Dissociative Identity Disorder Essays Examples

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Dissociative Effect and the Butterfly Effect

Words: 1545 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 19835813

Butterfly Effect


Evan Treborn, the main character of the movie, lived a life of severe traumas (Bress & Gruber, 2004). These experiences resurface in adulthood in the form of blackouts, especially during times of extreme stress. His early life traumas include being compelled to participate in child pornography by their neighbor George Miller; nearly dying from strangulation by his own institutionalized mentally ill father Jason; his father's getting killed right before him by guards; a mother and her infant daughter dying from the dynamite he and his friends were playing with; and witnessing his dog die by burning by Tommy, son of their neighbor George Miller (Bress & Gruber).

It was seven years later when he discovered that he could travel into the past and redo parts of it (Bress & Gruber, 2004). It turned out that his travels to the past coincide with his blackouts as a child. But he also discovered that the changes he made on early actions had consequences in his present life. Altering his personal timeline, for example created alternate futures, such as when he became a college student fraternity member. At that time, he also got imprisoned for killing Tommy and an…… [Read More]

Works Cited:
and the Law: American Academy of Psychiatry. Retrieved on September 30, 2014 from http://www.jaapl.org/content/42/2/214/full.pdf+html

Robichaud, G. (2011). Dissociative amnesia in "The Butterfly Effect." AP Psychology.

Retrieved on September 30, 2014 from  http://wwwgenrobpsych.blogspot.com/2011/01/dissociative-amnesia-in-butterfly.html
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Conversion Disorders for Whom Are

Words: 580 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 86298810

Cognitive triad (Beck). Negative views of the self, environment, and the future.

14. Seligman's learned helplessness theory. Failure to respond to a threatening situation even if there is an obvious mode of escape due to past experiences of being unable to escape from situations.

15. Difference between bipolar I and bipolar II. Bipolar I consists of periods of mania and depression; bipolar II consists of periods of hypomania and depression.

16. Adjunctive psychotherapy. Psychotherapy in addition to other forms of treatment (here therapy is considered secondary).

17. Know that the chance of recovery for someone receiving effective therapy for depression is about 60%. OK

18. Suicide

a. Attempts vs. completions. Males more successful than females due to means (e.g., gun vs. pills). Two groups: Adolescents and Elderly adults are more successful. Depression, substance abuse, and co-morbid psychiatric disorders with depression are also prevelant.

b. Do we have a good way of knowing suicide rates? In terms of epidemiology, the rates are calculated by the number of suspected suicides in the most recent year. These are determined by physician's reports of cause of death.

Limitations of suicide research. Cannot interview successful completers, dx made of physician, unsuccessful attempters may be different…… [Read More]

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Multiple Personality Disorder the First

Words: 1348 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 57887587

In the whole history of the world less than 200 cases were reported. Beginning about 1980, however, a skyrocketing epidemic of multiple personality disorder occurred amounting to tens of thousands of cases. Psychologists such as Greaves (1980) and Bliss (1980) estimated as many as 10% of Americans were suffering from the disorder (newly named Dissociative Identity Disorder). The literature swelled with articles, for example, "Multiple Personalities: A report of 14 Cases with Implications for Schizophrenia and Hysteria" by Eugene L. Bliss (1980) in which he stated that when he started to seek "candidates" (people with MPD) he discovered "that these problems are not uncommon -- I had simply missed them in the past. In the last year, I have seen and studied 14 cases, and they continue to appear with remarkable frequency" (p. 1388).

In another article, "Multiple Personality 165 Years after Mary Reynolds" by George B. Greaves (1980), Greaves states, "...the alter selves in multiple personality first arise as dissociative defenses against trauma, under specific circumstances, followed by repression of the trauma. Following such dissociation(s), the individual is left to cope with his or her environment in an impaired way" (p. 583). A very lucrative and burgeoning industry built…… [Read More]

Bliss, E.L. (1980). Multiple personalities: A report of 14 cases with implications for schizophrenia and hysteria. Archives of General Psychiatry, 37, 1 388-1398.

Greaves, G.B. (1980). Multiple personality 165 years after Mary Reynolds. The Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 168 (1), 577-594.
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Jane Appears to Be Suffering From Dissociative

Words: 969 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 16627477

Jane appears to be suffering from dissociative identity disorder based on the first three diagnostic criteria for this condition (American Psychiatric Association [APA], 2000). A person with dissociative identity disorder maintains multiple mutually-exclusive personalities in order to distance themselves from past traumatic events. Her behavior when interacting with the therapist suggests that she experienced at least two distinct personalities (criterion A) that recurrently appeared (criterion B) and had mutually-exclusive psychological experiences (criterion C). Jane's self-reported history of sexual assault and exposure to violence is consistent with this diagnosis, and could be contributing to her depressive symptoms. The attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) diagnosis could in fact be a sign that Jane also suffers from borderline personality disorder, since impulsivity is included as a relevant symptom. ADHD is commonly diagnosed in children and involves severe focusing problems, impulsivity, and an inability to be calm. Borderline personality disorder represents a condition of significant social impairments, including an inability to form lasting, intimate relationships with others that are not primarily co-dependent.

Treatment would begin by validating the diagnosis. This can be accomplished by assessing Jane's susceptibility to being hypnotized, degree of dissociation, medical history, evidence of self-inflicted injury, evidence of physical assault, substance…… [Read More]

American Psychiatric Association (2000). Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th Edition, Text Revision (DSM-IV-TR). Arlington, VA: American Psychiatric Publishing, Inc.

International Society for the Study of Dissociation. (2005). Guidelines for treating dissociative identity disorder in adults. Journal of Trauma & Dissociation, 6, 69-149. Retrieved 13 Dec. 2011 from http://www.isst-d.org/education/treatmentguidelines-index.htm
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Pharmacological Treatment Multiple Personality or Dissociative Disorder

Words: 1886 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 14430740

Pharmacological Treatment

Multiple personality or dissociative disorder is an exceptionally uncommon mental disorder in which an individual has two or more different personalities. Each of these personalities has unique characteristics such as mind-set, emotions behavioral patterns. Frequently, the personalities are totally differing and take over the real individual at unusual times. This transition takes place in sudden switches when the patient is triggered by painful events or miserable reminiscences. Each personality is perhaps completely uninformed about the others. However, the person is usually acquainted with the fact that there were mysterious gaps in times he/she remembers ("multiple personality," 2013).

According to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual for Mental Disorders, dissociative disorders are "characterized by the presence of two or more distinct identities or personality states, each with its own relatively enduring pattern of perceiving, relating to, and thinking about the environment and self, that recurrently take control of the individual's behavior" (American Psychiatric Association, 2000).

It was in the nineteenth century that Pierre Janet, a renowned French physician, recognized and explained multiple personality/dissociative disorder for the first time. The reason behind the development of multiple personality disorder is still not evidently understood. However, this rare condition is almost always linked…… [Read More]

American Psychiatric Association. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual for Mental Disorders (4th edition, text revision -- DSM-IV-TR). Washington DC: American Psychiatric Press; 2000.

Dissociative Disorders: Treatments and Drugs. (2011, March 3). Mayo Clinic. Retrieved August 19, 2013, from http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/dissociative-disorders/DS00574/DSECTION=treatments-and-drugs
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Psycho Disorder Psychological Disorders Represented

Words: 1559 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 43995897

It also suggests issues Norman has in coming to terms with his own sexuality that, quite thankfully, do not apply to me personally.


There can be little doubt of Norman Bates' diagnosis with a dissociative identity disorder; the behaviors and beliefs he exhibit are near-textbook examples of the disturbance (Myers 2009). His relationship with his mother is never explicitly detailed, though it was obviously an unhealthy one, and the events of his upbringing seem to have led almost inevitably to the chain of events that unfolds during the action of the film. This is often the way that psychological disorders work, especially those that are the result of long-term trauma and abuse; the personality is set up in the developmental stages of life and continues basically unaltered throughout adulthood. The exact cause and nature of this psychological issue are left unanswered, though not unaddressed, in Psycho, which is what makes the film such a successful blend of suspenseful fiction and scientific truth. The disturbing nature of Bates' personality is sure to engage audiences for generations to come. A psychological understanding of Norman Bates disorders and specific personality traits is certainly interesting and edifying, but it is non-essential or even…… [Read More]

Works Cited:
Hitchcock, a. (1960). Psycho. Shamley Productions.

Myers, D. (2009). Psychology in everyday life. New York: Worth Publishers.
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Somatoform and Dissociative Disorders the Chapter Opens

Words: 890 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 76272291

Somatoform and Dissociative Disorders

The chapter opens with the story of a man who mysteriously becomes paralyzed after he cannot save his wife from drowning. Psychologists call this kind of problem a somatoform disorder -- physical problems not explainable in medical terms but caused by some kind of psychological dysfunction.

Hysterical Somataform Disorders: In hysterical somatoform disorders, the person shows a change in physical functioning. It can be difficult to diagnose because it isn't always possible to rule out all physical causes.

In conversion disorders, a conflict the person has gets converted into physical symptoms. The example of the man who was paralyzed after his wife drowned is an example of conversion disorder. The problem could be blindness or some other neurological symptom. They're more common in women and appear during great stress.

Sometimes the conversion disorder gets the person attention, such as claiming a wide range of symptoms that baffle the doctors and send the person on a medical quest to find someone who can treat them. Sometimes the conversion of a psychological conflict to physical symptoms includes a sensation of pain. Because these problems can resemble real physical ailments, it can present diagnostic problems, but often an examination…… [Read More]

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PTSD Treatment Modalities Evidence-Based Recommendations

Words: 4461 Length: 14 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 17783376

Trauma-Related Disorders and Recommended Treatment

Clinical Presentation of Trauma-Related Disorders and Recommended Treatments

On January 13, 2015, Andrew Brannan, a 66-year-old Vietnam veteran was executed in Georgia for killing police officer Kyle Dinkheller in 1998 (Hoffman, 2015). At the time, Brannan had been living in a bunker on his mother's property without water or electricity and had stopped taking his medications. According to the Veterans Administration (VA), he was 100% disabled due to combat-related post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). He also suffered from bipolar disorder, had lost two brothers to a military plane crash and suicide, and lost a father to cancer. Veterans groups, death penalty critics, and mental health advocates, all petitioned the Georgia Supreme Court for a stay of execution unsuccessfully. The veterans groups were particularly interested in preventing the death of yet another veteran who developed severe psychiatric problems while serving his or her country.

Trauma in general has affected a substantial portion of the estimated 2.6 million military personnel who have served in Iraq and Afghanistan (Ruiz, 2013). Over a million have suffered non-lethal injuries and approximately one sixth will receive a diagnosis of PTSD (Dursa, Reinhard, Barth, & Schneiderman, 2014). These figures should not be surprising…… [Read More]

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Metropolitan Development Affect Rates of

Words: 1924 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 81802379

Contrary to what is often seen on the nightly news programs, there are still many people in this country and throughout the world who want to live in safe places and who would be interested in making their town better. Often, they do not know what they can do to improve the poorer parts of town, so they simply choose not to live or work there. This only leads to the decay of those areas and the rising crime rate. While unfortunate, it is not entirely unexpected. However, urban revitalization has begun in a lot of cities and towns, both big and small, in recent years. Although the economy has slowed some of that, there are still many areas where it is moving forward. This will, in time, lower the number of sexual assaults and other crimes in those revitalization areas. If more people would help to improve their neighborhoods, it would be much more of a dramatic transformation -- and more quickly. However, any improvement is better than none, especially when that transformation is designed to keep the residents of a town or city safe from problems as serious as sexual assault.


Chu, James A. (1990). Dissociative symptoms…… [Read More]

Chu, James A. (1990). Dissociative symptoms in relation to childhood physical and sexual abuse, Am. J. Psychiatry.

Coons, P.M. (1994). Confirmation of childhood abuse in childhood and adolescent cases of multiple personality disorder and dissociative disorders not otherwise specified. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 182, 461-464.
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PTSD Study Treatment

Words: 1075 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 99570478

Dorrepaal, Thomaes, Smit, van Balkom, et al. (2010) address the topic of Complex Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (Complex PTSD) which often occurs following a history of child abuse. Complex PTSD has associated features in addition to the normal symptoms of PTSD that make it much more difficult to treat. As social workers will most likely encounter clients/patients suffering from PTSD symptoms and patients suffering from child abuse this topic is relevant to social work practice.

The researchers are primarily interested in knowing if stabilizing treatment normally used for PTSD and other psychiatric disorders is effective for patients with Complex PTSD, particularly women with PTSD and childhood sexual abuse. The research question is evaluative.

Literature Review

As this study is in the brief communications section does not contain an in depth literature review. The literature review in this study simply describes the features associated with Complex PTSD and presents the questions of the researchers and the reason for the study. It is not comprehensive.


Sampling. This study uses a convenience sample of female outpatients with Complex PTSD and a history of child abuse. The participants were referred to mental health clinicians. Therefore the generalizability of the findings is very limited.

All…… [Read More]

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Hitchcock's Psycho Social Commentary in Hitchcock's Psycho

Words: 2126 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 65649445

Hitchcock's Psycho

Social Commentary in Hitchcock's Psycho

Alfred Hitchcock is one of the most recognizable and famous film and television directors and producers of the twentieth century. His unique approach to film and television helped to define and establish the parameters of the thriller genre while simultaneously developing techniques that have become trademarks of his films. One of Hitchcock's most famous thrillers is his 1960 film Psycho. Psycho is based on an eponymous novel by Robert Bloch that was published in 1959 (Ager). The novel is intended to be a fictionalized account of Ed Gein's life and crimes (Bell & Bardsley). Like Gein, Norman is shown to be obsessed with his mother and involved in the disappearances of various women. Since the publication of the novel and the release of Hitchcock's film, the Bates Motel has become synonymous with a house of horrors with Norman Bates, the motel's proprietor, assuming the role of a deranged and unassuming serial murderer.

There has been renewed interest in Psycho due to the release of Hitchcock, a film that chronicles Hitchcock's life and the preparations that took place to make Psycho. Furthermore, a television series titled Bates Motel, a prequel to the events of…… [Read More]

Works Cited:
Ager, Rob. "Subliminal Themes in Psycho." Collative Learning. 2007. 21 February 2013.

Bell, Rachael and Bardsley, Marilyn. "Eddie Gein." Crime Library: Criminal Minds and Methods. Web. 21 February 2013.
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Psycho 1960 Film Movie Analysis

Words: 617 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 23661421

Movie Analysis: Psycho (1960 film)

The movie's most relevant cast for this discussion includes Norman, Norman's mother (Mrs. Bates), and Marion. After the death of his dad, Norman becomes entirely dependent on the love, attention, and support of his mother. It is for this reason that when she (Norman's mother) takes in a lover, Norman feels as if he is no longer a priority in his mother's life -- he feels as if he has been replaced. Apparently, he can't stand sharing her and as a result of his intense jealousy, he ends up killing not only his mother's lover but also his mother, through poisoning. However, he elects to preserve the corpse instead of having it buried -- in what could be seen as an attempt to perpetuate the illusion that his mother is not dead but is, instead, still alive. As a consequence, he begins to not only speak, but also think for her. He develops a split personality; whereby at times, he is Norman, and at other times, he assumes the identity of Mrs. Bates (Norman's mother).

As it is finally revealed later on in the movie, it was indeed 'Norman's Mother' (Norman's other persona) that murders…… [Read More]

Hickey, Erick W. Serial Murderers and their Victims. 6th ed. Belmont, CA: Cengage Learning, 2013. Print.

Jenkins, Philip. Using Murder: The Social Construction of Serial Homicide. New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction Publishers, 2009. Print.
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Spousal Violence and Abuse Effects on Children

Words: 1497 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 68247745

Spousal and Child Abuse

Child and spousal abuse is an intentional act that results in physical and/or emotional or psychological injury on a child or spouse (or partner) by a parent or a mate, respectively (Gelles 2004). In a child, abuse more often takes the form of neglect. Child and spousal abuse and violence are major social concerns today.

The extent that children are abused by their parents or adult caretakers is difficult to measure, although it appears to occur most frequently among lower-income communities and certain ethnic and religious minorities. Abuse of children ranges from physical and emotional abuse and sexual abuse to physical and emotional neglect (Gelles). Effects of physical abuse are varied and visible: unexplained bruises, fractures and burn marks. Emotional abuse destroys the child's sense of security and self-esteem. Sexual abuse includes all acts that expose them to the sexual satisfaction of the parent or adult caretaker. Physical neglect means failure to provide at least the bare subsistence to the child, and emotional neglect, the cold, distant and un-loving behavior (Gelles).

The National Center on Child Abuse and Neglect estimated that, in 1997 alone, there were around 3 million children in the United States reported to…… [Read More]

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Flow States and Sport Performance

Words: 2445 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 78417902

Flow States and Sport Performance

The attention of an individual focus on the movements of the body, power of the muscles, force of the lungs, and the strength beneath the feet in the context of running a race,. This is an indication that an individual is living in the moment utterly absorbed in the present activity. It is essential to note that time seems to fall away. According to the description by the positive psychologists, the encounter or experience during the running process is known as the flow. It is vital to note that the flow refers to the state of complete immersion in an activity. The mental state of the flow relates to the ability of an individual to be involved in the activity for its own sake.

Understanding the Psychology of the Flow

It is ideal to note that people experience diverse or different flow states. Some might have the ability to experience the flow while engaging in skiing, playing soccer, tennis, dancing, and running. In other cases, individuals experience flow in relation to activities such as drawing, writing, and painting (Stavrou et al., 2007). Various factors affect the state of flow in an individual. Some of these…… [Read More]

Cowen, L.W. (2004). What Is Hypnosis? Journal of The Australian Traditional-Medicine

Society, 10(3), 105-107.
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DSM IV Disorders DSM IV-TR - Anxiety

Words: 1010 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 84488286

DSM IV Disorders

DSM IV-TR - Anxiety, Somatoform, and Dissociative Disorders

American Psychological Association has compiled and published DSM IV-TR, which is a diagnostic manual of mental disorders. This manual not only categorizes mental enormities but also provide guidance and assistance to medical practitioners about the suitable and appropriate diagnosis and treatment of the included mental illnesses. Moreover, specific codes have been assigned to each disorder in DSM IV-TR with a purpose of providing an effective method for medical documentation. Additionally, this manual serves as a valuable resource for teaching the technicalities of psychopathology. DSM IV-TR extensively discusses wide range of mental disorders such as anxiety, somatoform, and dissociative disorders.

The person who experiences frequent fear and panic about different things is believed to be suffering from anxiety. Acute state of anxiety is conducive to various other mental disorders such as obsessive-compulsion disorder, panic disorder, phobia, and so forth. Furthermore, somatoform is a mental enormity that is concerned with mental distress and mutilation in which mind faultily directs the body. This disorder further classifies into branches including pain disorder, conversion disorder, and others. Additionally, dissociative disorders include, "A class of psychological disorders characterized by loss of contact with portion of…… [Read More]

Weiten, W, Dunn, D & Hammer, E.Y. (2010). Psychology Applied to Modern Life: Adjustments in the 21st Century. Tenth Edition. USA: Cengage Learning.
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Borderline Personality Disorder Definitions and

Words: 12483 Length: 45 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 99227756


The overall diagnostic and symptomatic patterns described by these points indicate that BPD is a serious disorder and is "...classified as a major personality disorder involving dramatic, emotional, or erratic behavior; intense, unstable moods and relationships; chronic anger; and substance abuse." (Boucher, 1999, p. 33)

There are a number of criteria which, in line with DSM-IV, are used to identify and characterize this disorder. The first of these criteria refers to "...unstable and intense interpersonal relationships, with marked shifts in attitudes toward others (from idealization to devaluation or from clinging dependency to isolation and avoidance), and prominent patterns of manipulation of others.."(Boucher, 1999, p. 33)

Perception also plays an important role in the identification and understanding of the BDP patient. This refers particularly to social perception. Benjamin and Wonderlich (1994) recognized that BDP patients showed differences in social perception when compared to bipolar and unipolar subjects. In relation to this they found that "...BPDs view relationships with their mothers, hospital staff, and other patients with more hostility than mood disordered patients. BPDs see themselves as attacked by other patients and as part of hostile and noncohesive families. "(Boucher, 1999, p. 33)

Another aspect that identifies the BDP sufferer is…… [Read More]

Works Cited:
Akhtar, Salman, M.D. (1992). Broken Structures: Severe Personality Disorders and Their Treatment. Northvale, New Jersey: Jason Aronson Inc.

Akhtar, Salman, M.D. (1995). Quest For Answers A Primer of Understanding and Treating Severe Personality Disorders. Northvale, New Jersey: Jason Aronson Inc.
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Clinical Disorder Clinical Psychology and

Words: 3626 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 49707748

This leaves many veterans prone to the condition known as Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD). This may be characterized as "an anxiety disorder that can develop after exposure to a terrifying event or ordeal in which grave physical harm occurred or was threatened. Traumatic events that may trigger PTSD include violent personal assaults, natural or human-caused disasters, accidents, or military combat." (NIMH, 1) in the particular case of this discussion, military combat is a cause of PTSD that can have devastating long-term outcomes. Indeed, "studies estimate that as many as 500,000 troops serving in Iraq and Afghanistan will suffer from some form of psychological injury, with PTSD being the most common." (Eliscu, 58) the outcomes of this condition will run a wide range of symptoms that impact the ability of individuals to cope with the pressures of everyday life, to relate to those who have not experienced the traumas of war, and heightened propensities toward violence, toward crime, toward alcoholism, toward substance abuse and toward depression. Such is to say that the real and tangible outcomes of this condition suggest a detectable sociological problem potentially afflicting in some degree an entire class of Americans.

Dissociative Disorders:

The discussion above on PTSD…… [Read More]

Blanco, C.; Laje, G.; Olfson, Marcus, S.C. & Pincus, H.A. (2002). Trends in the treatment of bipolar disorder by outpatient psychiatrists. The American Journal of Psychiatry, 159(6), 1005-1011.

Craddock, N.; O'Donovan, M.C. & Owen, M.J. (2005). The genetics of schizophrenia and bipolar disorder: dissecting psychosis. Journal of Medical Genetics, 42, 193-204.
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Criminal Justice Forensics Undercover Is a

Words: 11198 Length: 35 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 97252031

However, as criminals become more aware of undercover tactics, the covert officer is required to provide more and more proof that he is indeed a criminal- which leads to the officer committing acts that compromise his or her integrity for the sake of maintaining cover. By understanding the often conflicting nature of these goals, deception and integrity, we can see how an undercover officer can become confused, lost, and susceptible to temptation (i.e. criminal behavior).

By examining both aspects- environmental factors and personality factors- we take into account both sides of a complex relationship. These two groups of factors, when combined together, shed some light on the exact nature of criminal tendencies amongst police officers.

Definition of Terms

Covert: another term for undercover, meaning the use of deception for the purpose of gathering information or intelligence.

Non-covert: police officers that, even in plain clothes, maintain their own true identity instead of a false one.

Personality tests: various types will be used from the literature.

Undercover: describes a method of operation that includes inserting an operative in an environment with a false persona, for the purpose of gathering information/intelligence.

Deviance: used to describe behavior that is inconsistent with the norms, values…… [Read More]

Choo, A., and Mellors, M. (1995) Undercover Police Operations and What the Suspect Said (Or Didn't Say). Web Journal of Current Legal Issues, Blackstone Press, University of Leicester. Web site: http://wenjcli.ncl.ac.uk/articles2/choo2.html

Girodo, M. (1985) Health and Legal Issues in Undercover Narcotics Investigations: Misrepresented Evidence. Behavioral Sciences and the Law, 3(3),299-308.
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Military Retirees Are Entitled to

Words: 12717 Length: 46 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 18599361

First of all only a scant few of these Veterans groups will acknowledge the "promise" of free health care; for the most part these groups will tout the benefits already promised by the Veterans Administration and assert that cuts in these benefits are the same a broken promise-or contractual breach in legal terms. The idea of the United States military making a "promise" or forging a legally binding agreement between individual veterans or groups of veterans is barred by the United States Constitution. As will be demonstrated in the Literature Review, specific Constitutional language from Article I give Congress and only Congress the express authority to make laws and regulations pertaining to the armed forces. Therefore, the idea the military breached a contract with service members is, ultimately, inherently inaccurate. Combining the lack of specific language within the materials provided by any governmental agency with the clear language of the Constitution, it becomes readily apparent that there is no validity to the claim of the Government breaking any contractual relationship with veterans, either individually or collectively.

Some of these groups are also fraudulently acting on behalf of veterans-although the data suggests that the overwhelming amount of such groups are legitimate…… [Read More]

.... (n.d.). The RETIRED MILITARY ADVOCATE. The RETIRED MILITARY ADVOCATE. Retrieved November 29, 2010, from  http://mrgrg-ms.org/ 

Best, R. (2003, August 7). Military Medical Care Services: Questions and Answers. Congressional Research Service, 1, 1-17.
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Brother Where Art Thou -

Words: 949 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 68550094

He has never liked this name and becomes very angry when it is used. His specialty is car theft, bootlegging and armed robbery. He has already served several years in prison for auto theft and bank robbery charges. Just last year, while being returned to prison from a bank robbery trial, he escaped. That is why he is here in the South. He is seeing me, because the episodes are becoming more often and more severe.

His mother told him that he was always an ill-tempered and spoiled child. Many people say that he is the toughest and most heartless of the gangsters and even other criminals stay away from him. He remembers that even as a young boy he used to have mood swings from being very boisterous and rebellious to sad and even crying, which he had to hide from the gang. Now when he goes into his manic stages, he will run into banks with his machine gun and steal cars and drive erratically through town and to his next town. This high lasts around a week, where he will drink a lot of alcohol and have many sexual affairs.

He says then the worst part comes.…… [Read More]

American Psychiatric Association. Bipolar definition. Website retrieved February 8, 2007 http://www.psychiatryonline.com/

Coen, E. And Deakins, R. O Brother Where Art Thou (2000). Comedy/Adventure. Buena Vista Home Entertainment.
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Grief and Mourning in Schizophrenia

Words: 1059 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 89837327

Grief Schiz

Precautions and Procedures for the Prevention of Suicide and the Treatment of Depression in Recently Diagnosed Schizophrenics

Any major chronic medical diagnosis can have psychological and emotional reverberations for the patient, as chronic conditions can often be perceived as a "life sentence" of sorts. The inescapability of symptoms and the long-term prognosis of many chronic disorders can cause patients to seriously question their future quality of life, the impact that their condition will have on personal relationships and other interactions with the outside world, and the purpose or meaning of continuing a life that they may perceive to consist largely of pain or other problems. In such scenarios, it is not unusual for depression and even suicidal tendencies to be observed, and for patients' problems and quality of life issues to be ultimately compounded and exacerbated as a result of this depression.

It is not only the diagnosis of chronic physical disorders that have the potential to cause these depressive reactions in patients, but diagnoses of many chronic mental disorders can have depressive impacts that are similarly profound if not even more so. Schizophrenia is one mental disorder the diagnosis of which has been empirically examined and shown…… [Read More]

Works Cited:
Beck, A. & Alford, B. (2009). Depression: Causes and Treatments. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press.

Bhatia, S. & Bhatia, S. (2007). Childhood and adolescent depression. American Family Physician 75(1): 73-80.
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Cognitive and Behavioral Techniques Therapy

Words: 1586 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 9470176

Cognitive and Behavioral Therapy

Cognitive and behavioral techniques / therapy

Cognitive Therapist Behavioral Techniques

Case of the Fat Lady

Cognitive behaviorist therapy is a blend of two therapies; cognitive therapy and behavioral therapy. Cognitive therapy first developed by Aaron Beck in 1960 has its focus on individual beliefs and their influences on actions and moods. Its core aims are to alter an individual mindset to be healthy and adaptive (Beck, 1976; Rathod, Kingdon, Weiden, & Turkington, 2008). Behavioral therapy focuses on individual aims and actions towards changing patterns in unhealthy behaviors (Rathod et al., 2008). Cognitive behavioral therapy assists an individual to focus on their current difficulties and relate on how to resolve them. Active involvement of both the therapist and the patient helps in identification of the thinking patterns in distort bringing into foresight a recognizable change in thought and behavior (Leichsenring & Leibing, 2007). Exploring and encouraging discussions on unrelated matters in the early stages help to maintain patients in the therapy while strengthening a technical component of the treatment. By helping the patient to perceive, the treatment to be trusting, safe and, collaborative it allows the process to be stronger and opens avenues to explore complex issues…… [Read More]

Beck, A.T. (1976). Cognitive Therapy and the Emotional Disorders. New York: International Universities Press.

Burns, Kubilus, Breuhl, Harden, R.N., & Lofland, K. (2003). Do changes in cognitive factors influence outcome following multidisciplinary treatment for chronic pain? A cross-lagged panel analysis. . Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 71, 81-91.
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Faludi Violent Effects of Disassociation

Words: 1938 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 71896931

What is key about both of these quotations is the loss of identity that is endemic to both of them. The cadets who have survived the fourth-class system and who inflict ritualistic violence in the form of hazing on others have lost something of their true "selves," something that was stripped away to lead them to believe that they could rightfully engage in this sort of behavior to inflict pain upon others. Therefore, the cadets who are guilty of said violence are perpetuating it because they have lost their own identities through disassociation -- in much the same way that Seth lost most of the moments of his life to this same phenomenon.

In conclusion, several of Stout's ideas about disassociation both apply to and help explain the tradition of obedience in the violent, misogynistic rituals that take place at the Citadel. The similarities between the effects of disassociation and the behavior that takes place at this college institution (the negative feelings of confusion and bitterness experienced by Seth and an unnamed student) help to reinforce the notion that students involved in the fourth-class system, both those on the giving and receiving end of violence, are enduring these repercussions. The…… [Read More]

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Bpd Is Related to Secure

Words: 10546 Length: 38 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 3194760

Attachment was believed by Bowlby to be a critical aspect of the normal development of human behavior. Attachment is inclusive of the following characteristics:

1) Proximity Seeking - the infant seeks to be near the maternal figure;

2) Separation distress or protests - when separated or distant from the material figure the infant becomes distressed and signals this by vocalizing these feelings and changes in affect.

3) a secure base - when the infant develops a healthy attachment, the mother becomes a 'secure base' from which the child can venture forth into the world and securely explore their surroundings.

Ainsworth is noted as the first to conduct empirical research assessing patterns of attachment behaviors in infant attachment relating to the mother being under stress. Infant attachment behavior was categorized as: (1) secure; (2) avoidant; and (3) ambivalent. Since then the behavioral patterns of infants has undergone intensive assessment and study with a core body of empirical findings replicating extensively the earlier research. The work of Bowlby (1973) acknowledged anger as being a natural response when the child, with the expectation of safety, when in close proximity to the attachment figure was jeopardized. It is believed by Bowlby that the root…… [Read More]

DSM-III-R). Washington, DC: APA. - (1994) Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th edition (DSM-IV). Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Association.

Aaronson, C.J., Bender, D.S., Skodol, a.E. And Gunderson, J.G. (2006) Comparison of Attachment Styles in Borderline Personality Disorder and Obsessive-Compulsive Personality Disorder Journal Psychiatric Quarterly Vol. 77 No. 1 March 2006. Online available at http://aolsearch.aol.com/aol/search?query=attachment+theory+and+borderline+personality+disorder&page=3&nt=null&userid=9218600308675950091&encquery=431f3e36d133ebdff7537ee6febc11c6eca098f7674f16b90920f3bd5b092d5ab49460504194f6e58ee065b5a3272811bc442682a5c9c059&ie=UTF-8&invocationType=keyword_rollover&clickstreamid=5154621097040471491.
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Compulsive Hoarding Due to Childhood

Words: 4019 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 62247855

" (p. 12) According to Cromer (2005) the literature that addresses the relationship between stressful life events and obsessive compulsive disorders does provide some degree of support implicating traumatic life-stress as being a factor in the onset and maintenance of the obsessive compulsive disorders however the exact relationship between the SLE and OCD "remains an empirical questions" specifically relating to "traumatic negative life events" (2005; p.13) Most of studies in this area investigation the association between SLEs and OCD have held limitations of: (1) small sample sizes; and (2) difficulty of establishing retrospectively the temporal relationship between onset and SLEs; and (3) a limited scope with regard to the effect of SLEs on OCD. (2005; p.13) Cromer relates that "mounting evidence suggests that early life-stress, in particular may preferentially incline individuals to develop adult psychiatric disorders." (2005; p.13) McCauley et al. (1997) states evidence from a large epidemiological investigation that childhood abuse "was related to a large range of physical and psychosocial difficulties." (Cromer, 2005; p. 14) the work of Nemeroff et al. (2004)states findings that there is an association between experiences in childhood and "increased adult psychopathology" which can be explained by the "profound effect early-life experiences have on…… [Read More]

Beamish, Patricia M. And Hill, Nicole R. (2007) Treatment outcomes for obsessive-compulsive disorder: a critical review.(Private Practices) Journal of Counseling and Development 22 Sept 20077. Online available at http://www.highbeam.com/doc/1G1-170413211.html

Bechtel, Robert B. And Ts'erts'Man, Arzah (2002) Handbook of Environmental Psychology. John Wiley and Sons Ltd.
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Creative Case Identifying Information Lisa

Words: 961 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 93153295

Lisa finds it hard to meet other kids her age who are like her. Most of her peers "do not care about school" and don't understand anything about the issues she cares about such as environmentalism and Tibet. Lisa worries excessively about external, global events such as global warming and wars in Africa. Many of the people she refers to as "friends" are much older than she is, although she admits most of them are mentors.

A person with generalized anxiety disorder finds it difficult to control worry. Lisa has been unable to control her worry successfully via Buddhist meditation or tai chi. She writes regularly in a journal and claims that this does help but not enough. Although she finds temporary relief in music and schoolwork, her feelings of worry and anxiety creep back into her consciousness as soon as she is doing something else. She experiences the most anxiety when with her family in public, which is why Lisa has been assessed for social anxiety disorder. Because Lisa has a penchant for public speaking and is not afraid of it, social anxiety has been ruled out.

Lisa's anxiety acts up around her family for several reasons. She feels…… [Read More]

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Real-Life Case Study the Research Informant Selected

Words: 2434 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 67730139

Real-Life case study

The research informant selected is a soldier who was deployed in Iraq who is 35 years of age and who was in the army for 15 years. He suffered from drug and alcohol addiction along with post traumatic stress syndrome. At this time he is still battling both of these conditions. When interviewing him, the clear purpose of this project was stated without a doubt, and he was informed of his voluntary participation, along with the fact that he was allowing us to use all the data that he provided. He was reassured of the complete and utter privacy of his responses and how all of his data was going to be kept confidential. For example, he was told that he name was never going to be recorded, none of the researchers would ever have it; instead he was going to be given a number. Furthermore, while his interview was being taped, it was made clear that his image would never be recorded, just his voice.

The purpose of the project was stated as clearly as possible which was: to understand the nuances and factors which contribute to PTSD and to understand why substance abuse is such…… [Read More]

Berger, K. (2009). Invitation to the Life Span. New York: Psychology Press.

Ptsd.va.gov. (2013). Clinician-Administered PTSD Scale (CAPS). Retrieved from Ptsd.va.gov:  http://www.ptsd.va.gov/professional/assessment/adult-int/caps.asp 
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Diagnose or Not to Diagnose

Words: 2826 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 19828979

Discuss the criteria used to define abnormality (abnormal behavior / mood disorders)

There are no established criteria to define what is abnormal. On the other hand, every individual trait can be said as abnormal on some social plane. (Oracle think quest, 2010) Some of the preferred ideas to define abnormality are as given below:

Statistical Norms Deviation: Certain population facts such as height, weight and intelligence are measured and recorded. Most of people come in the middle range of intelligence. Those who fail in general terms and falls below the so-called intelligence scale are termed as abnormal. But then, the people with extra intelligence also become abnormal. Furthermore, intelligence is a subjective issue. (Oracle think quest, 2010)

Social Norms Deviation: People going again social norms and trying to make their idiosyncratic identity are also termed as abnormal. Galileo was abnormal and he was brutally punished for his abnormality, he suggested that earth revolves round the sun which was abnormal as per biblical standards. (Oracle think quest, 2010)

Behavior Maladaptiveness: This is a better criterion to consider what is normal and what is abnormal. The criterion involves the issue of how the behavior affects the well-being of the individual and/or social…… [Read More]

Baker, B.L., Blacher, J., & Pfeiffer, S. (1993). "Family involvement in residential treatment of children with psychiatric disorder and mental retardation" Hospital and Community Psychiatry, vol. 44, no. 6, pp: 561-566.

Chan, Jeffery; Hudson, Colin. (2002) "Individuals with Intellectual Disability and Mental Illness:
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Women Who Were Sexually Abused

Words: 2058 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 70236015

We are extremely close.

Amazing - I've found someone I can really trust. I feel really lucky at the moment because all my other relationships have been *****.

Too good. it's really hard to describe. Unreal! I guess I now can't live without him. it's too good. He's grown on me.

I think I need to clarify I'm still married. I feel that in a marriage there ought to be a sexual relationship but in the last four years, I have been unable to give that and nor do I desire resuming it with my husband.

Fairly close but since I broke up with my husband I find it difficult to trust somebody. He tells me I'm a lot closer to him than I realize. I find it difficult to relax and believe it's too good to be true. I'm always looking for something to be wrong.

Excellent. He's very understanding and we have a very easy going relationship.

It is an intimate relationship but it is casual. I tend more to protect my independence and control. (Hughes et al., 1998)

Hughes et al. (1998) reports that women felt their experiences of sexual abuse as children directly affect their decisions…… [Read More]

Mullen, Paul E. And Fleming, Jillian (1998) Long-term Effects of Child Sexual Abuse. Issues in Child Abuse Prevention. No. 9 Autumn 1998. Online available at http://www.aifs.gov.au/nch/pubs/issues/issues9/issues9.html

Hughes, Karen et al. (1998) the Health Impacts on Adult Women of Childhood Sexual Violence Before the Age of Twelve Years. Minnesota Center Against Violence and Abuse. A Report on Community Research. Online available at http://www.mincava.umn.edu/documents/report/report.html
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Personality Assessment Inventory PAI Personality

Words: 1199 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 1198736

The two interpersonal scales are Dominance and Warmth. Many of the clinical scales, as well as the aggression scale, also have a number of subscales to provide more nuanced information bout each of the clinical conditions. For example, the Borderline Features scale has four subscales: Affective Instability, Identity Problems, Negative Relationships and Self-Harm.

The resulting score profiles can be compared to either normative or clinical populations. Raw scores are converted to T-scores using tables provided in the scoring manual. These tables were generated using either normative or clinical samples that were census matched and standardized (Morey, 2007). The manual provides average scores for each of the subscales, for example, the average T score for Borderline Traits is 59, indicating that individuals falling below this number are emotionally stable and do not reflect borderline traits. The individual mean scores for each scale vary and are presented within the testing manual (Morey, 2007).

Test Application

The PAI has been used in a number of different settings, including inpatient and outpatient psychiatric treatment, personnel selection, medical screening, criminal justice and forensic settings, assessment of PTSD in veterans, and substance abuse treatment and assessment. The scale is very relevant to clinical diagnosis, making it…… [Read More]

Blais, M.A., Baity, M.R., & Hopwood, C.J. (2010). Clinical applications of the Personality Assessment Inventory. New York, NY: Taylor & Francis Group.

Butchner, J.N. (2010). Personality assessment from the nineteenth to the early twenty-first century: Past achievements and contemporary challenges. Annual Review of Clinical Psychology, 6, 1-20.
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What We Use to Recognize People

Words: 2147 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 22799953


The concepts and use of the Fusiform Face Area (FFA) in terms of facial recognition and the Superior Temporal Sulcus (STS) in terms of voice recognition are not new on their own. However, those individual technologies and concepts have evolved on their own and now they are being analysed in terms of how they are perhaps used concurrently when one person does (or tries) to recognize another person. This report will cover what the FFA and STS are in general, prior ideas, frameworks and outcomes that have informed and influenced current research and what the future holds, at least based on current trends for the use of FFA and STS in combination or on their own.

FFA & STS Combined

Subject of Discussion

There is a great amount of debate with the circles that exist in the neuro-psychological field regarding the direct integration, or lack thereof, of the brain regions known as the fusiform facial area (FFA) and the superior temporal sulcus (STS) as they are used to identify a person using speech and/or facial characteristics.

What the FFA & STS Are

The use of a combination of STS and FFA is believed to have first…… [Read More]

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Generational Boundary Dissolution Among Adoptive

Words: 5932 Length: 18 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 43913994

The research will address the following research questions, in addition to the central hypothesis.

How malleable are generational boundaries? In other words, how willing are teens to adapt to new generational boundary styles?

Are generational boundaries set during the early childhood years?

How frequently do teens assume a parental role in dysfunctional families?

What techniques could help tends and their adoptive parents reach a compromise that results in the development of healthy generational boundaries within the new family unit?

These research questions, in addition to the research hypothesis will help to contribute to the existing body of knowledge in the field of family therapy.

Contribution of This Research

This research will play an important role in the field of family therapy. It will be specifically targeted towards helping develop new techniques and methods for helping adoptive families and their teens establish healthy generational boundaries within the new family. This is a specialized field within the larger context of family therapy, but it will also help to increase our understanding of how generational boundaries react to change within non-adoptive families as well. It is expected that dissolution of generational boundaries in the adoptive child's first family will result in their learned…… [Read More]

Barber, B. (2001). Intrusive Parenting: How Psychological Control Affects Children and Adolescents. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.

Beckett, C., Castle, J., & Groorhues, C., et al. (2008), the experience of adoption (2): association between communicative openness and self-esteem in adoption. British Association for Adoption and Fostering. 32 (1): abstract. Retrieved 15 January 2009 at http://www.baaf.org.uk/res/pubs/aandf/abstracts/08_1.shtml
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How Sexual Child Abuse Can Effect the Child's Psychological Development

Words: 2187 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 25023031

Sexual Child Abuse

Child sexual abuse involves a broad range of sexual behaviors that take place between a child and an older person. These sexual behaviors are planned to erotically stir the older person, commonly without concern for the consequences, choices, or outcome of the behavior upon the child. Definite conducts that are sexually offensive frequently involve bodily contact, such as in the state of sexual kissing, touching, fondling of genitals, and oral, anal, or vaginal contact. Nevertheless, behaviors might be sexually abusive even if they do not entail contact, such as in the case of genital exposure, verbal force for sex, and sexual abuse for purposes of prostitution or pornography.

For Definitions propose four main types of child abuse (physical abuse, sexual abuse, emotional abuse, and child neglect), but seldom if ever does one form of abuse happen alone. The suggestion in itself is illogical. Physical abuse and sexual exploitation never occur in the absence of emotional abuse. Children who are sexually abused regularly experience physical harm. When one form of abuse does exist in absence of others, it is expected to be emotional abuse.

Sexual Abuse: Effects on Children

The strongest sign that a child has been sexually…… [Read More]

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Psychedelic Therapy Psychedelic or Hallucinogenic

Words: 2192 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 95412737

" Long-term use may develop psychoses, like schizophrenia and severe depression. The use of MDMA may produce psychological difficulties, like confusion, depression, sleep problems, drug craving, severe anxiety and paranoia, even weeks after the use of the drug. MSMA develops symptoms, such as muscle tension, nausea, blurred vision, rapid eye movements, faintness, chills, sweating, and increased heart rate and blood pressure. it, therefore, poses a special risk for those with heart disease. Overuse can lead to death (Kurtzweil).

West Africans used ibogaine as a stimulant and aphrodisiac in the early 1900s (Kurtzweil 1995). Native Americans used mescaline from peyote cactus in religious rituals. LSD was first synthesized in 1938. Throughout history, it was considered a source of many types of medications. Its psychedelic effects were first discovered in 1943. Two decades after World War II, LSD was used to determine its effects on patients with schizophrenia and other mental disorders. It was then studied for its use in psychotherapy for alcoholics and cancer patients. In the mid-70s, research was halted on account of its possible unpredictable side effects and abuse. Its illicit and unsupervised use by young adults in the 60s made the use of psychedelic drugs a major public…… [Read More]

Kotler, Steven. Drugs in Rehab. Psychology Today: Sussex Publishers, Inc., April 2005

Klotter, Jule. End-of-Life and Psychedelic Research. Townsend Letter for Doctors and Patients: The Townsend Group, July 2005