¶ … Dissociative Identity Disorder (DID) is the name that the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual for Mental Disorders-IV-Text Revision (DSM-IV-TR) uses for the disorder previously known as Multiple Personality Disorder (American Psychiatric Association [APA], 2000). Dissociative disorders are a heterogeneous set of disorders described in the DSM-IV-TR that all involve some form of identity loss (APA, 2000). The concept of a personality describes, in fairly generalized terms, a sense of integration regarding the way one feels, thinks behaves. Even though a single personality can have many different aspects to it, the concept of personality relates a sense of oneness to the self. DID is a dissociative disorder in which the individual has two or more totally separate and distinct personalities, each determining the attitudes and behavior of the person at the time that it is dominant. DID is considered one of the more serious of all the psychiatric disorders listed in the DSM-IV-TR (APA, 2000).
Prior to 1800 persons afflicted with DID were likely considered to be possessed (APA, 2000). The American psychiatrist Benjamin Rush provided a clinical description of DID (Kluft, 1996) and Freud and Bleuer both recognized the pathology although both believed it to have different etiologies (Kluft, 1996). In 1980, the DSM-III recognized Multiple Personality Disorder (APA, 1980) and of course public awareness of the disorder came about through a series of popular books in people purporting to have DID and from Hollywood films.
According to the current diagnostic criteria include the presence of at least two distinct personalities, at least two of the personalities...
In fact the amnestic component of DID is crucial to the diagnosis (APA, 2000). The shift from one personality to the other is often sudden and dramatic. During each personality state the person is generally unaware of the other personalities or the events occurring when these other personalities were dominant (Kluft, 1996). However, in some cases one or more personalities is aware of the others or certain aspects of the others; however, this is rarely the case with the primary personality (Kluft, 1991). In the classic cases each personality has its own name, identity, history, and memories. The secondary personalities are often childlike, disparate from the primary personality, or may be a different gender and age from the person with the disorder (Ross, 2006).
The prevalence of DID is hotly debated with one extreme believing it is very rare and the other believing it is enormously underdiagnosed (Gleaves, May, & Carden, 2001). Some of the better studies indicate that 0.5 to three percent of psychiatric hospital admissions meet the diagnostic criteria…
Dissociative Identity Disorder is also referred to as multiple personality disorder, in which an individual's identity dissociates, or fragments, creating additional identities that exist independently of each other within the individual (Gale 2001). Each personality is specifically distinct from the other, such as tone of voice and mannerisms, vocabulary and posture (Gale 2001). Most people exhibit only one or two personalities, however, there are cases in which an individual will
Certain Christian communities offering support of this kind are guided by the Scriptures, specifically Isaiah 61, concerning their possessing of the Spirit of the Lord and being anointed (Grace 2002). One group that provides assistance to persons suffering from DID is called the Christian Survivors Ministries (Grace 2002). It makes available an environment of love and acceptance where the afflicted survivors can and will not be rejected or feel ashamed and
Clevelandclinic.org/health/health-info/docs/2800/2819.asp?index=9786&src=news.,2002). Dissociative fugue -- In this kind of dissociative disorder, the person is found to have lose his or her sense of personal identity and impulsively wanders or travels away from home for a temporary period of time. People with dissociative fugue often become confused about who they really are and may even create new identities. Outwardly, people with this disorder show no signs of illness, such as a strange appearance
Generalized amnesia caused by phenomena of genuinely psychogenic origin is a rare psychological disorder and spontaneous recovery from amnesia in a comparatively short period of time is one of the characteristics of this disorder. A comparison between the six cases and previously reported cases of amnesia exposed the general characteristics of this disorder. Three of the patients believed they had names of other persons; and the two of the
In the whole history of the world less than 200 cases were reported. Beginning about 1980, however, a skyrocketing epidemic of multiple personality disorder occurred amounting to tens of thousands of cases. Psychologists such as Greaves (1980) and Bliss (1980) estimated as many as 10% of Americans were suffering from the disorder (newly named Dissociative Identity Disorder). The literature swelled with articles, for example, "Multiple Personalities: A report of
Jane appears to be suffering from dissociative identity disorder based on the first three diagnostic criteria for this condition (American Psychiatric Association [APA], 2000). A person with dissociative identity disorder maintains multiple mutually-exclusive personalities in order to distance themselves from past traumatic events. Her behavior when interacting with the therapist suggests that she experienced at least two distinct personalities (criterion A) that recurrently appeared (criterion B) and had mutually-exclusive psychological