Cultural Analysis Essays (Examples)

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Cultural Distance How Is it Measured and How Does it Impact on Global Marketing Operations

Words: 3242 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 70230823

Cultural Distance: How Is it Measured, And How it Impact on Global Marketing Operations

The persistence of cultural distances is relevant for the global multinational marketing operations exposed to multiple cultures in their everyday activities. This indicates that marketing across border introduces complexities because it forces global marketers to tailor their approaches and practices to each cultural context they carry out their business activities. As a result, this paper will discuss concepts applicable to different aspects of cross-border operations. The primary focus of the paper is on multinational business corporations (Baumann, 2007).

This study shows how Hofstede's model is still the most relevant piece of reference for a successive cross-cultural analysis despite it being a widely criticized. The paper compares and contrasts Hofstede's famous concepts with Turner and Schwartz, Trompenaars and Hampden's valued inventory. It will attempt to provide empirical evidence of how cultural diversity influences the global markets by…… [Read More]

References

Baumann, A. (2007). Influences of culture on the style of business behavior between Western and Arab managers. Mu-nchen: GRIN Verlag GmbH.

Baumu-ller, M. (2007). Managing cultural diversity: An empirical examination of cultural networks and organizational structures as governance mechanisms in multinational corporations. Bern: Lang.

Cavusgil, T. & Ghauri, P.N. (2009). New challenges to international marketing. Bingley: Emerald Group Publishing Limited.

Curry, J.E. (2009). A short course in international marketing: Approaching and penetrating the global marketplace. Petaluma, CA: World Trade Press.
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Business in Japan Cultural Consideration

Words: 1620 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 79945791

Cultural Analysis of Japan for Expansion of Postmates

Before any business into a new market, it is essential the marketplace itself is considered. Postmates is looking to expand. This organisation is an on demand delivery service established within many areas of the United States, making more than 100 deliveries a month utilising the model of crowdsourcing most commonly associated with the. The mission of the organisation is to be "the on demand delivery infrastructure for every major city in the world" (Postmates, 2016). With successful establishment within the United States, the company is likely to seek out new markets where there will be sufficient demand for the service, as well as a sufficient supply of individuals willing to work as post mate "partners." One potentially valuable market is Japan;

Background to Japan

Japan is a developed market, which may benefit Postmates with its high level of concentration in metropolitan areas…… [Read More]

References

CIA. (2016). Japan. Retrieved from https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/ja.html

Flath, D. (2005). The Japanese Economy (2nd ed.). Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Gioeli, A. (2014). International Business Expansion. Los Angeles: Over And Above Press.

Investigating Japan. (2016). Political Culture & Socialisation. Retrieved from http://investigatingjapan.weebly.com/political-culture -- socialization.html
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Cultural Schemata Theory Together With Formal Schemata

Words: 1631 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 74524173

Cultural Schemata Theory:

Together with formal schemata and linguistic schemata, cultural schemata are some of the main types of schema theory, which is a hypothesis on how knowledge is gained and processed. Actually, schema is a technical word used by cognitive supporters to explain how people arrange, process, and store information in their brain. Notably, schemata focus on how people arrange information to long-term memory in relation to experiences, attitudes, values, strategies, skills, and conceptual understanding. The schema theory is founded on the belief that every act of an individual's understanding includes his/her knowledge of the world. The received knowledge is in turn organized into units that contain stores information.

Understanding Cultural Schemata Theory:

Cultural schemata is also known as abstract, story, or linguistic schema and is developed on the basis of people's basic experiences ("Schemata Theory in Learning," n.d.). Cultural schemata theory is described as the pre-existing knowledge about…… [Read More]

References:

Fuhong, T. (2004, April 10). Cultural Schema and Reading Comprehension. Retrieved December 5, 2011, from http://www.celea.org.cn/pastversion/lw/pdf/TanFuhong.pdf

Gilakjani, A.P. & Ahmadi, S.M. (2011. June). The Relationship between L2 Reading

Comprehension and Schema Theory: A Matter of Text Familiarity. Journal of Information and Education Technology, 1(2), pp. 142-149, Retrieved from  http://www.ijiet.org/papers/24-K002.pdf 

Gudykunst, W.B. (2005). Theorizing about intercultural communication. Thousand Oaks:
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Cultural Aspects of Consumer Behavior

Words: 2508 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 22457159

7% in Shanghai, 24.5% in Taipei and 46.2% in Hong Kong., the average income of respondents in Taipei was at the maximum income level and in Hong Kong, at the median level overall. The entire sample was highly educated with 80.2% of Shanghai respondents, 79.5% of Taipei respondents and 43.8% of Hong Kong respondents having a university education. The majority of respondent sin Shanghai and Taipei were 18 to 25 and 26 -- 30 in Hong Kong.

The study found that each respondent base scored high on the self-expectation dimensions as shown in Table III of the report with many having a strong sense of self-esteem and seeing the value of true friendship and inner harmony. There is also a strong belief in freedom in the orientation towards life dimension of the ANOVA analysis completed, just short of true friendship as a fundamental value in the analysis (Tai, 2008). The…… [Read More]

References

Jap, W. (2010). Confucius face culture on Chinese consumer consumption values toward global brands. Journal of International Management Studies, 5(1), 183-192.

Lin, Y., & Lai, C.Y. (2010). A study of the attitudes of Chinese consumers to aesthetic product designs. International Journal of Management, 27(1), 177-184,201.

Susan H.C. Tai. (2008). Relationship between the personal values and shopping orientation of Chinese consumers. Asia Pacific Journal of Marketing and Logistics, 20(4), 381-395.

Teimourpour, B., & Kambiz, H.H. (2011). The impact of culture on luxury consumption behaviour among Iranian consumers. Journal of Islamic Marketing, 2(3), 309-328.
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Cultural Counselor Being a Counselor Can Sometimes

Words: 2185 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 34235489

Cultural Counselor

Being a counselor can sometimes be a really tough job. Counseling can only be effective and beneficial when the counselor places himself or herself in the shoes of his or her client. If he or she is unable to do so, he or she will never become an effective counselor. Placing oneself in the circumstances of someone else is not easy, let alone placing oneself in the shoes of a person who is of a different race, religion or culture. That is the real test of a counselor. In this paper I shall discuss what is required to understand the cross-cultural relationships in counseling to help the client get over their problem easily. All the dimensions pertaining to counseling (of a client of a different background that the counselor) will discussed with the case scenario.

Case Scenario

When clients and counselors have different cultural (or ethnic or racial)…… [Read More]

References:

Cannon, E.P. (2008). "Promoting moral reasoning and multicultural competence during internship." Journal of Moral Education, 37(4), 503-518.

Crethar, Hugh C. And Ratts, Manivong J. (2008). "Why Social Justice is a Counseling Concern?"

Gilbert, Jane. (2002). "Cross-cultural issues in counseling skillstraining: lessons from Lesotho."

Journal of Social Development in Africa. New York, NY: John Wiley & Sons.
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Cultural Experience Description the Event Is More

Words: 2391 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 26516045

Cultural Experience

Description

The event is more a series of events. I went on vacation with some friends to Miami, and while not everything I experienced on that trip would count as a cultural experience, there is little question that there were some very different experiences. There was the visit to the Haitian restaurant, for example, but the event that stands out the most was my visit to Calle Ocho, the old Cuban neighborhood. As Korean student I find it challenging enough to deal with mainstream American culture, but Hispanic culture is completely different again, so this experience provided me with an interesting counterpoint to my usual experiences in the United States.

In this neighborhood, if people can speak English they do not admit it. There are coffee windows where strong, sugary shots of Cuban coffee and cafe con leche are dispensed to passers-by in a hurry. There are old…… [Read More]

Works Cited:

Devine, P. (1989). Stereotypes and prejudice: Their automatic and controlled components. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. Vol. 56 (1) 5-18.

Geert Hofstede.com (2012). National culture. Geert-Hofstede.com. Retrieved May 7, 2012 from http://geert-hofstede.com

Hofstede, G. (1983). The cultural relativity of organizational practices and theories. Journal of International Business Studies. Vol. 14 (Fall 1983) 75-89.

Mallol, C., Holtom, B. & Lee, T. (2007). Job embeddedness in a culturally diverse environment. Journal of Business Psychology. Vol. 22, 35-44.
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Cultural Intelligence in Today's Increasingly Culturally Diverse

Words: 1242 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 90887850

Cultural Intelligence

In today's increasingly culturally diverse world, cultural competence, or what has become known as "cultural intelligence (CQ)" has received increasing research attention. Several authors, with various purposes and audiences, have developed assessment instruments to help individuals and groups understand their level of cultural intelligence. Included among these is the instrument developed by Earley and Mosakowski (2004), under the title "Diagnosing Your Cultural Intelligence."

Earley and Mosakowski's instrument addresses three areas of CQ: The cognitive, the physical, and the emotional/motivational. The cognitive component can be regarded as the "head" of cultural competence. On a cognitive level, this areas focuses on an individual's understanding of differences between cultures. This involves asking questions and investigations to identify any differences that might exist among cultures. Being aware of these on a cognitive level can greatly enhance a person's ability to understand and interact with foreign cultures.

The physical component focuses on a…… [Read More]

References

Earley, P.C. & Mosakowski, E. 2004. 'Cultural intelligence', Harvard Business Review, 82 (10), October, pp.139-146 [Online]

Mendenhall, Mark. 2007. Global Leadership: Research, Practice and Development. Routledge.
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Cultural Blending That Occurred When the British Colonized India

Words: 864 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 83098896

Cultural Blending That Occurred hen the British Colonized India

Throughout the course of history, the British were known as the world's conquerors. This is because they established a series of colonies around the globe that supported the nation and its self-interest. During their occupation of India, there was focus on blending different cultures to create a unique society. (Bingham)

This transformed India from being a backward region to one that was able to improve its standard of living and make steps towards joining the modern world. The result is that a new social identify was developed. To fully understand the way that this occurred requires examining cultural blending, how it shaped their identity, if it was permanent, what caused it to change and if it was beneficial. These different factors will illustrate the way this occurred and the impact it had on India's development. (Bingham)

Description

The British first arrived…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Bingham, Jane. Indian Art and Culture. Hoboken: Wiley, 2005. Print.

Kasbekar, Asha. Pop Culture in India. Oxford: ABC CLIO, 2006. Print.
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Cultural Concerns Influences Cultural Factors This Paper

Words: 1293 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 84861509

Cultural Concerns Influences

Cultural Factors

This paper will examine and evaluate the cultural influences and apprehensions of today's modern societies with mixed cultures and also the impact on the justices system. This paper will deal with the way the cultural concerns influence administration of security and justice. The paper is going to reveal some contemporary techniques which the police and security forces utilize in communities of mixed cultures. The paper will additionally deal with how these factors and influences connect with and affect nondiscrimination practices inside the justice system. Lastly, the paper will address Mr. obert Peel's nine concepts and just how they can fit into today's public law enforcement agencies.

The military occupation of several nations in the centre East and Europe has placed police practices into question. The neighborhood police forces happen to be trained through the military where the rules will vary. The individual within modern societies…… [Read More]

References

Cochrane, R., Tett, R. & Vandercreek, L. (2008).Psychological Testing and the Selection of Police Officers. Retrieved from  http://www.corwin.com/upm-data/19737_Chapter_3.pdf 

French, L.A., & Wailes, N. (2008). Accessing and training police and security personnel relevant to ethnic and cultural sensitivity. Jackson State University Researcher, 21(4), 51.

A history of the nine principles of policing. (2002). Retrieved from  http://www.magnacartaplus.org/briefings/nine_police_principles.htm#en1 

Sir Robert Peel's nine principles. (n.d). Retrieved from  http://www.nwpolice.org/inside-new-westminster-police-department/history/
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Cultural Event the Dallas Museum of Art

Words: 1004 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 5213069

Cultural Event

The Dallas Museum of Art has several temporary exhibitions on display now. One is called "Youth and Beauty: Art of the American Twenties." Another related but separate exhibition is called "Texas in the Twenties: Prints, Drawings, and Photographs from Lone Star Collections." Because both special exhibitions focus on a specific point in time in American and Texan history, it was helpful to view both together on the same day. I went on opening day of both exhibitions, which was on Sunday March 4, 2012. There was a small line to get in, but the space inside the museum was arranged so that it did not feel crowded. The museum published a brochure that explained each exhibition, why it was on display at that time at the museum, and what the exhibition meant in the context of modern American art.

The "Youth and Beauty: Art of the American Twenties"…… [Read More]

Reference

Dallas Museum of Art (2012). "Current Exhibitions." Retrieved onlie: http://dallasmuseumofart.org/View/CurrentExhibitions/index.htm
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Cultural Identity We Are All

Words: 1516 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 35389105

" Taking into consideration these three stages, I would position myself in the second stage - that of cultural identity search. I am aware of my cultural background and I always have been, but the fact that I live in the multicultural American society made it hard for me to fully embrace my cultural heritage. I am at a stage in my life when I feel the need to understand my culture in order to better understand who I am. The fact that I am aware of my cultural appurtenance does not mean that I completely embrace my cultural identity. Learning about my cultural heritage is the path towards better understanding who I am and identifying myself with the cultural group that I belong to.

ibliography

Culture of Pakistan, available at http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Culture_of_Pakistan;

Sharmeen, Hassan, the Pakistani identity crisis, available at http://www.pakistanlink.com/Letters/2004/oct04/08/04.html;

Chapter 4, Cultural Patterns andCcommunication: Foundations.

Chapter 6, Cultural…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Culture of Pakistan, available at http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Culture_of_Pakistan;

Sharmeen, Hassan, the Pakistani identity crisis, available at http://www.pakistanlink.com/Letters/2004/oct04/08/04.html;

Chapter 4, Cultural Patterns andCcommunication: Foundations.

Chapter 6, Cultural Identity, Cultural Biases, and Intercultural Contact.
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Cultural Forms of Expression African-American

Words: 2857 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 48259043

(Cha-Jua, 2001, at (http://www.wpunj.edu/newpol/issue31/chajua31.htm)

Another aspect of representation, however, concerns collective memory and the representation of a shared past. Through the context for dialogue they create, social movements facilitate the interweaving of individual stories and biographies into a collective, unified frame, a collective narrative. Part and parcel of the process of collective identity or will formation is the linking of diverse experiences into a unity, past as well as present. Social movements are central to this process, not only at the individual level, but also at the organizational or meso level of social interaction. Institutions like the black church and cultural artifacts like blues music may have embodied and passed on collective memories from generation to generation, but it was through social movements that even these diverse collective memories attained a more unified focus, linking individuals and collectives into a unified subject, with a common future as well as a…… [Read More]

Resources

Cashmore, E. (2003). Encyclopedia of Race and Ethnic Studies. New York: Routledge.

Cha-Jua, S.K. (Summer 2001) "Slavery, Racist Violence, American Apartheid: The Case for Reparations" New Politics, 8:3. At http://www.wpunj.edu/newpol/issue31/chajua31.htm

Dubois, W.E.B., (1987) Writings, New York: Library of America.

Davis, A. (1999) Blues Legacies and Black Feminism, New York: Vintage.
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Cultural Diversity Interview Narrative Cultural

Words: 4850 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 8522541

While in high school, she worked as a waitress at a local diner. Most of the population was black, therefore there was little contact with white customers or employees. Margaret feels that she was socially isolated until the 1950s. She was not exposed to white culture; it was foreign to her. She was only exposed to black culture of the time. They were not allowed in certain stores, restaurants, or other places of business. She remembers "white only" restrooms and "black only" fountains. This cultural isolation was oppressive.

Margaret feels that the oppressive attitudes and discrimination that she experienced as a child determined much of how her life proceeded in adulthood. The idea that she could only go so far was ingrained as a child. She never really broke free of this feeling. In her 40s, she moved to upstate New York. Here, she found that many women had succeeded…… [Read More]

References

Diller, D. (1999). Opening the dialogue: Using culture as a tool in teaching young African

American children. Reading Teacher, 52(8), 820-828. [Available electronically through ERIC/EBSCOhost]

Moll, L.C., Amanti, C., Neff, D., & Gonzalez, N. (1992). Funds of knowledge for teaching:

using a qualitative approach to connect homes and classrooms. Theory into Practice, 31 (2), 132-141.
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Cultural Conflict of Two Stories

Words: 758 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 15414311

But Rushdie's relationship with English as a writer, even as a critic of the former British Empire, is far more complex. In Salman Rushdie's text "English is an Indian literary language," Rushdie states that the output of literature in English by Indian writers is more interesting and vital than those produced in India's native languages. Through creativity and dialogue with the oppressor, a great literature has been generated. India's original languages were vast in number but parochial. Ironically, English has proved to be a unifying force for Indians, even if one of the unifying ideologies for Indian writers in English is their attempt to create a new, national literature that is distinct from the British.

This phenomenon is not new, of course. Great Irish writers also used the English language that was imposed upon them to create great works of literature. Even if the ideology that resulted in the imposition…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Macaulay, Thomas Babington. "The Civilizing Mission" from "Minute on Indian Education"

(1835).  http://www.wwnorton.com/college/english/nael/victorian/topic_4/macaulay.htm 

Rushdie, Salman. "English is an Indian literary language."
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Cultural School Focuses on the Culture of

Words: 3253 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 99147363

Cultural school focuses on the culture of the individual entities that form the organization. Culture, it asserts, drives the organization's judgment and operational strategy resulting in differences such as between a Japanese and American organization.

In contradistinction to the power school that places the loci on the individual as well as the entrepreneurial school that does likewise (this time on the leader), the cultural school insists that individuals are a homogenized whole, their decision, beliefs, judgments, and actions formed by their specific culture. In this way, therefore, to understand an organization necessitates understanding its culture. Organization culture -- the premise of the cultural school -- is, oftentimes, understood as collective cognition since a deeply rooted culture produces closely interwoven interpretations and activities.

Content and Process.

Culture is ineradicably part of the individual's makeup. His or her perspective on the world is shaped by this culture, and since organizations are a…… [Read More]

Rieger, F. 1987. 'The influence of national culture on organizational structure…' Dissertation, McGill Univ., Montreal.

Roth, K. & Ricks, D.A. (1994). 'Goal configuration in a global society context.' Strategic Management Journal, 15, 103-140.

Wright, J.P. 1979. On a Clear Day you can see General Motors. Wright Enterprises: MI.
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Cultural Artifact Mental Health Drugs as Panacea

Words: 2205 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 95196658

Cultural Artifact

Mental Health Drugs as Panacea

A culture is made up of people who have developed the same language (or at least dialect of a larger language), art forms, religion, and other means of distinguishing one group from another. It can be said that all groups have a certain culture that they have established by which they are constrained. For example, a company develops a culture that is specific to it, and that culture governs everyone who works at, or is affiliated with, that company. In ethnic terms, a culture will define the ways in which one ethnic grouping is different from another. Although certain groupings may have similar languages, religions and ways of doing things, they will also have differences which distinguish them. In the same way that different species of birds are characterized by slight differences in appearance or location, people are grouped by the culture from…… [Read More]

References

Cottone, R.R. (2007). Paradigms of counseling and psychotherapy, revisited: Is social constructionism a paradigm? Journal of Mental Health Counseling, 29(3), 189- 199.

Haylock, B. (2004). Resilience education and drug information. Australian Screen Education, 38, 142-144.

Sharav, V.H. (2005). Screening for mental illness: The merger of eugenics and the drug industry. Ethical Human Psychology and Psychiatry, 7(2), 111-121.

WebMD. (2005). Major depression (clinical depression). Retrieved from  http://www.webmd.com/depression/guide/major-depression
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Cultural Impact on Politics Political

Words: 5093 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 96410547

4). This idea has since been abandoned. The mythology of the Amazons, a matriarchy of warrior women, has been discounted as no more than a myth, one deriving from the deep-seated fear on the part of males that they might lose their power and authority. In matrilineal societies, men tend still to monopolize the rights of power. Some Chinese anthropologists believe the stories of true matriarchal societies in some regions of China in the past, but this is uncertain. A matriarchy would be presumed to be less warlike and more nurturing as a social order and would not subordinate men in the way men have done to women in the patriarchal society.

The formulation and operation of power in the largely patriarchal social order in the world today divides along other line than gender, with political action influenced most by ideology, religion, divisions of power, and other aspects of group…… [Read More]

References

Adler, F. (1983). Nations Not Obsessed with Crime. Littleton, Colorado: Fred B. Rotham and Co.

Berry, J.M. (1997). The interest group society. New York: Longman.

Crapo, R.H. (1993). Cultural anthropology. Sluice Dock Guilford, Conn.: Dushkin.

El-Awa, M.S. (1982). Punishment in Islamic Law. Indianapolis, Indiana: American Trust Publications.
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Cultural Conflicts in Multinational Corporations

Words: 1639 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 827318

Each customer's predictive score informs actions to be taken with that customer. usiness intelligence just doesn't get more actionable than that." (Siegel, 2009)

Predictive analytics involves: (1) a focus on actions; (2) rapid deployment; and (3) engagement of business and IT. (Siegel, 2009) Decision management is characterized by: (1) a focus on decisions; (2) the combination of business rules with analytics; and (3) putting predictive analytics to work. (Siegel, 2009) Irwin Speizer writes that there is a "new generation of workforce-planning tools" that offer great promise through the use of "sophisticated software and data-rich predictive-modeling techniques..." (Speizer, 2006) It is stated that the study of "internal staffing history and skill sets, external and internal business trends, demographic data and other variables" that the HR leader can "predict a company's talent-related needs years into the future." (Speizer, 2006)

V. Summary & Conclusion

Starbucks did manage to negotiate their way successfully through…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Kaczmarczyk, Pawel and Lewicki, Mikolaj (2007) "Lost In Transformation."

Cultural Encounters In Multinational Corporations Investing In Central And Eastern Europe. DIOSCURI Final Conference, Institute for Human Sciences, Vienna. 20-22 April. 20007. Online available at:

Fellner, Kim (2008) Private Sector: Starbucks Leaner, Meaner. 8 Jul 2008. Post-Gazette.com Business. Online available at: http://www.post-gazette.com/pg/08190/895381-28.stm

O'Neill, Brendan (2009) Israel, Starbucks and the New Irrationalism. 14 Jan 2009. War In Gaza. SPIKED.com. online available at: http://www.spiked-online.com/index.php?/site/article/6103/
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Cultural Audit of St Cloud State University

Words: 677 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 67767827

Cultural Audit of St. Cloud State University: HR Analysis and Critique

To address the deficits highlighted the cultural audit, St. Cloud University has resolved to address issues of demographic isolation, namely the sense of students that they do not have a 'connection' to the university, and the persistent problems regarding minority tensions and institutional discrimination. Perhaps the most telling survey comment came from a student, criticizing the survey structure: "I think that this survey was bogus. I can't believe you wasted $50,000 on this thing. e already know that SCSU is a hub of institutional racism" as noted in the Qualitative Analysis Section of the report. Another telling detail was that some faculty, administration and staff felt there was a notable lack of African-American and Jewish faculty members on campus, and that some felt the presence of a 'glass ceiling" regarding promotions of women. Also, disability services were perceived as…… [Read More]

Works Cited

St. Cloud Cultural Audit." Nichols and Associates, Inc.. Washington, D.C. October 2002. 24 Mar 2008.  http://www.stcloudstate.edu/documents/nichols/default.asp
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Cultural Modernism and the Snopes

Words: 2155 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 26706763

This feeling of anger and resentment is effectively illustrated through the conflict between Abner and the Negro, De Spain's helper.

In this conflict, Abner is seen resisting the Negro's attempt to stop him from trespassing De Spain's home. Evidently, the Negro's status in life is much better than Abner, who has to toil very hard in order for him and his family to survive everyday. This fact infuriates Abner, and his resentment against the Negro's condition in life is reflected in his hateful statement about his poverty and De Spain's seemingly unfair status as a wealthy man: "Pretty and white, ain't it?...That's sweat. Nigger sweat. Maybe it ain't white enough yet to suit him. Maybe he wants to mix some white sweat in it" (175). This statement is Abner's own way of protesting against his condition in life, a bitterness that reflects not only class conflict between the wealthy and…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Fox, R. (1998). A companion to American thought. MA: Blackwell Publishers.

Horton, M. (2000). "Balzacian evolution and the origin of the Snopeses." Southern Literary Journal, Vol. 33, Issue 1.

Kartiganer, D. (1997). Faulkner in cultural context. Mississippi: University Press of Mississippi.

Krevling, M. (1998). Inventing Southern literature. Mississippi: University Press of Mississippi.
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Cultural Challenges Faced by a

Words: 1336 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 99377547

But most important, Geert Hofstede will give you the 'edge of understanding' which translates to more successful results" (Geert Hofstede's Website, 2003).

If Steven Kafka conducted an analysis of the Czech market through the lens of cultural features, there is an increased likelihood for the results to indicate major discrepancies. This should not however disappoint him, as different does not implicitly mean worse.

A d) in its desire to adhere to the great economic powers of the globe, driven by its sense of innovation and its adaptability to the forces in the macro and micro environments, the Czech epublic has managed to remove most of its trade barriers. These measures were due mostly to its adherence to the European Union and other international trade organizations. "The Czech market has no trade barriers to food and agricultural product imports, except for the usual import duties and tariff rate quotas permitted under…… [Read More]

References

Briffett, C., August 28, 2008, Observing the Czech Republic through the U.S. Lens, Czech Business Weekly

Fennesz-Berka, a., November 1996, Czech Republic and Slovenia Offer Opportunities for U.S. Consumer Foods, AgExporter

2007, Differences between the Czech Republic and the U.S., Associated Content

http://www.associatedcontent.com/article/392236/differences_between_the_czech_republic.html?page=2&cat=16last accessed on September 9, 2008
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Cultural Literacy - Issues &

Words: 2434 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 57845496

scu.edu).Andre goes on to say some critics see Hirsch's efforts to bring culture into the classroom are not so much "cultural literacy" but more like "cultural indoctrination." Not only is the Hirsch strategy and methodology seen as flawed, Andre and Velasquez continue, the "content" he prescribes is subject to criticism. For example, the question of "Whose form of knowledge, culture, vision, history and authority will prevail as the national culture?" should be asked, and Hirsch knows that is an issue. "Will they, like Hirsch, be white, middle-class males?" Andre wonders, and will they be elitist?

Hirsch meanwhile answers these accusations in his Core Knowledge Web site, saying that the contend must arise from "a broad consensus of diverse groups and interests." That consensus should include the parents, teachers, scientists, "professional curriculum organizations, and experts on America's multicultural traditions." The "central motivation behind" his core knowledge initiative is "to guarantee equal…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Booklist. "Reference Books Bulletin: The New Dictionary of Cultural Literacy." (2003): 1702.

In the first edition of Hirsch's book, the author was criticized as being "elitist," but the Subsequent editions add "tools for assessing cultural literacy" that makes sense and Now it does "keep up with changes in American culture."

Chylinski, Manya S. "Hirsch, E.D. Jr., & others. The New Dictionary of Cultural Literacy: What Every American Needs to Know." Library Journal, 127.18 (2002): 78-80. Chylinski writes that the book has been given "an exciting update" - "sorely needed"...for those "who like to have a great reference work..."

Giddings, Louise R. "Beyond E.D. Hirsch and Cultural Literacy: Thinking Skills for Cultural
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Cultural Weddings a Wedding Can

Words: 2831 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 28632912

Since weddings are meant to bring families together the unity of the community as a whole is catered for and this can be advantageous. This culture will also ensure that the customs and traditions are retained and covered from erosion by other cultures, this is because the arrangements will ensure that only individuals with similar backgrounds are brought together and no new cultures are incorporated. To someone who does not admire the African culture this may not sound positive but I am sure to the owners of the culture this is a very big boost to them.

Now looking at the Australian cultural wedding very little seems strange but is totally different to the African ceremony. I feel that the Australian cultural wedding is more 'liberal' in nature as compared to the African wedding. This is because the weddings are based on love and agreement between two individuals. This gives…… [Read More]

References

Africaguide.com (2011). Africa people & culture, accessed on November 25, 2011 from  http://www.africaguide.com/culture/weddings.htm 

Euroevents & Travel (2004). Wedding Traditions and Customs around the World Bridal

Customs in different Countries accessed on November 25, 2011 from  http://www.worldweddingtraditions.com/ 

Gardner, H. (1985). The mind's new science. New York: Basic Books, Inc., Publishers.
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Cultural Diversity Interviewed a Co-Worker

Words: 1099 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 49107987



Unlike the culture of my interviewee, African-American isn't really broken into subgroups. I was born and raised in Buffalo, New York, which is very close to the Canadian Border and the "U.S. Peace Bridge." I grew up speaking English, and it is the only language I speak.

My religion is not typical of most African-Americans, who tend to be Baptist, Methodist, or Lutheran. I was raised as a Catholic and still practice that religion today. I'm not the only African-American I know who is Catholic, but it's not common in my subculture.

Like my interviewee, I think the media is generally doing a good job of representing African-Americans in the media. However, I still see instances when African-Americans seem to be portrayed as being ruthless and slovenly, which in my opinion makes all African-Americans appear to be the same way (association assimilation).

I believe that all cultures have something that…… [Read More]

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Cultural Comparisons and Management Functions This Paper

Words: 585 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 18972076

Cultural Comparisons and Management Functions

This paper examines cultural comparisons and discusses how an American manager carries out management functions in the process of supervising German employees. With respect to individualism vs. collectivism, both Germany and the U.S. score high in individualism, that is, the degree to which individuals further their own interests. However, according to Hofstede's model of cultural dimensions, Germany's score of 67 ranks far enough below the U.S. score of 91 that the manager should expect differences in their approaches to working together in teams for instance. German employees would have only a moderate amount of group cohesion, with only a moderate amount of interpersonal connection and sharing of responsibility.

For the American manager, the two country's respective scores indicate that the manager should expect his or her German employees to be less individualistic than their manager. The manager should place a relatively high value on people's…… [Read More]

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Cultural in the United States

Words: 1598 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 14020377

Cultural in the United States

Compare and contrast what Morris Berman, Frank Capra, and David Fincher present as the flaws in our culture's pursuit of material self-interest.

Morris Berman, Frank Capra, and David Fincher present the society in postmodern consumer where the masculine identity is lost: the gray-collar male personnel and the satisfaction socially created by the society focused in materialism. Technology is the baseline for Berman's argument. The argument goes well-known to Neil Postman, and McLuhan Marshal it is not normal, not only does it change the way we connect with the rest of the world, but it also gets our brains wired (Berman 21). A normal brain of a person who has been print raised differs with a big margin from that of a person who, most of his time is corrupted by the internet.

However, the significance of the internet is making a reduction to our understanding…… [Read More]

Work Cited

Berman, Morris. Why America Failed: The Roots of Imperial Decline. Hoboken, N.J: John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 2012. Print.

Frank, Capra. It's a Wonderful Life: A Play in Two Acts. Woodstock, Ill: Dramatic Pub, 2008.

Print.

Finchers, David. "fight Club." Mu-nchen: GRIN Verlag GmbH, 2007. Internet resource.
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Cultural Comparison Crucifixion and Seated

Words: 1251 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 1368209



In addition, this door panel, composed of cedar wood, may represent a type of social event which was rather prominent during the Early Christian period, circa 430 C.E. Since one can make out some kind of brick background behind the three figures, the panel might not have been designed to teach or provide instruction on a spiritual event like the crucifixion of Jesus but may be images "from an early passion play, possibly one performed outside the city walls" of Rome. This type of play was part of what is known as Roman mime theater which "specialized in short scenes of gory violence, irony, satire and sarcasm" for the delight of audiences which still clung to and appreciated some of the worst social aspects of the Roman Empire, a good example being the killing of Christians in the coliseum (Storage, "The Door Panels of Santa Sabine," Internet).

Around the year…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Flowering of Faith: Christianity and Buddhism." Chapter 8.

De la Croix, Bertrand. History of Western Art. New York: Prentice-Hall, 2003.

Storage, Bill. "The Doors Panels of Santa Sabine." 2006. Internet. Retrieved May 3, 2008 from http://www.rome101.com/Christian/Sabina.

Gandharan Art." 2008. Internet. Retrieved May 3, 2008 at http://www.afghan-network.net/Culture/gandhara.html.
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Cultural Differences in Management Styles

Words: 2900 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 12392752

In a large measure, these concepts reflect the problems that have accompanied increased diversity as both a consequence and a cause of a great many social problems" (1999, p. 1). In this regard, Naylor defines culture as being "the learned way (or ways) of belief, behavior, and the products of these (both physically and socially) that is shared (at least to some degree) within human groups and serves to distinguish that culture group from another learning different beliefs and behaviors" (1999, p. 2). It is important to note as well that "cultural diversity is not restricted to particular nationalities; it includes issues of gender and individuals with disabilities" (Russell & McLean, 1999). Because there are some fundamental differences between cultural beliefs and behaviors, it is not surprising that cross-cultural differences can have a profound effect on organizational performance, and these issues are discussed further below.

Effect of Cultural Diversity on…… [Read More]

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Cultural Dimensions

Words: 2623 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 32081712

Cultural Dimensions

"Culture is more often a source of conflict than of synergy. Cultural differences are a nuisance at best and often a disaster." - Dr. Geert Hofstede

After working for six years as a clinical psychologist at BM, both collecting and analyzing data from over 100,000 individuals from forty different counties, Hofstede became interested in the sociology of communication between people of different cultures. An expert, Hofstede's influential wisdom on the interactions between national cultures and organization cultures begot a model identifying five dimensions to differentiate cultures; these dimensions, particularly as they relate to strategy, team communications, influence tactics, and conflict management, are integral in analyzing the cultural communications of such vastly different states as the United Arab Emirates, Mexico, and Spain.

n his work, Gert Hofstede demonstrated that there are national and regional cultural groupings that affect the different dynamics of behavior in organizations, both corporate and civic.…… [Read More]

Ibid.

"Spain." <  http://www.cyborlink.com/besite/spain.htm >

Ibid.
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Cultural Perceptions of Time in Africa Time

Words: 6951 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 52859355

Cultural Perceptions of Time in frica

Time is a foundational factor in every culture. The perception of time is different for most cultures and the determining factor to those differences is often based on the means of production. "Most cultures have some concept of time, although the way they deal with time may differ fundamentally." (Kokole 1994, 35) Tracing the perception of the concept of time in frica can be seen as tracing the European racial prejudices of the intellect of the indigenous populations in the colonized regions of frica. Much of the information regarding the development of time concepts in frican culture is colonial and based on the European interlopers recorded ideas.

Some of those recorded ideas are those of missionaries and others are those of capitalist adventurers, with the intermittent mark of a very few true historians.

In Mali, as in many other parts of frica, there are…… [Read More]

Akan" is an ethnographic and linguistic term used to refer to a cluster of culturally homogenous groups living in central and southern Ghana and parts of the adjoining eastern Cote d'Ivoire. The Akan constitute two broad subcategories: the inland Asante, Bono, Akyem, Akwapem, and Kwawu, who speak the Twi, and the coastal Fante, who speak a dialect of the same name. The Akan dialects are, for the most part, mutually intelligible. Most of these ethnic groups constituted autonomous political systems in the pre-colonial period. www.questia.com/PageManagerHTMLMediator.qst?action=openPageViewer&docId=55458430" (Adjaye 1994, 57)

Studies of Akan time perceptions and calendrical systems have been limited despite the fact that the existence of institutions and mechanisms for time-reckoning have been noted in the literature on the history and ethnography of the Akan for nearly two centuries. Beyond early sparse references by Rattray (1923) and Danquah (1968), a full-length monograph on the subject did not appear until Deborah Fink "Time and Space Measurements of the Bono of Ghana" (1974); however, the author's primary concern was with the applicability of Bono terminologies for measuring volume, weight, and time to formal education, rather than with time-marking systems P.F. Bartle brief five-page paper, "Forty Days: The Akan Calendar" (1978), was an exploratory essay into a single calendrical framework, the 40-day (adaduanan) cycle. Its treatment is consequently restrictive and limited to the 40-day calendrical structure. Similarly, Tom McCaskie "Time and the Calendar in Nineteenth-Century Asante: An Exploratory Essay" (1980) and Ivor Wilks ' "On Mentally Mapping Greater Asante: A Study of Time and Motion" (1992) are concerned primarily with a specific aspect of time: the scheduling of diplomatic and other governmental business in Asante.

(Adjaye 1994, 57)
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Cultural Diversity in Organizations Organization

Words: 4681 Length: 17 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 71138902

The solutions are numerous and more diversified.

Knowledge is crucial for business success. There are two types of knowledge: explicit or tacit. The explicit type is easily codified, stored and transmitted to other individuals. As opposed to the former, the tacit one is embedded in people. The size of the tacit knowledge is proportional to the diversity of the workplace. Therefore, organizations face the increasing challenge today of finding ways to grasp into the pool of tacit knowledge they own in order to create competitive advantage. This is the type of knowledge to which competition doesn't have access because it's embedded in unique individuals belonging to a give organization.

Knowledge can be enhanced by the learning process. Its final objective is to be materialized into products and services. This final stage of the process refers to the innovation part. Innovations are the most important tool an organization has in hand…… [Read More]

Reference list:

Brittan, S. (1996, June 6). Keynes and globalization. Financial Times, p. 12.

Hofstede, G. & McRae, R.R. (2004). Personality and Culture Revisited: Linking Traits and Dimensions of Culture. Cross Cultural Research, vol. 38(1), pp. 52-88.

Hofstede, G. (2001). Culture Consequences, 2nd ed. London: Sage.

Hofstede, G. (1984). Cultural Dimensions in Management and Planning. Asia Pacific Journal, pp.84-99.
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Cultural Anthropology

Words: 1275 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 84195334

Cultural Anthropology

Native anthropology" is a set of theories based on non-Western precepts and assumptions in the same sense that modern anthropology is based on and is supported by Western beliefs and values (Jones, 31)

"native anthropologist" differs from an anthropologist who is not native to the society being studied in the following ways. Essentially Anthropologists can be described as either insiders or outsiders.

An "insider" is a person who conducts research on the cultural, racial or ethnic group of which he or she is a member, and an "outsider" conducts research of a native culture from an objective point-of-view. "Insiders" and "outsiders" face different problems.

Anthropology students are generally taught that a person working with his/her own people cannot maintain objectivity and research experiences must be gained from another culture. However, the basic aim of anthropological field research is to describe the total culture of a group of people…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Scheper-Hughes, N. Culture, Scarcity and Maternal Thinking: Maternal Detachment and Infant Survival in a Brazilian Shantytown. Pp.291- 314

Rosaldo, R (1989). Culture and Truth: The Remaking of Social Analysis: Introduction: Grief and Headhunter's Rage. Boston Beacon Press. Pp. 1- 21

Jones, D. Towards a Native Anthropoloy. Pp 30-39
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Cultural Psychology Holfstede's Cultural Dimensions

Words: 1652 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 34544449

Based on the competitive nature of the business environment, strict formalities had to be kept up in order not to go beyond the boundaries of good business ethics and practices.

The final dimension was created after the first initial four and later adopted by Holfstede into his dimensional structure of cultural organizations. This dimension is associated with the group being more associated with long or short-term orientation. Companies with more long-term associations have employees and group members who have been a part of the particular organization for an extended period of time. Typically, these types of organizations present a collected look to the future on behalf of all of the members. This is based on the idea that the members expect to still be a part of the group in any particular point in the future. Therefore, long-term strategies can become fruitful, with several group members working hard for a…… [Read More]

References

Holfstede, Geert, (2001). Culture's Consequences: Comparing Values, Behaviors, Institutions, and Organizations Across Nations. Sage Publications.
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Cultural Evaluation Japan Describe Identify Ways Arguments

Words: 824 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 16379635

Cultural evaluation Japan describe identify ways arguments a presentation arguments changed result cultural differences

Rose Cohen. Out of the Shadow: A Russian Jewish Girlhood on the Lower East Side, with an Introduction by Thomas Dublin. (Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 1995). Pp. vii-313. Paper: $19.95. ISBN: 978-0-8014-8268-7.

Rose Cohen was born in Russia at the end of the 19th century and immigrated to the United States of America in the early part of the 20th century. The circumstances she encountered while transitioning from one "Old orld" culture to a "New orld" one primarily constitute the source material she uses in Out of the Shadow. There appears to be a great deal of difference between the daily life and cultures encountered by a young Jewish girl/woman in Russia and one in America. These differences more than likely pertain to both cultures as well as to simply daily life and expectations for…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Dublin, Tom. "Rose Cohen Critical Essay." Jewish Women's Archive. No date. Web. http://jwa.org/discover/inthepast/readingseries/cohen/criticalessay.html

Muir, Lisa. "Rose Cohen and Bella Spewack: The Ethnic Child Speaks to Who You Never Were." www.highbeam.com. 2002. Web. http://www.highbeam.com/doc/1G1-92042295.html
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Cultural Awareness in Psychology

Words: 799 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 44145915

Cultural Differences

As stated by the question to be answered in this brief report, there are many psychologists that assert that there can be barriers and issues that exist when a person of one cultural background interviews someone from a different cultural background. The differences in culture can be things like religion, race, ethnicity, upbringing and nation of origin, just to name a few. Just one example would be Muslims that come to the United States and find a culture that is entirely different than what they are used to or acclimated to in their country of birth. While it is possible to achieve an interview-oriented connection with someone from a different cultural background, bridging the divide can be quite difficult even with the best of intentions.

Analysis

One major barrier when it comes to bridging the cultural divide in an interview or discussion of any sort would be religion.…… [Read More]

References

Leri, P. (2015). Interviewing Across Cultures. University of Michigan. Retrieved 9 October 2015,

from http://fordschool.umich.edu/downloads/InterviewCrossCultures.pdf
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Cultural Marketing Strategies Comparing Marketing

Words: 522 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 20451741

IDV skyrockets in the U.S. which is supported by the concept of rugged individualism and taking care of one's own family (Minkov, Hofstede, 2011). It's nearly the opposite in Japan, where communities care for each other, showing IDV to be a measure of collectivism and collaboration over individuality (Hofstede, McCrae, 2004). For Mercedes, the brand in Japan would need to stress a wealthy homeowner or land owner using their new car to help their neighbors and those around them who are not necessarily relatives. In the U.S., the Mercedes brand has quickly become a symbol of individual achievement, status and financial accomplishment. As a result, the Mercedes brand means something completely different in Japan than it does in the U.S. On the Long-Term Orientation (LTO) and Uncertainty Avoidance (UAI) areas of the model, Japan far outpaces the U.S. For Mercedes and Nike, the safety and security of their brand need…… [Read More]

References:

Anders Bengtsson, Fleura Bardhi, & Meera Venkatraman. (2010). How global brands travel with consumers: An examination of the relationship between brand consistency and meaning across national boundaries. International Marketing Review, 27(5), 519-540.

Czinkota, M.. (2011). Why international marketing? Marketing Management, 20(2), 14.

Geert Hofstede, & Robert R. McCrae. (2004). Personality and Culture Revisited: Linking Traits and Dimensions of Culture. Cross - Cultural Research, 38(1), 52-88.

Michael Minkov, and Geert Hofstede. 2011. The evolution of Hofstede's doctrine. Cross Cultural Management 18, no. 1, (January 1): 10-20.
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Cultural Review Art of the First Cities

Words: 724 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 81549979

Cultural Review

Art of the First Cities: The Third Millennium B.C. from the Mediterranean to the Indus

The Art of the First Cities exhibition is the new exhibition that aims to pull together and explore the emergence of the world's first city-states as well as empires during the third millennium B.C. In Syria and Mesopotamia by means of art. Being held at Iris and B. Gerald Cantor Exhibition Hall. The presentations at the exhibition have been further enhanced and made a possible success by means of connecting all these evolutions through artistic and cultural link that stretches from the eastern Aegean to the Indus valley and then to Central Asia.

This exhibition for the first time has brought together the works of art in the form of illustration and splendor of the most well-known and prominent locations of the ancient world. This includes the unique finds of the palace and…… [Read More]

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Cultural Influence in Education Culture

Words: 3232 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 76073622

A woman can be neither a political leader nor a judge; she must only appear in public modestly dressed, and her natural and sacred task is to keep the household smoothly functioning and to raise and instruct her children to be good Muslims. Men, for their part, must shoulder the burden of providing for the family in material ways. Liberation for a woman does not mean being like a male, or taking up male tasks, but rather being herself and fulfilling the destiny Allah created for her. (Waines, 1995, P. 255)

Feminine education is therefore one of the most extreme of all issues with regard to the influence of the Islamic culture on education, and as has been stated earlier there is significant diversity in the educational role inclusion of women. (Weil, 2004, p. 142) for many one of the biggest reasons for immigration is the offer of greater educational…… [Read More]

References

Bin Talal, E.H. (2004). Musa Ibn Maymun and the Arab-Islamic Education. European Judaism, 37(2), 5.

Buetow, H.A. (1991). Religion in Personal Development: An Analysis and a Prescription. New York: Peter Lang.

Collins, D. (2006). Culture, Religion and Curriculum Lessons from the 'Three Books' Controversy in Surrey BC. The Canadian Geographer, 50(3), 342.

Elnour, a., & Bashir-Ali, K. (2003). Teaching Muslim Girls in American Schools. Social Education, 67(1), 62.
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Cultural Sociology

Words: 410 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 60918330

Cultural Sociology

What Defines Us as a Global Population - our Differences or Similarities?

Analysis of "Imagine" by John Lennon

History is littered with wars and global divisions as a result of Man's search for self-definition. Man's differences appear to drive us apart but it is also conceivable that these differences bring us together. The song "Imagine" by John Lennon speaks of a 'utopia' where there are no differences that can potentially divide Man. However, the song only speaks of the differences that instigate violence and alienation. It is Man's varied cultures, religions, and beliefs that allow for our varied strengths, talents and advancements that bring us together and define us as a species.

In the song "Imagine," Lennon refers to a world devoid of heaven and hell, religion, countries, personal possessions, greed and hunger (Lennon, 1995, 1). He sings of a "brother hood of man... living for today" (Lennon,…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Lennon, John. (1995) Imagine. www.plumbingsupply.com/greatsong.html
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Cultural vs Biological Evolution Cultural

Words: 981 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 5850796

We now have the means to study the evolution of the human genome more closely than ever in the past. One of the key ideas presented by the authors is the idea of transmission fidelity. This means that culture can act as an inheritance system, promoting the transmission of certain genetic traits in a predictable fashion. This type of cultural inheritance results in distinct societies that not only share the same cultural traits, but also share similar genetic traits as well. In the past, geography and proximity to others was a factor in this process as well. Richerson, oyd, and Henrich (2010) concluded that cultural evolution and biological evolution occur simultaneously. They also suggested that cultural evolution had a significant influence on biological evolution.

This research supports the supposition that cultural evolution has a significant effect on biological evolution. This research focused on cultural evolution, as opposed to placing the…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Bell, A. And Richard McElreath. Culture rather than genes provides greater scope for the evolution of large-scale human prosociality. PNAS 106 (2009): 17671-17674.

 http://www.des.ucdavis.edu/faculty/Richerson/Bell%20PNAS.pdf 

Boyd, R. And Peter Richerson," Gene-culture coevolution and the evolution of social institutions." In Better than Consciousness? Decision Making, The Human Mind, and Implications for Institutions. Edited by Christoph Engel and Wolf Singer. MIT

Press. 2008. pp. 305-323.
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Cultural Intonation Cultural Differences in

Words: 3430 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 73347025

2009). Othe studies had peviously concluded that English infants developed a pefeence fo tochaic wods, the dominant stess constuct of English wods, ove iambic stess pattens within the fist yea of life (Hohle et al. 2009). A compaison of Geman and Fecnh infants in fou distinct expeiments confims and even naows down the timefame in which this diffeentiation of pefeence occus, and also shows (though the Fench language expeiments) that the ability to distinguish the two opposing stess pattens does not necessaily esult in the development of pefeence, if the taget language itself lacks a dominant stess stuctue (Hohle et al. 2009). Even at six months, a specific language begins to mediate peception.

An ealie study suggests that the timing of stess and intonation pefeence development is even soone than six months. While citing evidence suggesting that language-independent phonetic contasts and melodic vaiations ae ecognized within the fist fou months…… [Read More]

references during the first half year of life: Evidence from German and French infants." Infant behavior and development 32(3), pp. 262-74.

Laroche, M.; Pons, F. & Richard, M. (2009). "The role of language in ethnic identity measurement: A multitrait-multimethod approach to construct validation." Journal of social psychology 149(4), pp. 513-40.

Nguyen, T.; Ingrahm, C. & Pensalfini, J. (2008). "Prosodic transfer in Vietnamese acquisition of English contrastive stress patterns." Journal of phonetics 36(1), pp. 158.

Turk, a. & Shattuck-Hufnagel, S. (2007). "Multiple targets of phrase-final lengthening in American English words." Journal of phonetics 35(4), pp. 445-72.

Wyatt, J. (2007). "Skinner 1, Chomsky 0." Behavior analysis digest 19(4), pp. 13-4.
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Cultural Dimension Theory One of

Words: 1514 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 31126435



Schwartz Values -- Conformity

Again, a paradigm shift between the old (traditional) ways and the new (seeing more Western influence

Tend to conform and obey clearer rules and structures; obeying parents, preserving the world as it is; no drastic changes.

Former ally, urban (non-conformist) versus rural (conformist); now non-conforming groups, fringe groups, opinions, blogs, political parties, social networking, clubs, etc. abound -- diversity is king; but there is a confrontation in this with advertising and media, which seeks to "sell" conformity in image.

EFEENCES

Hodgetts, ., et.al. (2005). International Management: Culture, Strategy and Behavior. New York: McGraw Hill.

Hofstede, G. (2001). Culture's Consequences: Comparing Values, Behaviors, Institutions and Organizations Across Nations. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.

House, et.al., (1998). Cultural Influences on Leadership and Organizations. Project Globe. etrieved from: http://www.thunderbird.edu/wwwfiles/sites/globe/pdf/process.pdf

Killick, D. (2004). "Developing Awareness and Transforming Experience." Leeds

Metropolitan University. Cited in:

http://www.aiec.idp.com/pdf/Killick,%20David.pdf

Knoppen, D. And Saris, W. (2009).…… [Read More]

REFERENCES

Hodgetts, R., et.al. (2005). International Management: Culture, Strategy and Behavior. New York: McGraw Hill.

Hofstede, G. (2001). Culture's Consequences: Comparing Values, Behaviors, Institutions and Organizations Across Nations. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.

House, et.al., (1998). Cultural Influences on Leadership and Organizations. Project Globe. Retrieved from:  http://www.thunderbird.edu/wwwfiles/sites/globe/pdf/process.pdf 

Killick, D. (2004). "Developing Awareness and Transforming Experience." Leeds
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Cultural Competancy Recent Awareness About

Words: 596 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 11083706

The study reveals the ways culture and religion intersect with gender, and in fact the authors base their research on the theory of intersectionality. White privilege, gender, and any other issue related to social justice and personal consciousness is situational. Each individual will experience race, class, gender, power, religion, and ethnicity in different ways.

When reading the three articles, I first note their similarities. All three articles address white privilege. The problem with white privilege is that it is built into the social institutions upon which societies are built. White privilege can also be extended to refer to gender privilege and patriarchy, which is why Greenwood & Christian (2008) note that women from whatever culture or religion tend to gloss over their differences to bond together in sisterhood. Sisterhood might trump experiences such as racial prejudice and bias. However, when faced with the problem of the hijab, women who are…… [Read More]

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Global Business Analysis on Brazil

Words: 5554 Length: 16 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 41963007

Global Business Cultural Analysis: Brazil

Cultural backgrounds reflect the ways and standards of living, which is unique and different for each country. In fact, the business world is also profoundly influenced by the cultural differences of the counties. This focus of this research paper, in this regard, is to analyze the cultural perspectives of doing business in Brazil. Therefore, major elements and dimensions of Brazilian culture such as business structures, management styles, communication, ethics, values, and customs are discussed comprehensively.

Moreover, the discussion has also been made on how the local businessmen integrate these cultural dimensions and elements. Indeed, a detailed comparison United States business has been made with that of Brazilian culture and business elements by means of Hofstede's dimension tool (that is particularly used for measuring cultural differences). Finally, the paper concludes with the implications for the U.S. businesses that plans and desires to conduct business in Brazil.…… [Read More]

References

Aswathappa. (2010). International Business 4E. India: Tata McGraw-Hill Education.

Beekun, R.I., Stedham, Y. & Yamamura, J.H. (2003). Business Ethics in Brazil and the U.S.: A Comparative Investigation. Journal of Business Ethics, 42(3), 267-279.

Boraas, T. (2001). Brazil. USA: Capstone.

deVries, A. & Blore, S. (2010). Frommer's Brazil. 5th Edition. USA: John Wiley & Sons.
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Global Business Analysis - India

Words: 4108 Length: 16 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 29496853

This behavio is not consideed dishonest; in fact, and Indian peson would be consideed ude if he o she did not ty to attempt to give a peson what has been equested.

Anothe vey impotant aspect of business cultue in India is the meeting etiquette. Meeting Etiquette is influenced by all sots of cultual elements descibed above, including social class. Fo example, in India, one must geet the eldest o moe senio fist, and when leaving a goup each peson must bid faewell individually. Though shaking hands is common, this is only in big cities, whee the natives ae accustomed to Westenes. Men and women, howeve, do not usually shake hands.

The next pat of the business cultue is knowing Indian names, and whee they oiginate. Accoding to one aticle, names ae based upon "eligion, social class, and egion of the county." Fo Hindus fo example, in the noth, people…… [Read More]

references taken from "India: Language, Culture, Customs and Etiquette." (2011). Kwintesential. Retrieved August 13, 2011, from .

List provided by Shukla, M. (2011). "Guide to India." Executive Planet: Wiki. Retrieved August 13, 2011, from < http://www.executiveplanet.com/index.php?title=India>.

Jayaganesh, M & Shanks, G. (2009). "A cultural analysis of Business Process Management governance in Indian organizations." Department of Information Systems, University of Melbourne. Retrieved August 13, 2011, from .

Jayaganesh, M & Shanks, G. (2009). "A cultural analysis of Business Process Management governance in Indian organizations." Department of Information Systems, University of Melbourne. Retrieved August 13, 2011, from . s

McKnight, D., Stokes, P., Vilmenay, J. (2003). "India - A Market Analysis: For Staples Incorporated." University of Maryland. Retrieved August 13, 2011, from <  http://www.sixsmart.com/SSPapers/subindia.htm >.
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Crossvergence and Cultural Tendencies A Longitudinal Test

Words: 1188 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 56514825

Crossvergence and cultural tendencies: A longitudinal test of the Hong Kong, Taiwan and United States

Banking Sectors

Crossvergence in a Period of Dynamic. Turbulent Cultural Change: Assessing The Kelley, MacNab, And Worthley Study

The nuances and subtle shifts in a culture as a result of globalization is a paradox for many enterprises to manage over time and also for shot nations to anticipate and plan for economic, political and social shifts over time. As globalization continues to accelerate the integration and assimilation of diverse cultures together, the long-standing cultural frameworks including Hofstede's Model of Cultural Dimensions increasingly appears unable to capture cultural nuances effectively, and often, due to its structure, generalize differences between cultures (Kelley, MacNab, Worthley, 2006). One of the most valuable lessons learned from the Kelley, MacNab, and Worthley study is that there are often significant nuances and differences in the five cultural dimensions within a region, which…… [Read More]

References

Gupta, V. & Wang, J. 2004, "The Transvergence Proposition Under Globalization: Looking Beyond Convergence, Divergence and Crossvergence," Multinational Business Review, vol. 12, no. 2, pp. 37-57.

Kelley, L., MacNab, B. & Worthley, R. (2006) 'Crossvergence and cultural tendencies: a longitudinal test of the Hong Kong, Taiwan and United States banking sectors', Journal of International Management, 12 (1), pp. 67 -- 84, Science Direct [Online]. DOI:10.1016/j.intman.2005.04.002 (Accessed: 23 December 2009).

Ralston, D.A. 2008, "The crossvergence perspective: reflections and projections," Journal of International Business Studies, vol. 39, no. 1, pp. 27-40.

Sarala, R.M. & Vaara, E. 2010, "Cultural differences, convergence, and crossvergence as explanations of knowledge transfer in international acquisitions," Journal of International Business Studies, vol. 41, no. 8, pp. 1365-1390.
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Business Analysis of Singapore

Words: 4853 Length: 16 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 73924066

Global usiness Cultural Analysis: Singapore

The objective of this study is to answer the questions how the major elements and dimension of culture including religion, ethics, values, attitudes, manners, customs, social structures, and organizations integrated in Singapore by local conducting business. As well, this work will answer how these elements and dimensions compare with United States culture and business. Finally, this work will examine the implications for United States businesses that wish to conduct business in Singapore.

The work of Abeysinghe and Choy (2009) reports that the economy in Singapore has been undergone a transformation that has turned it into "…an Asian powerhouse…" due to the "far-sighted economic policies. The economy of Singapore is proof of the outcome of a market-driven economy taking place during fast development of high per capita income, and an environment free of corruption in which the workforce is both motivated and educated. The financial infrastructure…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Abeysinghe, T. And Choy, Meng Choy (2009) The Singapore Economy: An Econometric Perspective. New York: Routledge, 2009.

Abeysinghe, Tilak. 1996. Electronics and Growth Cycles in Singapore. National University of Singapore, Department of Economics and Statistics, Econometrics Studies Unit, Mid-Year Review of the Singapore Economy.

Asian Wall Street Journal. 1994. "Singapore Unveils Plans for Performing Arts Center," July 22 -- 23: 1.

Bachtiar, I. 2002. The conservation story. In Skyline, Commemorative Edition 2002. Singapore: Urban Redevelopment Authority.
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Global Business Culture Analysis of

Words: 4614 Length: 16 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 6188631

There are also some words that are used, which do not translate into English such as privacy. This is because the cultural traditions of Russia do not understand such concepts, which makes translating certain ideas more challenging. (Richmond, 2009, pp. 109 -- 117)

1.3.1: Russian

Russian is a Slavic language that has close ties to all of the different European languages including: English and German. This means that many of the root words are similar to what is used in the common languages spoken throughout the West. However, as far as the alphabet is concerned, the language will utilize what is known as the Cyrillic alphabet. This is different from Western languages, as each of 32 different symbols will represent particular roots of certain words. When reading the language and learning Russian, the basic alphabet will help foreign business executives to navigate their way around. With the alphabet is pronounced…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Andresen, F. (2007). Walking on Ice. Denver, CO: Outskirts Press.

Ayios, A. (2004). East West Relationships in Russia. Trust and Western Russian Business Relationships. (pp. 156 -- 180). Burlington, VT: Ashgate.

Horton, P. (2006). Religion. Russia and Belarus. (pp. 77 -- 83). Melbourne: Lonely Planet Publications.

Jones, A. (1994). Education and Society in the New Russia. Armonk, NY: ME Sharpe.