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Negative Argument for Debate
Government should NOT turn away from fossil fuels
Installing solar collectors on rooftops and insulating homes in America will not provide citizens and businesses with the energy needed to keep American strong. It is paramount that the U.S. continues to use fossil fuels. It's a no-brainer, friends: if we shut down fossil fuel electrical generating plants, we shut down American industry; we also shut down computers, schools, hospitals, factories. And, according to the World Energy Council (http://www.worldenergy.org), "cleaner fossil fuel systems mitigate and even neutralize the adverse consequences of the use of fossil fuels ... [and] the technology for these systems is advancing rapidly."
Nuclear Power, wind power and hydro power are not the ultimate answer
Nuclear power is extremely dangerous and nuclear plants can get out of control: The Chernobyl nuclear accident in ussia in 1986 caused an estimated 4,229 deaths in the…
Bray, Tom. (2005). Fossil Fuel Tempest. The Washington Times, Retrieved April 17,
2005, from http://www.washingtontimes.com .
Byfield, Mike. (2002). Kyoto -- the science and the hype. Report/Newsmagazine,
A Critical Debate of Cold War in 'Origins of Modern World'
y definition, the term Cold War implies a state of no war and no peace between two opponents. It is the kind of international rivalry in which states use all types of measures (including political, economic, social, diplomatic, technical, military and paramilitary) to achieve national objectives, however, it avoids overt armed conflict. It is a jargon, which is generally used to denote tense relations between former USSR and U.S. during the period 1947-1991. President Roosevelt conceived it during 1939-1941 when Second World War was still in progress, which reflects deep rooted animosity between U.S. And USSR. The two countries fought war together as allies against a common enemy, Nazi Germany, but the hostility against each other never died down. It re emerged as soon as the end of War was in sight.
In order to understand the…
Clare, J. Consequences of the Cold War.
Ererdi, C. The Cold War Era.
Global Security. (n.d.). Cold War. Retrieved from GlobalSecurity.org: http://www.globalsecurity.org/military/ops/cold_war.htm
Harbutt, F. The Cold War Era.
his however is not possible under the form of governance and control seen in New Zealand. he other example is that of heavy regulation as found in the U.S. And the UK. his sort of regulation results in increased controls and governance because heavy regulation doesn't lead to reduced controls and this would again lead to heavy investment in controls. his heavy investment is undesirable since it becomes Pareto inefficient. he general affect of regulation is to restrict the variation in demand for controls while simultaneously raising investment level in an otherwise unregulated environment like New Zealand.
he problem with this study is that it has some limitations which may have been affecting the results. For one we did not have full access to publicly available information and thus we may not have assessed controls effectively. his is particularly true in the case of internal auditing activities since we did…
This relationship was seen in New Zealand in 1995 however it may not be always be correct to increase controls and investment in controls if we want it to be Pareto efficiency. This concept says that allocation from one set of goods to another should only be made when this transfer would make the other set richer but the first set not any worse off. This however is not possible under the form of governance and control seen in New Zealand. The other example is that of heavy regulation as found in the U.S. And the UK. This sort of regulation results in increased controls and governance because heavy regulation doesn't lead to reduced controls and this would again lead to heavy investment in controls. This heavy investment is undesirable since it becomes Pareto inefficient. The general affect of regulation is to restrict the variation in demand for controls while simultaneously raising investment level in an otherwise unregulated environment like New Zealand.
The problem with this study is that it has some limitations which may have been affecting the results. For one we did not have full access to publicly available information and thus we may not have assessed controls effectively. This is particularly true in the case of internal auditing activities since we did not have access to full information on those. Further research would be needed to correct these possible errors and fill the gaps. Secondly we were also limited by the lack of knowledge about the quality of internal controls being used. Since the quality was unknown, this may have affected the relevance of our results to the overall issue.
Despite these limitations, we have managed to discover a complex link between risks and controls and this finding merits further research. It would be interesting to discover how this relationship works in a heavily regulated environment especially under the Sarbanes-Oxley Act.
Any reasonable topic for debate involves controversy; otherwise the issue would fail to be debatable. The phrase "Inadequate parking facilities on campus" is not even a full sentence. If the statement read, "There are inadequate parking facilities on campus,' some clarification would still be helpful in order for it to be an effective statement of debate. For example, the statement could read, "There are inadequate parking facilities on campus and therefore we should build a new parking lot in the park." In this case, the statement would be highly controversial but would imply what the author intended: that new parking facilities needed to be constructed to correct the lack of proper facilities. Statement "b," "the AIDS crisis," means literally nothing; there is nothing debatable about that statement. If someone had mentioned, "the AIDS crisis is a problem shared equally by governments as by citizens," or if someone said "the…
Fire: A Debate Over its Origins
The ability to control fire was clearly a turning point in human history, although the conditions which enabled humans to master the ability to control fire remains controversial amongst anthropologists. The fact that it was understood that fire was a significant milestone is evident even in myth, as the god Prometheus is depicted as offering fire to the first humans, and thus giving humans godlike power. Fire is a source of warmth, enabling human beings to better survive harsh conditions in the cold, and also a source of light, extending the productive day of humans. The beginnings of the human use of fire are often called so-called cooking hypothesis. As anyone who has ever cooked is aware, it is considerably easier to digest food which has been broken down through the process of fire. When humans were able to regularly cook their food, they…
Berna, F. (2013). The taming of fire was a turning point in prehistory: When and where did it begin? Retrieved from: http://www.bu.edu/anthrop/files/2013/04/Berna-Statement.pdf
Dialogue webcast. (2013). Boston University. Retrieved from: http://www.bu.edu/anthrop/dialogues/prometheus/
Shea, J. (2013). Oh, for a muse of fire: An archaeological perspective on anthropogenic fire. Retrieved from: http://www.bu.edu/anthrop/files/2013/04/Shea-BU-dialogues-statemt- revd.pdf
Contraceptives and the Health Covers Debate
The debate over who should cover the cost of contraception is alive in our society today and equally contradictory among different groups, depending on the religious persuasion, philosophical inclination or social upbringing of the people involved. There are, however, factors that remain true and alive with us that need to be well understood first before delving further into the ideological inclinations, the teen pregnancy in the U.S. stands at 273,105 as of 2013 with these babies being born of teenagers between 15 to 19 years of age. This accounts for 26.5 per 1,000 live births. In as much as this is a low record as compared to the 2012 statistics which was 10% higher, the numbers are still high and the effects of these teen pregnancies are palpable within our daily livelihoods in the local community (U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, 2015).…
Andrews M., (2014). Most Employers See A Benefit In Covering Contraceptives. Retrieved June 12, 2015 from http://www.npr.org/sections/health-shots/2014/07/15/331445402/most-employers-see-a-benefit-in-covering-contraceptives
CDC, (2015). About Teen Pregnancy. Retrieved June 12, 2015 from http://www.cdc.gov/teenpregnancy/about/index.htm
Park M., (2011). Birth Control Should Be Fully Covered Under Health Plans, Report Says. Retrieved June 12, 2015 from http://edition.cnn.com/2011/HEALTH/07/19/birth.control.iom/
U.S Department of Health and Human Services, (2015). Trends in Teen Pregnancy and Childbearing. Retrieved June 12, 2015 from http://www.hhs.gov/ash/oah/adolescent-health-topics/reproductive-health/teen-pregnancy/trends.html
Capital Punishment Debate
The United States is one of the few industrialized nations in the world that still practices capital punishment. Most European nations and our northern neighbor Canada do not have the death penalty and in fact will not send wanted criminals to the United States because of their opposition to capital punishment. Proponents of the death penalty say that it can be a deterrent to crime, that it can be cheaper than life without parole sentences, that it is a viable and just response to murder, that the death penalty is a moral imperative or even a display of divine justice. However, statistics and facts prove otherwise, which is why I am firmly opposed to capital punishment. I base my argument on four major points. First, studies show that the death penalty is costly, more costly than incarceration. Second, the death penalty is irreversible. Many people are wrongfully…
'A Question of Innocence." ACLU. 9 Dec 2003. < http://www.aclu.org/DeathPenalty/DeathPenalty.cfm?ID=9316& ; c=65>.
'Death Penalty Information Center." < http://www.deathpenaltyinfo.org/FactSheet.pdf >.
"Race and the Death Penalty." ACLU. 26 Feb 2003. < http://www.aclu.org/DeathPenalty/DeathPenalty.cfm?ID=9312& ; c=62>.
Robinson, Bruce. "Capital Punishment; The Death Penalty." Religious Tolerance.org. < http://www.religioustolerance.org/execute.htm >.
Creativity has developed to become an important part of education as evident in the increased inclusion of creativity into education policy. In light of these recent trends, creativity has become one of the most important core values and skills in the modern education curriculum. This has contributed to the emergence of the concept of creative thinking as an important component in today's education systems and policies. The significance of creativity in today's education policies and systems is evident in the increase in discussions about the concept and its consideration as a key driver of education curriculum. The inclusion of creativity in education is fueled by the fact education is focused on being a process that encourages exploration and opening up rather than simply relying on limitations and restricted choices (Ofield-Kerr par, 3). Therefore, education provides an opportunity for students to experiment in order to identify their actual interests and…
Ofield-Kerr, Simon. "Creative Education: Is Now the Time for Realism or Optimism?" The Guardian. Guardian News and Media Limited, 17 June 2013. Web. 19 Oct. 2015. .
PETERS, DIANE. "Can Creativity Be Taught? B-schools Join the Debate." The Globe and Mail.
The Globe and Mail Inc., 13 Mar. 2013. Web. 19 Oct. 2015.
However, studies have indicated that the impact of the family on the teenage sexuality is not merely an issue of family structure. Factors within the family unit such as the respect that the child has for his parents and the level and type of communication must also considered.
In light of the fact that the influence of the family is decreasing in today's society it is important that new measures be developed to educate children about sex and sexuality. Children need to be protected from relying upon their peers for information on this important and life-altering activity. In this regard, community programs need to be developed to assist the parents who are concerned with this issue so that they can become effective sex educators. Although the role of the family is decreasing for many the family remains a primary source of information and advice. For these families, community sex education…
Lawlor, Debbie A. "Teenage pregnancy rates: high compared with where and when?" Journal of the Royal Society of Medicine (2004): 121-123.
McIlhaney, Joe S. "Sexually Transmitted infection and teenage sexuality." American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology (2000): 334-339.
Miller, Kim S. "Family Communication about Sex: What are Parents Saying and Are their Adolescents Listening?" Family Planning Perspectives (1998): 218-235.
Wright, Daniel. "Limits of teacher delivered sex education: interim behavioral outcomes from randomised trial." BMJ (2002): 1430-1445.
The war on drugs is quite an expensive battle since a great deal of the resources are normally spent on catching those that buy and sell the illegal drugs in the black market prosecuting them and putting them in jail. The legalization of Marijuana in the U.S. has been an object of continued debate. Some states have already enacted laws that have legalized the therapeutic use of marijuana whereas there are others that still have pending legalization laws. There are confusing messages that re being sent by popular culture, media proponents of medical marijuana as well as political campaigns to make marijuana legal are used to perpetrate a false notion that marijuana causes no harm. This paper will look at the negative and positive aspects of legalization of marijuana in a community and in American society as a whole.
The prohibition of marijuana has to be…
Svrakic, D., Lustman, P,. Mallya, A 7 Finney, R. (2009). Legalization, Descrinilization & Medical use of Cannabis: A scientific and public health perspective. Retrieved July 25, 2014 from http://www.msma.org/docs/communications/momed/Medicinal_Use_Cannabis.pdf
Malerba, L. (2010). Medical Marijuana: The Pros and Cons of Legal Cannabis. Retrieved July 25, 2014 from http://www.procon.org/in-the-news-pdfs/huffington-post-medical-marijuana-the-pros-and-the-cons-of-legal-cannabis.pdf
NPDA Debate Between Mercer University and Morehouse College
Critical to the success of any formalized debate is the direct feedback debaters receive from the attending judges, because debaters anticipate and value the appraisal of their contributions provided by a completed debate ballot. The process of improving one's ability to persuasively present ideas is significantly enhanced when an objective opinion is provided, and by flowing a debate before submitting a decision via ballot, judges provide the impetus for aspiring debaters to hone their craft. Another crucial aspect of the balloting process is to assist the debaters -- whether they have been declared the victors or the vanquished -- to better understand the reasoning process used to inform each judge's decision. To that end, anybody attempting to accurately judge a debate must be prepared to provide insightful commentary, a rigorous analysis of each completed round, and the ultimate basis for their ballot…
Freeley, A.J., & Steinberg, D. (2012). Argumentation and debate: Critical thinking for reasoned decision making. (13th ed.). New York, NY: Cengage Learning.
Challenges Faced in Preparing for the Debate
Four challenges I faced in preparing for the debate were: 1) understanding the logic of my own argument—i.e., identifying the premise, assuring myself of its validity, and constructing my argument so that it logically followed from the premise to the conclusion; 2) identifying the counter-argument; 3) understanding the counter-argument’s logical fallacies and/or invalid premise; and 4) rebutting the counter-argument.
The first challenge for me—understanding my own argument, its premise and its logic—was difficult because it required a deep understanding of the subject and all the various sides and aspects of it. A superficial grasp of the subject would not do. I had to understand it fully in order to argue it, and I had to ensure that my argument was based on a valid premise. This was the first challenge, and I knew that my argument depended on doing the research, so I…
Chaffee, John. Thinking Critically. Boston: Wadsworth, 2012.
Goldhill, D. “How American health care killed my father.” The Atlantic, 2009.
Katz, J. “Drug deaths in America are rising faster than ever.” The New York
Times, 2017. https://www.nytimes.com/interactive/2017/06/05/upshot/opioid-epidemic-drug-overdose-deaths-are-rising-faster-than-ever.html?_r=0
Mariani, M. “How the American opiate epidemic was started by one
pharmaceutical company.” The Week, 2015. http://theweek.com/articles/541564/how-american-opiate-epidemic-started-by-pharmaceutical-company
Debating Structured vs. Unstructured Methods
This week, you have learned about the characteristics of structured and unstructured approaches in qualitative research. For this assignment, you will compare the advantages and disadvantages of each approach and discuss the merits of each.
To prepare for this assignment:
Consider what you have learned in your research courses about planning out the methodology for a research design. As you may recall, a structured or predetermined approach has been advocated in most, if not all, of your research textbooks up to this point.
eview Chapter 5 in Qualitative esearch Design: An Interactive Approach. In this chapter, Maxwell mentions the differences between a structured and an unstructured approach to qualitative methods. To what extent do you agree with the point-of-view that an unstructured approach to qualitative methods can be desirable? Under what circumstances might this be true?
With these thoughts in mind:
Write a response of…
Maxwell, J.A. (2005). Qualitative research design: An interactive approach (2nd Ed.).
Technology, a very familiar phenomenon of modern world, is continuously enhancing its ways towards comforts and luxuries. New thoughts and ideas are coming with every passing second, and what started as only a blurred vision, now became a necessity for all mankind. These have become a need of today's society making the society very much involved in these technological reforms. Several debates have been made on the topic that although the level of our technology keeps on improving day by day, but do all of these hi-tech gadgets give us the proper advantages? Are we really aware of the two different sides of the same mirror, or are we just so much accustomed to all such things around us that we don't bother to look upon the other side? Amongst these debates, two of the very famous are classical McDermott vs. Mesthene debate of 1960s and contemporary debate of Joy…
Bill Joy: Genomics, Nanotechnology and Robotics. Retrieved on 15/6/2012 from: http://www.counterbalance.net/gnr/index-frame.html
Brown, John S. And Duguid, Paul. Chapter 4. A Response to Bill Joy and the Doom-and- Gloom Technofuturists. Retrieved on 15/6/2012 from: http://www.aaas.org/spp/rd/ch4.pdf
Emannuel G. Mesthene vs. John McDermott. Retrieved on 15/6/2012 from: www.cs.sfu.ca/CC/320/mgabier/Mestene%?20vs%?20McDermott.ppt
James Burke Connections #1 - The Trigger Effect. Retrieved on 15/6/2012 from: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=WgOp-nz3lHg
According to J.P. De Caussade, God speaks "today as he spoke in former times to our fathers when there were no directors as at present, nor any regular method of direction."
In other words, Fr. De Caussade asserts that God maintains and has always maintained a personal relationship, or a providential relationship, with mankind. However, the exact way in which God exercises control over the world and the lives of humans in the world has been debated for many centuries. Indeed, in the realm of God's providence, there are numerous variables and nuanced positions, which have been argued by Christians since the time of the Apostles through to the Protestant Reformation right up to today. This paper will consider the two broader views of recent centuries -- the Arminian and the Calvinist -- and evaluate whether there might be alternative views that incorporate both perspectives of how Providence…
Aquinas, Thomas. Summa Theologiae, Benziger Bros, ed. [trans. Fathers of the English
Dominican Province]. Christian Classics Ethereal Library. 1947.
Chang, Andrew D. "Second Peter 2:1 and the Extent of the Atonement," Bibliotheca
Sacra, Jan-Mar, 1985, 52.
health care debate that has been going in the United States. It discusses the Obama Care Act and how it impacts the society. Functionalist perspectives and theories are utilized in analyzing the situation and what outcomes are expected. The major themes and concepts of the functionalist theory are discussed in detail.
The Health Care reform proposed by the Obama Administration has long been the area of debate in America and in countries all over the world. The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act go on to cut down the number of people who are not insured. It requires small businesses to provide medical insurance to all the people working in the business. The employers are obliged to provide a good quality medical insurance. Failure of the small business to provide a good health care system will result in a penalty for any employee that goes uninsured. This act applies to…
Berkman, L. et al. (2000) from social integration to health: Durkheim in the new millennium. Social Science & Medicine 51 (2000), 51 p.843-857.
Gerhardt, U. (1979) The Parsonian paradigm and the identity of medical sociology. The Sociological Review, 27 (2), p.229-251.
Napsha, J. (2011) Small Business Owners Fret over Health Care Law's Fallout . Tribune-Review/Pittsburgh Tribune-Review, 24th March.
Unknown. (2012) Supreme Court Ruling Dooms Small Business; Obamacare Increases Taxes and Red Tape Burden . The Washington Times, 29th June.
In my work "Conduit" I presented a basic fantasy of everyone's, to pee off a skyscraper. While this is a crazy and often considered offensive idea, sometimes it is those notions that free the mind in a new way.
Stelarc: I hope that people are offended by my art. I hope that in a way people are offended at the way that science has made the human body obsolete. I want viewers to feel and think when they see me hanging from flesh hooks or be enraged when they see my "Third Ear" for perhapes it will reawaken and reanimate what seems to be a dead society.
Question 3: Where do you see art and society moving in the future?
Stelarc: While I can't really speak for art in general, I fear that society is moving further and further away from the miraculous and inspired. It seems to me that…
If Clark's argument held true, then would it not be easier to simply hand the students sheets of paper with the material on it and expect them to simply read them and learn. We all know that this works for some students, but not for others. Some students need to hear the message and respond socially to it in order to learn the material. Classroom learning is not only about learning that 2 X 4 is 8, but being able to take that knowledge out of the context in which it was learned and to be able to apply it in a real world situation. This is where the multi-media approach to learning comes into play.
We now know that emotions can have a significant affect on the ability to recall information on a test (Gaigg & Bowler, 2008). This supports the role of the media and the emotions surrounding…
Clark, R.E. (1983). Reconsidering research on learning from media. Review of Educational Research, 53(4), 445-459.
Dewan, S. & Dewan, D. (2010). Distance Education Teacher as a Leader: Learning from the Path Goal Leadership Theory. Journal of Online Learning and Teaching. 6 (3): 673-685.
Gaigg, S. & Bowler, D. (2008). Free recall and forgetting of emotionally arousing words in autism spectrum disorder. Neuropsychologia. 46(9):2336-43.
Kozma, R.B. (1994). Will media influencing learning? Reframing the debate. Educational Technology, Research, & Development, 42(2), 7-19.
Therefore, while Lincoln gave a rather general statement concerning the matter, Lincoln offered an image common people can relate to and therefore agree upon. Thus, Lincoln's use of the human rights issue was unsuccessful in this context.
Secondly, Douglas raised the issue of the states free to decide on their own whether they accepted slavery or not. Douglas, points out the fact that states have according to the constitution the right and power to decide on their own for the rights given to the black people. Referring to Illinois, he concludes that slaves "belong to an inferior race, and must always occupy an inferior position," thus "I hold that Illinois had a right to abolish and prohibit slavery as she did" and therefore "we must leave each and every other State to decide for itself the same question." In his counter argument however, Lincoln failed to address specifically this issue,…
First Debate with Stephen a. Douglas. Ottawa, Illinois. August 21, 1858. The National Parc Service web site. 2007. 19 Nov. 2007 http://www.nps.gov/archive/liho/debate1.htm
Jenkins, Philip. A history of the United States. New York: Palgrave, 1997.
Remembering the U.S.A. And USSR Kitchen Debates of 1959
Before the bellicosity and belligerence exchanged by the United States of America (USA) and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) in the 1960s -- an era known today as the "Cold ar" -- the two recently emergent superpowers engaged in the delicate dance of diplomacy in the wake of their shared victory in orld ar II. One of the most interesting examples of the doomed diplomatic efforts between American and Russian leaders was known as the "Kitchen Debates," as U.S. Vice President Richard Nixon and Soviet Premier Nikita Khrushchev squared off in an often rancorous debate amidst a truly unique backdrop. On July 24th, 1959, the respective leaders of the world's dominant capitalist and communist economic powers met at the opening of the American National Exhibition -- which was held at Sokolniki Park at the U.S. Embassy in Moscow as…
Jakabovics, Barrie Robyn. "Displaying American Abundance Abroad: The Misinterpretation of the 1959 American National Exhibition in Moscow." Paper presented. 2007. Web.
Nixon, Richard M., and Nikita Khrushchev. Ashbrook Center for Public Affairs at Ashland
University. TeachingAmericanHistory.org. Kitchen Debate - Transcript. Washington D.C.: Government Printing Office, 1959. Web.
Douglas did not believe that blacks were equal to whites, but he also didn't necessarily believe that because of that fact they should be slaves. Rather, he believed that it was up to every state to decide what the rights should be. He didn't want to set forth laws about this, but rather, he wanted every state to decide for itself.
One of Lincoln's better points was that slavery had not served to bring the states of the Union together, but rather, slavery had served to put a wedge between the states of the Union. hen considering why the Union had existed in a half-free / half-slave state for so long, Lincoln commented that the men who created the government thought that slavery was only a temporary thing. He thought that when people realized that slavery would not and could not be everlasting, it would simply stop. He thought that…
Guelzo, Allen C. Lincoln and Douglas: The Debates that Defined America. Simon & Schuster; Reprint edition, 2009.
The Making of a Nation. "American History Series: The Story of the Lincoln-Douglas
Debates of 1858." 2009. Accessed August 22, 2010:
Baptism Debate: An Examination of the Purpose and Merits of Baptism
There is no trick involved in entering the Kingdom of Heaven, but many theologians argue that there are some important steps that must be taken to help pave the way, including being baptized. Issues such as whether complete immersion is required or simply a token sprinkling, who is authorized to perform baptisms and even the fundamental purpose and merits of baptism, have all been the source of enormously divisive controversy within the Christian church for two millennia. To determine the facts, this paper provides a review of the relevant peer-reviewed and scholarly literature concerning different views about the purpose and merits of baptism, and whether baptism is reserved for believers only or for infants as well. A discussion concerning what mode of baptism is biblical is followed by a summary of the research and important findings in the conclusion.…
Bryant, S.E. (2004, Winterr). "More Than a Symbol: The British Baptist Recovery of Baptismal
Sacramentalism." Baptist History and Heritage, 39(1), 120-123.
Cavendish, R. (1999). "Baptism." Man, Myth & Magic. New York: Marshall Cavendish
Governor Romney's public speaking style was somewhat less poised, but was again immediately observable in his first response. After also thanking everyone and even joking wth the President about his anniversary, he launched into a somewhat hesitant series of brief anecdotes about people wanting help. His posture shifted more frequently, his speech contained more hesitations and pauses, and his gaze wavered from the camera to the moderator to the audience present at the University of Denver, and his words were equally as evasive as the President's but without the confidence or comfort. Again, this appeared to continue throughout the debate, though Romeny did appear to gain some confidence as the debate wore on and his comfort in the setting grew.
Others believed that cost control would become a matter for distant and impersonal government boards, with a direct effect on care, and that the reduced competition brought about by the federal government's entrance into the insurance market in any form would simply lead to rising healthcare costs without any real control or oversight. These two pictures of dire futures brought about by the healthcare bill seem to be mutually exclusive, with one predicting uncontrolled expenses and the other control so tight that care is potentially denied for expense reasons alone, but both were a part of the argument against the national healthcare bill.
There has also been considerable debate regarding exactly who will be overseeing the program. There was considerable talk of "death panels," a deliberately fear-invoking image of a bunch of suit-wearing individuals determining when it was time for a person to die rather than continue to receive…
Another hugely contentious issue in the healthcare debate that raged in the summer of 2009 was the control of the expenses of the program, and how that would be related to the care received and the cost of that care (and the insurance to begin with) to the average taxpayer. On one side, many politicians and advocates stressed that even a single-payer system wouldn't mean that a government bureaucrat would decide care based on a need to control expenses; the programs overseers would assess the costs of providing healthcare and adjust spending and rates accordingly, just as occurs in the private insurance and medical services industries. Others believed that cost control would become a matter for distant and impersonal government boards, with a direct effect on care, and that the reduced competition brought about by the federal government's entrance into the insurance market in any form would simply lead to rising healthcare costs without any real control or oversight. These two pictures of dire futures brought about by the healthcare bill seem to be mutually exclusive, with one predicting uncontrolled expenses and the other control so tight that care is potentially denied for expense reasons alone, but both were a part of the argument against the national healthcare bill.
There has also been considerable debate regarding exactly who will be overseeing the program. There was considerable talk of "death panels," a deliberately fear-invoking image of a bunch of suit-wearing individuals determining when it was time for a person to die rather than continue to receive expensive medical care. The thought of panels of government bureaucrats overseeing every aspect of care, including end-of-life care, was horrific to many people, and a major source of anger and opposition to the bill. Proponents of the bill, however, insisted that the doctor and patient would still determine health care plans, and that the government's role would purely be in ensuring adequate funding in order to cover the vast majority of currently uninsured Americans. The reconciliation of these two views is still long in coming.
One on the most hotly contested debates today is whether President Bush should invade Iraq. Though there are numerous experts arguing both side of this debate, most of the public's questions are left unanswered.
There are critics who believe the United States involvement in the U.N. sanctions provoked the terrorist attacks on September 11. They blame the sanctions for an increase in the death rate of Iraqi children due to starvation. Others, however, blame Saddam Hussein for the deaths, stating he is buying weapons and living a luxurious lifestyle instead of providing food and medical supplies to the Iraqi people (Sanctions, 2001).
An Argument Against ar
The terrorist attacks have lead President Bush to consider invading Iraq. Before he can make this decision, he must first address several issues such as how much threat does Iraq pose, the cost of war, relationships with Arab Community and…
COVER EDITORIAL / Convince Us / 4 Questions Bush Must Answer Before Deciding to Invade Iraq. Newsday. (2002): 03 August. Pp.B01.
DON'T BLAME THEH SANCTIONS. Denver Rocky Mountain News. (2001): 03 December. Pp. 38A.
Frazza, Luke. U.S.-GEPHARDT-DASCHLE-IRAQ. Agence France Presse. (2002): 25 September.
IRAQ CALLS for INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE to IDENTIFY TERROR. Xinhua News Agency. (2002): 04 April.
Room for Debate: Russia and the Liberal Ideal
The Liberal Ideal of the est, which grew out of the Romantic/Enlightenment era where men like Voltaire and Rousseau espoused the qualities of naturalism, freedom, and equality, is now being challenged by Russian President Vladimir Putin. He in turn is raising questions and rebuttals from those who oppose his regime's initiatives. Three articles from The New York Times show different perspectives on this challenge -- specifically, its effects on the social, political and economic situation of those it is aimed at rebuffing. This paper will identify the perspectives, synthesize the arguments, and put forth the new argument, which is this: while estern (and Eastern) liberals may object to these anti-liberal policies, as leader of Russia Putin has the right to oppose and/or support whatever ideals he deems healthy for Russia.
Each article shows why Russia's new anti-liberal direction is problematic for both…
Bernstein, Jacob. "Anti-Gay Policies Chill Viewers' Interest." The New York Times. 31
Jan 2014. Web.
Gladstone, Rick. "Pussy Riot Members Take Tour to New York." The New York Times.
5 Feb 2014. Web.
Taking one's life as a result of the fact that the respective person is expected to suffer inhumane pain for several years until his or her death cannot possibly be compared with murder or suicide. Morality should actually be combined with logics in understanding euthanasia and people need to be more sympathetic and less egocentric regarding individuals who prefer euthanasia as the "safe way out."
Allen, Jen & Chavez, Sonia & Desimone, Sara & Howard, Debbie & Johnson, Keadron & Lapierre, Lucinda & Montero, Darrel & Sanders, Jerry "Americans' Attitudes toward Euthanasia and Physician-Assisted Suicide, 1936-2002," Journal of Sociology & Social Welfare 33.2 (2006)
Dowbiggin, Ian a Merciful End: The Euthanasia Movement in Modern America (New York: Oxford University Press, 2003)
Gailey, Elizabeth Atwood Write to Death: News Framing of the Right to Die Conflict, from Quinlan's Coma to Kevorkian's Conviction (Westport, CT: Praeger, 2003)
Neuhaus, Richard John "The…
Allen, Jen & Chavez, Sonia & Desimone, Sara & Howard, Debbie & Johnson, Keadron & Lapierre, Lucinda & Montero, Darrel & Sanders, Jerry "Americans' Attitudes toward Euthanasia and Physician-Assisted Suicide, 1936-2002," Journal of Sociology & Social Welfare 33.2 (2006)
Dowbiggin, Ian a Merciful End: The Euthanasia Movement in Modern America (New York: Oxford University Press, 2003)
Gailey, Elizabeth Atwood Write to Death: News Framing of the Right to Die Conflict, from Quinlan's Coma to Kevorkian's Conviction (Westport, CT: Praeger, 2003)
Neuhaus, Richard John "The Always Lively Newsletter Catholic Eye Reflects on Why it Is That Older People Who Are Strongly Pro-Life Are Tempted to Succumb to a Measure of Ambivalence When the Subject Turns to Euthanasia," First Things: A Monthly Journal of Religion and Public Life May 2007: 65
A normal pro-life campaign is less complex than Catholic anti-abortion principles because of the religious aspect of the matter. The connection between the Catholic Church and morality has come to be stronger in the recent years in spite of the fact that it does not essentially function based on morality alone. To a certain degree, one might be inclined to consider that the Church is wrong in promoting anti-abortion simply because it wants to follow Christian tradition. Catholic teachings are essentially derived from the Bible and "whatever the "moral" teaching of the Church might be, it is, in the final analysis, a function of how to read the Scripture. Christian morality is not, in short, a "stand-alone" moral position" (O'Brien 92). In promoting anti-abortion messages, Catholic representatives practically go against the general message that the Gospel is trying to convey.
Catholics have recently been more determined than ever to fight…
Faundes, Anibal and Barzelatto, Jose, "The human drama of abortion: a global search for consensus," Vanderbilt University Press, 2006.
John Paul II, "Evangelium Vitae: The Gospel of Life," St. Pauls Publications, 2009.
Mitchell, Alan C. "Choosing life: a dialogue on Evangelium vitae," Georgetown University Press, 1997.
O'Brien, George Dennis, "The Church and abortion: a Catholic dissent," Rowman & Littlefield, 2010.
CFACC and AOC are, by their very nature, located several hundred, sometimes thousands of miles from the air battle. And, as emphasized prior, we understand that technology allows command far more specific details than in the history of the military. That being said, no amount of technology can translate a blip on a screen to an actual threat, and react with the appropriate response within milliseconds. One would think, for instance, that with the thousands upon thousands of dollars the service spends on training their pilots, the number of scenarios engendered, and the amount of air time required to pilot a multimillion dollar piece of extraordinary equipment that command would acknowledge that there needs to be a certain level of trust and allowance for experience and pilot assessment of various high stress situations. While it is certainly true that, at times, the individual pilot cannot see the "big picture," and…
The debate surrounding capital punishment is not as clear as one might think -- in fact, there is a great deal of gray within this debate. The actual definition is State controlled taking of a human life in response to some crime committed by a person who was legally convicted of that crime (Lacayo, 2009). Capital punishment has been part of human history, and currently 58 global nations actively practice it, 95 have abolished it, and the remained have not used it in over a decade (Amnesty International, 2010). Some scholars tout the view that capital punishment produces an extremely strong deterrent effect to crime that actually saves lives, is supported by the majority of Americans, and that each execution actually results in a statistically viable reduction in murders (Muhlhausen, 2007). As of 2010, however, Amnesty International categorizes most countries as abolitionist regarding the death penalty (Figures on…
REFERENCES and WORKS CONSULTED
Atkins v. Virginia (2002). U.S. Supreme Court 536 U.S. 304.
"Campaign to End the Death Penalty." (2010). NoDeathPenalty.com. Cited in:
"Capital Punishment, 30 Years On: Support, but Ambivalence as Well." (2006).
Sociology Debate: A central debate in sociology revolves around whether the power elite or pluralist view is correct. Which do you believe and why? Explain your answer.
The Power Elite view seeks to look at the way the elites rule and influence the running of the American society as a whole in the day-to-day basis. One scholar in sociology, Smith Mark (2009) in his analysis of C. Wrights work, tries to explain the rule of the elite in terms of institution that are formed to ensure the elite has a firm hand on the power controls. He identifies three main institutions that occupy the key positions in the society; major business corporations, the federal government and the military. He says that those in command of the three institutions do and will always have the same values and interest. They coalesce and interconnect to form a single ruling minority.
Don Albrecht et.al (2005). Minority Concentration, Disadvantage, and Inequality in the Nonmetropolitan United States. Midwest Sociological Quarterly, 46:503
Impact Lab (2009). The 10 people most responsible for the Recession. Retrieved April 7, 2011
Justin Lahart, (2010). Job Losses Continue, ADP Surveys Suggest. Retrieved April 7, 2011 from http://online.wsj.com/article/SB126278421347117805.html
It must be considered, as well, that genetic testing is a somewhat newer thing and the results can be skewed; so even if a doctor did do a test and results came up negative, there is a chance something could have been positive. Is the doctor responsible for the fact that the test didn't find any genetic problems? It would be absolutely nonsensical to think that the doctor should be punished for not detecting problems. It is also incredibly unfair.
When two people decide to have children, they are basically assuming all responsibilities and they should be aware that giving birth to a child means knowing that there are certain risks involved. There is this question to be considered: If an aborted child cannot sue for wrongful death, how can anyone sue for wrongful life?
What will happen, if we aren't careful, is that doctors will become very wary of…
Bayles, Michael D. (1975). Harm to the unconceived. Kalamazoo College -- Western
Michigan University Conference in Philosophy of Law.
Doerr, Adam. (2009). The 'wrongful life' debate. Genonomics Law Report. Retrieved on September 1, 2010, from the Website:
Drug costs have gone from 26% of health care spending by private insurance companies in 1990 to 44% in 2006 (Kaiser Foundation, 2008). This issue has not been adequately addressed by health care reform. Instead, a deal appears to be made for $80 billion in concessions from the pharmaceutical industry in exchange for its support of health care reform (Kirkpatrick, 2009).
The underlying trend in each of these major issues in health care reform is controlling the rising cost. Malpractice reform seeks to control the cost of insurance to health care providers, so that they can pass those savings along to consumers. The public option provides a plan for affordable health care coverage for uninsured and underinsured Americans. This is deemed necessary because private insurers will not offer insurance to those it feels will demand too much in terms of health care costs going forward. Reducing the cost of health…
Carey, Nick. (2009). Uninsured Americans hope reform brings health coverage. Reuters. Retrieved October 7, 2009 from http://www.reuters.com/article/topNews/idUSTRE58F0NO20090916
The White House. (2009). The Obama Plan: Stability and Security for All Americans. Retrieved October 7, 2009 from http://www.whitehouse.gov/assets/documents/obama_plan_card.PDF
New York Times. (2009). Malpractice and Health Care Reform. New York Times. Retrieved October 7, 2009 from http://www.nytimes.com/2009/06/17/opinion/17wed2.html
Kaiser Family Foundation. (2008). Prescription Drug Trends. Kaiser Family Foundation. Retrieved October 7, 2009 fromhttp://www.kff.org/rxdrugs/upload/3057_07.pdf
Douglas stated that he would vote for the admission of any state with any form of the Constitution ratified by the territory's people. If the people showed that they wanted slavery, they should have it, he said, if the people prohibited slavery it should be prohibited. Of course, the entire voting population all the territories were free, white men. Still, Douglas saw this as an effective and moderate compromise and attempted to paint Lincoln as an abolitionist radical.
The most contentious specific policy at stake in the second debate was that of Kansas' prospective constitution. The people of the Kansas territory wished their state to be admitted as an enslaved state, and keep what they considered their property, namely their slaves. This was in violation of previous compromises, however, designed to keep the Union in a state of free and enslaved representational balance. Douglas supported the pro-slavery constitution of Kansas,…
These people demonstrated that a trial regarding a possible capital sentence is lengthy and is probable to reflect negatively on the suspect, considering that he or she experiences intense feelings as he or she stands and waits for the jury to decide whether he or she is going to live another day or not. Taking into account the nature of the crimes attributed to a person who is susceptible to be sentenced to death, it is irrelevant whether or not he or she spends a significant amount of time in courts.
Another legal issue that emerges when discussing in regard to capital punishment is related to the influence of constitutional rights in the case of a person who is convicted for serious crimes. "hat we have here is a head-on collision between the operating needs of the capital punishment system and the sentiments and the norms of Anglo-American criminal justice"…
Adam Bedau, Hugo, and Cassell, Paul G., "Debating the Death Penalty: Should America Have Capital Punishment? The Experts on Both Sides Make Their Case," (Oxford University Press, 2005)
Mandery, Evan J. "Capital Punishment in America: A Balanced Examination," (Jones & Bartlett Publishers, 2011)
Marzili, Alan, "Capital Punishment," (Infobase Publishing, 2008)
McCafferty, James, "Capital Punishment," (Aldine Transaction, 2009)
The Debate of Global Warming
Global Warming is a serious problem for our planet and our generation. This is a topic of much concern and debate. The climate change in our environment has been the center of many debates. Global warming is the increase in temperature in the earth's surface and in the oceans. This increase in temperature and potential continued increase in temperature is a significant threat to the environment and planet earth as we know it. This type of imbalance in the environment can impact us significantly. Scientist believes that there are things we can do as a society to prevent this horrible change in climate.
There are some natural causes that create the climate changes. One of the natural causes is the release of methane gas from the arctic tundra and wetlands. The greenhouse gas is a gas that collects heat and keeps it stored…
Climate Change Information Resources (2004). What causes global climate change? Retrieved from http://ccir.ciesin.columbia.edu/nyc/pdf/q1a.pdf
Environment News Service (2002). U.S. Report Links Human Actions to Global Warming. Retrieved from http://www.ens-newswire.com/ens/jun2002/2002-06-03-02.asp
Langdon, K. (2003). Human Activity and Global Warming. Journal of the Prometheus Society. 140. Retrieved from http://www.polymath-systems.com/pubpol/globwarm.html
Theology: The aptism Debate
Peter's encouragement sermon on the Day of Pentecost -- "repent and let each of you be baptized in the name of Jesus Christ for the forgiveness of your sins, and you shall receive the Holy Spirit" (Acts 2:38) has been the source of raging debate, marred by conflicting views on i) whether Peter was referring to spirit or water baptism; and ii) whether through the phrase 'be baptized…the forgiveness of sins', Peter was identifying baptism as a requirement for salvation[footnoteRef:1]. In other words, should Peter's exhortation be interpreted at face value, or should it be understood some other way? This text purposes to interact with the opposing views on these issues, examine their theological and syntactic viability, and then conclude with an interpretation that aligns with both the immediate and the larger contexts of the verse in question. [1: 1 ruce Compton, "Water aptism and the…
Beach, Mark. "Original Sin, Infant Salvation, and the Baptism of Infants," Mid-America Journal of Theology 12 (2001): 47-79.
Calvin, John. "Doctrine: John Calvin's Argument for Infant Baptism," The Theologian (n.d.), Accessed September 15, 2014, http://www.theologian.org.uk/doctrine/calvin-baptism.html
Campbell, Alexander. Christian Baptism: With its Antecedents and Consequents (1853), Google Ebook.
Compton, Bruce. "Water Baptism and the Forgiveness of Sins in Acts 2:38," Detroit Baptist Seminary Journal 4 (Fall 1999): 3-32.
At which point, the overall costs of care will be passed on to the tax payer in the form of higher taxes. This leads to a decrease in the overall quality of care and it will not slow the price increases, as the government seeks to restrict access to these services. Then, when the program becomes broken (such as: what is happening to Social Security) removing or reforming the bureaucracy is nearly impossible. (Messerili, 2010)
A second argument that many critics make about universal health care is: it will stifle innovation. Whenever, the government is running any kind of program, they will place a large number of restrictions and regulations on the industry. When this takes place, you are causing some of the best and brightest minds to seek careers in other fields, as the restrictions from the government are too cumbersome. A good example of this would be: the…
Trends in Health Care Costs and Spending. (2006). Retrieved March 13, 2010 from Kaiser Foundation website:
Andersen, R. (2007). Changing the U.S. Health Care System. Washington D.C: National Academy Press.
Gratzer, D. (2002). Better Medicine. Toronto, on: ECW Press.
Straightened Circumstances": A eview and Analysis of the Current Debate about Measuring Poverty and Wealth in Canada
Although there is no official definition of poverty in Canada, recent estimates place the percentage as high as 14% overall, with significantly higher levels for vulnerable populations such as single elderly females, indigenous peoples, and single females with children. These levels of poverty indicate that the problem is severe and it is important to ensure that the steps that are taken to address poverty in Canada are timely and effective. In order to ensure that the scarce resources that are used to assist impoverished Canadians are applied effectively, though, there must also be some reliable ways of determining whether progress is being made or not. To this end, this paper provides a review and analysis of the relevant literature concerning the current debate about measuring poverty and wealth in Canada, followed by a…
Armitage, A. (2005). Social welfare in Canada, 4th ed. Oxford: Oxford University Press Canada.
Canada. (2012). U.S. Government: CIA world factbook. Retrieved from https://www.cia.gov / library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/ca.html.
Canada GDP. (2012). NationMaster. Retrieved from http://www.nationmaster.com/graph/eco_
A single payer healthcare system would go a long way towards leveling the playing field for all the shareholders. A single payer system is one in which a single entity or party, is one that covers ones healthcare needs by paying for their medical needs of the people, for example, a health insurance company in some countries or the government in other countries. However, in a country like the United States, only profits dictate the rules in healthcare. So long as healthcare thrives only as a function of profit in any society, a single payer system will never be realized. Insurance companies, lawyers, among others, all are in a competition for money. Figuratively, they consume in excess of thirty three percent (33%) of the GDP, in the U.S. Yet, every day, people are denied adequate healthcare because they cannot afford. U.S. being one of the major industria;ized country in the…
Bodenheimer, T., & Grumbach, K. (2009). Understanding Health Policy: a Clinical Approach
Retrieved from http://www.nrlc.org/Medicare/Justiceargument.html
War on Drugs
The concept of the 'War on Drugs' was first coined by President Nixon back in 1971 in an effort to discourage the illegal trafficking of drugs. The primary motivation for this was the way that many states were falling victim to the dynamics of the drugs and terrorism links prevalent in the region. There have many studies conducted that show various authentic connections between the drug business and how a majority of the money it produces is used to fund terrorism and destructive activities.
Throughout the late 19th century, numerous parts of the United States, from time to time, have faced numerous disruptions in their efforts for the peace process because of the growth of the drug industry. The entire debate on war in drugs now revolves around whether or not, certain drugs must be legalized/not legalized and their trafficking and distribution monitored. In a recent article,…
Duzan, M.J. (1994). Death Beat: A Colombian Journalist's Life inside the Cocaine Wars, ed. And trans. By Peter Eisner. New York: Harper Collins Publishers, p. 4.
Ehrenfeld, R. (1990). Narcoterrorism. Basic Books, pp. 31 -- 36.
Falcoff, M. (2000). Colombia: The Problem that Will Not Go Away. AEI Latin American Outlook March 2000: 1, http://www.aei.org/lao/lao11476.htm
Hudson, R.A. (1995). Colombia's Palace of Justice Tragedy Revisited: A Critique of the Conspiracy Theory. Terrorism and Political Violence 7: 100 -- 103, 119 -- 121.
There is also a question of costly salary increases in general, even if the comparable worth system is fairer. This fairness may cost the business extra in needless salary costs, when the employees would be unlikely to look for jobs elsewhere, given that they could not do so for more pay. A private company has a responsibility to make money for its shareholders, and a hospital has a responsibility to the sick to keep costs contained.
Staff discontent is another issue. Undoubtedly, the staff members in the positions that are judged to be too highly paid will feel slighted. If these employees are unionized, they may force the business (in this case a hospital) to undergo costly legal negotiations. If the pay readjustment affects one group disproportionately, for example males, they may allege that reverse discrimination…
The debate over hell is a complex one, not so different than the multi-layered aspects of the matters of the Charismatic Gifts, Christology, Providence or the fate of the non-evangelized, etc. There are different views and facets to the issue, however, what is all the fuss surrounding the concept of Hell? Is it just the possibility of such a place that makes people so uneasy? Are people afraid of ending up in hell or just confused regarding the concept? This paper will focus on a broad and accurate understanding of Hell and its image. Following are the lines of thought the paper will be pursuing while analyzing the concept of hell:
The background of Hell; a look into the history of the concept.
Words and phrases used to describe Hell's reality or as a punishment.
An analysis of the two segregated viewpoints that dictate Protestant Evangelicalism.
Boyd, Gregory A., and Paul R. Eddy. Across the Spectrum: Understanding Issues in Evangelical Theology. 2nd ed. Grand Rapids, MI: Baker Academic, 2009.
Douglas, J.D., revising editor, Merrill C. Tenney, and general editor. The New International Dictionary of the Bible. Pictorial ed. Grand Rapids, MI, U.S.A.: Zondervan, 1999.
Elwell, Walter A., ed. Evangelical Dictionary of Theology. 2nd ed. Grand Rapids, Mich.: Baker. Academic, 2001.
Enns, Paul. The Moody Handbook of Theology. Rev. and expanded. ed. Chicago Moody Publishers, 2008.
The case snowballed and grew until the nation viewed Zelmanv Simmons-Harris as the test case to try the legal boundary between church and state. It was also looked to for the purpose of redefining the meaning and scope of public education in America.
Enacted by the Ohio legislature in 1995, the Cleveland Scholarship and Tutoring Program allows 4,000 low-income children to attend private religious and secular schools with up to $2,250 in public support (Vitteritti, 2002). Participating schools must cap their tuition at $2,500 a year; the state pays up to 90% of whatever the school charges, depending on family income (Vitteritti, 2002). Following a high-profile legal battle, the program was upheld by the Ohio Supreme Court in 1999, prompting opponents to take their case into federal court (Vitteritti, 2002). On the day before school was to open that year, federal district court judge Solomon Oliver struck down the program,…
Text of U.S. Supreme Court decision: Zelman, superintendent of Public Instruction of Ohio, et al. v. Simmons-Harris et al. (Features). Journal of Church and State | Date: June 22, 2002 | More results for: Zelman vs. Simmons-Harris No. 00-1751 536 U.S. -- (2002) Argued February 20, 2002 Decided June 27, 2002
Vouchers on trail: will the U.S. Supreme Court's decision in Zelman end the voucher debate? (Feature).(Statistical Data Included) Education Next | Date: June 22, 2002 | Author: Viteritti, Joseph P. | More results for: Zelman vs. Simmons-Harris
Zelman: the court gets it right. (Opinion).(school voucher case)
First Things: A Monthly Journal of Religion and Public Life | Date: January 1, 2003 | Author: Uhlmann, Michael M. | More results for: Zelman vs. Simmons-Harris
Additionally, the utilitarian position presents the advantage of objectively quantifying the interests of everyone affected by the decision, for the sole purpose of promoting common welfare. Thus, harvesting, fertilizing, genetically screening, implanting and researching human embryos at the risk of damaging or destroying them - is entirely justified from this perspective, and any progressive endeavor is encouraged.
Nevertheless, this approach might involuntarily discourage many IVF clients as it appears to be too rigid and provides them with little autonomy in making decisions regarding their own embryos. Interestingly, a utilitarian might not even support IVF treatment, due to the risks involved in the whole process - namely a large financial loss if the process should fail -, an therefore it is uncertain whether or not this infertility treatment would meet the Utilitarian requirements of avoiding pain and creating the most amount of happiness; there might be a lot of future un-happiness…
Balasubramanian, J. And Narayanan, N. "Assisted Reproductive Technology: life cycle of reproduction." Discovery Life Journal, Vol. 3 No. 9, March 2013:13-16.
Beauchamp T.L. And Childress, J.F. Principles of Biomedical Ethics (5th ed.). New York: Oxford University Press, 2001.
Botkin, J.R. "Ethical Issues and Practical Problems in Preimplantation Genetic Diagnosis." In Journal of Law, Medicine & Ethics, 16 (1998): 17-28.
Kolata, G. "Robert G. Edwards Dies at 87; Changed Rules of Conception With First 'Test Tube Baby'." The New York Times. The New York Times Company, 10 Apr. 2013. Web. 4 June 2013. Available: http://www.nytimes.com/2013/04/11/us/robert-g-edwards-nobel-winner-for-in-vitro-fertilization-dies-at-87.html?pagewanted=all&_r=0 .
Stem Cell Ethics
Debating the Ethics of Stem Cells
The term 'stem cells' can mean different things to different people. For some, it conjures images of medical miracles providing solutions for heart disease, diabetes, and dementia. For others, it terrifies with a future filled with cloned humans. Still others cringe at the thought of mass producing cultured human embryos for the sole purpose of providing organs and tissues for a paying public. As with most complex issues, news media coverage tends to exaggerate easily understood concepts at the expense of the overall truth and the public accordingly remains ignorant of the subtleties surrounding this debate. This seems to add fuel the emergence of polarized camps and a shrinking of a common middle ground. To better define this middle ground, this essay will discuss both sides of this debate and argue instead that the vast majority of people would likely support…
Antiniou, Michael. "The Case Against & #8230;" Nature Medicine 7.4 (2001): 397-399. Web. The author argues that the use of embryonic stem cells for research and medicine poses significant ethical and moral issues that cannot be overcome. Of particular concern is the potential for reproductive cloning, a door that the author believes was opened when the UK government approved the use of embryonic stems cells for research and medicine.
Blow, Nathan. "In Search of Common Ground." Nature 451.7180 (2008): 855-858. Web. The author presents several issues facing researchers who work with stem cells and discusses why they are important to advancing this field of research. Of primary concern is developing standard protocols for producing stem cells and creating the necessary protocols and reagents that will allow the therapeutic use of stem cells in humans.
Leeb, C., Jurga, M., McGuckin, C., Forraz, N., Thallinger, C., Moriggl, R. et al. "New Perspectives in Stem Cell Research: Beyond Embryonic Stem Cells." Cell Proliferation 44.1 (2011): 9-14. Web. The focus of this article is the promises and limitations of embryonic, adult, and induced pluripotent stem cells, from the perspective of scientists working in this field. The ethical decisions concerning the use of embryonic stem cells are only mentioned in passing.
Power, Carl and Rasko, E.J. "Promises and Challenges of Stem Cell Research for Regenerative Medicine." Annals of Internal Medicine 155.10 (2011): 706-713. Web. The authors discuss in detail the three main types of stem cell technologies: embryonic, adult, and induced pluripotent. Ethical issues are mentioned occasionally, but not discussed.
This is because resources available within the environment will provide all what is required for the state (Department of Environment, Food & ural affairs, 2013).
Many countries are same when it comes to the endowments of natural, human and physical capital. However, there is a difference when it comes to the economic development level that can be achieved in a particular country. There are three types of capital that can determine the economic growth process but in a partial manner however, there is a missing link between the three types of capital which is the social capital. Social capital is based on social norms and bonds which have an important role to play when it comes to sustainable development. Social capital emphasizes on the participation on a civic level as well as a horizontal association among people such as social networks. This is also through associated norms that…
Accenture.(2011). Government's role in Sustainable Development. Retrieved April 26,2013
Bayelsa state portal.(2013). Bayelsa State Sustainable Development Strategy. Retrieved April 26,2013 from http://bayelsa.gov.ng/portal/ministries-departments-agencies/agencies/bayelsa-state-sustainable-development-strategy
Department of Environment, Food & Rural affairs.(2013). Making sustainable development a part of all government policy and operations. Retrieved April 26,2013 from https://www.gov.uk/government/policies/making-sustainable-development-a-part-of-all-government-policy-and-operations
Such prohibition, Bentham contended, would be a contradiction to the preservation of individual rights. He even goes so far as to signal the necessity for a change in approach to contending with any questions regarding the prescription of rights, here channeled through the words of John Stuart Mill. The remarks seem directed in their derisive tone at the unempirical thinkers espousing the Law of Nature as a singular lens for evaluating human rights.
"Instead of taking up their opinions by intuition, or by ratiocination from premises adopted on a mere rough view, and couched in language so vague that it is impossible to say exactly whether they are true or false, philosophers are now forced to understand one another, to break down the generality of their propositions, and join a precise issue in every dispute." (Mill, 1)
Guided by the central principle that morality may defined as the creation, extension…
California Medical Association (CMA). (1973). Where We Stand -- CMA Position Papers: Abortion. Western Journal of Medicine, 116(6), 42-59.
Mill, J.S. (1838). Bentham. London and Westminster Review. Online at http://socserv2.socsci.mcmaster.ca/~econ/ugcm/3ll3/bentham/bentham
Rachels, J. (1993). The Utilitarian Approach. The Elements of Moral Philosophy, pg.
91-101. New York: McGraw Hill.
Solutions to Marriage Debate
The marriage debate is a polarizing debate regarding, most people assume, whether gay individuals should have the right to marriage or not. On the homosexual side, it is important to be afforded the same rights as married couples both because they wish to enjoy the same benefits accorded those who are married and because the status of married carries with it different connotations. The opposite opinion is marked by individuals who do not want homosexual couples to use the term "married" because it is a union endorsed in the Bible and would be sullied if people that these individuals believe are in active sin were able to claim that they were married. It is a difficult questions and one that has been debated in public places, the media and by politicians. This paper looks at two journal articles with contrasting views that may not offer a…
Brumbaugh, Stacey M, Laura A. Sanchez, Steven L. Nock, and James D. Wright. "Attitudes Toward Gay Marriage in States Undergoing Marriage Law Transformation." Journal of Marriage & Family 70 (2008): 345-359. Print.
Polikoff, Nancy D. "Law that Values all Families: Beyond (Straight and Gay) Marriage." Journal of the American Academy of Matrimonial Lawyers 22 (2009): 85-104. Print.
While this may indeed be true to some extent, it may not be the case in all instances. The jury may take all the necessary precautions to ensure that the death sentence is not handed to those who do not deserve it but it is not infallible. This means that there is a rather high probability of the death penalty being meted out to some undeserving parties.
In my opinion, the author has also refused to address some of the most controversial aspects of the debate. This makes the article appear biased. Some of the arguments presented by the author are also inconsistent with the findings of past studies. In some cases, Cassell also attempts to pass off his own beliefs and worldviews as statements of fact.
To his credit, the author can be said to have undertaken a comprehensive review of literature. The author also tends to enhance the…
Cassell, P.G. (2002). In Defense of the Death Penalty. IACJ Journal, 14-28. Retrieved June 22, 2012, from: http://da-tulareco.org/PDF/In_defense_of_the_DP.pdf
Armentrout, Jeff. "Lincoln-Douglas Debates in 1858." lecture., Newton Local School, 2012. Newton Local School http://newton.k12.oh.us/~jeff_armentrout/FOV2-001026E5/FOV2-001026E7/Lincoln-Douglas Debates PP.pdfPlugin=Loft.
he paper discusses the issues that were present in the U.S.A. At the time of the presidential elections in which Abraham Lincoln took part. It also describes the position of both the parties especially Douglas and Abraham. he paper then discusses the problems in the Democrat and the Republican parties. hen, after careful evaluation of all the contenders and their respective parties, the paper gives the results of the elections.
Chicago: Abraham Lincoln Presidential Library and Museum, 2003. "MEE MARY LINCOLN BIOGRAPHICAL NARRAIVE & CHRONOLOGY." http://www.lincolnlogcabin.org/education-kits/Mary-Lincoln-Lesson-Plans/Mary-Lincoln-Narrative-and-Chronology.pdf (accessed April 13, 2013).
his source contains complete information about Mary odd Lincoln. It discusses in detail, Mary's early life, her schooling, character and looks and features as well. It also puts light on how Mary met Abraham Lincoln and how they got married. he transition of…
The ancestry, family background, siblings, educational life, death and burial of Mary Todd Lincoln were presented in this paper. This paper analyses the shifts in the life style of Mary Todd Lincoln after her marriage to Abraham Lincoln. Her occupation before and after marriage, her political career and her life as a first lady are also discussed in this paper. This paper also demonstrates how Mary Todd Lincoln spent her post-presidential life.
Wildemuth, Susan. "Elizabeth Keckley and Mary Todd Lincoln Quilt." Quilter's World Magazine, February 2009. http://www.quiltersworld.com/webbonuses/pdfs/elizabeth_keckley_mary.pdf (accessed April 14, 2013).
This paper is taken from the quilter's world magazine. It starts with the introduction of Elizabeth Keckley and her skills in making clothes. The paper also gives details about how she experienced an encounter with Mary and how they became friends. The paper ends with the description of the quilt Elizabeth made from the left over pieces of cloth from the gowns of Mary Lincoln.
Data is numerical. It is research based on facts, not interpretative (Kover, 2008). This form of study is used to test hypotheses and establish causality. Quantitative data is used to explain data at the micro, meso, macro, and world levels of analysis (Smith, 2005).
For years, the debate over which field of study is more valid -- qualitative or quantitative -- has waged. Qualitative study centers on behaviors and what prompts those behaviors. The data obtained is narrative, which leads to an interpretative analysis of the data and the researcher interacts with the study. Quantitative study is analytical. The data obtained is numerical and is used to test specific hypotheses, in order to establish relationships. Although the two are quite different from one another, they are both valid forms of study. One form is not always appropriate in every research situation. In some instances, the richness achieved with qualitative…
Ferdig, R., Sprague, D., Maddux, C., & Albion, P. (2007). Editorial: Publishing data evidence to support educational technology claims. Journal of Technology & Teacher Education, 15(4). Retrieved December 13, 2009, from Education Research Complete.
Goguen, J., Knight, M. & Tiberius, R. (Dec 2008). Is it science? A study of the attitudes of medical trainees and physicians toward qualitative and quantitative research. Advances in Health Sciences Education, Theory, and Practice, 13(5). Retrieved December 13, 2009, from MEDLINE.
Howick, S., Ackermanna, F., & Andersen, D. (Summer 2006). Linking event thinking with structural thinking: Methods to improve client value in projects. System Dynamics Review, 22(2). Retrieved December 13, 2009, from Business Source Complete.
Kover, A. (2008). Qual. Vs. quant... again! International Journal of Advertising, 27(4). Retrieved December 13, 2009, from Business Source Complete database.
Controlling TV Programmes:
The debate on whether or not to adopt stricter means of controlling television programmes arises from the impact of certain programmes on the viewers. This debate also emanates from the cultural and ethical concerns raised by various people regarding the suitability of certain television programmes. According to research on television, it has emerged that programme-makers and broadcasters sometime fail to draw the line when showing certain programmes. As a result, certain sections of the public has lost their degree of trust in television programming arguing that there should be stricter measures to control television programmes while others differ with them.
Arguments Supporting Stricter Control of TV Programmes:
The increased loss of trust and ethical concerns regarding television programming has resulted in various people supporting the adoption of stricter mechanisms of controlling TV programs. The proponents of such measures point at the following reasons & #8230;
Hayes, D.A. (n.d.). The Children's Hour Revisited: The Children's Television Act of 1990.
Retrieved from Indiana University website: http://www.law.indiana.edu/fclj/pubs/v46/no2/hayes.html
Kiisweko, O. (2011, August 19). The Dilemma of Children Hooked Onto TV. Retrieved August
31, 2011, from http://dailynews.co.tz/feature/?n=22940&cat=feature
Fluoridation: A Public Health Debate
Fluoridation (the adding of fluoride to water) has been a hotly debated health issue for over half a century. Some advocate fluoridation by citing the many oral benefits available through the process, heralding the betterment of public hygiene that has been achieved from the procedure's inception. Detractors, on the other hand, point out the possible side effects from the abuse of fluoridation, the health problems being experienced around the globe by countries with fluoridated water, and the indelible rights of man. Because the decision to fluoridate drinking water or not affects so many of the worlds population it is definitely a worthy topic to sink ones teeth into.
The concept of fluoridation began in the early 20th century by a Colorado Springs, Colorado dentist named Frederick McKay. Upon moving to the area from the East Coast, McKay noticed that several of his patients "exhibited strange…
http://www.ada.org -- retrieved February 18, 2002
http://www.cdc.gov/nccdphp/oh/fl-info.htm -- retrieved February 18, 2002
http://www.nidcr.nih.gov -- retrieved February 18, 2002
www.nofluoride.com -- retrieved February 18, 2002
He believed that these functions and their personal elements can be separated only artificially. The personal element in the selective function is an aesthetic response, and in heuristic function it is a goal-directed striving as the following Polyani quote clarifies:
Scientific passion serves also as a guide in the assessment of what is of higher and what of lesser interest; what is great in science, and what relatively slight. I want to show that this appreciation depends ultimately on a sense of intellectual beauty; that it is an emotional response which can never be dispassionately defined, any more than we can dispassionately define the beauty of a work of art or the excellence of a noble action."
In summary, logical empiricism provides a strict definition of science centered on facts. In comparison, integrative philosophy melds logical empiricism with tacit knowledge, blurring traditional empiricist distinctions between art and science. Today, the…
Jha, S.R. Michael Polanyi's integrative philosophy. Retrieved October 7, 2004 from Harvard University Web Site: http://www.kfki.hu/chemonet/polanyi/9602/mp1.html
Jones, R.S. (1982). Physics as Metaphor, Univ Minn Press, p.207.
Phelan, S.E., What is complexity science, really? Retrieved October 7, 2004 from University of Texas at Dalles Web site: http://220.127.116.11/search?q=cache:_d6gNqd5l_EJ:www.utdallas.edu/~sphelan/Papers/whatis.pdf+%22logical+empiricism%22+and+%22what+is+science%22&hl=en
Jones, R.S. (1982). Physics as Metaphor, Univ Minn Press, p.207.
Despite the fact that certain parties (as in Chicago) may be arguing that the war on drugs cost billions a year, it must not be forgotten that the war on drugs also yields revenue for the government, and that legalizing drugs would cost more than it saved. "Marijuana... harms society by causing lost productivity in business...and by contributing to illnesses and injuries that put further strain on the health care system." (National Drug Council) if drugs were legalized, they would increase health costs, especially among poor and black communities (which are more likely to take drugs and to be on federal support) and from there on the medical support system and taxpayers of the country. Additionally, such use would negatively effect businesses and families, and the loss in taxes from income earned could be significant.
In conclusion, marijuana restrictions should in no way be relaxed, because marijuana is a serious…
Hager, Paul. "Marijuana Myths http://www.cs.indiana.edu/hyplan/hagerp/myths.html
Maginnis, Robert L. "Legalization of Drugs: the Myths and the Facts http:www.sarnia.com/groups/antidrugs/argument/myths.html
National Organization for the Reform of Marijuana Laws http://www.norml.org
Office of the National Drug Control Policy http://www.whitehousedrugpolicy.gov/
The next cycle came with Polish, ussian, and other Baltic state immigrants being targeted during the 1940's and 50' with events like the ed Scare that swept across America. There is no doubt that all of these periods had very restrictive immigration polices directed at the target groups and there were specific legal policies implemented to curb future immigration. but, perhaps more worrisome was that there were also underlying mass racism movements during all of these scenarios directed against these immigrants whether they were enemies of our nation or not.
Again, our immigration and naturalization policies needed reevaluation after September 11, 2001, which was an obviously horrific day in our history. That event made us view our existing immigration, naturalization and work as well as student visa policies. In other words, we were doing the same things that were done to the Chinese, German, Japanese and Baltic state immigrants -…
Chew, Kenneth SY, and John M. Liu. (2004). "Hidden in Plain Sight: Global Labor Force Exchange in the Chinese-American Population, 1880-1940." Population and Development Review Vol. 30
Ellis Island. (2005.) Migration. Retrieved on March 9, 2005, from Ed. Monroe K12 at http://www.monroe.k12.fl.us/kls/Immigration/EllisIsland/Ellisisland.htm .
Sociology - Welfare
Same sex marriage
The debate about same sex marriage has brought about a lot of controversy from all quarters. It has elicited debates in religious circles, secular and traditionalists. Many people who are against this kind of union argue their case from a religious perspective; some enjoin morality to it concerning homosexuality.
In this context I would like to distance my argument and come out clearly that I don't discriminate people on grounds of their sexuality, since I have a strong conviction that we are all equal and should all enjoy equal right and benefits. I am worried however by the deification we want to include in the institution of marriage that is including same sex couples as married people this am concerned since my argument is based on a marriage which a social institution symbolizing the reproductive human relationship.
Since time immemorial the institution of marriage has been central…
An on-going Debate on Ethics and Morality
The topic examined in this assignment was the death penalty. In this country, this issue is one of constant debate, as it exists in half the country (roughly), but not in the other half. The first paper, as mentioned, analyzed three articles, all of which were subsequently described and included in the copy in order to see how the death penalty was described by intellectuals, and what arguments they gave as to its use, or lack thereof. This paper will utilize Universal Intellectual Standards (UIS) to critically review and re-evaluate the rational utilized in the previous assignment.
Firstly, clarity is very important in this assignment. The reason why the results here were further stratified was because the initial results were lacking in clarity. According to the UIS, clarity is the fist that should be applied to any work, in order to…
Cooper, K. (2010). Why the death penalty still exists in the U.S.: Author ties the practice to slavery, racism. The Boston Globe. Retrieved February 5, 2012, from . (ProQuest was utilized)
Richey, W. (2009). Death penalty is too expensive for states, study finds. The Christian Science Monitor. Retrieved February 5, 2012, from .
Rosenberg, P. (2002). A balanced study of death penalty. The Denver Post. Retrieved February 5, 2012, from . (LexisNexis was utilized)
Please also note that for this analysis, the source provided by the customer including paper requirements were also utilized.
Amateur sport was seen as necessary in honing the character of the elite members of British society, and violent bouts of rugby were praised for their character-building potential. However, as soon as a player tainted himself with the desire to make money, he risked losing his class status. Some sports, such as cricket, had so few lower-class devotees, the taint of amateurism was of little concern, while with horseback riding there was a clear division because of the lifestyle (and weight requirements) that separated for-profit flat racing and 'sporting' or 'squire-led' country hunting. But whenever the danger of too much contact between the elites and the lower classes proved a threat, and the chance that upper-class individuals might transgress by playing a game for money, for lower-class spectators, such as in rugby, institutional barriers were created to prevent the pollution of class barriers.
Lincoln, Allison. Review of…
Lincoln, Allison. Review of Amateurism in British Sport: It Matters Not Who Won or Lost?
D. Porter & S. Wagg (Ed). Institute of Historical Research. Review no.678.
URL: http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews / paper / porterwagg.html
Date accessed: 07 February 2010