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Dissociative Identity Disorder is also referred to as multiple personality disorder, in which an individual's identity dissociates, or fragments, creating additional identities that exist independently of each other within the individual (Gale 2001). Each personality is specifically distinct from the other, such as tone of voice and mannerisms, vocabulary and posture (Gale 2001). Most people exhibit only one or two personalities, however, there are cases in which an individual will have more than a hundred identities (Gale 2001). hether one or a hundred, the criteria for diagnosis is the same (Gale 2001). Until the publication of DSM-IV, this disorder was referred to as multiple personality disorder, a name abandoned due to psychiatric explicitness, hence, the name should reflect the "dissociative aspect of the disorder" (Gale 2001).
The DSM-IV lists four criteria for diagnosing someone with dissociative identity disorder. The first being the presence of two or more distinct 'identities or…… [Read More]
Dissociative Identity Disorder
The most severe and chronic manifestation of dissociative disorders is dissociative identity disorder (DID) and is believed to be extremely rare (eber 1003-1004). Clinical dissociation occurs when disconnections between consciousness, memory, perceptions, and identity form, and with DID, distinct and largely mutually-exclusive personalities develop that alternately cope with different aspects of the host's life. The most prominent diagnostic feature is an inability to recall events an alternate personality experienced. DID personalities therefore tend to live completely different lives, including cognitively.
The book "Sybil" was published in 1973 by the professional author Flora Schreiber, in collaboration with the psychiatrist Cornelia ilbur, which described a patient who was alleged to have DID (Lynn and Deming 289). A movie was subsequently made and the combination popularized DID, and this phenomenon is blamed for the dramatic increase in the number of cases from less than 100 to over 40,000 in just…… [Read More]
Certain Christian communities offering support of this kind are guided by the Scriptures, specifically Isaiah 61, concerning their possessing of the Spirit of the Lord and being anointed (Grace 2002).
One group that provides assistance to persons suffering from DID is called the Christian Survivors Ministries (Grace 2002). It makes available an environment of love and acceptance where the afflicted survivors can and will not be rejected or feel ashamed and where they can feel aware of the value of their lives. It offers hope to those who feel hopeless. It encourages survivors to confront and actively and productively work through their problems. It encourages and enables survivors to allow God to work with them in safe ways to be healed. It encourages survivors to accept and live by the truths about themselves so that they can be set free from the abuses they have been subjected to. Its staff…… [Read More]
Dissociative fugue -- In this kind of dissociative disorder, the person is found to have lose his or her sense of personal identity and impulsively wanders or travels away from home for a temporary period of time. People with dissociative fugue often become confused about who they really are and may even create new identities. Outwardly, people with this disorder show no signs of illness, such as a strange appearance or behavior (http://www.clevelandclinic.org/health/health-info/docs/2800/2819.asp?index=9786&src=news,2002).
Depersonalization disorder -- This involves a person's sense or feeling that he or she is disconnected or detached from his or her body. T he disorder is sometimes described as being numb or in a dream, or feeling like you are watching yourself from outside the body (http://www.clevelandclinic.org/health/health-info/docs/2800/2819.asp?index=9786&src=news,2002).
Dissociative identity disorder (DID) -- This is believed to be the most severe type of dissociative disorder, was formerly called multiple personality disorder. As a coping mechanism, a…… [Read More]
Dissociative Identity Disorder (DID) is the name that the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual for Mental Disorders-IV-Text evision (DSM-IV-T) uses for the disorder previously known as Multiple Personality Disorder (American Psychiatric Association [APA], 2000). Dissociative disorders are a heterogeneous set of disorders described in the DSM-IV-T that all involve some form of identity loss (APA, 2000). The concept of a personality describes, in fairly generalized terms, a sense of integration regarding the way one feels, thinks behaves. Even though a single personality can have many different aspects to it, the concept of personality relates a sense of oneness to the self. DID is a dissociative disorder in which the individual has two or more totally separate and distinct personalities, each determining the attitudes and behavior of the person at the time that it is dominant. DID is considered one of the more serious of all the psychiatric disorders listed in the…… [Read More]
Evan Treborn, the main character of the movie, lived a life of severe traumas (ress & Gruber, 2004). These experiences resurface in adulthood in the form of blackouts, especially during times of extreme stress. His early life traumas include being compelled to participate in child pornography by their neighbor George Miller; nearly dying from strangulation by his own institutionalized mentally ill father Jason; his father's getting killed right before him by guards; a mother and her infant daughter dying from the dynamite he and his friends were playing with; and witnessing his dog die by burning by Tommy, son of their neighbor George Miller (ress & Gruber).
It was seven years later when he discovered that he could travel into the past and redo parts of it (ress & Gruber, 2004). It turned out that his travels to the past coincide with his blackouts as a…… [Read More]
Cognitive triad (Beck). Negative views of the self, environment, and the future.
14. Seligman's learned helplessness theory. Failure to respond to a threatening situation even if there is an obvious mode of escape due to past experiences of being unable to escape from situations.
15. Difference between bipolar I and bipolar II. Bipolar I consists of periods of mania and depression; bipolar II consists of periods of hypomania and depression.
16. Adjunctive psychotherapy. Psychotherapy in addition to other forms of treatment (here therapy is considered secondary).
17. Know that the chance of recovery for someone receiving effective therapy for depression is about 60%. OK
a. Attempts vs. completions. Males more successful than females due to means (e.g., gun vs. pills). Two groups: Adolescents and Elderly adults are more successful. Depression, substance abuse, and co-morbid psychiatric disorders with depression are also prevelant.
b. Do we have a good way…… [Read More]
Jane appears to be suffering from dissociative identity disorder based on the first three diagnostic criteria for this condition (American Psychiatric Association [APA], 2000). A person with dissociative identity disorder maintains multiple mutually-exclusive personalities in order to distance themselves from past traumatic events. Her behavior when interacting with the therapist suggests that she experienced at least two distinct personalities (criterion A) that recurrently appeared (criterion B) and had mutually-exclusive psychological experiences (criterion C). Jane's self-reported history of sexual assault and exposure to violence is consistent with this diagnosis, and could be contributing to her depressive symptoms. The attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) diagnosis could in fact be a sign that Jane also suffers from borderline personality disorder, since impulsivity is included as a relevant symptom. ADHD is commonly diagnosed in children and involves severe focusing problems, impulsivity, and an inability to be calm. Borderline personality disorder represents a condition of…… [Read More]
Multiple personality or dissociative disorder is an exceptionally uncommon mental disorder in which an individual has two or more different personalities. Each of these personalities has unique characteristics such as mind-set, emotions behavioral patterns. Frequently, the personalities are totally differing and take over the real individual at unusual times. This transition takes place in sudden switches when the patient is triggered by painful events or miserable reminiscences. Each personality is perhaps completely uninformed about the others. However, the person is usually acquainted with the fact that there were mysterious gaps in times he/she remembers ("multiple personality," 2013).
According to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual for Mental Disorders, dissociative disorders are "characterized by the presence of two or more distinct identities or personality states, each with its own relatively enduring pattern of perceiving, relating to, and thinking about the environment and self, that recurrently take control of the individual's…… [Read More]
Trauma-elated Disorders and ecommended Treatment
Clinical Presentation of Trauma-elated Disorders and ecommended Treatments
On January 13, 2015, Andrew Brannan, a 66-year-old Vietnam veteran was executed in Georgia for killing police officer Kyle Dinkheller in 1998 (Hoffman, 2015). At the time, Brannan had been living in a bunker on his mother's property without water or electricity and had stopped taking his medications. According to the Veterans Administration (VA), he was 100% disabled due to combat-related post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). He also suffered from bipolar disorder, had lost two brothers to a military plane crash and suicide, and lost a father to cancer. Veterans groups, death penalty critics, and mental health advocates, all petitioned the Georgia Supreme Court for a stay of execution unsuccessfully. The veterans groups were particularly interested in preventing the death of yet another veteran who developed severe psychiatric problems while serving his or her country.
Trauma in general…… [Read More]
Contrary to what is often seen on the nightly news programs, there are still many people in this country and throughout the world who want to live in safe places and who would be interested in making their town better. Often, they do not know what they can do to improve the poorer parts of town, so they simply choose not to live or work there. This only leads to the decay of those areas and the rising crime rate. While unfortunate, it is not entirely unexpected. However, urban revitalization has begun in a lot of cities and towns, both big and small, in recent years. Although the economy has slowed some of that, there are still many areas where it is moving forward. This will, in time, lower the number of sexual assaults and other crimes in those revitalization areas. If more people would help to improve their neighborhoods,…… [Read More]
Dorrepaal, Thomaes, Smit, van Balkom, et al. (2010) address the topic of Complex Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (Complex PTSD) which often occurs following a history of child abuse. Complex PTSD has associated features in addition to the normal symptoms of PTSD that make it much more difficult to treat. As social workers will most likely encounter clients/patients suffering from PTSD symptoms and patients suffering from child abuse this topic is relevant to social work practice.
The researchers are primarily interested in knowing if stabilizing treatment normally used for PTSD and other psychiatric disorders is effective for patients with Complex PTSD, particularly women with PTSD and childhood sexual abuse. The research question is evaluative.
As this study is in the brief communications section does not contain an in depth literature review. The literature review in this study simply describes the features associated with Complex PTSD and presents the questions of…… [Read More]
Movie Analysis: Psycho (1960 film)
The movie's most relevant cast for this discussion includes Norman, Norman's mother (Mrs. Bates), and Marion. After the death of his dad, Norman becomes entirely dependent on the love, attention, and support of his mother. It is for this reason that when she (Norman's mother) takes in a lover, Norman feels as if he is no longer a priority in his mother's life -- he feels as if he has been replaced. Apparently, he can't stand sharing her and as a result of his intense jealousy, he ends up killing not only his mother's lover but also his mother, through poisoning. However, he elects to preserve the corpse instead of having it buried -- in what could be seen as an attempt to perpetuate the illusion that his mother is not dead but is, instead, still alive. As a consequence, he begins to not only…… [Read More]
Spousal and Child Abuse
Child and spousal abuse is an intentional act that results in physical and/or emotional or psychological injury on a child or spouse (or partner) by a parent or a mate, respectively (Gelles 2004). In a child, abuse more often takes the form of neglect. Child and spousal abuse and violence are major social concerns today.
The extent that children are abused by their parents or adult caretakers is difficult to measure, although it appears to occur most frequently among lower-income communities and certain ethnic and religious minorities. Abuse of children ranges from physical and emotional abuse and sexual abuse to physical and emotional neglect (Gelles). Effects of physical abuse are varied and visible: unexplained bruises, fractures and burn marks. Emotional abuse destroys the child's sense of security and self-esteem. Sexual abuse includes all acts that expose them to the sexual satisfaction of the parent or adult…… [Read More]
However, as criminals become more aware of undercover tactics, the covert officer is required to provide more and more proof that he is indeed a criminal- which leads to the officer committing acts that compromise his or her integrity for the sake of maintaining cover. y understanding the often conflicting nature of these goals, deception and integrity, we can see how an undercover officer can become confused, lost, and susceptible to temptation (i.e. criminal behavior).
y examining both aspects- environmental factors and personality factors- we take into account both sides of a complex relationship. These two groups of factors, when combined together, shed some light on the exact nature of criminal tendencies amongst police officers.
Definition of Terms
Covert: another term for undercover, meaning the use of deception for the purpose of gathering information or intelligence.
Non-covert: police officers that, even in plain clothes, maintain their own true identity instead…… [Read More]
First of all only a scant few of these Veterans groups will acknowledge the "promise" of free health care; for the most part these groups will tout the benefits already promised by the Veterans Administration and assert that cuts in these benefits are the same a broken promise-or contractual breach in legal terms. The idea of the United States military making a "promise" or forging a legally binding agreement between individual veterans or groups of veterans is barred by the United States Constitution. As will be demonstrated in the Literature eview, specific Constitutional language from Article I give Congress and only Congress the express authority to make laws and regulations pertaining to the armed forces. Therefore, the idea the military breached a contract with service members is, ultimately, inherently inaccurate. Combining the lack of specific language within the materials provided by any governmental agency with the clear language of the…… [Read More]
He has never liked this name and becomes very angry when it is used. His specialty is car theft, bootlegging and armed robbery. He has already served several years in prison for auto theft and bank robbery charges. Just last year, while being returned to prison from a bank robbery trial, he escaped. That is why he is here in the South. He is seeing me, because the episodes are becoming more often and more severe.
His mother told him that he was always an ill-tempered and spoiled child. Many people say that he is the toughest and most heartless of the gangsters and even other criminals stay away from him. He remembers that even as a young boy he used to have mood swings from being very boisterous and rebellious to sad and even crying, which he had to hide from the gang. Now when he goes into his…… [Read More]
Cognitive and Behavioral Therapy
Cognitive and behavioral techniques / therapy
Cognitive Therapist Behavioral Techniques
Case of the Fat Lady
Cognitive behaviorist therapy is a blend of two therapies; cognitive therapy and behavioral therapy. Cognitive therapy first developed by Aaron Beck in 1960 has its focus on individual beliefs and their influences on actions and moods. Its core aims are to alter an individual mindset to be healthy and adaptive (Beck, 1976; athod, Kingdon, Weiden, & Turkington, 2008). Behavioral therapy focuses on individual aims and actions towards changing patterns in unhealthy behaviors (athod et al., 2008). Cognitive behavioral therapy assists an individual to focus on their current difficulties and relate on how to resolve them. Active involvement of both the therapist and the patient helps in identification of the thinking patterns in distort bringing into foresight a recognizable change in thought and behavior (Leichsenring & Leibing, 2007). Exploring and encouraging discussions…… [Read More]
What is key about both of these quotations is the loss of identity that is endemic to both of them. The cadets who have survived the fourth-class system and who inflict ritualistic violence in the form of hazing on others have lost something of their true "selves," something that was stripped away to lead them to believe that they could rightfully engage in this sort of behavior to inflict pain upon others. Therefore, the cadets who are guilty of said violence are perpetuating it because they have lost their own identities through disassociation -- in much the same way that Seth lost most of the moments of his life to this same phenomenon.
In conclusion, several of Stout's ideas about disassociation both apply to and help explain the tradition of obedience in the violent, misogynistic rituals that take place at the Citadel. The similarities between the effects of disassociation and…… [Read More]
Schizophrenia, Dissociative Disorder and Bipolar Disorder
While some symptoms of schizophrenia, dissociative disorder and bipolar disorder might seem similar, prompting individuals to suspect that the three different mental health disorders are interchangeable, the reality is that these three problems are quite distinct. This paper will discuss the broad differences between them as well as way to educate the client about his or her disorder, his or her family about it, and ways to reduce stigma.
As the DSM-5 points out, schizophrenia a mental disorder that causes the patient to experience hallucinations, delusions, irrational speech patterns, anti-social behavior, a loss of willpower/motivation, or even a possible catatonic state at times. Symptoms include incoherent speech, paranoia, distorted perceptions, confused or disordered thinking, and an inability to concentrate. This broad spectrum of symptoms should be seen for at least a month, with behavior being monitored for up to six months (American Psychiatric Association,…… [Read More]
Attachment was believed by owlby to be a critical aspect of the normal development of human behavior. Attachment is inclusive of the following characteristics:
1) Proximity Seeking - the infant seeks to be near the maternal figure;
2) Separation distress or protests - when separated or distant from the material figure the infant becomes distressed and signals this by vocalizing these feelings and changes in affect.
3) a secure base - when the infant develops a healthy attachment, the mother becomes a 'secure base' from which the child can venture forth into the world and securely explore their surroundings.
Ainsworth is noted as the first to conduct empirical research assessing patterns of attachment behaviors in infant attachment relating to the mother being under stress. Infant attachment behavior was categorized as: (1) secure; (2) avoidant; and (3) ambivalent. Since then the behavioral patterns of infants has undergone intensive assessment and study…… [Read More]
" (p. 12) According to Cromer (2005) the literature that addresses the relationship between stressful life events and obsessive compulsive disorders does provide some degree of support implicating traumatic life-stress as being a factor in the onset and maintenance of the obsessive compulsive disorders however the exact relationship between the SLE and OCD "remains an empirical questions" specifically relating to "traumatic negative life events" (2005; p.13) Most of studies in this area investigation the association between SLEs and OCD have held limitations of: (1) small sample sizes; and (2) difficulty of establishing retrospectively the temporal relationship between onset and SLEs; and (3) a limited scope with regard to the effect of SLEs on OCD. (2005; p.13) Cromer relates that "mounting evidence suggests that early life-stress, in particular may preferentially incline individuals to develop adult psychiatric disorders." (2005; p.13) McCauley et al. (1997) states evidence from a large epidemiological investigation that…… [Read More]
Lisa finds it hard to meet other kids her age who are like her. Most of her peers "do not care about school" and don't understand anything about the issues she cares about such as environmentalism and Tibet. Lisa worries excessively about external, global events such as global warming and wars in Africa. Many of the people she refers to as "friends" are much older than she is, although she admits most of them are mentors.
A person with generalized anxiety disorder finds it difficult to control worry. Lisa has been unable to control her worry successfully via Buddhist meditation or tai chi. She writes regularly in a journal and claims that this does help but not enough. Although she finds temporary relief in music and schoolwork, her feelings of worry and anxiety creep back into her consciousness as soon as she is doing something else. She experiences the most…… [Read More]
eal-Life case study
The research informant selected is a soldier who was deployed in Iraq who is 35 years of age and who was in the army for 15 years. He suffered from drug and alcohol addiction along with post traumatic stress syndrome. At this time he is still battling both of these conditions. When interviewing him, the clear purpose of this project was stated without a doubt, and he was informed of his voluntary participation, along with the fact that he was allowing us to use all the data that he provided. He was reassured of the complete and utter privacy of his responses and how all of his data was going to be kept confidential. For example, he was told that he name was never going to be recorded, none of the researchers would ever have it; instead he was going to be given a number. Furthermore, while…… [Read More]
Discuss the criteria used to define abnormality (abnormal behavior / mood disorders)
There are no established criteria to define what is abnormal. On the other hand, every individual trait can be said as abnormal on some social plane. (Oracle think quest, 2010) Some of the preferred ideas to define abnormality are as given below:
Statistical Norms Deviation: Certain population facts such as height, weight and intelligence are measured and recorded. Most of people come in the middle range of intelligence. Those who fail in general terms and falls below the so-called intelligence scale are termed as abnormal. But then, the people with extra intelligence also become abnormal. Furthermore, intelligence is a subjective issue. (Oracle think quest, 2010)
Social Norms Deviation: People going again social norms and trying to make their idiosyncratic identity are also termed as abnormal. Galileo was abnormal and he was brutally punished for his abnormality, he suggested…… [Read More]
We are extremely close.
Amazing - I've found someone I can really trust. I feel really lucky at the moment because all my other relationships have been *****.
Too good. it's really hard to describe. Unreal! I guess I now can't live without him. it's too good. He's grown on me.
I think I need to clarify I'm still married. I feel that in a marriage there ought to be a sexual relationship but in the last four years, I have been unable to give that and nor do I desire resuming it with my husband.
Fairly close but since I broke up with my husband I find it difficult to trust somebody. He tells me I'm a lot closer to him than I realize. I find it difficult to relax and believe it's too good to be true. I'm always looking for something to be wrong.
Excellent. He's very…… [Read More]
The two interpersonal scales are Dominance and Warmth. Many of the clinical scales, as well as the aggression scale, also have a number of subscales to provide more nuanced information bout each of the clinical conditions. For example, the Borderline Features scale has four subscales: Affective Instability, Identity Problems, Negative elationships and Self-Harm.
The resulting score profiles can be compared to either normative or clinical populations. aw scores are converted to T-scores using tables provided in the scoring manual. These tables were generated using either normative or clinical samples that were census matched and standardized (Morey, 2007). The manual provides average scores for each of the subscales, for example, the average T score for Borderline Traits is 59, indicating that individuals falling below this number are emotionally stable and do not reflect borderline traits. The individual mean scores for each scale vary and are presented within the testing manual (Morey,…… [Read More]
FFA & STS COMBINED
The concepts and use of the Fusiform Face Area (FFA) in terms of facial recognition and the Superior Temporal Sulcus (STS) in terms of voice recognition are not new on their own. However, those individual technologies and concepts have evolved on their own and now they are being analysed in terms of how they are perhaps used concurrently when one person does (or tries) to recognize another person. This report will cover what the FFA and STS are in general, prior ideas, frameworks and outcomes that have informed and influenced current research and what the future holds, at least based on current trends for the use of FFA and STS in combination or on their own.
FFA & STS Combined
Subject of Discussion
There is a great amount of debate with the circles that exist in the neuro-psychological field regarding the direct integration, or lack thereof,…… [Read More]
The research will address the following research questions, in addition to the central hypothesis.
How malleable are generational boundaries? In other words, how willing are teens to adapt to new generational boundary styles?
Are generational boundaries set during the early childhood years?
How frequently do teens assume a parental role in dysfunctional families?
What techniques could help tends and their adoptive parents reach a compromise that results in the development of healthy generational boundaries within the new family unit?
These research questions, in addition to the research hypothesis will help to contribute to the existing body of knowledge in the field of family therapy.
Contribution of This esearch
This research will play an important role in the field of family therapy. It will be specifically targeted towards helping develop new techniques and methods for helping adoptive families and their teens establish healthy generational boundaries within the new family. This is…… [Read More]
Sexual Child Abuse
Child sexual abuse involves a broad range of sexual behaviors that take place between a child and an older person. These sexual behaviors are planned to erotically stir the older person, commonly without concern for the consequences, choices, or outcome of the behavior upon the child. efinite conducts that are sexually offensive frequently involve bodily contact, such as in the state of sexual kissing, touching, fondling of genitals, and oral, anal, or vaginal contact. Nevertheless, behaviors might be sexually abusive even if they do not entail contact, such as in the case of genital exposure, verbal force for sex, and sexual abuse for purposes of prostitution or pornography.
For efinitions propose four main types of child abuse (physical abuse, sexual abuse, emotional abuse, and child neglect), but seldom if ever does one form of abuse happen alone. The suggestion in itself is illogical. Physical abuse and sexual…… [Read More]
" Long-term use may develop psychoses, like schizophrenia and severe depression. The use of MDMA may produce psychological difficulties, like confusion, depression, sleep problems, drug craving, severe anxiety and paranoia, even weeks after the use of the drug. MSMA develops symptoms, such as muscle tension, nausea, blurred vision, rapid eye movements, faintness, chills, sweating, and increased heart rate and blood pressure. it, therefore, poses a special risk for those with heart disease. Overuse can lead to death (Kurtzweil).
West Africans used ibogaine as a stimulant and aphrodisiac in the early 1900s (Kurtzweil 1995). Native Americans used mescaline from peyote cactus in religious rituals. LSD was first synthesized in 1938. Throughout history, it was considered a source of many types of medications. Its psychedelic effects were first discovered in 1943. Two decades after World War II, LSD was used to determine its effects on patients with schizophrenia and other mental disorders.…… [Read More]