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The mobile phone is extremely useful in the case of emergency situation. The owner of such a mobile device can call 9 for free from their mobile phone, even if the owner's phone credit does not allow for calls to be made. Also, the camera of the mobile phone can be used in recording certain aspects that are useful in such situations (Reardon, 2006).
An important feature of mobile phones consists in the fact that they allow for important data storage. The user can store picture, text, and audio documents. This way, the user can take his important documents with him while traveling or to assist him in certain activities where the user cannot access a computer and uses his mobile phone instead. Most modern mobile phones provide this ability that is appreciated by users.
Another important function of the mobile phone that becomes more and more…
12. The Impact of Culture on Mobile Phone Purchasing (2009). ECIS. Retrieved November 11, 2010 from http://www.ecis2009.it/papers/ecis2009-0515.pdf.
13. Elliott, D. (1997). Research Ethics. University Press of New England, Hanover. Retrieved November 11, 2010 from http://books.google.ro/books?id=EzcRY5jxNqsC&printsec=frontcover&dq=research+ethics&source=bl&ots=kiS2erPmD8&sig=4C4W47pC_UF_8NOG9oMASxmCLDA&hl=ro&ei=GULcTKanI82Qswa08JSiBA&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=7&ved=0CC8Q6AEwBg#v=onepage&q&f=false .
14. Resnik, D. (2010). What is Ethics in Research and Why Is it Important. NIEHS. Retrieved November 11, 2010 from http://www.niehs.nih.gov/research/resources/bioethics/whatis.cfm .
During the survey of participants, the researcher investigates:
hai online game players' personal perceptions of online games;
significant reasons that motivate the participants to play online games;
factors that motivate participants to choose an online game;
participants' opinions of digital society
Affects of playing online games in real world.
Conduct a thorough review of literature relating to online games and online game players in general, seeking specific information related to hailand but also including information applicable to game players throughout the word.
Develop, implement and assess results evolving from a survey of hai online gamers;
Participants primarily consist of university undergraduate students and first jobbers.
Analyze information retrieved through the literature review.
Analyze data retrieved through the implementation of the survey.
Present compilation of findings from both the literature review and the survey in the analysis chapter of the dissertation.
That, adds Pakorn, is "a good sign for humanity."
*The Asia Media Forum ( http://www.theasiamediaforum.org ) is a space for journalists to share insights on issues related to the media and their profession. It is coordinated by IPS Asia-Pacific.
There are conflicting opinions as to the origins of the Thais. Three decades ago it could be said with presumed certainty that the Thais originated in Northwestern Szechuan in China about 4,500 years ago and later migrated down to their present homeland. However, this theory has been altered by the discovery of remarkable prehistoric artifacts in the village of Ban Chiang in the Nong Han District of Udon Thani Province in the Northeast. These include evidence of bronze metallurgy going back 3,500 years, as well as other indications of a far more sophisticated culture than any previously suspected by archaeologists. It now appears that the a Thais might have originated here in Thailand and later scattered to various parts of Asia, including some parts of China. Siam is the name by which the country was known to the world until 1939 and again between 1945 and 1949. On May 11, 1949, an official proclamation changed the name of the country to "Prathet Thai," or "Thailand," by which it has since been known. The word "Thai" means "free," and therefore "Thailand" means "Land of the Free."
They may be forced to follow the technical procedures that are related to the recall that may seem time consuming on their part.
In cases where the defect has caused the life of someone then monetary compensation may not suffice as life is deemed precious than the monetary compensation that may be awarded. Recall usually causes a lot of disruption to consumers hence creating a major confusion to the personnel using the product. Disruption will lead to consumers change their plans so as to meet the demands and meet the deadlines set by the manufacturers. States have laws known as lemon laws which are meant to curb and protect consumers who buy new autos against ones that are defective. The defective vehicles are usually referred to as lemons. These laws entitle the aggrieved consumers to a replacements vehicle, or refund as long as the motor vehicle meets certain standards that…
Ahluwalia, Rohini, Burnkrant, Robert & Unnava, Rao. Consumer response to negative publicity:
the moderating role of commitment. Journal of Marketing Research, 37(2000) 203 -- 214.
Ashenfelter, Orley & Greenstone, Michael "Using Mandated Speed Limits to Measure the Value
of a Statistical Life," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 112(S1) (2004) pages S226-S267
perception allow them to change behavior?
For most people, behavior is something that is habitual. We often buy the same things, and we do the same things. The challenge for a marketer is to change that behavior, to buy a different product or do something differently that involves their product. Often, perceptions are subconscious in the way that they effect behavior. People do not realize how perceptions govern their behavior. But there are many examples -- a good one is Apple. They cultivate a specific perception about their products, and that perception changes the behavior of consumers. A consumer might prefer to carry with them the premium image of an Apple computer rather than a comparable product from another manufacturer.
Studies have noted that people will change their travel spending plans in response to a shift in perception of a certain place, for example if a country becomes viewed as…
IDC (2015). Smartphone vendor market share. IDC Research. Retrieved April 16, 2016 from http://www.idc.com/prodserv/smartphone-market-share.jsp
IDC (2015). Smartphone shipments reach second highest level for a single quarter as worldwide volumes reach 355.2 million. IDC Research. Retrieved April 16, 2016 from http://www.idc.com/getdoc.jsp?containerId=prUS25988815
Leonidou, L, Leonidou, C., Kvasova, O. (2013). Cultural drivers and trust outcomes of consumer percpetions of organizational unethical marketing behaviour. European Journal of Marketing. Vol. 47 (3/4) 525-556.
Rothman, A. & Salovey, P. (1997). Shaping perceptions to motivate healthy behavior: The role of message framing. Psychological Bulletin. Vol. 121 (1) 3-19.
Consumer subjective personal introspection of your own buying behavior, and to relate this to the notion of products as extensions of the self and consumer behaviour theory.
Subjective personal introspection of your own buying behaviour as an extension of the self and consumer behaviour theory
It has been noted in many studies on consumer behaviour that the products that the individual purchases are very often closely linked to the identity and values of that individual. Consumer behaviour has been defined as, "The psychology of how consumers think, feel, reason, and select between different alternatives (e.g., brands, products, and retailers)"and "The psychology of how the consumer is influenced by his or her environment (e.g., culture, family, signs, media)..." (Lerner).
In other words, the products that one purchases are in essence often seen as an extension of one's self. This means that the customer purchasing behaviour is often best understood…
Bloom P. et al. (2006). How Social-Cause Marketing Affects Consumer Perceptions. Mit Sloan Management Review, vol.47, no.2, viewed 28 February, 2012, http://elab.vanderbilt.edu/research/papers/How%20Social-Cause%20Marketing%20Affects%20Consumer%20Perceptions%20%5BBloom,%20Hoeffler,%20Keller,%20Meza%5D.pdf.
'Brand image: definition', viewed 28 February, 2012,
This study will incorporate consumer perceptions and attitude green products, green values, green label and green environment. Finally, it will provide insights on areas of green buying commitment and green purchasing intention (Biel, Hansson & Ma-rtensson, 2008).
Abele, E., Anderl, ., & Birkhofer, H. (2005). Environmentally-friendly product development: Methods and tools. London: Springer.
Ahvenainen, . (2003). Novel food packaging techniques. Boca aton, FL: CC Press
Biel, a., Hansson, B., & Ma-rtensson, M. (2008). Individual and structural determinants of environmental practice. Aldershot: Ashgate.
Charter, M. (2009). Greener marketing: A global perspective on greener marketing practice. Sheffield: Greenleaf.
Denison, E., & en, G.Y. (2007). Thinking green. Hove: oto Vision.
Farnworth, C., Jiggins, J., & Thomas, E.V. (2008). Creating food futures: Trade, ethics and the environment. Aldershot, England: Gower.
Grunert, K.G., Thogersen, J., & O-lander, F. (2005). Consumers, policy and the environment: A tribute to Folke O-lander. New York: Springer.
Abele, E., Anderl, R., & Birkhofer, H. (2005). Environmentally-friendly product development: Methods and tools. London: Springer.
Ahvenainen, R. (2003). Novel food packaging techniques. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press
Biel, a., Hansson, B., & Ma-rtensson, M. (2008). Individual and structural determinants of environmental practice. Aldershot: Ashgate.
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Consumer Learning and Product-Harm Crisis
Define a product-harm crisis
A product-harm crisis refers to a situation that can trigger serious damages to a company. A crisis can threaten an organization's system and cause drastic changes in a manner that that the firm's system operates. A crisis often has a disruptive impact on organizational, social, and environmental systems. In most cases, can lead to extensive damage accompanied by significant costs imposed upon the organization, individuals, and society. A succinct definition of a product harm crisis is best understood when the causative factors are identified as seen in this study. Besides comparing various studies on the phenomenon, the study offers recommendations on how the problem can be mitigated as it can severe the operations of even successful organizations.
For organizations, crises are higher consequences and lower probability events that can jeopardize the most important organizational objectives. However, the ability for an organization…
Chen, Y, Ganesan, S., & Liu, Y. (2009). Does a Firm's Product-Recall Strategy Affect Its Financial Value? An Examination of Strategic Alternatives During Product-Harm Crises. Journal of Marketing, 73(6), 214-226
Lei, J., Dawar, N., & Gurhan-Canli, Z. (2012). Base Rate Information in Consumer Attributions Of Product-Harm Crisis. Journal of Marketing Research, 49(3), 336-348
Vassilikopoulou, A., Lepetsos, A., Siomkos, G., & .Chatzipanagiotou, K. (2009). The Importance of Factors Influencing Product-Harm Crisis Management Across Different Crisis Extent Levels: A Conjoint Analysis. Journal Of Targeting, Measurement, and Analysis For Marketing, 17(1), 65-74
Yannopoulu, N., Koronis, E., & Elliot, R. (2011). Media Amplification Of A Brand Crisis And Its Effects On Brand Trust. Journal Of Marketing Management, 27(5/6), 539-546.
Consumer Behavior for Marketing
Understanding Consumer Behavior
Understanding consumers' perceptions is critical to marketing and advertising. Consumers are increasingly selective with regard to the advertising that they pay attention to and mass marketing is fast losing its effectiveness and appeal. There is any number of strategies that marketers can employ to increase positive consumer perception of their brands. Several suggestions follow: (1) Engage in socially responsible investing in causes that can reasonably associated with the company or the brand: Examples of this strategy can be seen in programs that Starbucks has established to give back to domestic communities and to engage in foreign communities in need. Sale of Ethos water provides a portion of the revenue to be used for infrastructure changes to communities that do not have reliable sources of clean water. The ed program -- a collaborative effort which extended to other firms -- used a portion of…
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Fo instance, appoximately 33 pe cent of Thailand's wate souces ae categoized as having poo quality and the phenomenon is consideed a seious envionment poblem. Moeove, Thailand is anked among the last Asian counties based on amounts of fesh wate available pe capita (WWF, 2010).
In this context, the Thai govenment and the Thai people have commenced to pay moe attention to the effect of the envionmental poblems, as well as to the adjacent economics of the poblem. People make an effot to buy poducts which ae envionmentally hamless and, though them, to minimize the negative envionmental implications of consumption. A fist effot in this diection was the intoduction of the Thai Geen Label Scheme in 1993 and its fomal launch one yea late (Geen Label Thailand, 2010). In shot, the scheme suppots the development of the geen poducts secto by intoducing infomation fo consumes and standads fo businesses. Moe…
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Consume Behavio: Puchasing Local Baby Food vs. Impoted Baby Food in Ethiopia
Liteatue Review Desciption
A systematic eview of the liteatue is povided in this chapte in ode to develop infomed and timely answes to the study's guiding eseach questions and to confim o efute its guiding hypothesis. In this egad, Faenkel and Wallen (2001, p. 48) advise that, "Reseaches find out what has aleady been witten about the topic they ae inteested in [by] investigating the opinions of expets in the field and othe eseach studies. Such eading is efeed to as a eview of the liteatue." Likewise, Gatton and Jones (2003) epot that a well-conducted eview of the liteatue epesents an essential pat of vitually any type of scholaly eseach poject today. Fo example, Gatton and Jones (2003, p. 51) note that, "No matte how oiginal you think the eseach question may be, it is almost cetain that…
references for foreign and domestic products." Journal of Consumer Marketing, Vol. 16, No. 2, pp. 151-162.
Kucukemiroglu, O. (1997, March). "Market segmentation by using consumer lifestyle dimensions and ethnocentrism: An empirical study." European Journal of Marketing, Vol. 33, No. 5-6, pp. 470-491.
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Consumer Behavior: Purchasing Local Baby Food vs. International Baby Food (in Ethiopia)
Companies that manufacture and/or market baby formula employ various conventional and modern (i.e., web-based) media for advertising their products and capturing a large target audience. Studies indicate that the ability of market buyers to learn and remember specific brand names and keep them at the "top of their minds" results from advertising's effects, which can't be controlled by companies, particularly in case of media like television (Mazis & aymand, 2007). Okazaki, Nishiyama and Katsukura 2007 report that positive brand image influences consumer trust. Furthermore, Ajzen and Fishbein (1975) write that the presence of a positive attitude in connection with a product/brand in consumers helps reinforce their purchase intention. Still, empirical studies also reveal that many buyers doubt the claims made concerning products in their advertisements. Consumers are aware of the fact that the aim of advertisements is persuasion,…
Fishbein, M. & Ajzen, I. (1975). Belief, Attitude, Intention and Behaviour, Addison-Wesley, Reading, MA.
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Mazis, M. B. & Raymond, M. A. (2007). Consumer perceptions of health claims in advertisements and on food labels. The Journal of Consumer Affairs, 31(1), 10-26.
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Through the use of better marketing strategies and advertisements that are appealing to the customer, the executives use stimuli to grab the attention of the customer ("Consumers Behavior," n.d.). In most cases, such kinds of efforts by the executives are usually vividly clear and identified by the customers. Furthermore, executives can make better marketing and advertising decisions by understanding that customers are sometimes influenced by indiscernible stimuli which is also known as subliminal message. This is regardless of the fact that a customer only pays attention to few of the stimuli that he/she comes into contact with and usually interprets the messages he/she can recall.
Secondly, perception is important to executives in making better marketing and advertising decisions since it helps in devising marketing strategies. Executives make better marketing and advertising decisions by the use of a perceptual map which helps them to identify the characteristics that customers associate with…
Babitski, I.V. (n.d.), What Is Perception?, Articleweekly.com, viewed 12 December 2010,
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Such customers are expected to be more influenced in purchasing more expensive organic products.
In the case of organic products, marketers have also focused on influencing the perceptions of consumers. Their objective is to determine consumers to perceive organic products of having higher quality and better effects in comparison with regular products. Their strategy was successful in the case of numerous customers. However, this situation can be attributed to several players. This situation is influenced by producers of organic products, by governments that have developed studies regarding the effects of organic products, and marketers that have developed strategies intended to determine such needs.
This objective was also reached by providing an increased level of information that is easy to access by customers. The purchase decision regarding organic products is usually based on higher involvement from the customer. This means that customers are highly motivated in finding information on these products,…
1. Kardes, F. et al. (2011). Consumer Behavior. Cengage Learning. Retrieved April 16, 2011 from http://books.google.ro/books?id=nwew7nJ6000C&printsec=frontcover&dq=consumer+behavior&hl=ro#v=onepage&q&f=false .
2. Butterick, K. (2011). Introducing Public Relations: Theory and Practice. SAGE Publications, Ltd. Retrieved April 16, 2011 from http://books.google.ro/books?id=kyoQ1R2jQ1IC&pg=PA12&dq=public+relations+women+smoke+in+public&hl=ro#v=onepage&q=public%20relations%20women%20smoke%20in%20public&f=false .
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Potential Concerns about the Consumer Financial Protection Agency
Despite the multitude of benefits revealed by the CFPA, commercial banks and mortgage lenders continually present their growing dissatisfaction with the act. epresentatives of this side include reputable organizations such as JP Morgan Chase or Wells Fargo, as well as a series of independent mortgage brokers and mortgage lenders and local and regional banking institutions. Their most compelling reasons for the dismissal of the Consumer Financial Protection Agency are succinctly presented below:
1. The banks feel that there is no real necessity for new regulatory legislation as the economy is already showing sighs of recovery; these financial institutions feel that the resources would be better spent otherwise. Additionally, the CFPA does not introduce any real new elements, but politically enforces the lessons already learnt from the economic crisis
2. The state could abuse its power through the Consumer Financial Protection Agency in…
Allen, M., Javers, E., Barack Obama to Create Consumer Financial Protection Agency, Politico, 16 June 2009, http://www.politico.com/news/stories/0609/23790.html last accessed on September 30, 2009
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What is fascinating in this regard is the contention that Gladwell makes of "thin slicing" through a significant portion of the book also aligns with theoretical models of how consumers interpret and act on promotional and advertising content as well. The author also points to examples of how what he calls "rapid cognition" actually has prejudices and preferences already interpreted as part of the perceptual filters each person uses to interpret their environment. Gladwell points to both prejudices for specific types of products, messages, values and preferences for them as an example of how these attributes are part of every person's rapid cognition set of responses. These perceptual filters form the foundation of how a person also interprets advertising and promotional stimuli as well.
In summary, Gladwell (2005) has presented a fascinating set of precepts marketers need to keep in mind to earn and retain consumers' trust. The basics of…
Gladwell, M (2005). Blink: The Power of Thinking without Thinking. New York, NY: Little.Brown & Company (Back Bay Books Imprint).
Scenario B -- the organizational staff member
4. Evaluate the factors that influence your selection of a package.
As an individual employee, impacted by the decision regarding the medical package, the staff member would be influenced by the following factors:
The extent of the medical coverage in order to reveal and assess its ability to serve the healthcare needs of the individual.
The costs involved by the coverage -- detailed throughout the following section.
The evolution of the current plan as opposed to the previous one. A negative evolution would traditionally trigger dissatisfaction, whereas a positive evolution would manifest as a motivational force.
The ability to actually influence the final decision regarding the healthcare plan. This factor is specifically important as it reveals the role of the individual in the decision making process. If the employee is listened and his opinions valued and integrated in the decision process, this is…
Choufani, R., 2010, The 10 critical steps to selecting an HER, Health IT Exchange, http://searchhealthit.techtarget.com/healthitexchange/meaningfulhealthcareinformaticsblog/the-10-critical-steps-to-selecting-an-ehr / last accessed on May 6, 2011
Fisher, J.G., 2008, How to run successful employee incentive schemes: creating effective programs for improved performance, 3rd edition, Kogan Page Publishers
Krugman, P., Wells, R., The health care crisis and what to do about it, The New York Review of Books, http://www.nybooks.com/articles/archives/2006/mar/23/the-health-care-crisis-and-what-to-do-about-it / last accessed on May 6, 2011
Tancredi, L.R., 1974, Ethics of health care: papers of the Conference on Health Care and Changing Values, November 27-29, 1973, National Academies
Thus, the marketing message has impacted on consumer behavior in a specific and deliberate way. Marketers typically have significant control over the marketing message in the advertising, the packaging and sometimes even the placement of the product (ensuring Corona is available at every major beach resort around the world, for example).
In conclusion, there are a number of different ways in which firms can exert influence over consumer behavior. Among the most important levers are control over information, merchandising and control over the marketing message. That firms have so many powerful levers at their disposal reflects the nature of the impact of the firm on consumers. Consumer behavior is often not the direct outcome of a singular action on the part of the marketer, but as the outcome of a set of cumulative actions, each of which influences the consumers' behavior is a specific way. The ways in which marketers…
Law, D. & Yip, J. (no date). The impact of visual merchandising on the consumer decision process for intimate apparel. Hong Kong Polytechnic University. Retrieved June 15, 2010 from http://elearning.lib.fcu.edu.tw/bitstream/2377/3942/1/ce05atc902007000065.pdf
Mullen, B. & Johnson, C. (1990). The psychology of consumer behavior. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Nelson, P. (1970). Information and consumer behavior. The Journal of Political Economy. Vol. 78 (2) 311-329.
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Suppot fo global phones
Medium to High. Social events ae pevasive duing skiing season
Medium to High; on Tous thee is much planned out and taken cae of; a chance to enjoy the sites and visit histoic places
High fo shopaholics; boing fo anyone who doesn't enjoy this type of activity
Fom $2,000 to ove $10,000 pe peson
Less than $100 fo camping out in a tent to ove $2,000 fo a cabin ental
Fom $3,000 to ove $10,000 each depending on the package selected
$2,000 to $4,000 depending on the package selected
$650 to $1,000 fo high taffic aeas including London o Pais;
Fom $2,000 to ove $10,000 pe peson
A full week including flights up and back
Fom a weekend to ove a week
A minimum of a week o moe due to tavel
Fom one week to a month
Fom one week to a month…
references. The need for self-actualization, consistent with applicability of Maslow's Hierarchy of needs to the travel industry as studies previously have successfully done (Huang, Hsu, 2009) illustrate how powerful the need for self-actualization and peak experiences are in differentiating one travel experience form another. Segmentation of travel alternatives by the layer of the Maslow Hierarchy of Needs Model is critical for travel providers to be effective marketers and speak in terms their clients can understand and act on. The provider of Alaskan cruises would be wise to discuss how the cruise is a "trip of a lifetime to reward the decades of service to others" as the Asian women has most likely given huge blocks of her time and effort to her family and the family business. The self-actualization and "grand experience" of the Alaskan cruise is exceptionally successful as a marketing and messaging strategy that aligns to the Maslow Hierarchy of Needs Model, hence the very high participation rates on these events from senior citizens who are empty nesters.
Likewise the Maslow Model when applied to the university student and successful businessman has comparable analysis and results. For the university student the need is less on self-actualization, more on safety and psychological needs to challenging one's self against foreign countries and getting a glimpse into what traveling globally in freedom are. The university student may aspire for a self-actualized and exceptional experience, yet their focus the majority of the time will be on the development of their own self-confidence in tackling challenges of getting around and potentially staying in a foreign nation for a period of time. In studies that have applied the Maslow Hierarchy of Needs to travel programs and initiatives, insights have been gained into which demographic and psychographic groups have the greatest need for self-actualization, self-esteem, love & belonging & safety (Huang, Hsu, 2009).
While the Asian woman is clearly most interested in self-actualization and the sense of accomplishment and reward that comes from the cruise to Alaska, the students are looking for the esteem and confidence of being able to navigate through foreign nations. For the business man and the exotic diving trip to Thailand the need for esteem of conquering or mastering the specific region or waters of interest, combined with self-actualization of confronting uncertainty and risk underwater and still being able to see incredible sights, the businessman is unique in his mix of Maslow Needs Assessments. Yet for travel marketers to excel in their selection and marketing of travel destinations and experiences, these factors all must be taken into account and communicated with clarity and focus. This is in effect best practices in travel marketing today; the integrating of needs assessment of behavioral models including the Maslow Hierarchy of needs and the relative market positioning of travel experiences relative to potential clients.
The Herzberg Two Factor Theory that integrates Hygiene Factors and Motivators into the same model has also successfully been integrated into the travel industry's knowledge base of research (Chan, Baum, 2007). Specifically concentrating on how to most effectively satiate or satisfy travelers with the Hygiene Factors to meet minimum expectations of travelers has proven to be critically important in the development and fine-tuning of marketing messages. The aspirational values of the Motivators of the Herzberg Model are what the Asian woman and the businessman are looking for. Herzberg primarily completed research on
. .] a sure recipe for a second wave of financial disaster" (Segal, 2010), has an overall nonpartisan tone. Instead of focusing on the controversy between the parties, Segal, like Balassa, draws attention to facts. He discusses the vast amount of bankruptcies declared every year in the U.S. As a direct result of health-care costs (Segal, 2010).
The most conservative, and by far the largest publication, in the region is the Denver Post; it too sees the issues surrounding of health-care reform apolitically. Turning away from slander and political infighting, the article "Health Care eform Bill Cuts Deficit," by obert Pear and David Herzenhorn, discusses what they believe to be the basic concern of the health-care bill as it stands today: the cost to the consumer (2010). Their primary consideration is that the health-care reform bill currently under consideration does little to ease the financial burden of the insured (Pear…
Associated Press (2010, February 26). After Summit Democrats push ahead with health care reform. The Colorado Daily. Retrieved from http://www.coloradodaily.com/ci_14476700?!ADID=search.html
Balassa, John (2010, March 19). Not-for-Profit financing is key. The Colorado Daily.
Retrieved from http://www.coloradodaily.com/ci_144767700?!ADID=search.html
Gay, Chris (2009, September 3-9). The Wrong Argument: the democrats approach doesn't explain why the market can't fix health care. The Boulder Weekly.
MANAGING CONSUME BEHAVIOS & UNDESTANDING CONSUME PECEPTIONS
Understanding consumer behavior is a pursuit that answers why, when, how, and where people buy or do not buy products. Consumer behavior is an area that combines topics such as economics, media studies, sociology, and psychology. Predicting and understanding consumer behavior is a challenge for experts and novices alike. Perception can be a biological process by which a person's brain interprets and organizes stimuli so as to gain awareness and understanding of one's environment. Perception can also be psychological and social phenomena. The paper surveys literature that proves the correlations and implications between consumer perception and consumer behavior.
Managing Consumer Behaviors & Understanding Consumer Perceptions
Perception is a large determinant or factor apart of behavior. Therefore, gaining understanding of consumer perceptions can illuminate the reasons behind certain types of consumer behaviors. With accurate data reflecting the connection between consumer behaviors and…
Christandl, F., & Garlin, T. (2011) The Accuracy of Consumers' Perception of Future Inflation Prices. Journal of Psychology, 219(4), 209 -- 216.
Schneider, B. (1973) The Perception of Organizational Climate: The Customer's View. Journal of Applied Psychology, 57(3), 248 -- 256.
Schneider, B., & Bowen, D.E. (1985) Employee and Customer Perceptions of Service in Banks: Replication and Extension. Journal of Applied Psychology, 70(3), 423 -- 433.
Schneider, B., Hanges, P.J., Goldstein, H.W., & Braverman, E.P. (1994) Do Customer Service Perceptions Generalize? The Case of Student and Chair Ratings of Faculty Effectiveness. Journal of Applied Psychology, 79(5), 685 -- 690.
The success or failure of an organization unreservedly depends upon the behavior of consumers towards its products or services (Kotler, 2010). Consumers have now become more knowledgeable and conscious towards choosing and consuming products. They do not just buy a product; but make a relationship with that brand and the manufacturer of that product (Oliver, 1999). This relationship reflects their consumption patterns and brand preference. This is the fact which business organizations must recognize about consumer behavior (Farley, 1964). To stumble upon this consumer behavior, organizations use different marketing and promotional strategies to stay competitive within their respective industries. In this way, they explore what is their potential target market and what they can do to meet these consumption demands (Kotler, Brown, Burton, Deans, & Armstrong, 2010).
The purpose of this paper is to analyze the behavior of consumers towards the products offered by one of the…
Farley, J., (1964). Why Does "Brand Loyalty" Vary our Products? The Journal of Marketing, American Marketing Association, Vol. 1, No. 4, pp. 9-12
Kotler, P., (2010). Principles of Marketing: A South Asian Perspective, 13th Edition. India: Pearson Education
Kotler, P. Brown, L. Burton, S. Deans, K. Armstrong, G. (2010). Marketing. 8th Edition. U.S.: Prentice-Hall
Nestle.com, (2011). About Us. Retrieved on October 16th, 2011 from
The mall in Shanghai is not representative of all shopping experiences in China, and the questionnaire and its use of imagery and descriptions lack clarity and precision needed for more extrapolative results. The study however does underscore the role of ethicacy as a key determinant in defining if a person is going to purchase a counterfeit product or not.
Analysis of Counterfeit Luxury Goods Online:
An Investigation of Consumer Perceptions
One of the most rapidly expanding selling channels for counterfeit products are websites and e-commerce sites. On the Internet a counterfeiter can be up and running within a day or less, selling counterfeit items globally using PayPal and other well-known payment processing systems to manage transactions. This area of counterfeit luxury products selling is the subject of the study Counterfeit Luxury Goods Online: An Investigation of Consumer Perceptions (adon, 2012). The methodology is loosely defined as those customers who have…
Kozar, J.M., & Marcketti, S.B. (2011). Examining ethics and materialism with purchase of counterfeits. Social Responsibility Journal, 7(3), 393-404.
Ian Phau, Marishka Sequeira, Steve Dix, (2009) "To buy or not to buy a "counterfeit" Ralph Lauren polo shirt: The role of lawfulness and legality toward purchasing counterfeits," Asia-Pacific Journal of Business Administration, Vol. 1 Iss: 1, pp. 68 -- 80
Phau, I., & Teah, M. (2009). Devil wears (counterfeit) Prada: A study of antecedents and outcomes of attitudes towards counterfeits of luxury brands. The Journal of Consumer Marketing, 26(1), 15-27.
Anita Radon (2012). Counterfeit luxury goods online: An investigation of consumer perceptions. International Journal of Marketing Studies, 4(2), 74-79.
Emotional Drivers Swarovski
The motives behind consumer decisions to purchase luxury brands like Swarovski have been studied in a number of researches. The general findings of these studies have been that these motives are largely emotional, and that they are evolving as the composition of the luxury market segment changes. De Mooij (2005) defines emotion as an "interaction between cognition and physiology." The characteristics of emotion that or of greater concern to luxury brand managers are that emotions are learned and that they vary from culture to culture.
The mode of expression of emotion also varies by culture. In capitalistic societies, consumption has evolved into a unique mode of expression of self-satisfaction, self-esteem and self-pleasures. These buying motives shape the perceptions of various brands among consumers, along with brand loyalty and brand image. De Mooij (2005, p. 116) explains luxury brand buying motives in terms of collectivism/individualism and masculinity/feminism. Conformance…
Chevalier, M., & Mazzalovo, G. 2008. Luxury Brand Management. John Wiley & Sons.
De Mooij, M. 2005. Global Marketing and Advertising. Sage Publications, Inc.
Fionda, A.M., & Moore, C.M. 2009. The Anatomy of the Luxury Fashion Brand. Journal of Brand Management, 16(5/6), 347-363. doi.10.1057/bm.2008.45.
Fog, K., Budtz, C., Munch, P., & Blanchette, S. 2010. Storytelling: Branding in Practice. 2nd ed. Springer.
marketing managers understand consumer behavior?
It is essential for marketing managers to understand two critical elements: why consumers purchase the products they do and how exactly consumers intend to use those products. In general, the consumer decision-making process can be summed up as follows: need recognition; followed by information searching (otherwise known as research, such as combing reviews online or reading Consumer Reports); an evaluation of alternatives (formally or informally through vehicles such as a cost-benefit analysis); followed by the actual purchase, and finally the post-purchase behavior whereby the consumer evaluates the decision.
All purchases are motivated to some degree by need recognition. Needs recognition reflects the consumer's acknowledged state of imbalance between an actual and desired state. While this recognition may be consumer-driven and relatively internal (for example, a consumer with a cold deciding he or she needs to purchase tissues because he or she has 'run out') marketers…
Online Consumer Behaviors
Consumer Perceptions of Online Shopping and how this Influences Purchasing Decisions
Exploring Online Consumer Behavior
Internet usage has increased rapidly in the past few decades. Accompanying this trend has been the increase in online retail shopping by consumers. However, many consumer behaviors, motivations, and attitudes toward shopping via this medium are still being researched and there are many opportunities for further research. This paper will examine the following research questions: (1) How do factors previously researched affect the online purchasing behavior of consumers and (2) what are the significant consumer behaviors both positive and negative that affect internet consumerism? The purpose of this research paper is to integrate the varied research information together and draw coherent linkages to how consumer thoughts, attitudes and motivational behavior affect online buying, thus building a broader framework of analysis in which to build upon. By identifying these relevant factors,…
Vazquez, D., & Xu, X. (2009). Investigating linkages between online purchase behaviour variables. International Journal of Retail and Distribution Management, 37, 408-419. doi: 10.1108/09590550910954900
8%) and all were s-commerce users. 58.2% were Korean natives, 14.6% were Chinese and 10.8% were American. 9.7% were European and 6.7% were Japanese. The majority used s-commerce to purchase tickets for entertainment (44.5%) and 67% had been using s-commerce for more than two years.
The study shows that transaction safety (.480) and reputation (.450) both at the .01 level of significance, most contribute to trust in an s-commerce platform. The combination of all seven factors explains .784 of all variation in the sample with regard to trust in s-commerce. This is statistically significant at the .05 level of confidence and shows that purchase intentions can be explained by the seven-factor model the researchers created (Kim, Park, 2013). The model of s-commerce security and reliability therefore is statistically sound and applies to the South Korean social e-commerce industry. Study limitation include the lack of cross-sectional design definition and the development…
Baird, C.H., and Parasnis, G., (2011). From Social Media to Social Customer Relationship Management, Strategy & Leadership, Vol. 39 Iss: 5, pp. 30 -- 37.
Rosa Diaz, I.M. (2013). Price assessments by consumers: Influence of purchase context and price structure. International Journal of Consumer Studies, 37(1), 13-20.
Hollenbeck, C.R., & Kaikati, A.M. (2012). Consumers' use of brands to reflect their actual and ideal selves on Facebook. International Journal of Research in Marketing, 29(4), 395.
Kim, S., & Park, H. (2013). Effects of various characteristics of social commerce (s-commerce) on consumers' trust and trust performance. International Journal of Information Management, 33(2), 318.
consumers' connectivity with the brands that has changed to fundamentally new ways in the today's time. The paper has discussed how the new and digital age has created an impact on the perceptions of the consumers due to which their ways of connecting to the brand has changed as the world has penetrated into the epoch of technological advancements. How the new media is playing an important role for the marketers and brand in connecting to the customers has been under discussion.
Consumer elationship with Brand
Brands are considerably one of the vital and imperative assets for the companies and business, and the brand management is one of the core areas of focus for the marketers. In order to manage the brand carefully and vigilantly, marketers have to largely focus on creating a large and a loyal customer database. However, the changes in the technology and media have provided with…
Baker, S. (2004). New Consumer Marketing: Managing a Living Demand System. USA: John Wiley & Sons.
Barwise, P. & Meehan, S. (2010). The One Thing You Must Get Right When Building a Brand. Harvard Business Review -- The Magazine. Retrieved from http://hbr.org/2010/12/executive-summaries/ar/1
Batey, M. (2008). Brand meaning. USA: Routledge.
Fuggetta, R. (2012). Brand Advocates: Turning Enthusiastic Customers into a Powerful Marketing Force. USA: John Wiley & Sons.
For the purpose of noting buyer behavior, I visited a neighborhood grocery store named ‘Redner’s Warehouse’, one of a chain of popular outlets in my locality. One can find a couple of these outlets on the very same highway, attached to petrol pumps. I elected to observe the behavior of buyers along two aisles in the outlet: the baking and frozen vegetable aisles. Simply staring at buyers is weird and, thus, I selected aisles where I actually had products to buy and could discreetly observe fellow buyers. My aim was noting variations in buyer behavior for diverse goods, besides variations in buyers themselves. For achieving more superior results, I chose to visit the store twice, on a weekday (Wednesday) and on a Sunday, during noon time. During the weekday visit, I found few buyers in for purchase, while on my weekend visit, the store was certainly packed with more…
e. questionnaires and interview questions) in a manner that allows the researcher to explore specific areas of interest. For example, if the researcher wants to know what aspects of their products or services are most valuable to consumers, the survey instruments can focus on comparisons of value perception or ask consumers directly which variables are more important to them than others (Belch & Belch, 2006). Likewise, if market researchers want to know how important their corporate reputation or values are to consumer choice, they can ask specific questions about those issues. Finally, market researchers can also use survey-based research to determine how effective or ineffective their advertising and promotional efforts are (Gerrig & Zimbardo, 2008).
Domtar Marketing Efforts
The Domtar Corporation is a good example of multi-level marketing. Its corporate websites present various different web pages, some of which are intended for consumption by an adult audience and others that…
Belch, G. And Belch, M. (2006) Advertising and Promotion: An Integrated
Marketing Communications Perspective. Irwin/McGraw-Hill: New York.
Domtar Corporation. (2010). Making Paper Fun. Accessed 17 October, 2010, from:
consumer choice seem 'obvious' to a naive observer, namely that consumers will inevitably prefer cheaper products over more expensive ones, and more products rather than fewer items. However, psychological research suggests that 'common sense' does not always hold true when it comes to market research, hence the need for companies to spend money on obtaining such findings to improve the use of scarce money and time when seeking to reach the public. This paper will present a review of three peer-reviewed articles in the field of consumer research on human subjects which provide further nuance to the study of consumption habits.
According to Dai & Fishbach (2014), although the presence of products can stimulate the desire to consume, so can the absence of such products. If 'absence makes the heart grow fonder' in the case of romance, the same can be said to be true of buying consumer goods. One…
Middleman, M., Andrade, E.B., Chattopadhyay, A. & Brendl, C.M. (2014). The offer framing effect: Choosing single vs. bundled offerings affects variety seeking. Journal of Consumer Research, 41(4), 953-964. doi:10.1086/678193
Ward, M.K., & Dahl, D.W. (2014). Should the devil Sell Prada? Retail rejection increases aspiring consumers' desire for the brand. Journal of Consumer Research, 41(3), 590-609.
Xianchi, D. & Fishbach, A. (2014). How nonconsumption shapes desire. Journal of Consumer Research, 41(4), 936-952. doi:10.1086/678302
" (Al-Ghaith, Sanzogni, and Sandhu, 2010)
With a focus on Saudi Arabia it is reported that there is "no reliable local production in the fields of software or the hardware. The increased demand for ICTs is met by acquiring overseas technologies.
The trend towards increased reliance on ICTs by the Saudi people, in particular computers and internet services, is one of the highest when compared with other developing countries; however it is still far below the ownership rate in developed countries. Table 1 illustrates the ownership rate of equipment such as fixed-line telephones, cellular phone and personal computers. The ownership rate was calculated per 1000 persons in variant countries over the world." (Al-Ghaith, Sanzogni, and Sandhu, 2010) the goal of the study reported in the work of Al-Ghaith, Sanzogni, and Sandhu (2010) is to enhancing the understanding of factors that influence adoption and usage of online services in Saudi Arabia.…
Molina, Alfonsa, Ben-Jadeed, Mohammed (2004) the Emergence and Evolution of e-Banking in Saudi Arabia: The Case of Samba Financial Group. Frontiers of E-Business Research 2004
Jasimuddin, Sajjad, M. (nd) Saudi Arabian Banks on the Web. Online available at: http://www.arraydev.com/commerce/JIBC/0103_02.htm
Agarwal, R. And Prasad, J. (1998), "The antecedents and consequents of user perceptions in information technology adoptions," Decisions Support System, Vol. 22, pp. 15-29.
Ahmed, a.M., Zairi, M. And Alwabel, S.A. (2006). Global benchmarking for internet and e-commerce applications, Benchmarking: An International Journal 13(1/2), 68-80.
social media of hotel industy influence consume puchasing behavio 24/09/2015
Pominent examples of social media
Business Use of Social Media
Social media and consume puchasing
Role of Social media in Advetising and Maketing
Social Media Maketing
Evidence of impotance of Social Media Maketing
Impact of Social Media Maketing on Consume Puchasing Behavio
The Heding Effect
Theoy of Social Impact
Social Media Influence Factos on Consumes
Social Media in the Hotel Industy
Social media and Thailand Hotels
Appoaches to Methodology
Outline of eseach Method
Sample selection and Size
Obstacles in Reseach
: Data Analysis
: Ethical Consideations in Reseach
: Limitations of the study
Results and Analysis
: Results fom Suvey of Hotel subscibes
: Results fom Suvey of Hotel Maketing Officials
Infeence fom the Analysis
Social Media Factos Affecting Custome Puchasing Behavio 39
5.2: Recommendations fo Manages fo Use of Social Media 40
Chapte 1: Intoduction…
references and social tagging information. International Journal of Web Science, 2(1/2), p.80.
Balakrishnan, B., Dahnil, M. and Yi, W. (2014). The Impact of Social Media Marketing Medium toward Purchase Intention and Brand Loyalty among Generation Y. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 148, pp.177-185.
Book, L., Tanford, S., Montgomery, R. and Love, C. (2015). Online Traveler Reviews as Social Influence: Price is no Longer King. Journal of Hospitality & Tourism Research.
Burke, R., Martin, G. and Cooper, C. (2011). Corporate reputation. Farnham, Surrey: Gower.
Chaney, P. (2009). The digital handshake. Hoboken, N.J.: Wiley & Sons.
Summary of wo Marketing Research Papers
Consumers and heir Brands: Developing Relationship heory in Consumer Research
he article by Fournier (1998) examined the way in which a relationship may exist between consumers and brands. he author argues that the concept of relationships have been underutilized in marketing research, with a lack of new research and most ideas focusing on the concept of loyalty; a concept which does not necessarily embody the idea of a relationship between the consumer and the brand. he aim of the research is to create framework from which the presence of a relationship may be assessed.
Fournier (1998) argues that the relationship concept is viable for assessing the way consumers perceive brands. he literature looks at the way firms have sought to humanize their brands, animating or endowing them with characteristics which may include a total anthropomorphization (such as the Pillsbury Dough boy) or creating…
The findings indicated that brands were able to created deeply rooted identified that would have strong, ongoing associations with the brand. The quality of the brand relationship was found to depend on 6 associated characteristics; love/passion, self connection, commitment, interdependence, intimacy and brand partner quality (Fournier, 1998). The relationship which emerges is subsequently mediated by five factors; accommodation, tolerance and forgiveness, brand perceptions, devaluation of alternatives and attribution bases (Fournier, 1998). It is also noted that the brand relationships are best understood when considered in the broad brand environment (Fournier, 1998). Overall, the result indicates that concept of consumer relationships with brands may be leveraged highly effectively by marketers.
The research adds to marketing knowledge, it builds on loyalty theory with an alignment between loyalty and brand relationship quality. The work indicates the degree of strength and emotion that can be developed for a brand, and that if a brand is able to develop a significant relationship
The Classical and Active Theories of Perception
The only world that truly exists for any of us is the one inside our brains. Each of us experiences the world in our own special way. Our world is made up of our experiences and perceptions. The way that every individual perceives their world is different from the way any other individual perceives theirs. The way that we perceive our world is different than the way anyone else perceives their world, yet we all live in the same world. hat makes our world different are our perceptions, not the world itself. This research will explore two different theories on how we perceive our world. It will discuss the classical theory of perception and the active theory of perception in order to gain a better understanding of how our perceptions affect our world view.
Our own virtual reality exists because the brain…
Balcetis, Emily and Dunning, David. "See What You Want to See: Motivational Influences on Visual Perception." Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. Vol. 91. No. 4. Pp. 612-625.
Berliner, Todd and Cullen, Dale. "The Illusion of Continuity: Active Perception in the Classical Editing System." Journal of Film and Video. 2011. Vol. 63 No. 1. PP. 44 -- 63.
Conde, Toni and Thalmann, Daniel. F. "An integrated perception for autonomous virtual agents:
active and predictive perception." Computer Animation and Virtual Worlds. Vol. 17. pp. 457-468.
Consumer Needs and Marketing Efforts
A need is defined as "a state of felt deprivation in a person" (Kotler, Chandler, Gibbs, & McColl 1999, p. 4). The most basic human needs are those for food, clothing, warmth, and safety. There are also needs that are more psychological, such as the need to feel loved, to feel successful, or to feel a sense of belonging. A more thorough explanation of needs can be found by considering Abraham Maslow's hierarchy of needs theory.
Maslow's hierarchy of needs theory describes five levels of need that exist in a hierarchical order. In order from highest to lowest, these needs are: physiological, safety, belongingness, esteem, and self-actualization (Daft 1997, p. 530). The physiological need refers to the basic human needs for food and water. These are essentially the basic things that every individual needs to physically survive. The safety need refers…
Belch, G.E., & Belch, M.A. (1999). Advertising and Promotion. Boston, MA: McGraw Hill.
Daft, R.L. (1997). Management. Fort Worth, TX: Dryden Press.
Kotler, P., Armstrong, G., Brown, L, & Adam, S. (1998). Marketing. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.
Kotler, P., Chandler, P., Gibbs, R., & McColl, R. (1999). Marketing. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.
Consumer Decision-Making Processes
The holiday season is upon us again, and it is the biggest season of the year for retailers. American consumers will buy an average of around $700 on goods and services related to the holidays, which equates to the range of $224 billion. Analysts further break down the market between those who are of relatively limited financial means and just try to survive the holidays, and those who spend $978 on average (PWC, 2014). But how do consumers go about making their purchase decisions? Whether rich or poor, or what holidays a person might celebrate, there are some basic fundamental principles in the consumer buying decision making process that can help marketers to make the best decisions possible.
The Consumer Decision-Making Process
There are five basic elements to the consumer decision-making process: problem recognition, information search, alternative evaluation, purchase decision, and post-purchase behavior (Consumer Factor, 2015). Each…
De Mooij, M. (2011). Consumer Behavior and Culture. Sage Publications.
Haubi, G, (1999) Consumer decision-making in online shopping environment: The effects of interactive decision aids. University of Calgary. Retrieved November 23, 2015 from http://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/download?doi=10.1.1.196.378&rep=rep1&type=pdf
Homburg, C & Furst, A. (2005) How organizational complaint handling drives customer loyalty. Journal of Marketing. Vol. 69 (3) 95-114.
NetMBA (2010). Maslow's hierarchy of needs. NetMBA.com. Retrieved November 23, 2015 from http://www.netmba.com/mgmt/ob/motivation/maslow/
The study by oyne, Martinez, Oakley and Fox (2012) tests consumer behavior regarding perceptions of pricing and advertising for pro-environmental products: it looks at the effect that products priced with a .99 ending have compared to products with a .00 price ending. The researchers find in their own review of the literature that the latter has a "heuristic" effect on the consumer, who sees that the .00 indicates that the product has "value," while the .99 priced item indicates that it is priced at a bargain. These are the common perceptions that consumers have regarding pricing (oyne, Martinez, Oakley, Fox, 2012, p. 96). However, in their tests, they found that the appeals that price and product have are influenced by "context," and so it is not always the case with consumers that they regard the .00 priced item as being of the higher quality or the .99 item…
Royne, M., Martinez, J., Oakley, J., Fox, A. (2012). The effectiveness of benefit type and price endings in green advertising. Journal of Advertising, 41(4): 85-102.
The study methodology is predicated on a literature review of over two dozen previous studies, stratified across both the French and U.K.-based respondent populations. Of particular interest with regard to the methodology is the researcher's detailed work on defining variations in cultural differences, which is an area that Dr. Hofstede and the Model of Cultural Dimensions is specifically designed to take into account (Marieke, Hofstede, 2010). The study is highly qualitative in nature and uses academic databases as its primary research instrument (Gloria, Wulf, Mullen, 2013). The studies cited throughout the analysis indicate the potential to break out senior citizen segments by psychographics, an areas of emerging interest for Internet marketers. There is also a thorough analysis from numerous secondary studies of the correlation of income, gender, education and Internet usage. Demographics within the study are defined more in age-based terms when psychographic delineations create through primary research and factor…
Belal, H.M., Shirahada, K., & Kosaka, M. (2013). Value Co-Creation with Customers through recursive approach based on Japanese Omotenashi service. International Journal of Business Administration, 4(1), 28-28.
Kim-Shyan Fam, Waller, D.S., Ernest Cyril, d. R., & He, J. (2013). Advertising dislikeability in Asia. Asia Pacific Journal of Marketing and Logistics, 25(1), 144-161.
Gloria, a.M., Wulf, C., & Mullen, H. (2013). Internet marketing to 50+ generations in the UK and France. Journal of International Consumer Marketing, 25(1), 45.
Marieke, d. M., & Hofstede, G. (2010). The Hofstede model: Applications to global branding and advertising strategy and research. International Journal of Advertising, 29(1), 85.
popularity of foreign restaurant: consumer attitude and behavior toward foreign cuisines in Bangkok
Thailand as a tourist destination
Thailand has become a tourist destination hotspot for its scenic beauty, the humble nature of their people, and the relative value of foreign currencies relative to the baht. According to EIU ViewsWire (2003), "Growth in the tourism industry in recent years was the result of the depreciation of the baht against non-Asian currencies (which improved competitiveness relative to destinations outside the region), aggressive marketing campaigns and an increase in the number of airlines offering flights to Thailand." (EIU ViewsWire, 2003)
Additionally, according to EIU ViewsWire (2003), "Tourist arrivals rose by 5.8% to just over 10m in 2001, despote the global economic downturn and the September 11 terrorist attacks in the U.S., bringing in Bt 295bn (U.S. $6.6 bn) in revenue. Thailand benefited from its reputation as a safe and stable society and…
"A century of certification," 2003, Health and Hygiene, vol. 24, no. 2, pp. 12-12-13.
Anne-Mette Hjalager & Magda, A.C. 2000, "Food for tourists -- determinants of an image," The International Journal of Tourism Research, vol. 2, no. 4, pp. 281-281.
Asia's Biggest Sourcing Event for Foods and Beverages Ever Kicks Off This Week 2011,, PR Newswire Association LLC, United States, New York.
Chen, M. 2009, "Attitude toward organic foods among Taiwanese as related to health consciousness, environmental attitudes, and the mediating effects of a healthy lifestyle," British Food Journal, vol. 111, no. 2, pp. 165-165-178.
Direct to Consumer Advertising
HISTRY F DRUG ADVERTISING
THE DTC ADVERTISING PHENMENN
DECEPTIVE ADVERTISING - A WLF IN SHEEP'S CLTHING
CAUSE F DEATH
UTILIZATIN, PRICING, AND DEMGRAPHICS
LEGISLATIN, PLITICS AND PATENTS
LEGISLATIVE INITIATIVES REGARDING DTC
RECALLED and/or DEADLY DRUGS
In order to provide the most efficient method of evaluation, the study will utilize existing stores of qualitative and quantitative data from reliable sources, such as U.S. Government statistical references, University studies, and the studies and publications of non-profit and consumer oriented organizations. Every attempt will be made to avoid sources of information sponsored by or directly influenced by the pharmaceutical industry.
Existing data regarding the history, levels, content and growth of direct-to-consumer advertising will be examined. In addition, the industry's composition prior to and after the proliferation of direct-to-consumer advertising will be examined, with regard to market share, type of substances sold, benefits of substances sold, and…
On January 9, 2002, Dr. Darlene Jody, Vice President of Medical Marketing for Bristol-Myers Squibb, issued a manufacturer's "Important Drug Warning Including Black Box Information." The Important Drug Warning advises healthcare practitioners that "cases of life-threatening hepatic failure have been reported in patients treated with SERZONE." The manufacturer's Warning indicates that numerous persons have or will suffer liver failure, death or transplantation. The manufacturer's Warning also indicates that the current estimate of the rate of liver failure associated with Serzone use is "about 3-4 times the estimated background rate of liver failure." A new Warning is being added to the Serzone prescribing information, advising that "patients should be advised to be alert for signs and symptoms of liver dysfunction (jaundice, anorexia, gastrointestinal complaints, malaise, etc.) and to report them to their doctor immediately if they occur." According to Warnings, Serzone should be promptly discontinued if signs or symptoms suggest liver failure.
Vioxx belongs to a class of drugs known as COX-2 inhibitors. When the drugs were introduced a few years ago, COX-2 inhibitors were thought to be safer and more effective than other drugs such as Aspirin and Ibuprofen. However, several studies have questioned the cardiovascular safety of Vioxx. Studies indicate that people taking Vioxx have four times the risk of a heart attack.
In May 2002, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) published a Talk Paper about new label warnings for the popular arthritis and pain drug know as Vioxx (rofecoxib). The new label warnings are based on the results of the Vioxx Gastrointestinal Outcomes Research (VIGOR). According to the FDA, recent studies demonstrate that Vioxx is associated with a higher rate of serious cardiovascular thromboembolic adverse events (such as heart attacks, angina pectoris, and peripheral vascular events). Based on the recent study, the FDA agreed with the Arthritis Advisory Committee recommendations February 8, 2001 that the label for Vioxx include gastrointestinal and cardiovascular warning information. Serious side effects attributed to Vioxx are heart attacks, seizures, strokes, or liver/kidney problems. http://www.recalleddrugs.com
The study's findings indicate that high technology brands are exceptionally effective in defining the prestige aspects of their products and through the use of market branding, showing their value from a personal brand standpoint (Hamann, Williams, Omar, 2007). The study also showed that the more utilitarian aspects of products aren't relevant to positioning or branding, which is a point marketers have been making for decades in high technology (Hamann, Williams, Omar, 2007). The authors concluded the study with an extensive statistical analysis which is shown in the following table as well. This analysis indicates how powerful product quality is in defining the brand experience and perception of customers. Shortcomings of the study include the lack of statistical reliability of the sample, the lack of in-depth analysis of the key areas within quality and the need for greater depth of insight into the four components of quality defined in this iteration…
Hamann, D., Williams, R.L., & Omar, M. (2007). Branding strategy and consumer high-technology product. The Journal of Product and Brand Management, 16(2), 98-111.
Koufaris, M. (2002). Applying the technology acceptance model and flow theory to online consumer behavior. Information Systems Research, 13(2), 205-223.
Latour, M.S., Hanna, J.B., Miller, M.D., & Pitts, R.E. (2002). Consumer involvement with personal computer technology: A multi-sample analysis. American Business Review, 20(2), 1-11.
Williams, K.C., Page, R.A., Petrosky, a.R., & Hernandez, E.H. (2010). Multi-generational marketing: Descriptions, characteristics, lifestyles, and attitudes. The Journal of Applied Business and Economics, 11(2), 21-36.
An additional negative aspect can occur when a seemingly green product really isn't, in the long run.
As an example, one of the most successful 'green' vehicles is the Toyota Prius. The hybrid Prius has become the status symbol for all of those wishing to flaunt their environmental conscience. However, the vehicle isn't nearly as eco-friendly as the Green Marketing campaigns lead consumers to believe. The nickel metal hydride battery the Prius uses is the primary culprit. The nickel is mined in Sudbury, Ontario, smelted nearby, shipped to ales to be refined, then sent to China to be processed into nickel foam. From there, it goes to Japan to become a battery, before it's placed into a car and shipped to its final destination, like the U.S. The global transportation of the manufacture of the battery uses a lot of fossil fuel. Goodwin cites CN Marketing as noting the combined…
Basic Information. 26 Oct 2009. Environmental Protection Agency. November 10, 2009 .
Chen, S. "Green with Status Envy." Psychology Today. 42. 5. Sept/Oct 2009: 12.
Dictionary. 2009. American Marketing Association. November 10, 2009 .
Goodwin, J. "The Not-so-Green Prius." WashingtonPost.com. 21 Jun 2009. The Washington Post. November 10, 2009 .
Consumer involvement refers to the amount of time, though and energy that a consumer puts into a particular purchase decision (McNamara, 2014). This can be categorized along the emotional/rational scale. So many small purchases like impulse purchases are low involvement. At the very low involvement end of the scale is something like fries with your burger -- you might not even want them, and accept the suggestion for them almost reflexively. At the high involvement end of the scale would be something like the military bidding process, or for consumers buying a house or car. A medium-involvement purchase involves at least some thought. An example might be new headphones -- it's not an impulse purchase but unless you're ad audiophile there is only so much energy you will put into that purchase.
For marketers, the optimal situation for a low involvement purchase is to reduce the search for…
Brisoux, J. & Laroche, M. (1981). Evoked set and composition: An empirical investigation under a routinized response behavior situation. Advances in Consumer Research. Vol. 8 (1981) 357-361.
Cauberghe, V. & Pelsmacker, P. (2008). The impact of banners on television: The role of program interactivity and product involvement. CyberPsychology and Behavior. Vol. 11 (1) 91-94.
Lin, L. & Chen, C. (2006). The influence of country-of-origin image, product knowledge, and product involvement on consumer purchase decisions: An empirical study of insurance and catering services in Taiwan. Journal of Consumer Marketing. Vol. 23 (2006) 248-265.
Martin, C. (1998). Relationship marketing: A high-involvement product attribute approach. Journal of Product & Brand Management Vol. 7 (1) 6-26.
hat types of sports events do they go to? Are they eb savvy? Are they frequent fliers? Once you develop that kind of intimate understanding of your shoppers, you can truly begin to cultivate their loyalties" (Pedersen 1999:1).
On one hand, this may make consumers uncomfortable -- but it may also mean that when a supermarket chain discovers that the majority of its customers have young children, the chain may include a new line of baby care supplies or discounted coupons on diapers bought in bulk. If a credit card company discovers that the majority of its users are not frequent fliers, it may create a new rewards points program that offers different promotional strategies than mere upgrades to first class.
Take for example a promotional strategy whereby Coca-Cola "joined forces with Random House to offer sample chapters of unpublished novels in cases of Diet Coke. The idea was hatched…
Kotler, Phillip & Kevin Lane Keller. (2007).A Framework for Marketing Management.
Third Edition. Prentice Hall.
Pedersen, Stephen. (19 Apr 1999). "The incentives that consumers want:
Build customer loyalty by using consumer data." Brandweek. 1999. Retrieved 5 Mar 2007 at http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m0BDW/is_16_40/ai_54448314
brands consumers, roles brands play, views customers brands developed marketing -marketing influences. The background readings module introduces ways analyzing products brands case reading relates a study relationship consumers brands.
I am what I wear and what I drive:
Having a relationship with Manolo Blahnik shoes and the Prius
'I am what I buy.' According to Susan Fournier, consumers have relationships with brands much in the same way they have relationships with human beings. Brands become a form of identity, much like hanging out in a certain clique of friends defines one's sense of 'self.' Brands define our economic class, social status, and life state based upon their name and associations. The ethos of a brand transcends the functionality of the product. Marketers position brands to be attractive to certain types of consumers and consumers eagerly embrace such positioning and use it as a method of self-definition.
The shoe brand Manolo…
online purchases?" using the two-part approach provided below.
Description of the Participants
In most cases, the more subjects that are surveyed, the more trustworthy the results, but there are some diminishing returns involved in qualitative analyses that limit the usefulness of increasingly larger sample sizes. In this regard, Neuman (2003) reports that, "One principle of sample size is the smaller the population, the bigger the sampling ratio has to be for an accurate sample. Larger populations permit smaller sampling ratios for equally good samples. This is because as the population size grows, the returns in accuracy for sample size shrink" (p. 232). esearchers who employ survey methods for data-gathering purposes may have a general idea about how many subjects they would like to recruit, but the harsh realities of recruiting sufficient numbers of subjects to participate in surveys means that sometimes researchers must simply accept what they get…
Chaudron, D. (2008). Master of all you survey: Planning employee surveys. Organized Change.com. Retrieved from http://www.organizedchange.com/pdfs/employee surveys.pdf.
Darlington, Y., & Scott, D. (2002). Qualitative research in practice: Stories from the field.
Crows Nest, NSW: Allen & Unwin.
Mauch, J.E. & Park, N. (2003). Guide to the successful thesis and dissertation: A handbook for students and faculty. New York: Marcel Dekker.
Australian Consumer Law (ACL) is a broad-based law the impacts both businesses and consumers. The ACL represents a unified codification of a variety of prior product liability laws. In fact, one of its main benefits is that the law is applicable throughout Australia. Another major component of the law is that it imposes a strict liability standard on manufacturers and suppliers of goods, which was not a uniform standard prior to the introduction of this law. This is a relatively new law; the need for it was identified in 2009 after a Productivity Commission reviewed existing consumer protection laws and found glaring inconsistencies, which made it difficult, if not impossible, to enforce those laws that did exist.
Perhaps the greatest change to the law is that the ACL is now a strict liability law. Strict liability "means that a breach may be committed without negligence" (The FindLaw Team, 2012). In…
Australian Competition & Consumer Commission. (2012). Overview of the Trade Practices
Act: Consumer protection provisions. Retrieved April 13, 2012 from Commonwealth of Australia website: http://www.accc.gov.au/content/index.phtml/itemId/788555
Australian Consumer Law: Memorandum of Understanding. (2010). Retrieved April 13, 2012
from Australian Consumer Law website: http://www.consumerlaw.gov.au/content/the_acl/downloads/acl_mou.pdf
randing Affects the uying Decision
"How Does randing Affect Consumer Purchasing?." Using this research question, analyze the strengths and weaknesses of each research method (qualitative and quantitative) within the scope of the proposed dissertation topic. Identify which method you will select (or state whether you will use a mixed methodology) and explain the reasons for your choice.
DA Qs 1 Answer
The marketing guru Philip Kotler perceives branding as a "name, term, design, symbol, or any other feature that identifies one seller's good or service as distinct from those of other sellers." It has also been adopted by the American Marketing Association. Michael Dunn, President and CEO, of Prophet, a strategic professional services firm in San Francisco, states that branding is just a defensive tool against market competition; but acts as "insulation against deteriorating economic conditions."
The essence of a brand is the base upon which the prosperity of the…
Dash, M. a. (2010). Marketing Research An Applied Orientation.
Ormrod., P.D. (2010). Practical Research: Planning and Design, Eighth Edition. Pearson Prentice Hall.
Scroggins Westey A.'*, R.E. (2010). Research Challenges in Cross-cultural International Business: The Issue of Cross Cultural Construct Equivalency. Advances in Management .
SONIA WESCHE*, N.T. (2010). Challenges and Opportunities in Cross Cultural Geographic Inquiry. Journal of Geography in Higher Education, 59-75.
Also, as time goes by, technology will become cheaper and cheaper, so these devices will likely fall in price over the next few years. Again, this is another area where-book and e-reader manufacturers and retailers could do well by incorporating this technology into devices that are hand-held and already in use like cell phones or tablets.
Interestingly enough the survey revealed another specific consumer concern associated with e-books that could be taken advantage of by manufacturers in order to sell more products or help to boost the popularity and image of the company. Those surveyed felt that e-books and their usage relative to the environment was important to them. Consumers see e-books as environmentally friendly alternatives to paper books and publications, and manufacturers could do well in helping to accentuate and reinforce this fact. The marketing of e-books and e-readers to a target audience who is concerned about the environment…
marketing creates consumer needs or whether it just satisfies those needs. As frequently happens with debates, there is some merit to both points-of-view.
The American Marketing Association (AMA) defines marketing as "the activity, set of institutions, and processes for creating, communicating, delivering, and exchanging offerings that have value for customers, clients, partners, and society at large" (AMA, 2011). Clearly the AMA holds that creating offerings that have value for customers is a legitimate marketing activity. This paper argues that the question of whether marketing convinces customers to develop new desires or whether it simply identifies and responds to pre-existing needs can be answered by how one defines what the customer considers to be of value.
Every individual has basic needs, which no amount of marketing can create. Most people would agree that the need for food, clothing, shelter etc. all fall into the category of needs that marketing does not…
Agadoni, L. (2011). Why do marketers need to know customer needs? eHow website. Retrieved July 7, 2011 from http://www.ehow.com/about_6375595_do-marketers-need-consumer-needs_.html
AMA. (2011). Definition of marketing. American Marketing Association website. Retrieved July 7, 2011 from http://www.marketingpower.com/AboutAMA/Pages/DefinitionofMarketing.aspx
Papadakis, T. (2008). Do marketers create artificial needs? Agora website. Retrieved July 7, 2011 from http://agoraplace.wordpress.com/2008/03/12/do-marketers-create-artificial-needs/
Why Do Consumers Make Irrational, Decisions?
In economics there is usually the underlying assumption that people who make choices will act in a rational manner, weighing up the costs and the benefits and determining a course of action dependent which choice provides them with the greatest benefit. The assumption may appeal to logic, and is seen in rational choice theory, but the reality is many consumers will not act in a rational manner, making choices that result disadvantages or costs rather than benefits. There are a number of influences which may explain how and why consumers do not always make the rational or optimal choices in economic terms.
One of the key aspects of rational choice theory, which dictates individuals will make rational choices are the underlying assumption that individuals making the choices will be in possession of perfect information regarding the choices and the potential outcomes, and that…
Patient Perceptions of Participation in Treatment
Several studies have revealed that patients generally prefer to learn everything they can about their illness and the proposed treatment plan, and even have some control during the planning stage (reviewed in Lund, Tamm, and Branholm, 2001). On the other hand, studies have found that occupational therapists typically underestimate this desire and tend to perceive patients as passive and uncooperative. The gap between the patient's wishes to actively participate and the therapists' perceptions of that willingness can result in a number of problems, including patient compliance with treatment plans and goals. Strategies to minimize the size of this gap could therefore lead to more effective rehabilitation of the patient's disability.
A study was conducted in Sweden that examined patients' experiences as a rehabilitation patient and the professional's view of the interaction (Lund, Tamm, and Branholm, 2001). Patients were enrolled from acute care in surgery,…
Lund, Maria Larsson, Tamm, Maare, and Branholm, Inga-Britt. (2001). Patients' perception of their participation in the rehabilitation planning and professionals' view of their strategies to encourage it. Occupational Therapy International, 8(3), 151-167.
Skidmore, Elizabeth R., Whyte, Ellen M., Holm, Margo B., Becker, James T., Butters, Meryl A., Dew, Mary Amanda et al. (2010). Cognitive and affective predictors of rehabilitation participation after stroke. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 91(2), 203-207. Retrieved May 3, 2011 from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov.ezproxy1.lib.asu.edu/pmc/articles/PMC2824912/pdf/nihms153354.pdf
Consumers and the Co-Creation of Meaning in Online Settings: Practices and Implications for Online Business
To say that the Internet has changed the way in which business is conducted would be to grossly understate the transformation that has taken place in the last decade or so due to the spread of Internet technologies and the growth in online capabilities for both businesses and consumers. Price comparisons, shopping with companies around the world from the comfort of one's own home, and a host of other consumer activities that greatly increase consumer power and thus business competitiveness in almost any industry. On the business side of the equation, Internet capabilities enable faster communication between warehouses/suppliers and factories/retailers, meaning business processes that are leaner and more efficient are now possible, quality and consistency across networks are more controllable, and a variety of other processes can be enhanced in many ways. These new…
Hatch, M. & Shcultz, M. (2010). Toward a theory of brand co-creation with implications for brand governance. Journal of Brand Management 17: 590-604.
Katz, J. & Sugiyama, S. (2005). Mobile Phones as Fashion Statements: The Co-creation of Mobile Communication's Public Meaning. Mobile Communications 31(1): 63-81.
Maglio, P. & Spohrer, J. (2008). Fundamentals of service science. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science 36(1): 18-20.
Payne, A., Storbacka, K. & Forw, P. (2008). Managing the co-creation of value. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science 36(1): 83-96.
S. market. Instead of purchasing millions of dollars in research, Japanese manufacturers will often send their engineering and development teams to a foreign nation to study not just market conditions, but also the nuances of a given customer base as well (Aldridge, 1990). This will allow for greater insights into unmet needs, including the need to see the foreign manufacturers as being a contributor, not detractor, to national welfare. Toyota and Honda did this exceptionally well, as does Panasonic and Samsung with Google Android smartphones today.
2. Do you feel that there is really any difference, in a consumer's mind, between a Toyota Camry manufactured in the United States and an identical Camry that was manufactured in Japan but sold in the United States?
The indirect answer is that it depends on the individual consumer and their perceptual biases. From those consumers with a high level of ethnocentric mindsets, then…
Aldridge, D.N. (1990). Marketing strategy: The Japanese Approach. Marketing and Research Today, 18(4), 239.
Genestre, a., Herbig, P., & Shao, a.T. (1995). What does marketing really mean to the Japanese? Marketing Intelligence & Planning, 13(9), 16.
Halfhill, D.S. (1980). Multinational marketing strategy: Implications of attitudes toward country of origin. Management International Review, 20(4), 26.
Digital Perceptions is a four-year-old company that manufactures digital cameras that are sold to retailers at a wholesale price of $150 each. It employs 100 workers that work 20 days per month and produces 6,000 units of output. The firm's total expenses per month exceed the total revenue. Retained Earnings has declined $100,000 as loses have been apparent every month for the last six months. Fair market value of the total assets is $350,000. Total long-term liabilities are $250,000. Last year's Annual Income Statement showed a profit of $50. ecause of the company not being able to pay the monthly bills, the credit rating has taken a decline in the rate. The major competitors are Panasonic, Sony, Nikon, Canon, Kodak, and Fuji.
Environmental risk factors include a recession, rising interest rates, deterioration of the financial markets, rapid declines in product prices, and financial difficulty of customers (Annual Report 2010, 2010).…
Annual Report 2010. (2010, Mar 31). Retrieved from Panasonic Corporation: http://panasonic.net/ir/annual/2010/pdf/panasonic_ar2010_e.pdf
Cancelled Debt. (n.d.). Retrieved from IRS: http://www.irs.gov/publications/p4681/ch01.htm
Turnaround Step 2: How Do You Know That Your Business is in Trouble? (n.d.). Retrieved from Critical Care: http://www.criticalc4c.com/step2_bustrouble.html
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Marketing Managers Need to Understand Consumer Behavior
The essence of effective marketing is defining a unique, highly defensible market position for a given product or service, supporting it with a unique value proposition that further motivates customers to buy. Marketing managers who excel in their professions have the ability to accurately interpret the consumer decision making process and align their strategies to encourage the trial and eventual purchase of their products (Foxall, 1993). Having a solid understanding of the consumer decision making process, and within that framework, understanding how behaviors are a powerful catalyst of purchasing, are critical to the success of any marketing strategy (au, Samiee, 1981).
The consumer decision making process varies by the type of product, service, level of trust a consumer has in a given brand, and the extent of substitutes that exist for a given product. All of these factors taken together create the…
Foxall, G.R. 1993, "Consumer behaviour as an evolutionary process," European Journal of Marketing, vol. 27, no. 8, pp. 46-46.
Markin, R.J. 1979, "The Role of Rationalization in Consumer Decision Processes: A Revisionist Approach to Consumer Behavior," Academy of Marketing Science.Journal, vol. 7, no. 4, pp. 316-316.
Rau, P. & Samiee, S. 1981, "Models of Consumer Behavior: The State of the Art," Academy of Marketing Science.Journal, vol. 9, no. 3, pp. 300-300.
Suranyi-Unger, T. 1981, "Consumer Behavior and Consumer Well-Being: An Economist's Digest," Journal of Consumer Research, vol. 8, no. 2, pp. 132-132.
online consumer reviews from the consumer's perspective.
Online consumer reviews are often the first way that a consumer will learn about a new product or service. The pros of online consumer reviews include receiving potentially unbiased information about a product or service. The cons of online consumer reviews include their increasing lack of credibility as more companies are resorting to tactics like paying bloggers for positive product reviews, paying writers to write positive Amazon reviews, and the inability to genuinely decipher the difference between a trustworthy and untrustworthy review. Paid or compensated reviewers are becoming increasingly savvy in their presentation of material. By inserting a few objective or even critical comments amid a sea of positive information about the brand or specific product, the paid reviewer engenders trust and therefore creates an illusion of credibility. The ill informed consumer might be prone to trusting the paid reviewer because of the…
Pornography has received considerable attention in the modern society largely because of the rapid technological advancements that have made it easy for people to access pornographic material. The increased proliferation of pornography is today’s society has also been fueled by the changing opinions on sex. While pornography is a practice that dates back to the beginning of time, it has obtained significant attention and increased proliferation in the 21st Century. The changes in people’s opinions on sex and increased consumption of pornographic materials have made pornography to become a multibillion dollar industry. As this industry continues to grow due to increased demand, it is now considered as one of the facets of the entertainment industry.
Despite the increased growth of pornography as an entertainment industry, it has remained controversial because of the divergent views. The divergence of views on pornography across the society is largely linked to its benefits and/or…
She does most of her general shopping at Wal-Mart and Target, and much of her food shopping at wholesale outlets like Sam's Club. Generally, she avoids national brand, despite protests from her children who would prefer Coca Cola and Pepsi to C Cola and any "store brands." Cheryl shops mainly by value and will gladly substitute national brands for store brands or off-brands like C Cola whenever they are available at competitive sales prices to accommodate her children.
Consumer Profile #2:
Harry Valone is a self-made millionaire who runs a small chain of Arizona laundry mats which he purchased one at a time after running a single facility that he originally funded with a bank loan and financial assistance from his parents. Like other self-made financial successes, Harry emphasizes careful budgeting in every aspect of his business and personal affairs, religiously avoiding any unnecessary or unjustified expenses, such as paying…
Howard, M. (2005) We Know What You Want: How They Change Your Mind. New York: Disinformation Co. Ltd.
Stanley, T.J., Danko, W.D. (1996) the Millionaire Next Door: The Surprising Secrets of America's Wealthy. New York: Pocket Books.
Pubs on account of operating costs, food prices, and the increase in minimum wages have therefore changed to the tenanted model. Some regulations have also curbed customer choice like ban on smoking in public places, and other interventions on customer freedom have resulted in the closure of two thousand pubs. Changing customer habits have resulted in the decline of the UK restaurant by three percent as a result of poor consumer spending. (Deoitte, 2011)
In England these different entities are representative of the fact that consumers have grown in variety and as well have begun to explore all that the hospitality industry has to offer. Apart from the changes in the eating habits of the natives, the demands from the tourists, and the peculiar tourist out for gastronomic experience has given birth to a new industry -- Gastronomic tour. There are many types of consumers of hospitality including the current…
Bowers, Simon. 2011. Mayfair Hotel: RBS Sells Top Mayfair Hotel to Indian
Billionaire. The Guardian, p. 6.
Deoitte. 2011. Issues and Trends. [Online] Available at: