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Also reception of criticism and feedback is necessary since it contains information that can assist people to achieve the necessary goal.
What is further important is that, by giving subordinates feedback will make them feel that they are part of the work process; consequently they fight back to complete the job systematically (Boddy, 2008).
In my view this is the mainly sensible theory but its disadvantage is that every so often bosses tend to set too hard goals which are unclear or out of employees' strength and capabilities.
The theory is vital of course, but extra hands-on approach is essential to encourage employees in the work procedure. For example, programs like Forrest hills done in the Lancaster University can be helpful for organizations to apply if they want to motivate their employees to the most (Boddy, 2008).
How might your own culture's version of ethical behavior clash with the ethical…… [Read More]
Activity 1 - Discuss the two societal cultures that you will use to develop your GLOBE Paper. Why these two? I will discuss the Germanic and Latin European Cultures. Each of these divergent cultural paradigms has had a strong effect upon globalism in the 21st century based on hundreds of years of influence in Europe and the New World as far back as the 1600s, and perhaps before. Both cultures are rich in literature and historical development, and both language groups have had a seminal influence on culture. My husband is in the Army and we now live in Europe, I need to make myself aware of these cultural attributes so that I can be aware of the leadership styles and cultures.
Activity 2 -- The Germanic culture really arose out of the merge between the Ancient omans and the Germanic peoples during the 3-5th centuries AD. This…… [Read More]
Concealment of vulnerability 3.8-3.2
Willingness to expose vulnerability 2.2-1.8
Based on these figures, the analyst can compare the scores and see differences between these two persons on each dimension, noting how these differences might either facilitate or limit communication and the counseling process. Some of the dimensions are more important for that professional interaction than others, and these can be noted in particular.
Time orientation involves whether the individual looks more to past or future and how that might affect his or her attitudes and behaviors. The Client in this case ha a stronger time orientation than does the Social Worker, which may indicate a greater concern with time on the part of the Client, perhaps making her less patient with the time a successful process may take. The Social Worker is more keyed to achieving the goal in a worthwhile manner. It is this issue of…… [Read More]
Cultural Analysis: Brazil & New Zealand
Comparative Cultural Analysis
Brazil & New Zealand
In today's robust business world, the boundaries between the countries are showing contractions at an exponential pace. Having a multinational business model is considered as a usual addition to the existing business practice. However, where the world has turned into a global village, cultural forces have not lost their influential power. As a matter of fact, it is important for business enterprises that the impact of the cultural norms and values of the countries where they are currently operating and are planning to operate, should be considered before actually initiating the business expansion. For the purpose of business restructuring, ABC & Co. which is a leading EP solutions provider in New Zealand, has decided to expand its business to Brazil. However, before actually commencing the expansion process, a preliminary observation of Brazilian culture (in terms of business…… [Read More]
cross-cultural analysis of the epublic of Colombia and the epublic of Cuba reveals a group of similarities between the cultures, as a result of the postcolonial status of both nations. Both nations are plagued with political and social strife that has altered the landscape of the culture, to a large degree resulting in a fragmented society. The rich are very rich and the poor are very poor, not unlike many Latin American nations yet, between these two we find the most similarities in nationalism in addition to the pervasive effects of a relatively recent independence from Spanish rule.
One frequently cited difference between the Cuban population and that of Colombia is the existence of indigenous populations in Colombia. While Colombia is large enough to have offered refuges for indigenous people from the diseases and oppression of the colonizers Cuba offered no refuge and was quickly wiped clean of indigenous survivors…… [Read More]
Zimbabwe: A Cultural Analysis
The work of Hall (1982) relates how primary message systems in a culture serve to communicate the values and norms of that culture and are the instructions that everyone in that culture receives on what is considered within that culture to be acceptable in terms of dress and behavior. Also included in the primary message systems of a culture are the traditional survival methods and the use of time and how, when playing, it is acceptable to play and relax and the use of thing or objects in the culture is another identified primary message system within a culture which includes the use of money, weapons, transportation, homes and the like. Included as well in the culture of Zimbabwe, as in any other culture are rituals, networks, symbolism, values, stories, heroes, and heroines. There is also a differentiation of culture by the assignation of control, which…… [Read More]
It is important to reconcile the seemingly opposing extremes. It is a best practice to satisfy customer needs by learning from the diversity of adopting, adapting, and combining the best of what already works (Trompenaars and Woolliams, 2004).
In regards to the soft drink market in Italy, the best approach would be to utilize adaptation. It appears that standardization would not work as sales in this sector for the same ole product are down. Introducing a healthy drink aimed at the aging population through an adaptation scheme would seem to be the best approach.
Italy has a bicameral political system that is composed of a Senate and a Chamber of Deputies. Both of these are directly elected and have equal authority. The Speakers of the Senate and Chamber are second and third in command to the President of the epublic. The government consists of the President of the Council of…… [Read More]
his paper helped in identifying the differences and similarities between the two nations and their cultures. he paper also presented the fact that theories and studies hold true for all the business environments.
Gratchev, M., Rogovsky, N., & Rakitski, B. (2007). Leadership and culture in Russia: he case of transitional economy. Culture and Leadership across the World: he GLOBE Book of In-Depth Studies, 25, 803-831.
his paper gives a detailed analysis on the Russian economy and how it has progressed from the decline by the break of Soviet block and failure of the super power. he paper identifies Russia as a changing economy which is moving towards development at a fast pace. he paper also give brief details about the statistical data of the country. he paper explains that although economic crisis and decline has greatly affected the country but there is full potential in the country to grow and…… [Read More]
Men are made, not born" encapsulates the principle that gender is socially constructed. Therefore, women are also made and not born. Gendered rituals and rites of passage inculcate the gender roles and norms in society. For example, Herdt's analysis of the gendered initiation rites in Papua New Guinea shows how superstition guides belief about gender. Moreover, a cross-cultural analysis reveals the arbitrariness of gender roles and norms. Gender is completely proscribed, as judgments are placed on children from the time they exist the womb until the moment they die. In "The Cultural Construction of Gender," the author shows how various rituals and rites of passage serve to define gender roles, norms, and personal identity, but that "the transition to womanhood is often part of a more subtle and continuous process of enculturation and socialization," (p. 160). Both men and women are "made, not born," but male control of rituals and…… [Read More]
business culture and expansion trends that exist for American companies within New Zealand. The paper focuses on answering the following questions: 1. What are the major elements and dimensions of culture in this region? 2. How are these elements and dimensions integrated by local conducting business in the nation? 3. How do both of the above items compare with U.S. culture and business? 4. What are the implications for U.S. businesses that wish to conduct business in that region? The paper also tackles the following aspects: Dimensions of Culture, Communication. Different Meaning of Words across Languages, Verbal, Nonverbal, High Context vs. Low Context and eligion -- Christianity, Judaism, Islam, Hinduism, Buddhism, Confucianism, Shinto and Ethics; Definitions, The Issue of Corruption, Corporate Social esponsibility, Values and Attitudes, Variances in Attitudes across Cultures, Concept of Time, Dealing with Change, The ole of Gender, Social Status, Business Manners and Customs across National Cultures,…… [Read More]
Global Business Cultural Analysis
Synopsis of Nigerian government
Nigerian monarchy to presidential system
The evolution of Nigeria from British control to a civilian democratic government
Nigerian major commodities
The major elements and dimensions of culture in Nigeria
Model of culture
Universalism or Particularize
How is the integration of elements and dimensions that Nigerians doing business in the country?
The effects of governments on the prospects for its business around the world
How the elements and dimensions compared with the United States, culture, and business?
The role of women in the workplace
Business visitors must be dressed in an elegant and tie (for men!)
Cross-cultural business transactions between the United States and Nigeria
Thurstan Shaw and Steve Daniels, who are the founder for archaeological research proved in their research that Nigeria has been developed since 9,000…… [Read More]
Cultural Distance: How Is it Measured, And How it Impact on Global Marketing Operations
The persistence of cultural distances is relevant for the global multinational marketing operations exposed to multiple cultures in their everyday activities. This indicates that marketing across border introduces complexities because it forces global marketers to tailor their approaches and practices to each cultural context they carry out their business activities. As a result, this paper will discuss concepts applicable to different aspects of cross-border operations. The primary focus of the paper is on multinational business corporations (Baumann, 2007).
This study shows how Hofstede's model is still the most relevant piece of reference for a successive cross-cultural analysis despite it being a widely criticized. The paper compares and contrasts Hofstede's famous concepts with Turner and Schwartz, Trompenaars and Hampden's valued inventory. It will attempt to provide empirical evidence of how cultural diversity influences the global markets by…… [Read More]
business culture and expansion trends that exist for American companies in India. The paper focuses on answering the following questions: 1. What are the major elements and dimensions of culture in this region? 2. How are these elements and dimensions integrated by local conducting business in the nation? 3. How do both of the above items compare with U.S. culture and business? 4. What are the implications for U.S. businesses that wish to conduct business in that region? The paper also tackles the following aspects: Dimensions of Culture, Communication. Different Meaning of Words across Languages, Verbal, Nonverbal, High Context vs. Low Context and eligion -- Christianity, Judaism, Islam, Hinduism, Buddhism, Confucianism, Shinto and Ethics; Definitions, The Issue of Corruption, Corporate Social esponsibility, Values and Attitudes, Variances in Attitudes across Cultures, Concept of Time, Dealing with Change, The ole of Gender, Social Status, Business Manners and Customs across National Cultures, Social…… [Read More]
Cultural Analysis of Japan for Expansion of Postmates
Before any business into a new market, it is essential the marketplace itself is considered. Postmates is looking to expand. This organisation is an on demand delivery service established within many areas of the United States, making more than 100 deliveries a month utilising the model of crowdsourcing most commonly associated with the. The mission of the organisation is to be "the on demand delivery infrastructure for every major city in the world" (Postmates, 2016). With successful establishment within the United States, the company is likely to seek out new markets where there will be sufficient demand for the service, as well as a sufficient supply of individuals willing to work as post mate "partners." One potentially valuable market is Japan;
Background to Japan
Japan is a developed market, which may benefit Postmates with its high level of concentration in metropolitan areas…… [Read More]
Cultural Schemata Theory:
Together with formal schemata and linguistic schemata, cultural schemata are some of the main types of schema theory, which is a hypothesis on how knowledge is gained and processed. Actually, schema is a technical word used by cognitive supporters to explain how people arrange, process, and store information in their brain. Notably, schemata focus on how people arrange information to long-term memory in relation to experiences, attitudes, values, strategies, skills, and conceptual understanding. The schema theory is founded on the belief that every act of an individual's understanding includes his/her knowledge of the world. The received knowledge is in turn organized into units that contain stores information.
Understanding Cultural Schemata Theory:
Cultural schemata is also known as abstract, story, or linguistic schema and is developed on the basis of people's basic experiences ("Schemata Theory in Learning," n.d.). Cultural schemata theory is described as the pre-existing knowledge about…… [Read More]
Being a counselor can sometimes be a really tough job. Counseling can only be effective and beneficial when the counselor places himself or herself in the shoes of his or her client. If he or she is unable to do so, he or she will never become an effective counselor. Placing oneself in the circumstances of someone else is not easy, let alone placing oneself in the shoes of a person who is of a different race, religion or culture. That is the real test of a counselor. In this paper I shall discuss what is required to understand the cross-cultural relationships in counseling to help the client get over their problem easily. All the dimensions pertaining to counseling (of a client of a different background that the counselor) will discussed with the case scenario.
When clients and counselors have different cultural (or ethnic or racial)…… [Read More]
The event is more a series of events. I went on vacation with some friends to Miami, and while not everything I experienced on that trip would count as a cultural experience, there is little question that there were some very different experiences. There was the visit to the Haitian restaurant, for example, but the event that stands out the most was my visit to Calle Ocho, the old Cuban neighborhood. As Korean student I find it challenging enough to deal with mainstream American culture, but Hispanic culture is completely different again, so this experience provided me with an interesting counterpoint to my usual experiences in the United States.
In this neighborhood, if people can speak English they do not admit it. There are coffee windows where strong, sugary shots of Cuban coffee and cafe con leche are dispensed to passers-by in a hurry. There are old…… [Read More]
In today's increasingly culturally diverse world, cultural competence, or what has become known as "cultural intelligence (CQ)" has received increasing research attention. Several authors, with various purposes and audiences, have developed assessment instruments to help individuals and groups understand their level of cultural intelligence. Included among these is the instrument developed by Earley and Mosakowski (2004), under the title "Diagnosing Your Cultural Intelligence."
Earley and Mosakowski's instrument addresses three areas of CQ: The cognitive, the physical, and the emotional/motivational. The cognitive component can be regarded as the "head" of cultural competence. On a cognitive level, this areas focuses on an individual's understanding of differences between cultures. This involves asking questions and investigations to identify any differences that might exist among cultures. Being aware of these on a cognitive level can greatly enhance a person's ability to understand and interact with foreign cultures.
The physical component focuses on a…… [Read More]
Cultural Blending That Occurred hen the British Colonized India
Throughout the course of history, the British were known as the world's conquerors. This is because they established a series of colonies around the globe that supported the nation and its self-interest. During their occupation of India, there was focus on blending different cultures to create a unique society. (Bingham)
This transformed India from being a backward region to one that was able to improve its standard of living and make steps towards joining the modern world. The result is that a new social identify was developed. To fully understand the way that this occurred requires examining cultural blending, how it shaped their identity, if it was permanent, what caused it to change and if it was beneficial. These different factors will illustrate the way this occurred and the impact it had on India's development. (Bingham)
The British first arrived…… [Read More]
Cultural Concerns Influences
This paper will examine and evaluate the cultural influences and apprehensions of today's modern societies with mixed cultures and also the impact on the justices system. This paper will deal with the way the cultural concerns influence administration of security and justice. The paper is going to reveal some contemporary techniques which the police and security forces utilize in communities of mixed cultures. The paper will additionally deal with how these factors and influences connect with and affect nondiscrimination practices inside the justice system. Lastly, the paper will address Mr. obert Peel's nine concepts and just how they can fit into today's public law enforcement agencies.
The military occupation of several nations in the centre East and Europe has placed police practices into question. The neighborhood police forces happen to be trained through the military where the rules will vary. The individual within modern societies…… [Read More]
The Dallas Museum of Art has several temporary exhibitions on display now. One is called "Youth and Beauty: Art of the American Twenties." Another related but separate exhibition is called "Texas in the Twenties: Prints, Drawings, and Photographs from Lone Star Collections." Because both special exhibitions focus on a specific point in time in American and Texan history, it was helpful to view both together on the same day. I went on opening day of both exhibitions, which was on Sunday March 4, 2012. There was a small line to get in, but the space inside the museum was arranged so that it did not feel crowded. The museum published a brochure that explained each exhibition, why it was on display at that time at the museum, and what the exhibition meant in the context of modern American art.
The "Youth and Beauty: Art of the American Twenties"…… [Read More]
" Taking into consideration these three stages, I would position myself in the second stage - that of cultural identity search. I am aware of my cultural background and I always have been, but the fact that I live in the multicultural American society made it hard for me to fully embrace my cultural heritage. I am at a stage in my life when I feel the need to understand my culture in order to better understand who I am. The fact that I am aware of my cultural appurtenance does not mean that I completely embrace my cultural identity. Learning about my cultural heritage is the path towards better understanding who I am and identifying myself with the cultural group that I belong to.
Culture of Pakistan, available at http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Culture_of_Pakistan;
Sharmeen, Hassan, the Pakistani identity crisis, available at http://www.pakistanlink.com/Letters/2004/oct04/08/04.html;
Chapter 4, Cultural Patterns andCcommunication: Foundations.
Chapter 6, Cultural…… [Read More]
(Cha-Jua, 2001, at (http://www.wpunj.edu/newpol/issue31/chajua31.htm)
Another aspect of representation, however, concerns collective memory and the representation of a shared past. Through the context for dialogue they create, social movements facilitate the interweaving of individual stories and biographies into a collective, unified frame, a collective narrative. Part and parcel of the process of collective identity or will formation is the linking of diverse experiences into a unity, past as well as present. Social movements are central to this process, not only at the individual level, but also at the organizational or meso level of social interaction. Institutions like the black church and cultural artifacts like blues music may have embodied and passed on collective memories from generation to generation, but it was through social movements that even these diverse collective memories attained a more unified focus, linking individuals and collectives into a unified subject, with a common future as well as a…… [Read More]
While in high school, she worked as a waitress at a local diner. Most of the population was black, therefore there was little contact with white customers or employees. Margaret feels that she was socially isolated until the 1950s. She was not exposed to white culture; it was foreign to her. She was only exposed to black culture of the time. They were not allowed in certain stores, restaurants, or other places of business. She remembers "white only" restrooms and "black only" fountains. This cultural isolation was oppressive.
Margaret feels that the oppressive attitudes and discrimination that she experienced as a child determined much of how her life proceeded in adulthood. The idea that she could only go so far was ingrained as a child. She never really broke free of this feeling. In her 40s, she moved to upstate New York. Here, she found that many women had succeeded…… [Read More]
But Rushdie's relationship with English as a writer, even as a critic of the former British Empire, is far more complex. In Salman Rushdie's text "English is an Indian literary language," Rushdie states that the output of literature in English by Indian writers is more interesting and vital than those produced in India's native languages. Through creativity and dialogue with the oppressor, a great literature has been generated. India's original languages were vast in number but parochial. Ironically, English has proved to be a unifying force for Indians, even if one of the unifying ideologies for Indian writers in English is their attempt to create a new, national literature that is distinct from the British.
This phenomenon is not new, of course. Great Irish writers also used the English language that was imposed upon them to create great works of literature. Even if the ideology that resulted in the imposition…… [Read More]
Cultural school focuses on the culture of the individual entities that form the organization. Culture, it asserts, drives the organization's judgment and operational strategy resulting in differences such as between a Japanese and American organization.
In contradistinction to the power school that places the loci on the individual as well as the entrepreneurial school that does likewise (this time on the leader), the cultural school insists that individuals are a homogenized whole, their decision, beliefs, judgments, and actions formed by their specific culture. In this way, therefore, to understand an organization necessitates understanding its culture. Organization culture -- the premise of the cultural school -- is, oftentimes, understood as collective cognition since a deeply rooted culture produces closely interwoven interpretations and activities.
Content and Process.
Culture is ineradicably part of the individual's makeup. His or her perspective on the world is shaped by this culture, and since organizations are a…… [Read More]
4). This idea has since been abandoned. The mythology of the Amazons, a matriarchy of warrior women, has been discounted as no more than a myth, one deriving from the deep-seated fear on the part of males that they might lose their power and authority. In matrilineal societies, men tend still to monopolize the rights of power. Some Chinese anthropologists believe the stories of true matriarchal societies in some regions of China in the past, but this is uncertain. A matriarchy would be presumed to be less warlike and more nurturing as a social order and would not subordinate men in the way men have done to women in the patriarchal society.
The formulation and operation of power in the largely patriarchal social order in the world today divides along other line than gender, with political action influenced most by ideology, religion, divisions of power, and other aspects of group…… [Read More]
Mental Health Drugs as Panacea
A culture is made up of people who have developed the same language (or at least dialect of a larger language), art forms, religion, and other means of distinguishing one group from another. It can be said that all groups have a certain culture that they have established by which they are constrained. For example, a company develops a culture that is specific to it, and that culture governs everyone who works at, or is affiliated with, that company. In ethnic terms, a culture will define the ways in which one ethnic grouping is different from another. Although certain groupings may have similar languages, religions and ways of doing things, they will also have differences which distinguish them. In the same way that different species of birds are characterized by slight differences in appearance or location, people are grouped by the culture from…… [Read More]
Each customer's predictive score informs actions to be taken with that customer. usiness intelligence just doesn't get more actionable than that." (Siegel, 2009)
Predictive analytics involves: (1) a focus on actions; (2) rapid deployment; and (3) engagement of business and IT. (Siegel, 2009) Decision management is characterized by: (1) a focus on decisions; (2) the combination of business rules with analytics; and (3) putting predictive analytics to work. (Siegel, 2009) Irwin Speizer writes that there is a "new generation of workforce-planning tools" that offer great promise through the use of "sophisticated software and data-rich predictive-modeling techniques..." (Speizer, 2006) It is stated that the study of "internal staffing history and skill sets, external and internal business trends, demographic data and other variables" that the HR leader can "predict a company's talent-related needs years into the future." (Speizer, 2006)
V. Summary & Conclusion
Starbucks did manage to negotiate their way successfully through…… [Read More]
Cultural Audit of St. Cloud State University: HR Analysis and Critique
To address the deficits highlighted the cultural audit, St. Cloud University has resolved to address issues of demographic isolation, namely the sense of students that they do not have a 'connection' to the university, and the persistent problems regarding minority tensions and institutional discrimination. Perhaps the most telling survey comment came from a student, criticizing the survey structure: "I think that this survey was bogus. I can't believe you wasted $50,000 on this thing. e already know that SCSU is a hub of institutional racism" as noted in the Qualitative Analysis Section of the report. Another telling detail was that some faculty, administration and staff felt there was a notable lack of African-American and Jewish faculty members on campus, and that some felt the presence of a 'glass ceiling" regarding promotions of women. Also, disability services were perceived as…… [Read More]
This feeling of anger and resentment is effectively illustrated through the conflict between Abner and the Negro, De Spain's helper.
In this conflict, Abner is seen resisting the Negro's attempt to stop him from trespassing De Spain's home. Evidently, the Negro's status in life is much better than Abner, who has to toil very hard in order for him and his family to survive everyday. This fact infuriates Abner, and his resentment against the Negro's condition in life is reflected in his hateful statement about his poverty and De Spain's seemingly unfair status as a wealthy man: "Pretty and white, ain't it?...That's sweat. Nigger sweat. Maybe it ain't white enough yet to suit him. Maybe he wants to mix some white sweat in it" (175). This statement is Abner's own way of protesting against his condition in life, a bitterness that reflects not only class conflict between the wealthy and…… [Read More]
But most important, Geert Hofstede will give you the 'edge of understanding' which translates to more successful results" (Geert Hofstede's Website, 2003).
If Steven Kafka conducted an analysis of the Czech market through the lens of cultural features, there is an increased likelihood for the results to indicate major discrepancies. This should not however disappoint him, as different does not implicitly mean worse.
A d) in its desire to adhere to the great economic powers of the globe, driven by its sense of innovation and its adaptability to the forces in the macro and micro environments, the Czech epublic has managed to remove most of its trade barriers. These measures were due mostly to its adherence to the European Union and other international trade organizations. "The Czech market has no trade barriers to food and agricultural product imports, except for the usual import duties and tariff rate quotas permitted under…… [Read More]
scu.edu).Andre goes on to say some critics see Hirsch's efforts to bring culture into the classroom are not so much "cultural literacy" but more like "cultural indoctrination." Not only is the Hirsch strategy and methodology seen as flawed, Andre and Velasquez continue, the "content" he prescribes is subject to criticism. For example, the question of "Whose form of knowledge, culture, vision, history and authority will prevail as the national culture?" should be asked, and Hirsch knows that is an issue. "Will they, like Hirsch, be white, middle-class males?" Andre wonders, and will they be elitist?
Hirsch meanwhile answers these accusations in his Core Knowledge Web site, saying that the contend must arise from "a broad consensus of diverse groups and interests." That consensus should include the parents, teachers, scientists, "professional curriculum organizations, and experts on America's multicultural traditions." The "central motivation behind" his core knowledge initiative is "to guarantee equal…… [Read More]
Since weddings are meant to bring families together the unity of the community as a whole is catered for and this can be advantageous. This culture will also ensure that the customs and traditions are retained and covered from erosion by other cultures, this is because the arrangements will ensure that only individuals with similar backgrounds are brought together and no new cultures are incorporated. To someone who does not admire the African culture this may not sound positive but I am sure to the owners of the culture this is a very big boost to them.
Now looking at the Australian cultural wedding very little seems strange but is totally different to the African ceremony. I feel that the Australian cultural wedding is more 'liberal' in nature as compared to the African wedding. This is because the weddings are based on love and agreement between two individuals. This gives…… [Read More]
Unlike the culture of my interviewee, African-American isn't really broken into subgroups. I was born and raised in Buffalo, New York, which is very close to the Canadian Border and the "U.S. Peace Bridge." I grew up speaking English, and it is the only language I speak.
My religion is not typical of most African-Americans, who tend to be Baptist, Methodist, or Lutheran. I was raised as a Catholic and still practice that religion today. I'm not the only African-American I know who is Catholic, but it's not common in my subculture.
Like my interviewee, I think the media is generally doing a good job of representing African-Americans in the media. However, I still see instances when African-Americans seem to be portrayed as being ruthless and slovenly, which in my opinion makes all African-Americans appear to be the same way (association assimilation).
I believe that all cultures have something that…… [Read More]
Cultural Comparisons and Management Functions
This paper examines cultural comparisons and discusses how an American manager carries out management functions in the process of supervising German employees. With respect to individualism vs. collectivism, both Germany and the U.S. score high in individualism, that is, the degree to which individuals further their own interests. However, according to Hofstede's model of cultural dimensions, Germany's score of 67 ranks far enough below the U.S. score of 91 that the manager should expect differences in their approaches to working together in teams for instance. German employees would have only a moderate amount of group cohesion, with only a moderate amount of interpersonal connection and sharing of responsibility.
For the American manager, the two country's respective scores indicate that the manager should expect his or her German employees to be less individualistic than their manager. The manager should place a relatively high value on people's…… [Read More]
Cultural in the United States
Compare and contrast what Morris Berman, Frank Capra, and David Fincher present as the flaws in our culture's pursuit of material self-interest.
Morris Berman, Frank Capra, and David Fincher present the society in postmodern consumer where the masculine identity is lost: the gray-collar male personnel and the satisfaction socially created by the society focused in materialism. Technology is the baseline for Berman's argument. The argument goes well-known to Neil Postman, and McLuhan Marshal it is not normal, not only does it change the way we connect with the rest of the world, but it also gets our brains wired (Berman 21). A normal brain of a person who has been print raised differs with a big margin from that of a person who, most of his time is corrupted by the internet.
However, the significance of the internet is making a reduction to our understanding…… [Read More]
In addition, this door panel, composed of cedar wood, may represent a type of social event which was rather prominent during the Early Christian period, circa 430 C.E. Since one can make out some kind of brick background behind the three figures, the panel might not have been designed to teach or provide instruction on a spiritual event like the crucifixion of Jesus but may be images "from an early passion play, possibly one performed outside the city walls" of Rome. This type of play was part of what is known as Roman mime theater which "specialized in short scenes of gory violence, irony, satire and sarcasm" for the delight of audiences which still clung to and appreciated some of the worst social aspects of the Roman Empire, a good example being the killing of Christians in the coliseum (Storage, "The Door Panels of Santa Sabine," Internet).
Around the year…… [Read More]
In a large measure, these concepts reflect the problems that have accompanied increased diversity as both a consequence and a cause of a great many social problems" (1999, p. 1). In this regard, Naylor defines culture as being "the learned way (or ways) of belief, behavior, and the products of these (both physically and socially) that is shared (at least to some degree) within human groups and serves to distinguish that culture group from another learning different beliefs and behaviors" (1999, p. 2). It is important to note as well that "cultural diversity is not restricted to particular nationalities; it includes issues of gender and individuals with disabilities" (Russell & McLean, 1999). Because there are some fundamental differences between cultural beliefs and behaviors, it is not surprising that cross-cultural differences can have a profound effect on organizational performance, and these issues are discussed further below.
Effect of Cultural Diversity on…… [Read More]
"Culture is more often a source of conflict than of synergy. Cultural differences are a nuisance at best and often a disaster." - Dr. Geert Hofstede
After working for six years as a clinical psychologist at BM, both collecting and analyzing data from over 100,000 individuals from forty different counties, Hofstede became interested in the sociology of communication between people of different cultures. An expert, Hofstede's influential wisdom on the interactions between national cultures and organization cultures begot a model identifying five dimensions to differentiate cultures; these dimensions, particularly as they relate to strategy, team communications, influence tactics, and conflict management, are integral in analyzing the cultural communications of such vastly different states as the United Arab Emirates, Mexico, and Spain.
n his work, Gert Hofstede demonstrated that there are national and regional cultural groupings that affect the different dynamics of behavior in organizations, both corporate and civic.…… [Read More]
Cultural Perceptions of Time in frica
Time is a foundational factor in every culture. The perception of time is different for most cultures and the determining factor to those differences is often based on the means of production. "Most cultures have some concept of time, although the way they deal with time may differ fundamentally." (Kokole 1994, 35) Tracing the perception of the concept of time in frica can be seen as tracing the European racial prejudices of the intellect of the indigenous populations in the colonized regions of frica. Much of the information regarding the development of time concepts in frican culture is colonial and based on the European interlopers recorded ideas.
Some of those recorded ideas are those of missionaries and others are those of capitalist adventurers, with the intermittent mark of a very few true historians.
In Mali, as in many other parts of frica, there are…… [Read More]
The solutions are numerous and more diversified.
Knowledge is crucial for business success. There are two types of knowledge: explicit or tacit. The explicit type is easily codified, stored and transmitted to other individuals. As opposed to the former, the tacit one is embedded in people. The size of the tacit knowledge is proportional to the diversity of the workplace. Therefore, organizations face the increasing challenge today of finding ways to grasp into the pool of tacit knowledge they own in order to create competitive advantage. This is the type of knowledge to which competition doesn't have access because it's embedded in unique individuals belonging to a give organization.
Knowledge can be enhanced by the learning process. Its final objective is to be materialized into products and services. This final stage of the process refers to the innovation part. Innovations are the most important tool an organization has in hand…… [Read More]
Based on the competitive nature of the business environment, strict formalities had to be kept up in order not to go beyond the boundaries of good business ethics and practices.
The final dimension was created after the first initial four and later adopted by Holfstede into his dimensional structure of cultural organizations. This dimension is associated with the group being more associated with long or short-term orientation. Companies with more long-term associations have employees and group members who have been a part of the particular organization for an extended period of time. Typically, these types of organizations present a collected look to the future on behalf of all of the members. This is based on the idea that the members expect to still be a part of the group in any particular point in the future. Therefore, long-term strategies can become fruitful, with several group members working hard for a…… [Read More]
Cultural evaluation Japan describe identify ways arguments a presentation arguments changed result cultural differences
Rose Cohen. Out of the Shadow: A Russian Jewish Girlhood on the Lower East Side, with an Introduction by Thomas Dublin. (Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 1995). Pp. vii-313. Paper: $19.95. ISBN: 978-0-8014-8268-7.
Rose Cohen was born in Russia at the end of the 19th century and immigrated to the United States of America in the early part of the 20th century. The circumstances she encountered while transitioning from one "Old orld" culture to a "New orld" one primarily constitute the source material she uses in Out of the Shadow. There appears to be a great deal of difference between the daily life and cultures encountered by a young Jewish girl/woman in Russia and one in America. These differences more than likely pertain to both cultures as well as to simply daily life and expectations for…… [Read More]
As stated by the question to be answered in this brief report, there are many psychologists that assert that there can be barriers and issues that exist when a person of one cultural background interviews someone from a different cultural background. The differences in culture can be things like religion, race, ethnicity, upbringing and nation of origin, just to name a few. Just one example would be Muslims that come to the United States and find a culture that is entirely different than what they are used to or acclimated to in their country of birth. While it is possible to achieve an interview-oriented connection with someone from a different cultural background, bridging the divide can be quite difficult even with the best of intentions.
One major barrier when it comes to bridging the cultural divide in an interview or discussion of any sort would be religion.…… [Read More]
IDV skyrockets in the U.S. which is supported by the concept of rugged individualism and taking care of one's own family (Minkov, Hofstede, 2011). It's nearly the opposite in Japan, where communities care for each other, showing IDV to be a measure of collectivism and collaboration over individuality (Hofstede, McCrae, 2004). For Mercedes, the brand in Japan would need to stress a wealthy homeowner or land owner using their new car to help their neighbors and those around them who are not necessarily relatives. In the U.S., the Mercedes brand has quickly become a symbol of individual achievement, status and financial accomplishment. As a result, the Mercedes brand means something completely different in Japan than it does in the U.S. On the Long-Term Orientation (LTO) and Uncertainty Avoidance (UAI) areas of the model, Japan far outpaces the U.S. For Mercedes and Nike, the safety and security of their brand need…… [Read More]
Art of the First Cities: The Third Millennium B.C. from the Mediterranean to the Indus
The Art of the First Cities exhibition is the new exhibition that aims to pull together and explore the emergence of the world's first city-states as well as empires during the third millennium B.C. In Syria and Mesopotamia by means of art. Being held at Iris and B. Gerald Cantor Exhibition Hall. The presentations at the exhibition have been further enhanced and made a possible success by means of connecting all these evolutions through artistic and cultural link that stretches from the eastern Aegean to the Indus valley and then to Central Asia.
This exhibition for the first time has brought together the works of art in the form of illustration and splendor of the most well-known and prominent locations of the ancient world. This includes the unique finds of the palace and…… [Read More]
A woman can be neither a political leader nor a judge; she must only appear in public modestly dressed, and her natural and sacred task is to keep the household smoothly functioning and to raise and instruct her children to be good Muslims. Men, for their part, must shoulder the burden of providing for the family in material ways. Liberation for a woman does not mean being like a male, or taking up male tasks, but rather being herself and fulfilling the destiny Allah created for her. (Waines, 1995, P. 255)
Feminine education is therefore one of the most extreme of all issues with regard to the influence of the Islamic culture on education, and as has been stated earlier there is significant diversity in the educational role inclusion of women. (Weil, 2004, p. 142) for many one of the biggest reasons for immigration is the offer of greater educational…… [Read More]
What Defines Us as a Global Population - our Differences or Similarities?
Analysis of "Imagine" by John Lennon
History is littered with wars and global divisions as a result of Man's search for self-definition. Man's differences appear to drive us apart but it is also conceivable that these differences bring us together. The song "Imagine" by John Lennon speaks of a 'utopia' where there are no differences that can potentially divide Man. However, the song only speaks of the differences that instigate violence and alienation. It is Man's varied cultures, religions, and beliefs that allow for our varied strengths, talents and advancements that bring us together and define us as a species.
In the song "Imagine," Lennon refers to a world devoid of heaven and hell, religion, countries, personal possessions, greed and hunger (Lennon, 1995, 1). He sings of a "brother hood of man... living for today" (Lennon,…… [Read More]
We now have the means to study the evolution of the human genome more closely than ever in the past. One of the key ideas presented by the authors is the idea of transmission fidelity. This means that culture can act as an inheritance system, promoting the transmission of certain genetic traits in a predictable fashion. This type of cultural inheritance results in distinct societies that not only share the same cultural traits, but also share similar genetic traits as well. In the past, geography and proximity to others was a factor in this process as well. Richerson, oyd, and Henrich (2010) concluded that cultural evolution and biological evolution occur simultaneously. They also suggested that cultural evolution had a significant influence on biological evolution.
This research supports the supposition that cultural evolution has a significant effect on biological evolution. This research focused on cultural evolution, as opposed to placing the…… [Read More]
2009). Othe studies had peviously concluded that English infants developed a pefeence fo tochaic wods, the dominant stess constuct of English wods, ove iambic stess pattens within the fist yea of life (Hohle et al. 2009). A compaison of Geman and Fecnh infants in fou distinct expeiments confims and even naows down the timefame in which this diffeentiation of pefeence occus, and also shows (though the Fench language expeiments) that the ability to distinguish the two opposing stess pattens does not necessaily esult in the development of pefeence, if the taget language itself lacks a dominant stess stuctue (Hohle et al. 2009). Even at six months, a specific language begins to mediate peception.
An ealie study suggests that the timing of stess and intonation pefeence development is even soone than six months. While citing evidence suggesting that language-independent phonetic contasts and melodic vaiations ae ecognized within the fist fou months…… [Read More]
Schwartz Values -- Conformity
Again, a paradigm shift between the old (traditional) ways and the new (seeing more Western influence
Tend to conform and obey clearer rules and structures; obeying parents, preserving the world as it is; no drastic changes.
Former ally, urban (non-conformist) versus rural (conformist); now non-conforming groups, fringe groups, opinions, blogs, political parties, social networking, clubs, etc. abound -- diversity is king; but there is a confrontation in this with advertising and media, which seeks to "sell" conformity in image.
Hodgetts, ., et.al. (2005). International Management: Culture, Strategy and Behavior. New York: McGraw Hill.
Hofstede, G. (2001). Culture's Consequences: Comparing Values, Behaviors, Institutions and Organizations Across Nations. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.
House, et.al., (1998). Cultural Influences on Leadership and Organizations. Project Globe. etrieved from: http://www.thunderbird.edu/wwwfiles/sites/globe/pdf/process.pdf
Killick, D. (2004). "Developing Awareness and Transforming Experience." Leeds
Metropolitan University. Cited in:
Knoppen, D. And Saris, W. (2009).…… [Read More]
The study reveals the ways culture and religion intersect with gender, and in fact the authors base their research on the theory of intersectionality. White privilege, gender, and any other issue related to social justice and personal consciousness is situational. Each individual will experience race, class, gender, power, religion, and ethnicity in different ways.
When reading the three articles, I first note their similarities. All three articles address white privilege. The problem with white privilege is that it is built into the social institutions upon which societies are built. White privilege can also be extended to refer to gender privilege and patriarchy, which is why Greenwood & Christian (2008) note that women from whatever culture or religion tend to gloss over their differences to bond together in sisterhood. Sisterhood might trump experiences such as racial prejudice and bias. However, when faced with the problem of the hijab, women who are…… [Read More]
Global Business Cultural Analysis: Brazil
Cultural backgrounds reflect the ways and standards of living, which is unique and different for each country. In fact, the business world is also profoundly influenced by the cultural differences of the counties. This focus of this research paper, in this regard, is to analyze the cultural perspectives of doing business in Brazil. Therefore, major elements and dimensions of Brazilian culture such as business structures, management styles, communication, ethics, values, and customs are discussed comprehensively.
Moreover, the discussion has also been made on how the local businessmen integrate these cultural dimensions and elements. Indeed, a detailed comparison United States business has been made with that of Brazilian culture and business elements by means of Hofstede's dimension tool (that is particularly used for measuring cultural differences). Finally, the paper concludes with the implications for the U.S. businesses that plans and desires to conduct business in Brazil.…… [Read More]
This behavio is not consideed dishonest; in fact, and Indian peson would be consideed ude if he o she did not ty to attempt to give a peson what has been equested.
Anothe vey impotant aspect of business cultue in India is the meeting etiquette. Meeting Etiquette is influenced by all sots of cultual elements descibed above, including social class. Fo example, in India, one must geet the eldest o moe senio fist, and when leaving a goup each peson must bid faewell individually. Though shaking hands is common, this is only in big cities, whee the natives ae accustomed to Westenes. Men and women, howeve, do not usually shake hands.
The next pat of the business cultue is knowing Indian names, and whee they oiginate. Accoding to one aticle, names ae based upon "eligion, social class, and egion of the county." Fo Hindus fo example, in the noth, people…… [Read More]
Crossvergence and cultural tendencies: A longitudinal test of the Hong Kong, Taiwan and United States
Crossvergence in a Period of Dynamic. Turbulent Cultural Change: Assessing The Kelley, MacNab, And Worthley Study
The nuances and subtle shifts in a culture as a result of globalization is a paradox for many enterprises to manage over time and also for shot nations to anticipate and plan for economic, political and social shifts over time. As globalization continues to accelerate the integration and assimilation of diverse cultures together, the long-standing cultural frameworks including Hofstede's Model of Cultural Dimensions increasingly appears unable to capture cultural nuances effectively, and often, due to its structure, generalize differences between cultures (Kelley, MacNab, Worthley, 2006). One of the most valuable lessons learned from the Kelley, MacNab, and Worthley study is that there are often significant nuances and differences in the five cultural dimensions within a region, which…… [Read More]
Global usiness Cultural Analysis: Singapore
The objective of this study is to answer the questions how the major elements and dimension of culture including religion, ethics, values, attitudes, manners, customs, social structures, and organizations integrated in Singapore by local conducting business. As well, this work will answer how these elements and dimensions compare with United States culture and business. Finally, this work will examine the implications for United States businesses that wish to conduct business in Singapore.
The work of Abeysinghe and Choy (2009) reports that the economy in Singapore has been undergone a transformation that has turned it into "…an Asian powerhouse…" due to the "far-sighted economic policies. The economy of Singapore is proof of the outcome of a market-driven economy taking place during fast development of high per capita income, and an environment free of corruption in which the workforce is both motivated and educated. The financial infrastructure…… [Read More]
There are also some words that are used, which do not translate into English such as privacy. This is because the cultural traditions of Russia do not understand such concepts, which makes translating certain ideas more challenging. (Richmond, 2009, pp. 109 -- 117)
Russian is a Slavic language that has close ties to all of the different European languages including: English and German. This means that many of the root words are similar to what is used in the common languages spoken throughout the West. However, as far as the alphabet is concerned, the language will utilize what is known as the Cyrillic alphabet. This is different from Western languages, as each of 32 different symbols will represent particular roots of certain words. When reading the language and learning Russian, the basic alphabet will help foreign business executives to navigate their way around. With the alphabet is pronounced…… [Read More]
SWOT of King Edward Hospital NHS Trust.
The trust had already developed benchmarking practices to evaluation of its hospital' systems, so that data germane to the new initiative was supported by an existing pilot, Hospital Emergency Care Collaborative (HECC), a target study of discharge procedure, and particularly informative to interpretation to the delineation of points where 'value' disappeared during the course of the patient journey. As a 'transfer initiative' modeled after Social Service program assessment, HECC was refocused as a Premier Project with risk reduction to finance and patients in mind. Incorporation of the SWOT and known assessment criterion from the HECC informs the PESTLE organizational analysis in Table 3.
PEST / PESTLE Analysis of King Edward Hospital NHS Trust, UK
Date of Analysis 10.11.2010 view
PESTLE Analysis factors
Implication and importance
eview of feasibility and implementation of the admission-to-discharge case at King Edward…… [Read More]
These, then, eventually die leaving the transfer of oxygen in your blood being absolutely limited and far below the point at which the flow of oxygen needs to be in a human body. The flow of blood and transfer of oxygen eventually slows down tremendously and can cause terrible pain as well as make the immune system to be vulnerable to a variety of different diseases. There are many medical procedures that can allow the individual to find a relief (Lozoff et al., 2003).
In our case study, we will mainly highlight how the mother's approach was tentative and skeptical and how the four points that have been mentioned initially (communication, social organization, spatial dynamics and locus of control) are impacted through her approach. The first important thing to note about the attitude of the mother is that she does seem very forthcoming to find out as much as she…… [Read More]