions

Perception is a large determinant or factor apart of behavior. Therefore, gaining understanding of consumer perceptions can illuminate the reasons behind certain types of consumer behaviors. With accurate data reflecting the connection between consumer behaviors and…… [Read More]

References:

Christandl, F., & Garlin, T. (2011) The Accuracy of Consumers' Perception of Future Inflation Prices. Journal of Psychology, 219(4), 209 -- 216.

Schneider, B. (1973) The Perception of Organizational Climate: The Customer's View. Journal of Applied Psychology, 57(3), 248 -- 256.

Schneider, B., & Bowen, D.E. (1985) Employee and Customer Perceptions of Service in Banks: Replication and Extension. Journal of Applied Psychology, 70(3), 423 -- 433.

Schneider, B., Hanges, P.J., Goldstein, H.W., & Braverman, E.P. (1994) Do Customer Service Perceptions Generalize? The Case of Student and Chair Ratings of Faculty Effectiveness. Journal of Applied Psychology, 79(5), 685 -- 690.
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Theory Consumer Behavior the Success or Failure

Words: 2202 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 25306523

Theory

Consumer Behavior

The success or failure of an organization unreservedly depends upon the behavior of consumers towards its products or services (Kotler, 2010). Consumers have now become more knowledgeable and conscious towards choosing and consuming products. They do not just buy a product; but make a relationship with that brand and the manufacturer of that product (Oliver, 1999). This relationship reflects their consumption patterns and brand preference. This is the fact which business organizations must recognize about consumer behavior (Farley, 1964). To stumble upon this consumer behavior, organizations use different marketing and promotional strategies to stay competitive within their respective industries. In this way, they explore what is their potential target market and what they can do to meet these consumption demands (Kotler, Brown, Burton, Deans, & Armstrong, 2010).

The purpose of this paper is to analyze the behavior of consumers towards the products offered by one of the…… [Read More]

References

Farley, J., (1964). Why Does "Brand Loyalty" Vary our Products? The Journal of Marketing, American Marketing Association, Vol. 1, No. 4, pp. 9-12

Kotler, P., (2010). Principles of Marketing: A South Asian Perspective, 13th Edition. India: Pearson Education

Kotler, P. Brown, L. Burton, S. Deans, K. Armstrong, G. (2010). Marketing. 8th Edition. U.S.: Prentice-Hall

Nestle.com, (2011). About Us. Retrieved on October 16th, 2011 from
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Ethical Situations That Influence Consumer

Words: 2334 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 85682989

The mall in Shanghai is not representative of all shopping experiences in China, and the questionnaire and its use of imagery and descriptions lack clarity and precision needed for more extrapolative results. The study however does underscore the role of ethicacy as a key determinant in defining if a person is going to purchase a counterfeit product or not.

Analysis of Counterfeit Luxury Goods Online:

An Investigation of Consumer Perceptions

One of the most rapidly expanding selling channels for counterfeit products are websites and e-commerce sites. On the Internet a counterfeiter can be up and running within a day or less, selling counterfeit items globally using PayPal and other well-known payment processing systems to manage transactions. This area of counterfeit luxury products selling is the subject of the study Counterfeit Luxury Goods Online: An Investigation of Consumer Perceptions (adon, 2012). The methodology is loosely defined as those customers who have…… [Read More]

References

Kozar, J.M., & Marcketti, S.B. (2011). Examining ethics and materialism with purchase of counterfeits. Social Responsibility Journal, 7(3), 393-404.

Ian Phau, Marishka Sequeira, Steve Dix, (2009) "To buy or not to buy a "counterfeit" Ralph Lauren polo shirt: The role of lawfulness and legality toward purchasing counterfeits," Asia-Pacific Journal of Business Administration, Vol. 1 Iss: 1, pp. 68 -- 80

Phau, I., & Teah, M. (2009). Devil wears (counterfeit) Prada: A study of antecedents and outcomes of attitudes towards counterfeits of luxury brands. The Journal of Consumer Marketing, 26(1), 15-27.

Anita Radon (2012). Counterfeit luxury goods online: An investigation of consumer perceptions. International Journal of Marketing Studies, 4(2), 74-79.
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Emotional Drivers of Consumer Toward Swarovskis Brand

Words: 5791 Length: 17 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 39300258

Emotional Drivers Swarovski

The motives behind consumer decisions to purchase luxury brands like Swarovski have been studied in a number of researches. The general findings of these studies have been that these motives are largely emotional, and that they are evolving as the composition of the luxury market segment changes. De Mooij (2005) defines emotion as an "interaction between cognition and physiology." The characteristics of emotion that or of greater concern to luxury brand managers are that emotions are learned and that they vary from culture to culture.

The mode of expression of emotion also varies by culture. In capitalistic societies, consumption has evolved into a unique mode of expression of self-satisfaction, self-esteem and self-pleasures. These buying motives shape the perceptions of various brands among consumers, along with brand loyalty and brand image. De Mooij (2005, p. 116) explains luxury brand buying motives in terms of collectivism/individualism and masculinity/feminism. Conformance…… [Read More]

References

Chevalier, M., & Mazzalovo, G. 2008. Luxury Brand Management. John Wiley & Sons.

De Mooij, M. 2005. Global Marketing and Advertising. Sage Publications, Inc.

Fionda, A.M., & Moore, C.M. 2009. The Anatomy of the Luxury Fashion Brand. Journal of Brand Management, 16(5/6), 347-363. doi.10.1057/bm.2008.45.

Fog, K., Budtz, C., Munch, P., & Blanchette, S. 2010. Storytelling: Branding in Practice. 2nd ed. Springer.
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Marketing Managers Understand Consumer Behavior It Is

Words: 2119 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 4084909

marketing managers understand consumer behavior?

It is essential for marketing managers to understand two critical elements: why consumers purchase the products they do and how exactly consumers intend to use those products. In general, the consumer decision-making process can be summed up as follows: need recognition; followed by information searching (otherwise known as research, such as combing reviews online or reading Consumer Reports); an evaluation of alternatives (formally or informally through vehicles such as a cost-benefit analysis); followed by the actual purchase, and finally the post-purchase behavior whereby the consumer evaluates the decision.

All purchases are motivated to some degree by need recognition. Needs recognition reflects the consumer's acknowledged state of imbalance between an actual and desired state. While this recognition may be consumer-driven and relatively internal (for example, a consumer with a cold deciding he or she needs to purchase tissues because he or she has 'run out') marketers…… [Read More]

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Exploring Online Consumer Behaviors

Words: 575 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 25827314

Online Consumer Behaviors

Consumer Behavior

Consumer Perceptions of Online Shopping and how this Influences Purchasing Decisions

Exploring Online Consumer Behavior

Internet usage has increased rapidly in the past few decades. Accompanying this trend has been the increase in online retail shopping by consumers. However, many consumer behaviors, motivations, and attitudes toward shopping via this medium are still being researched and there are many opportunities for further research. This paper will examine the following research questions: (1) How do factors previously researched affect the online purchasing behavior of consumers and (2) what are the significant consumer behaviors both positive and negative that affect internet consumerism? The purpose of this research paper is to integrate the varied research information together and draw coherent linkages to how consumer thoughts, attitudes and motivational behavior affect online buying, thus building a broader framework of analysis in which to build upon. By identifying these relevant factors,…… [Read More]

References

Vazquez, D., & Xu, X. (2009). Investigating linkages between online purchase behaviour variables. International Journal of Retail and Distribution Management, 37, 408-419. doi: 10.1108/09590550910954900
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Consumer Behavior From a Cultural

Words: 3397 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 90319472

8%) and all were s-commerce users. 58.2% were Korean natives, 14.6% were Chinese and 10.8% were American. 9.7% were European and 6.7% were Japanese. The majority used s-commerce to purchase tickets for entertainment (44.5%) and 67% had been using s-commerce for more than two years.

The study shows that transaction safety (.480) and reputation (.450) both at the .01 level of significance, most contribute to trust in an s-commerce platform. The combination of all seven factors explains .784 of all variation in the sample with regard to trust in s-commerce. This is statistically significant at the .05 level of confidence and shows that purchase intentions can be explained by the seven-factor model the researchers created (Kim, Park, 2013). The model of s-commerce security and reliability therefore is statistically sound and applies to the South Korean social e-commerce industry. Study limitation include the lack of cross-sectional design definition and the development…… [Read More]

References

Baird, C.H., and Parasnis, G., (2011). From Social Media to Social Customer Relationship Management, Strategy & Leadership, Vol. 39 Iss: 5, pp. 30 -- 37.

Rosa Diaz, I.M. (2013). Price assessments by consumers: Influence of purchase context and price structure. International Journal of Consumer Studies, 37(1), 13-20.

Hollenbeck, C.R., & Kaikati, A.M. (2012). Consumers' use of brands to reflect their actual and ideal selves on Facebook. International Journal of Research in Marketing, 29(4), 395.

Kim, S., & Park, H. (2013). Effects of various characteristics of social commerce (s-commerce) on consumers' trust and trust performance. International Journal of Information Management, 33(2), 318.
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Consumers' Connectivity With the Brands That Has

Words: 1822 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 37753054

consumers' connectivity with the brands that has changed to fundamentally new ways in the today's time. The paper has discussed how the new and digital age has created an impact on the perceptions of the consumers due to which their ways of connecting to the brand has changed as the world has penetrated into the epoch of technological advancements. How the new media is playing an important role for the marketers and brand in connecting to the customers has been under discussion.

Consumer elationship with Brand

Brands are considerably one of the vital and imperative assets for the companies and business, and the brand management is one of the core areas of focus for the marketers. In order to manage the brand carefully and vigilantly, marketers have to largely focus on creating a large and a loyal customer database. However, the changes in the technology and media have provided with…… [Read More]

References

Baker, S. (2004). New Consumer Marketing: Managing a Living Demand System. USA: John Wiley & Sons.

Barwise, P. & Meehan, S. (2010). The One Thing You Must Get Right When Building a Brand. Harvard Business Review -- The Magazine. Retrieved from http://hbr.org/2010/12/executive-summaries/ar/1

Batey, M. (2008). Brand meaning. USA: Routledge.

Fuggetta, R. (2012). Brand Advocates: Turning Enthusiastic Customers into a Powerful Marketing Force. USA: John Wiley & Sons.
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Consumer Market Research Consumer Behavior

Words: 550 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 25696034

e. questionnaires and interview questions) in a manner that allows the researcher to explore specific areas of interest. For example, if the researcher wants to know what aspects of their products or services are most valuable to consumers, the survey instruments can focus on comparisons of value perception or ask consumers directly which variables are more important to them than others (Belch & Belch, 2006). Likewise, if market researchers want to know how important their corporate reputation or values are to consumer choice, they can ask specific questions about those issues. Finally, market researchers can also use survey-based research to determine how effective or ineffective their advertising and promotional efforts are (Gerrig & Zimbardo, 2008).

Domtar Marketing Efforts

The Domtar Corporation is a good example of multi-level marketing. Its corporate websites present various different web pages, some of which are intended for consumption by an adult audience and others that…… [Read More]

References

Belch, G. And Belch, M. (2006) Advertising and Promotion: An Integrated

Marketing Communications Perspective. Irwin/McGraw-Hill: New York.

Domtar Corporation. (2010). Making Paper Fun. Accessed 17 October, 2010, from:

http://www.*****/.
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Consumer Choice Seem 'Obvious' to a Naive

Words: 919 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 69943868

consumer choice seem 'obvious' to a naive observer, namely that consumers will inevitably prefer cheaper products over more expensive ones, and more products rather than fewer items. However, psychological research suggests that 'common sense' does not always hold true when it comes to market research, hence the need for companies to spend money on obtaining such findings to improve the use of scarce money and time when seeking to reach the public. This paper will present a review of three peer-reviewed articles in the field of consumer research on human subjects which provide further nuance to the study of consumption habits.

According to Dai & Fishbach (2014), although the presence of products can stimulate the desire to consume, so can the absence of such products. If 'absence makes the heart grow fonder' in the case of romance, the same can be said to be true of buying consumer goods. One…… [Read More]

References

Middleman, M., Andrade, E.B., Chattopadhyay, A. & Brendl, C.M. (2014). The offer framing effect: Choosing single vs. bundled offerings affects variety seeking. Journal of Consumer Research, 41(4), 953-964. doi:10.1086/678193

Ward, M.K., & Dahl, D.W. (2014). Should the devil Sell Prada? Retail rejection increases aspiring consumers' desire for the brand. Journal of Consumer Research, 41(3), 590-609.

Xianchi, D. & Fishbach, A. (2014). How nonconsumption shapes desire. Journal of Consumer Research, 41(4), 936-952. doi:10.1086/678302
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Consumer Behavior Toward E-Banking Applied

Words: 5831 Length: 21 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 27766882

" (Al-Ghaith, Sanzogni, and Sandhu, 2010)

With a focus on Saudi Arabia it is reported that there is "no reliable local production in the fields of software or the hardware. The increased demand for ICTs is met by acquiring overseas technologies.

The trend towards increased reliance on ICTs by the Saudi people, in particular computers and internet services, is one of the highest when compared with other developing countries; however it is still far below the ownership rate in developed countries. Table 1 illustrates the ownership rate of equipment such as fixed-line telephones, cellular phone and personal computers. The ownership rate was calculated per 1000 persons in variant countries over the world." (Al-Ghaith, Sanzogni, and Sandhu, 2010) the goal of the study reported in the work of Al-Ghaith, Sanzogni, and Sandhu (2010) is to enhancing the understanding of factors that influence adoption and usage of online services in Saudi Arabia.…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Molina, Alfonsa, Ben-Jadeed, Mohammed (2004) the Emergence and Evolution of e-Banking in Saudi Arabia: The Case of Samba Financial Group. Frontiers of E-Business Research 2004

Jasimuddin, Sajjad, M. (nd) Saudi Arabian Banks on the Web. Online available at: http://www.arraydev.com/commerce/JIBC/0103_02.htm

Agarwal, R. And Prasad, J. (1998), "The antecedents and consequents of user perceptions in information technology adoptions," Decisions Support System, Vol. 22, pp. 15-29.

Ahmed, a.M., Zairi, M. And Alwabel, S.A. (2006). Global benchmarking for internet and e-commerce applications, Benchmarking: An International Journal 13(1/2), 68-80.
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Consumers and Social Media

Words: 10594 Length: 35 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 97810214

social media of hotel industy influence consume puchasing behavio 24/09/2015

Pominent examples of social media

Business Use of Social Media

Social media and consume puchasing

Role of Social media in Advetising and Maketing

Social Media Maketing

Evidence of impotance of Social Media Maketing

Impact of Social Media Maketing on Consume Puchasing Behavio

The Heding Effect

Theoy of Social Impact

Social Media Influence Factos on Consumes

Social Media in the Hotel Industy

Social media and Thailand Hotels

Appoaches to Methodology

Outline of eseach Method

Sample selection and Size

Questionnaie Design

Obstacles in Reseach

: Data Analysis

: Ethical Consideations in Reseach

: Limitations of the study

Results and Analysis

: Results fom Suvey of Hotel subscibes

: Results fom Suvey of Hotel Maketing Officials

Infeence fom the Analysis

Social Media Factos Affecting Custome Puchasing Behavio 39

5.2: Recommendations fo Manages fo Use of Social Media 40

Refeences 43

Chapte 1: Intoduction…… [Read More]

references and social tagging information. International Journal of Web Science, 2(1/2), p.80.

Balakrishnan, B., Dahnil, M. and Yi, W. (2014). The Impact of Social Media Marketing Medium toward Purchase Intention and Brand Loyalty among Generation Y. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 148, pp.177-185.

Book, L., Tanford, S., Montgomery, R. and Love, C. (2015). Online Traveler Reviews as Social Influence: Price is no Longer King. Journal of Hospitality & Tourism Research.

Burke, R., Martin, G. and Cooper, C. (2011). Corporate reputation. Farnham, Surrey: Gower.

Chaney, P. (2009). The digital handshake. Hoboken, N.J.: Wiley & Sons.
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Consumers and Their Brands Developing Tribal Marketing

Words: 580 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 43498766

Marketing

Summary of wo Marketing Research Papers

Consumers and heir Brands: Developing Relationship heory in Consumer Research

he article by Fournier (1998) examined the way in which a relationship may exist between consumers and brands. he author argues that the concept of relationships have been underutilized in marketing research, with a lack of new research and most ideas focusing on the concept of loyalty; a concept which does not necessarily embody the idea of a relationship between the consumer and the brand. he aim of the research is to create framework from which the presence of a relationship may be assessed.

Fournier (1998) argues that the relationship concept is viable for assessing the way consumers perceive brands. he literature looks at the way firms have sought to humanize their brands, animating or endowing them with characteristics which may include a total anthropomorphization (such as the Pillsbury Dough boy) or creating…… [Read More]

The findings indicated that brands were able to created deeply rooted identified that would have strong, ongoing associations with the brand. The quality of the brand relationship was found to depend on 6 associated characteristics; love/passion, self connection, commitment, interdependence, intimacy and brand partner quality (Fournier, 1998). The relationship which emerges is subsequently mediated by five factors; accommodation, tolerance and forgiveness, brand perceptions, devaluation of alternatives and attribution bases (Fournier, 1998). It is also noted that the brand relationships are best understood when considered in the broad brand environment (Fournier, 1998). Overall, the result indicates that concept of consumer relationships with brands may be leveraged highly effectively by marketers.

Contributions

The research adds to marketing knowledge, it builds on loyalty theory with an alignment between loyalty and brand relationship quality. The work indicates the degree of strength and emotion that can be developed for a brand, and that if a brand is able to develop a significant relationship
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Classical and Active Theories of Perception

Words: 2558 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 42291189

Perception

The Classical and Active Theories of Perception

The only world that truly exists for any of us is the one inside our brains. Each of us experiences the world in our own special way. Our world is made up of our experiences and perceptions. The way that every individual perceives their world is different from the way any other individual perceives theirs. The way that we perceive our world is different than the way anyone else perceives their world, yet we all live in the same world. hat makes our world different are our perceptions, not the world itself. This research will explore two different theories on how we perceive our world. It will discuss the classical theory of perception and the active theory of perception in order to gain a better understanding of how our perceptions affect our world view.

Our own virtual reality exists because the brain…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Balcetis, Emily and Dunning, David. "See What You Want to See: Motivational Influences on Visual Perception." Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. Vol. 91. No. 4. Pp. 612-625.

Berliner, Todd and Cullen, Dale. "The Illusion of Continuity: Active Perception in the Classical Editing System." Journal of Film and Video. 2011. Vol. 63 No. 1. PP. 44 -- 63.

Conde, Toni and Thalmann, Daniel. F. "An integrated perception for autonomous virtual agents:

active and predictive perception." Computer Animation and Virtual Worlds. Vol. 17. pp. 457-468.
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Within the Consumer Behavior Model

Words: 1746 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 92556823

Consumer Behavior

Consumer Needs and Marketing Efforts

Consumer Needs

A need is defined as "a state of felt deprivation in a person" (Kotler, Chandler, Gibbs, & McColl 1999, p. 4). The most basic human needs are those for food, clothing, warmth, and safety. There are also needs that are more psychological, such as the need to feel loved, to feel successful, or to feel a sense of belonging. A more thorough explanation of needs can be found by considering Abraham Maslow's hierarchy of needs theory.

Maslow's hierarchy of needs theory describes five levels of need that exist in a hierarchical order. In order from highest to lowest, these needs are: physiological, safety, belongingness, esteem, and self-actualization (Daft 1997, p. 530). The physiological need refers to the basic human needs for food and water. These are essentially the basic things that every individual needs to physically survive. The safety need refers…… [Read More]

References

Belch, G.E., & Belch, M.A. (1999). Advertising and Promotion. Boston, MA: McGraw Hill.

Daft, R.L. (1997). Management. Fort Worth, TX: Dryden Press.

Kotler, P., Armstrong, G., Brown, L, & Adam, S. (1998). Marketing. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.

Kotler, P., Chandler, P., Gibbs, R., & McColl, R. (1999). Marketing. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.
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The Consumer Decision Making Process

Words: 2692 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 52594898

Consumer Decision-Making Processes

The holiday season is upon us again, and it is the biggest season of the year for retailers. American consumers will buy an average of around $700 on goods and services related to the holidays, which equates to the range of $224 billion. Analysts further break down the market between those who are of relatively limited financial means and just try to survive the holidays, and those who spend $978 on average (PWC, 2014). But how do consumers go about making their purchase decisions? Whether rich or poor, or what holidays a person might celebrate, there are some basic fundamental principles in the consumer buying decision making process that can help marketers to make the best decisions possible.

The Consumer Decision-Making Process

There are five basic elements to the consumer decision-making process: problem recognition, information search, alternative evaluation, purchase decision, and post-purchase behavior (Consumer Factor, 2015). Each…… [Read More]

References

De Mooij, M. (2011). Consumer Behavior and Culture. Sage Publications.

Haubi, G, (1999) Consumer decision-making in online shopping environment: The effects of interactive decision aids. University of Calgary. Retrieved November 23, 2015 from http://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/download?doi=10.1.1.196.378&rep=rep1&type=pdf

Homburg, C & Furst, A. (2005) How organizational complaint handling drives customer loyalty. Journal of Marketing. Vol. 69 (3) 95-114.

NetMBA (2010). Maslow's hierarchy of needs. NetMBA.com. Retrieved November 23, 2015 from http://www.netmba.com/mgmt/ob/motivation/maslow/
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How Advertising Impacts Consumers Decisions to Purchase

Words: 2309 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 29244416

Consumer Behavior

The study by oyne, Martinez, Oakley and Fox (2012) tests consumer behavior regarding perceptions of pricing and advertising for pro-environmental products: it looks at the effect that products priced with a .99 ending have compared to products with a .00 price ending. The researchers find in their own review of the literature that the latter has a "heuristic" effect on the consumer, who sees that the .00 indicates that the product has "value," while the .99 priced item indicates that it is priced at a bargain. These are the common perceptions that consumers have regarding pricing (oyne, Martinez, Oakley, Fox, 2012, p. 96). However, in their tests, they found that the appeals that price and product have are influenced by "context," and so it is not always the case with consumers that they regard the .00 priced item as being of the higher quality or the .99 item…… [Read More]

References

Royne, M., Martinez, J., Oakley, J., Fox, A. (2012). The effectiveness of benefit type and price endings in green advertising. Journal of Advertising, 41(4): 85-102.
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Global Consumer Buying Behavior Research

Words: 2303 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 12582853



The study methodology is predicated on a literature review of over two dozen previous studies, stratified across both the French and U.K.-based respondent populations. Of particular interest with regard to the methodology is the researcher's detailed work on defining variations in cultural differences, which is an area that Dr. Hofstede and the Model of Cultural Dimensions is specifically designed to take into account (Marieke, Hofstede, 2010). The study is highly qualitative in nature and uses academic databases as its primary research instrument (Gloria, Wulf, Mullen, 2013). The studies cited throughout the analysis indicate the potential to break out senior citizen segments by psychographics, an areas of emerging interest for Internet marketers. There is also a thorough analysis from numerous secondary studies of the correlation of income, gender, education and Internet usage. Demographics within the study are defined more in age-based terms when psychographic delineations create through primary research and factor…… [Read More]

References

Belal, H.M., Shirahada, K., & Kosaka, M. (2013). Value Co-Creation with Customers through recursive approach based on Japanese Omotenashi service. International Journal of Business Administration, 4(1), 28-28.

Kim-Shyan Fam, Waller, D.S., Ernest Cyril, d. R., & He, J. (2013). Advertising dislikeability in Asia. Asia Pacific Journal of Marketing and Logistics, 25(1), 144-161.

Gloria, a.M., Wulf, C., & Mullen, H. (2013). Internet marketing to 50+ generations in the UK and France. Journal of International Consumer Marketing, 25(1), 45.

Marieke, d. M., & Hofstede, G. (2010). The Hofstede model: Applications to global branding and advertising strategy and research. International Journal of Advertising, 29(1), 85.
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Popularity of Foreign Restaurant Consumer Attitude and

Words: 7176 Length: 27 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 90727544

popularity of foreign restaurant: consumer attitude and behavior toward foreign cuisines in Bangkok

Thailand as a tourist destination

Thailand has become a tourist destination hotspot for its scenic beauty, the humble nature of their people, and the relative value of foreign currencies relative to the baht. According to EIU ViewsWire (2003), "Growth in the tourism industry in recent years was the result of the depreciation of the baht against non-Asian currencies (which improved competitiveness relative to destinations outside the region), aggressive marketing campaigns and an increase in the number of airlines offering flights to Thailand." (EIU ViewsWire, 2003)

Additionally, according to EIU ViewsWire (2003), "Tourist arrivals rose by 5.8% to just over 10m in 2001, despote the global economic downturn and the September 11 terrorist attacks in the U.S., bringing in Bt 295bn (U.S. $6.6 bn) in revenue. Thailand benefited from its reputation as a safe and stable society and…… [Read More]

References

"A century of certification," 2003, Health and Hygiene, vol. 24, no. 2, pp. 12-12-13.

Anne-Mette Hjalager & Magda, A.C. 2000, "Food for tourists -- determinants of an image," The International Journal of Tourism Research, vol. 2, no. 4, pp. 281-281.

Asia's Biggest Sourcing Event for Foods and Beverages Ever Kicks Off This Week 2011,, PR Newswire Association LLC, United States, New York.

Chen, M. 2009, "Attitude toward organic foods among Taiwanese as related to health consciousness, environmental attitudes, and the mediating effects of a healthy lifestyle," British Food Journal, vol. 111, no. 2, pp. 165-165-178.
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Direct to Consumer Advertising History of Drug

Words: 16271 Length: 59 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 71118969

Direct to Consumer Advertising

HISTRY F DRUG ADVERTISING

THE DTC ADVERTISING PHENMENN

CREATING DEMAND

DECEPTIVE ADVERTISING - A WLF IN SHEEP'S CLTHING

CAUSE F DEATH

PRFIT

UTILIZATIN, PRICING, AND DEMGRAPHICS

LEGISLATIN, PLITICS AND PATENTS

LEGISLATIVE INITIATIVES REGARDING DTC

RECALLED and/or DEADLY DRUGS

In order to provide the most efficient method of evaluation, the study will utilize existing stores of qualitative and quantitative data from reliable sources, such as U.S. Government statistical references, University studies, and the studies and publications of non-profit and consumer oriented organizations. Every attempt will be made to avoid sources of information sponsored by or directly influenced by the pharmaceutical industry.

Existing data regarding the history, levels, content and growth of direct-to-consumer advertising will be examined. In addition, the industry's composition prior to and after the proliferation of direct-to-consumer advertising will be examined, with regard to market share, type of substances sold, benefits of substances sold, and…… [Read More]

On January 9, 2002, Dr. Darlene Jody, Vice President of Medical Marketing for Bristol-Myers Squibb, issued a manufacturer's "Important Drug Warning Including Black Box Information." The Important Drug Warning advises healthcare practitioners that "cases of life-threatening hepatic failure have been reported in patients treated with SERZONE." The manufacturer's Warning indicates that numerous persons have or will suffer liver failure, death or transplantation. The manufacturer's Warning also indicates that the current estimate of the rate of liver failure associated with Serzone use is "about 3-4 times the estimated background rate of liver failure." A new Warning is being added to the Serzone prescribing information, advising that "patients should be advised to be alert for signs and symptoms of liver dysfunction (jaundice, anorexia, gastrointestinal complaints, malaise, etc.) and to report them to their doctor immediately if they occur." According to Warnings, Serzone should be promptly discontinued if signs or symptoms suggest liver failure.

Vioxx belongs to a class of drugs known as COX-2 inhibitors. When the drugs were introduced a few years ago, COX-2 inhibitors were thought to be safer and more effective than other drugs such as Aspirin and Ibuprofen. However, several studies have questioned the cardiovascular safety of Vioxx. Studies indicate that people taking Vioxx have four times the risk of a heart attack.

In May 2002, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) published a Talk Paper about new label warnings for the popular arthritis and pain drug know as Vioxx (rofecoxib). The new label warnings are based on the results of the Vioxx Gastrointestinal Outcomes Research (VIGOR). According to the FDA, recent studies demonstrate that Vioxx is associated with a higher rate of serious cardiovascular thromboembolic adverse events (such as heart attacks, angina pectoris, and peripheral vascular events). Based on the recent study, the FDA agreed with the Arthritis Advisory Committee recommendations February 8, 2001 that the label for Vioxx include gastrointestinal and cardiovascular warning information. Serious side effects attributed to Vioxx are heart attacks, seizures, strokes, or liver/kidney problems. http://www.recalleddrugs.com
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Multi-Generational Marketing and Consumer Behavior

Words: 2625 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 58511392



The study's findings indicate that high technology brands are exceptionally effective in defining the prestige aspects of their products and through the use of market branding, showing their value from a personal brand standpoint (Hamann, Williams, Omar, 2007). The study also showed that the more utilitarian aspects of products aren't relevant to positioning or branding, which is a point marketers have been making for decades in high technology (Hamann, Williams, Omar, 2007). The authors concluded the study with an extensive statistical analysis which is shown in the following table as well. This analysis indicates how powerful product quality is in defining the brand experience and perception of customers. Shortcomings of the study include the lack of statistical reliability of the sample, the lack of in-depth analysis of the key areas within quality and the need for greater depth of insight into the four components of quality defined in this iteration…… [Read More]

References

Hamann, D., Williams, R.L., & Omar, M. (2007). Branding strategy and consumer high-technology product. The Journal of Product and Brand Management, 16(2), 98-111.

Koufaris, M. (2002). Applying the technology acceptance model and flow theory to online consumer behavior. Information Systems Research, 13(2), 205-223.

Latour, M.S., Hanna, J.B., Miller, M.D., & Pitts, R.E. (2002). Consumer involvement with personal computer technology: A multi-sample analysis. American Business Review, 20(2), 1-11.

Williams, K.C., Page, R.A., Petrosky, a.R., & Hernandez, E.H. (2010). Multi-generational marketing: Descriptions, characteristics, lifestyles, and attitudes. The Journal of Applied Business and Economics, 11(2), 21-36.
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Green Marketing as Consumers Become

Words: 2279 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 32120141

An additional negative aspect can occur when a seemingly green product really isn't, in the long run.

As an example, one of the most successful 'green' vehicles is the Toyota Prius. The hybrid Prius has become the status symbol for all of those wishing to flaunt their environmental conscience. However, the vehicle isn't nearly as eco-friendly as the Green Marketing campaigns lead consumers to believe. The nickel metal hydride battery the Prius uses is the primary culprit. The nickel is mined in Sudbury, Ontario, smelted nearby, shipped to ales to be refined, then sent to China to be processed into nickel foam. From there, it goes to Japan to become a battery, before it's placed into a car and shipped to its final destination, like the U.S. The global transportation of the manufacture of the battery uses a lot of fossil fuel. Goodwin cites CN Marketing as noting the combined…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Basic Information. 26 Oct 2009. Environmental Protection Agency. November 10, 2009 .

Chen, S. "Green with Status Envy." Psychology Today. 42. 5. Sept/Oct 2009: 12.

Dictionary. 2009. American Marketing Association. November 10, 2009 .

Goodwin, J. "The Not-so-Green Prius." WashingtonPost.com. 21 Jun 2009. The Washington Post. November 10, 2009 .
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Marketing Involvement Consumer Involvement Refers to the

Words: 1968 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 27836083

Marketing

Involvement

Consumer involvement refers to the amount of time, though and energy that a consumer puts into a particular purchase decision (McNamara, 2014). This can be categorized along the emotional/rational scale. So many small purchases like impulse purchases are low involvement. At the very low involvement end of the scale is something like fries with your burger -- you might not even want them, and accept the suggestion for them almost reflexively. At the high involvement end of the scale would be something like the military bidding process, or for consumers buying a house or car. A medium-involvement purchase involves at least some thought. An example might be new headphones -- it's not an impulse purchase but unless you're ad audiophile there is only so much energy you will put into that purchase.

For marketers, the optimal situation for a low involvement purchase is to reduce the search for…… [Read More]

References

Brisoux, J. & Laroche, M. (1981). Evoked set and composition: An empirical investigation under a routinized response behavior situation. Advances in Consumer Research. Vol. 8 (1981) 357-361.

Cauberghe, V. & Pelsmacker, P. (2008). The impact of banners on television: The role of program interactivity and product involvement. CyberPsychology and Behavior. Vol. 11 (1) 91-94.

Lin, L. & Chen, C. (2006). The influence of country-of-origin image, product knowledge, and product involvement on consumer purchase decisions: An empirical study of insurance and catering services in Taiwan. Journal of Consumer Marketing. Vol. 23 (2006) 248-265.

Martin, C. (1998). Relationship marketing: A high-involvement product attribute approach. Journal of Product & Brand Management Vol. 7 (1) 6-26.
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Effects of Thought Attitude and Motivation on Internet Consumer Behavior

Words: 1049 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 17063431

online purchases?" using the two-part approach provided below.

Description of the Participants

Sampling procedures

In most cases, the more subjects that are surveyed, the more trustworthy the results, but there are some diminishing returns involved in qualitative analyses that limit the usefulness of increasingly larger sample sizes. In this regard, Neuman (2003) reports that, "One principle of sample size is the smaller the population, the bigger the sampling ratio has to be for an accurate sample. Larger populations permit smaller sampling ratios for equally good samples. This is because as the population size grows, the returns in accuracy for sample size shrink" (p. 232). esearchers who employ survey methods for data-gathering purposes may have a general idea about how many subjects they would like to recruit, but the harsh realities of recruiting sufficient numbers of subjects to participate in surveys means that sometimes researchers must simply accept what they get…… [Read More]

References

Chaudron, D. (2008). Master of all you survey: Planning employee surveys. Organized Change.com. Retrieved from http://www.organizedchange.com/pdfs/employee surveys.pdf.

Darlington, Y., & Scott, D. (2002). Qualitative research in practice: Stories from the field.

Crows Nest, NSW: Allen & Unwin.

Mauch, J.E. & Park, N. (2003). Guide to the successful thesis and dissertation: A handbook for students and faculty. New York: Marcel Dekker.
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Australian Consumer Law ACL Is a Broad-Based

Words: 2059 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 87243624

Australian Consumer Law (ACL) is a broad-based law the impacts both businesses and consumers. The ACL represents a unified codification of a variety of prior product liability laws. In fact, one of its main benefits is that the law is applicable throughout Australia. Another major component of the law is that it imposes a strict liability standard on manufacturers and suppliers of goods, which was not a uniform standard prior to the introduction of this law. This is a relatively new law; the need for it was identified in 2009 after a Productivity Commission reviewed existing consumer protection laws and found glaring inconsistencies, which made it difficult, if not impossible, to enforce those laws that did exist.

Perhaps the greatest change to the law is that the ACL is now a strict liability law. Strict liability "means that a breach may be committed without negligence" (The FindLaw Team, 2012). In…… [Read More]

References

Australian Competition & Consumer Commission. (2012). Overview of the Trade Practices

Act: Consumer protection provisions. Retrieved April 13, 2012 from Commonwealth of Australia website: http://www.accc.gov.au/content/index.phtml/itemId/788555

Australian Consumer Law: Memorandum of Understanding. (2010). Retrieved April 13, 2012

from Australian Consumer Law website: http://www.consumerlaw.gov.au/content/the_acl/downloads/acl_mou.pdf
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Marketing Ethics Consumers on the

Words: 757 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 49460404

hat types of sports events do they go to? Are they eb savvy? Are they frequent fliers? Once you develop that kind of intimate understanding of your shoppers, you can truly begin to cultivate their loyalties" (Pedersen 1999:1).

On one hand, this may make consumers uncomfortable -- but it may also mean that when a supermarket chain discovers that the majority of its customers have young children, the chain may include a new line of baby care supplies or discounted coupons on diapers bought in bulk. If a credit card company discovers that the majority of its users are not frequent fliers, it may create a new rewards points program that offers different promotional strategies than mere upgrades to first class.

Take for example a promotional strategy whereby Coca-Cola "joined forces with Random House to offer sample chapters of unpublished novels in cases of Diet Coke. The idea was hatched…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Kotler, Phillip & Kevin Lane Keller. (2007).A Framework for Marketing Management.

Third Edition. Prentice Hall.

Pedersen, Stephen. (19 Apr 1999). "The incentives that consumers want:

Build customer loyalty by using consumer data." Brandweek. 1999. Retrieved 5 Mar 2007 at http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m0BDW/is_16_40/ai_54448314
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Brands Consumers Roles Brands Play Views Customers

Words: 745 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 33223722

brands consumers, roles brands play, views customers brands developed marketing -marketing influences. The background readings module introduces ways analyzing products brands case reading relates a study relationship consumers brands.

I am what I wear and what I drive:

Having a relationship with Manolo Blahnik shoes and the Prius

'I am what I buy.' According to Susan Fournier, consumers have relationships with brands much in the same way they have relationships with human beings. Brands become a form of identity, much like hanging out in a certain clique of friends defines one's sense of 'self.' Brands define our economic class, social status, and life state based upon their name and associations. The ethos of a brand transcends the functionality of the product. Marketers position brands to be attractive to certain types of consumers and consumers eagerly embrace such positioning and use it as a method of self-definition.

The shoe brand Manolo…… [Read More]

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How Does Branding Affect Consumer Purchasing

Words: 5784 Length: 18 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 97987486

randing Affects the uying Decision

"How Does randing Affect Consumer Purchasing?." Using this research question, analyze the strengths and weaknesses of each research method (qualitative and quantitative) within the scope of the proposed dissertation topic. Identify which method you will select (or state whether you will use a mixed methodology) and explain the reasons for your choice.

DA Qs 1 Answer

The marketing guru Philip Kotler perceives branding as a "name, term, design, symbol, or any other feature that identifies one seller's good or service as distinct from those of other sellers." It has also been adopted by the American Marketing Association. Michael Dunn, President and CEO, of Prophet, a strategic professional services firm in San Francisco, states that branding is just a defensive tool against market competition; but acts as "insulation against deteriorating economic conditions."

The essence of a brand is the base upon which the prosperity of the…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Dash, M. a. (2010). Marketing Research An Applied Orientation.

Ormrod., P.D. (2010). Practical Research: Planning and Design, Eighth Edition. Pearson Prentice Hall.

Scroggins Westey A.'*, R.E. (2010). Research Challenges in Cross-cultural International Business: The Issue of Cross Cultural Construct Equivalency. Advances in Management .

SONIA WESCHE*, N.T. (2010). Challenges and Opportunities in Cross Cultural Geographic Inquiry. Journal of Geography in Higher Education, 59-75.
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E-Books and Consumer Attitudes the

Words: 620 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 66091636

Also, as time goes by, technology will become cheaper and cheaper, so these devices will likely fall in price over the next few years. Again, this is another area where-book and e-reader manufacturers and retailers could do well by incorporating this technology into devices that are hand-held and already in use like cell phones or tablets.

Interestingly enough the survey revealed another specific consumer concern associated with e-books that could be taken advantage of by manufacturers in order to sell more products or help to boost the popularity and image of the company. Those surveyed felt that e-books and their usage relative to the environment was important to them. Consumers see e-books as environmentally friendly alternatives to paper books and publications, and manufacturers could do well in helping to accentuate and reinforce this fact. The marketing of e-books and e-readers to a target audience who is concerned about the environment…… [Read More]

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Marketing Creates Consumer Needs or Whether it

Words: 680 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 9594316

marketing creates consumer needs or whether it just satisfies those needs. As frequently happens with debates, there is some merit to both points-of-view.

The American Marketing Association (AMA) defines marketing as "the activity, set of institutions, and processes for creating, communicating, delivering, and exchanging offerings that have value for customers, clients, partners, and society at large" (AMA, 2011). Clearly the AMA holds that creating offerings that have value for customers is a legitimate marketing activity. This paper argues that the question of whether marketing convinces customers to develop new desires or whether it simply identifies and responds to pre-existing needs can be answered by how one defines what the customer considers to be of value.

Every individual has basic needs, which no amount of marketing can create. Most people would agree that the need for food, clothing, shelter etc. all fall into the category of needs that marketing does not…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Agadoni, L. (2011). Why do marketers need to know customer needs? eHow website. Retrieved July 7, 2011 from  http://www.ehow.com/about_6375595_do-marketers-need-consumer-needs_.html 

AMA. (2011). Definition of marketing. American Marketing Association website. Retrieved July 7, 2011 from http://www.marketingpower.com/AboutAMA/Pages/DefinitionofMarketing.aspx

Papadakis, T. (2008). Do marketers create artificial needs? Agora website. Retrieved July 7, 2011 from http://agoraplace.wordpress.com/2008/03/12/do-marketers-create-artificial-needs/
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Economics Why Do Consumers Make Irrational Decisions

Words: 687 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 64561960

Economics

Why Do Consumers Make Irrational, Decisions?

In economics there is usually the underlying assumption that people who make choices will act in a rational manner, weighing up the costs and the benefits and determining a course of action dependent which choice provides them with the greatest benefit. The assumption may appeal to logic, and is seen in rational choice theory, but the reality is many consumers will not act in a rational manner, making choices that result disadvantages or costs rather than benefits. There are a number of influences which may explain how and why consumers do not always make the rational or optimal choices in economic terms.

One of the key aspects of rational choice theory, which dictates individuals will make rational choices are the underlying assumption that individuals making the choices will be in possession of perfect information regarding the choices and the potential outcomes, and that…… [Read More]

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Patient Perceptions of Participation in Treatment Several

Words: 873 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 33417295

Patient Perceptions of Participation in Treatment

Several studies have revealed that patients generally prefer to learn everything they can about their illness and the proposed treatment plan, and even have some control during the planning stage (reviewed in Lund, Tamm, and Branholm, 2001). On the other hand, studies have found that occupational therapists typically underestimate this desire and tend to perceive patients as passive and uncooperative. The gap between the patient's wishes to actively participate and the therapists' perceptions of that willingness can result in a number of problems, including patient compliance with treatment plans and goals. Strategies to minimize the size of this gap could therefore lead to more effective rehabilitation of the patient's disability.

A study was conducted in Sweden that examined patients' experiences as a rehabilitation patient and the professional's view of the interaction (Lund, Tamm, and Branholm, 2001). Patients were enrolled from acute care in surgery,…… [Read More]

References

Lund, Maria Larsson, Tamm, Maare, and Branholm, Inga-Britt. (2001). Patients' perception of their participation in the rehabilitation planning and professionals' view of their strategies to encourage it. Occupational Therapy International, 8(3), 151-167.

Skidmore, Elizabeth R., Whyte, Ellen M., Holm, Margo B., Becker, James T., Butters, Meryl A., Dew, Mary Amanda et al. (2010). Cognitive and affective predictors of rehabilitation participation after stroke. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 91(2), 203-207. Retrieved May 3, 2011 from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov.ezproxy1.lib.asu.edu/pmc/articles/PMC2824912/pdf/nihms153354.pdf
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Service Give Consumers Information TV Shows Movies

Words: 712 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 31342652

service give consumers information TV shows movies widely criticized. A firm named ASI market esearch Inc. A service called Preview House. The service hooks movie theater audiences ( Which telephone lists promises free movies) instantaneous response machine dials recording likes dislikes.

Preview House

The Preview House product is controversial, with arguments being raised in both its favor as well as against it. The final opinion depends mostly on the personal values, perceptions and beliefs of each and every individual. At an objective level however, the Preview House represents an expert system, the combination of marketing and technology (Betz, 2003) and it is only a natural step in business and technologic development.

In the contemporaneous business climate, customers are pivotal to the success of any economic agent. They are no longer the force buying whatever the companies produce and sell, but they are the force telling the companies what to produce…… [Read More]

References:

Betz, F., 2003, Managing technological innovation: competitive advantage and change, 2nd edition, John Wiley and Sons

Giaretta, D., 2011, Advanced digital preservation, Springer

Schumann, J.H., 2009, The impact of culture on relationship marketing in international services: a target group-specific analysis in the context of banking services, Gabler Verlag
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Nurses' Perceptions of Shortage Effects Nursing Stats

Words: 1170 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 33230997

Nurses' perceptions of shortage effects

Nursing stats

Statistical methods were not always explained or even mentioned in the methods section of the articles, but were often buried in the text of the results section or listed only as footnotes to tables. In several instances, no statistical procedure was specified, but the presence of a p value indicated that a test had been performed.

Hellems, Gurka and Hayden (2007),

Buerhaus, Desoches, Donelan, Dittus and Ulrich (2007) report a six-year survey of U.S. nurses performed over 2002-2006 and compares mean responses for a sample they allege is large enough to represent the current U.S. nurse population. They report and discuss changes in nurse perceptions of conditions and health care outcomes derived from national, regional and local nurse shortages over the survey years and indicate where changes are statistically significant, presenting 'p-values' to indicate effect strength of the change over various years. As…… [Read More]

References

Buerhaus, P., DesRoches, C., Donelan, K., Dittus, R., and Ulrich, B. (2007). Trends in the experiences of hospital-employed registered nurses: results from three national surveys. Nursing Economic$25 (2), 69-79.

Hellems, M., Gurka, M. And Hayden, G. (2007). Statistical Literacy for Readers of Pediatrics: A

Moving Target. Pediatrics 119, 1083. Retrieved from: DOI: 10.1542/peds.2006-2330

Rosenkoetter, M. And Nardi, D. (2007). American academy of nursing expert panel on global
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Online Consumers and the Co-Creation of Meaning

Words: 1834 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 40042483

Online

Consumers and the Co-Creation of Meaning in Online Settings: Practices and Implications for Online Business

To say that the Internet has changed the way in which business is conducted would be to grossly understate the transformation that has taken place in the last decade or so due to the spread of Internet technologies and the growth in online capabilities for both businesses and consumers. Price comparisons, shopping with companies around the world from the comfort of one's own home, and a host of other consumer activities that greatly increase consumer power and thus business competitiveness in almost any industry. On the business side of the equation, Internet capabilities enable faster communication between warehouses/suppliers and factories/retailers, meaning business processes that are leaner and more efficient are now possible, quality and consistency across networks are more controllable, and a variety of other processes can be enhanced in many ways. These new…… [Read More]

References

Hatch, M. & Shcultz, M. (2010). Toward a theory of brand co-creation with implications for brand governance. Journal of Brand Management 17: 590-604.

Katz, J. & Sugiyama, S. (2005). Mobile Phones as Fashion Statements: The Co-creation of Mobile Communication's Public Meaning. Mobile Communications 31(1): 63-81.

Maglio, P. & Spohrer, J. (2008). Fundamentals of service science. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science 36(1): 18-20.

Payne, A., Storbacka, K. & Forw, P. (2008). Managing the co-creation of value. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science 36(1): 83-96.
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Japanese Car Perceptions of Japanese

Words: 644 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 13361773

S. market. Instead of purchasing millions of dollars in research, Japanese manufacturers will often send their engineering and development teams to a foreign nation to study not just market conditions, but also the nuances of a given customer base as well (Aldridge, 1990). This will allow for greater insights into unmet needs, including the need to see the foreign manufacturers as being a contributor, not detractor, to national welfare. Toyota and Honda did this exceptionally well, as does Panasonic and Samsung with Google Android smartphones today.

2. Do you feel that there is really any difference, in a consumer's mind, between a Toyota Camry manufactured in the United States and an identical Camry that was manufactured in Japan but sold in the United States?

The indirect answer is that it depends on the individual consumer and their perceptual biases. From those consumers with a high level of ethnocentric mindsets, then…… [Read More]

References

Aldridge, D.N. (1990). Marketing strategy: The Japanese Approach. Marketing and Research Today, 18(4), 239.

Genestre, a., Herbig, P., & Shao, a.T. (1995). What does marketing really mean to the Japanese? Marketing Intelligence & Planning, 13(9), 16.

Halfhill, D.S. (1980). Multinational marketing strategy: Implications of attitudes toward country of origin. Management International Review, 20(4), 26.
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Digital Perceptions Is a Four-Year-Old Company That

Words: 946 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 79704206

Digital Perceptions is a four-year-old company that manufactures digital cameras that are sold to retailers at a wholesale price of $150 each. It employs 100 workers that work 20 days per month and produces 6,000 units of output. The firm's total expenses per month exceed the total revenue. Retained Earnings has declined $100,000 as loses have been apparent every month for the last six months. Fair market value of the total assets is $350,000. Total long-term liabilities are $250,000. Last year's Annual Income Statement showed a profit of $50. ecause of the company not being able to pay the monthly bills, the credit rating has taken a decline in the rate. The major competitors are Panasonic, Sony, Nikon, Canon, Kodak, and Fuji.

Environmental risk factors include a recession, rising interest rates, deterioration of the financial markets, rapid declines in product prices, and financial difficulty of customers (Annual Report 2010, 2010).…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Annual Report 2010. (2010, Mar 31). Retrieved from Panasonic Corporation: http://panasonic.net/ir/annual/2010/pdf/panasonic_ar2010_e.pdf

Cancelled Debt. (n.d.). Retrieved from IRS: http://www.irs.gov/publications/p4681/ch01.htm

Turnaround Step 2: How Do You Know That Your Business is in Trouble? (n.d.). Retrieved from Critical Care:  http://www.criticalc4c.com/step2_bustrouble.html 

Ways to improve profitability. (n.d.). Retrieved from Fundamentals of Business: http://www.history-society.com/ways-to-improve.html
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Marketing Managers Need to Understand Consumer Behavior

Words: 615 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 3403042

Marketing Managers Need to Understand Consumer Behavior

The essence of effective marketing is defining a unique, highly defensible market position for a given product or service, supporting it with a unique value proposition that further motivates customers to buy. Marketing managers who excel in their professions have the ability to accurately interpret the consumer decision making process and align their strategies to encourage the trial and eventual purchase of their products (Foxall, 1993). Having a solid understanding of the consumer decision making process, and within that framework, understanding how behaviors are a powerful catalyst of purchasing, are critical to the success of any marketing strategy (au, Samiee, 1981).

Analysis

The consumer decision making process varies by the type of product, service, level of trust a consumer has in a given brand, and the extent of substitutes that exist for a given product. All of these factors taken together create the…… [Read More]

References

Foxall, G.R. 1993, "Consumer behaviour as an evolutionary process," European Journal of Marketing, vol. 27, no. 8, pp. 46-46.

Markin, R.J. 1979, "The Role of Rationalization in Consumer Decision Processes: A Revisionist Approach to Consumer Behavior," Academy of Marketing Science.Journal, vol. 7, no. 4, pp. 316-316.

Rau, P. & Samiee, S. 1981, "Models of Consumer Behavior: The State of the Art," Academy of Marketing Science.Journal, vol. 9, no. 3, pp. 300-300.

Suranyi-Unger, T. 1981, "Consumer Behavior and Consumer Well-Being: An Economist's Digest," Journal of Consumer Research, vol. 8, no. 2, pp. 132-132.
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Business - Consumer Behavior Business

Words: 543 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 86087995

She does most of her general shopping at Wal-Mart and Target, and much of her food shopping at wholesale outlets like Sam's Club. Generally, she avoids national brand, despite protests from her children who would prefer Coca Cola and Pepsi to C Cola and any "store brands." Cheryl shops mainly by value and will gladly substitute national brands for store brands or off-brands like C Cola whenever they are available at competitive sales prices to accommodate her children.

Consumer Profile #2:

Harry Valone is a self-made millionaire who runs a small chain of Arizona laundry mats which he purchased one at a time after running a single facility that he originally funded with a bank loan and financial assistance from his parents. Like other self-made financial successes, Harry emphasizes careful budgeting in every aspect of his business and personal affairs, religiously avoiding any unnecessary or unjustified expenses, such as paying…… [Read More]

References

Howard, M. (2005) We Know What You Want: How They Change Your Mind. New York: Disinformation Co. Ltd.

Stanley, T.J., Danko, W.D. (1996) the Millionaire Next Door: The Surprising Secrets of America's Wealthy. New York: Pocket Books.
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Hospitality Consumer Wants the Consumers

Words: 833 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 59130361

Pubs on account of operating costs, food prices, and the increase in minimum wages have therefore changed to the tenanted model. Some regulations have also curbed customer choice like ban on smoking in public places, and other interventions on customer freedom have resulted in the closure of two thousand pubs. Changing customer habits have resulted in the decline of the UK restaurant by three percent as a result of poor consumer spending. (Deoitte, 2011)

In England these different entities are representative of the fact that consumers have grown in variety and as well have begun to explore all that the hospitality industry has to offer. Apart from the changes in the eating habits of the natives, the demands from the tourists, and the peculiar tourist out for gastronomic experience has given birth to a new industry -- Gastronomic tour. There are many types of consumers of hospitality including the current…… [Read More]

References

Bowers, Simon. 2011. Mayfair Hotel: RBS Sells Top Mayfair Hotel to Indian

Billionaire. The Guardian, p. 6.

Deoitte. 2011. Issues and Trends. [Online] Available at:

http://www.deloitte.com/view/en_GB/uk/industries/thl/licensed-retail/04b2dd45801b1210VgnVCM200000bb42f00aRCRD.htm
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Hummer the Consumer Version of

Words: 3248 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 62057421

The power of suppliers is weak to moderate, but the power of buyers is high. There are no switching costs and the products have only limited differentiation. The Hummer has more differentiation than most of its competitors, but this does not lessen the impact of their intense competitive environment. Compounding the issue are signs that the SUV market is beginning to enter into the decline stage of the product life cycle. Firms with sunk costs will attempt to recoup those costs by increasing the intensity of competition. As a result, there will be downward pressures on prices and increased competition from other vehicle segments as companies attempt to entice former SUV customers to alternate products.

C. Marketing Strategy

Target Market. In terms of demographics, the current target market for Hummers is the middle-aged white male. This customer will have a higher than average income and from that it can be…… [Read More]

Works Cited

No author. (2007). Canadian SUV Market on the Rise. Specialty Equipment Market Association. Retrieved March 26, 2009 at http://www.sema.org/main/semaorghome.aspx?id=57159

Peters, Jeremy W. (2005). How to Market Hummers to the Masses. New York Times. Retrieved March 26, 2009 at http://www.nytimes.com/2005/06/28/business/media/28adco.html

No author. (2009). Rogers Model for the Adoption and Diffusion of Innovations. Value-Based Management. Retrieved March 26, 2009 at  http://www.valuebasedmanagement.net/methods_rogers_innovation_adoption_curve.html 

No author. (2009).
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Luxury Consumers in the Art

Words: 694 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 28995642

For example, such high-end customers "may not want to shop regular hours." They may want the purveyer of the good to bring the items to them. For such customers, it's all about the retailing "experience." The research conducted by Unity Marketing indicated that the positive nature of the 'experience' of buying was far more an indicator of return trade than the actual satisfaction of the product itself. (Tarateta, 2004)

Describe the method(s) used to conduct the research project

Both statistical and descriptive research was used over the course of this examination of luxury buying behavior. (Ryerson, 2005) Statistical research was used to determine the overall profile of the luxury market, such as the composition of the most loyal return customers. Research was also used to determine the advantage of soliciting certain luxury market segments for business owners in a quantitative fashion. However, descriptive and subjective data was also deployed to…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Tarateta, Maria. (Mar 2004) "Art buyers respond to the luxury experience." Art Business News. Retrieved on Find Articles on 25 Aug 2005 at http://www.findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m0HMU/is_3_31/ai_114473982

Ryerson, C. (2005) "Descriptive Research." Research Processes. Retrieved 23 Aug at 2005 at http://www.ryerson.ca/~mjoppe/ResearchProcess/DescriptiveResearch.htm
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Psychology of Consumer Behavior

Words: 1201 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 39752629

Psychology of Consumer Behaviour

The relationship between money-making motives and subjective well-being

There is presently much controversy regarding the motives behind making money and the concept of subjective well being. Most people associate finances with positive feelings and thus come to focus on making as much money as possible regardless of the risks involved. The masses needs to understand that people are not necessarily interested in money as an object, as they are actually certain that finances are likely to satisfy a series of their needs, thus meaning that people want to achieve particular states of minds and believe that having money is the only method of doing this.

Although it is difficult to determine the exact effects that money has on happiness, studies have shown that "within nations people's finances correlate with their reported well-being, but that richer nations show no greater happiness than poorer ones" (Buunk & Gibbons,…… [Read More]

Works cited:

Buunk, B.P. And Gibbons, F.X. eds.,Health, Coping, and Well-Being: Perspectives from Social Comparison Theory (Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 1997)

Diener, E. Sandvik, E. Seidlitz, E. & Diener, M. "THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN INCOME AND SUBJECTIVE WELL-BEING: RELATIVE OR ABSOLUTE," Retrieved February 10, 2012, from the Common Sense Atheism Website: http://commonsenseatheism.com/wp-content/uploads/2011/01/Diener-The-relationship-between-income-and-subjective-well-being-Relative-or-absolute.pdf

Duncan Macrae, Policy Indicators: Links Between Social Science and Public Debate / (Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Press, 1985)

Fuentes, N. & Rojas, M. "Economic Theory and Subjective Well-Being: Mexico," retrieved February 10, 2012, from the FLACSO Costa Rica Website:
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Business - Consumer Behavior Customer

Words: 3309 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 81254975

The consequences of even a few dissatisfied customers can be enormous: "Dissatisfied customers turn to competitors; loyal customers spend more, refer new clients, and are less costly to do business with" (Arendt & Harris, 1998, p. 27). The authors point out that because it costs about five times more to gain a new customer than to keep an existing one, and since dissatisfied customers tell at least twice as many friends about bad experiences than they tell about good ones, it is clearly to the small business owner or manager's advantage to seek high levels of customer satisfaction and retention.

According to Gebhardt and Townsend (1990), although the notion that little things can add up to have an enormous positive effect has gained wide acceptance, many companies continue to remain sluggish in their response to the reality that little things can also have an immensely negative impact on a company's…… [Read More]

References

Arendt, L.A. & Harris, J.H. (1998). Stress Reduction and the Small Business: Increasing Employee and Customer Satisfaction. SAM Advanced Management Journal, 63(1), 27.

Benjamin, S. (1997). Words at work: Business writing in half the time with twice the power. Cambridge, MA: Perseus Books.

Clarke, M.A. (1997). Policies and perceptions of insurance: An introduction to insurance law. Oxford: Oxford University.

Cummins, J.D. & Tennyson, S. (1992). Controlling Automobile Insurance Costs. Journal of Economic Perspectives, 6(2), 96.
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User Perceptions and Online News

Words: 6474 Length: 24 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 63154349

A survey questionnaire design is employed to gather data to be used in the lazy user model test, with details on the sample population in which the questionnaire is to be administered. An innovative method to increase response rate is offered, followed by a data analysis plan. Finally, a conclusion and recommendation will complete this research project.

2. Literature Review

2.1 Information Technology and the Internet

The Information Age has changed our world in many different areas, from mankind's first steps into the space frontier, to the development of consumer items of convenience. Computers where once virtually inaccessible to the average person, and at that time were used only for information processing and logical calculations on a grand scale for large corporations and military endeavors. Indeed, only in the military did the information age really begin to develop, with the need for advanced military operations driving the information technology race.…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Bellaaj, M. (2010). The competitive value of the internet: an empirical investigation. International Journal of Technology Marketing, 238.

Bagozzi, R.P. (2007). The Legacy of the Technology Acceptance Model and a Proposal

for a Paradigm Shift. Journal of the Association for Information Systems, 8, 244-

Chau, M., Wong, C.H., Zhou, Y., Qin, J., & Chen, H. (2009). Evaluating the use of search engine development tools in it education. Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology, 288-299.
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Designing Tools to Be Used by Consumers

Words: 591 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 25627840

designing tools to be used by consumers or workers, it is widely assumed that the product must be both visually appealing as well as ergonomically functional. In certain workplace applications, if specific tools are not used, injuries may occur. Previous research on hand tools required in factory work, such as gripping tongs, have found that the product may be ignored if it is perceived to be cumbersome to use. According to the article, "The influence of different hand tool designs on the perception of aesthetics, ergonomics and usability," a "hand tool must be perceived to be usable, ergonomic and visually appealing in order for the users to benefit from the tools" and knowledge of how to enhance the perception of the user of the product's value is an essential component in ensuring that the tool is used properly (Syed 2012: 241)

A statement of the research problem

"It has been…… [Read More]

References

Syed Mohamed, M.S. (2012). The influence of different hand tool designs on the perception of aesthetics, ergonomics and usability. International Journal of Business and Social Science, 3(3), n/a. Retrieved from  http://search.proquest.com/docview/918783959?accountid=10901
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Involvement Consumers in New Product Development

Words: 1110 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 55964438

Marketing Innovation

Market Innovation

New products can either be an entirely new product to the marketplace, or more commonly are an extension of a product line or an iteration of a pre-existing product. One new product released in the past year was the iPhone 6S. This is an extension of the iPhone line in general, or more specifically the iPhone 6 line that was originally launched in 2014. The 6S represents some tweaks to the older products, but nothing so dramatic that an entirely new name for the product was warranted. Thus, this product is an extension of the older line, intended to replace older models of the iPhone, as anything before the 6 series is now discontinued. The biggest challenge that Apple had with this product was to differentiate it sufficiently from its other offerings. The existing iPhone 6 proved popular, and the 6S was viewed by the marketplace…… [Read More]

References

Fuller, J., Bartl, M., Ernst, H., Muhlbacher, H. (2004). Community-based innovation. Proceedings of the 37th Hawaii International Conference on System Science. Retrieved April 16, 2016 from https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Hans_Muehlbacher/publication/221180518_Community_Based_Innovation_A_Method_to_Utilize_the_Innovation_Potential_of_Online_Communities/links/0046352b85ba69f305000000.pdf

George, A. (2016). The 6 most important technologies of summer 2016. Popular Mechanics. Retrieved April 16, 2016 from http://www.popularmechanics.com/technology/gadgets/g2560/the-6-most-important-technologies-of-summer-2016/

Hoyer, W., Chandy, R., Dorotic, M., Krafft, M. & Singh, S. (2010). Consumer co-creation in new product development. Journal of Service Research. Vol. 13 (3) 283-296.

Nambisan, S. (2002). Designing virtual customer environments for new product development: Toward a theory. Academy of Management Review Vol. 27 (3) 392-413.
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Price Remains One of the

Words: 13276 Length: 51 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 94238809

From this perspective, luxury brands may be desired be many consumers, but the more affluent are clearly more readily capable of such acquisitions, making them a natural target for luxury brands marketers.

Although there is a growing body of contemporary knowledge concerning the influence of self-perception and self-image on luxury brand purchases, the study of these issues is certainly not new. In fact, as early as 1899, Thorstein Veblen developed a theory according to which consumers use product prices as a means of ostentatiously displaying their wealth (Veblen 1899). Based on the inextricable relationship between the level of consumers' income and the type of goods and services they may desire, it would be reasonable to posit that highly affluent consumers would be a natural market for luxury brand marketers; however, the choice of luxury brands over other brands is a highly complex decision that take into account a wide range…… [Read More]

References

Abrams Research (2009, May) 'Luxury brands survey & report.' [online] available:

http://www.docstoc.com/docs/12839571/Luxury-Brands-Survey-and-Report-

%E2%80%93-Abrams-Research-%E2%80%93-May-2009 Viewed on 10

February 2010
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Advertising and Word of Mouth

Words: 9576 Length: 22 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 41357392

(Snyder & Deono quoted in Kjeldal 2003, Introduction section, ¶ 6).

The results from the study Kjeldal (2003) conducted with 70 participants in two stages suggest that the word association responses high self-monitors (HSMs) produce reflect selective activation of a personally meaningful, experiential, system. The responses low self-monitors (LSMs) produce, on the other hand, indicate an intellective factual system.

2. Decision Making Process Theories

Dr. onnie Halpern-Felsher (2009), an Associate Professor at theUniversity of California, San Francisco, identifies a number decision-making criteria in her report, "Adolescent decision making: an overview." According to Halpern-Felsher, determinations of definitions for a competent decision, the process of how the decision was made, differ dramatically. The actual behavior or outcome, albeit, does not determine competent decision making, however, during the normative model of decision-making process, one does consider the consequences to not choosing a particular behavior or a specific event.

Normative models of decision making,…… [Read More]

BIBLIOGRAPHY

'Advertising, Public Relations' N.d. < http://courses.umass.edu/bmat352/lectures_and_readings/KA_16.pdf > [25 May 2009].

Bahaudin, M & Jue, A 2005. 'Deceptive and Subliminal Advertising in Corporate America: Value Adder or Value Destroyer?', Journal of Applied Management and Entrepreneurship. Nova Southeastern University Wayne Huizenga Graduate School of Business. HighBeam Research. Available from: < http://www.highbeam.com > [20 May 2009].

Barnard, N & Ehrenberg, A 1997. 'Advertising: Strongly Persuasive or Nudging',

Journal of Advertising Research - January/February 1997.
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Economic Slowdowns and Recessions Macroeconomic

Words: 2660 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 11789300

It was not until the subsequent eight months that the revisions in the GDP data which revealed declining real GDP for the first, second, and also the third quarters of the year 2001." ("NBE's ecession Dating Procedure," 2003) the graphs showing Quarterly real GDP, eal Personal Income less Transfers and Payroll Employment is stated in Exhibit -I, Exhibit -II, and Exhibit -III repectively. ("NBE's ecession Dating Procedure," 2003)

VI. Economically driven recession v. Entrepreneurs and consumers perception of recessions:

Economically driven recession:

The U.S. recession following March 2001 and after the 9/11 incident is considered to have clinched the decision regarding recession marked by a sudden decline in economic activity. According to the indexed value of the "net agricultural payroll employment in the U.S., by March 2001, the official cyclical peak equals to 100." "The job losses were quite modest through the 3rd quarter, but took the turn for a…… [Read More]

References

Daly, Mary. (2002, Feb) "Profile of a Recession -- the U.S. And California" FRBSF

Economic Letter, Retrieved 4 June, 2008 at http://www.frbsf.org/publications/economics/letter/2002/el2002-04.html

Jacobe, Dennis. (2008, Apr) "Most Americans say now is the bad time to spend" Retrieved June, 2008 at  http://www.gallup.com/poll/106612/Most-Americans-Say-Now-Bad-Time-Spend.aspx 

Mills, Frederick C. (1936) "Prices in Recession and Recovery: A Survey of Recent Changes"
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Color and Retailing

Words: 716 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 34956632

Colo Piming

What do you think of the influence of colo on consume peception of feshness?

Piming, paticulaly in a etail setting is pivotal to geneating sales and evenue gowth. Retail is a peculia industy as the baies to enty ae elatively low. Theoetically, anyone can stat a etail opeation. The advent and subsequent utilization of the intenet ceates futhe competitive pessues within the industy. Consumes now have moe choice in egads to thei puchasing decisions. Retails theefoe must espond with tactics designed to encouage consumption and band loyalty. Piming is one such technique that has been used by etailes fo yeas. Piming, paticulaly though use of human senses povides an atmosphee designed to encouage enjoyable feelings, which ultimately tanslate into highe sales.

Consumes eact fundamentally to colos because colo helps humans simplify thei suoundings. It is estimated that oughly 80% of infomation eaches ou bains via ou eyes. It…… [Read More]

references and experiences. In regards to freshness, bright vibrant colors ultimately indicate ripeness for the consumer. Retailers, through the use of color, hope to portray the image of freshness in order to entice consumers to purchase their products as oppose to a competitors. By using color appropriately and effectively, retailers can generate repeat sales while also establishing a loyal customer base.
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E-Business We Have Experienced Financial

Words: 1436 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 65806757

At the center of technology's contributions to learning is the enablement of long-term retention of abstract, often complex concepts that are not intuitively gasped through more traditional learning methods. The ability to create technology-based learning platforms that enable greater levels of autonomy, mastery and purpose are critical for getting students at any level to their educational goals (Vigentini, 2009).

ibliography

Vigentini, L. (2009). Using learning technology in university courses: Do styles matter? Multicultural Education & Technology Journal, 3(1), 17-32.

What leadership skills are needed to manage a virtual team?

For a virtual team to excel, the leader must strive to move beyond transactional or short-term management strategies to embrace transformational leadership. This makes the overall direction of a team much more unified and focused on a common goal. Transformational leaders of virtual teams also have the ability to instill trust by creating many opportunities for collaboration and communication as well…… [Read More]

Bibliography

(Ahmadi, Helms, Ross, 2000)

Cascio, W.F., & Shurygailo, S. (2003). E-leadership and virtual teams. Organizational Dynamics, 31(4), 362-376.

Dehning, B., Richardson, V.J., Urbaczewski, a., & Wells, J.D. (2004). Reexamining the value relevance of E-commerce initiatives. Journal of Management Information Systems, 21(1), 55-82.

Gokmen, a. (2012). Virtual business operations, e-commerce & its significance and the case of turkey: Current situation and its potential. Electronic Commerce Research, 12(1), 31-51.
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J& j Recalls Johnson & Johnson - A

Words: 888 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 87386773

J&J Recalls

Johnson & Johnson - a Quality Catastrophe

After 50?plus product recalls in 15 months, the $60 billion company is fighting to clear its once-trusted name

In the modern business world, management is often faced with a difficult challenge to find the right balance between short-term profitability and long-term sustainability. Given the intense pressure they face to increase profits and reduce costs, it is often the case that managers will sacrifice sustainability for profitability. This often results in a decrease in quality which can have long-term implications. In the case of Johnson & Johnson, it does not seem like a few managers have made errors on the side of short-term profitability. Rather this position has seemed to permeate much of the organizational culture. Not only does this deviate from the values that the company was founded on, but it also is having a significant detrimental effect on consumer perceptions…… [Read More]

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Drones Unmanned Aerial Systems Uavs

Words: 12745 Length: 40 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 73596960

This category can further be divided into six subgroups namely; short-range, medium range, long-range, close range, endurance, Medium Altitude Long Endurance (MALE) Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs). The long-range UAVs are technologically more advanced as they use satellites in order to overcome the communication problem between the UAVs and the ground stations. This communication problem is generally caused by the curvature of the earth. The medium, short and close range UAVs can operate in limited space majorly because of the lack of satellite communication systems. The Medium Altitude Long Endurance (MALE) can be used for forty hours at a distance greater than three thousand kilo metres. They can also be used to fire precision guided missiles. An example of the Medium Altitude Long Endurance (MALE) is 'Predator'. (Cavoukian 2012, 6)

c. Strategic Unmanned Aerial Vehicles

With the increase in altitude the weight, flight range and endurance of the Unmanned Aerial Vehicles…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Birch et al. Drones the physical and psychological implications of a global theatre of war, 1-11. London: Medact, 2012. Retrieved from http://www.medact.org/content/wmd_and_conflict/medact_drones_WEB.pdf (accessed June 27, 2013).

Bone et al. Unmanned Aerial Vehicles: Background and Issues for Congress, Washington, D.C: Congressional Research Service, 2003. Retrieved from http://www.fas.org/irp/crs/RL31872.pdf (accessed June 29, 2013).

Boyle, Michael. "The costs and consequences of drone warfare." International Affairs 89 (2013), http://www.chathamhouse.org/sites/default/files/public/International Affairs/2013/89_1/89_1Boyle.pdf (accessed June 30, 2013).

Cavoukian. Privacy and Drones: Unmanned Aerial Vehicles, Toronto: Information and Privacy Commissioner, 2012. Retrieved from http://www.ipc.on.ca/images/Resources/pbd-drones.pdf (accessed June 27, 2013).