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Environmental Policies Give an Example
Words: 7072 Length: 18 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 3648279
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The 1980s (the period when onald eagan was the U.S. President) witnessed a series of government measures targeting environmental regulations. This resulted in public outrage against the anti-environmental policies of the government leading to a renewed interest in nature clubs and groups and the formation of radical groups who led strong movements to protect the environment. (vii) the post- eagan resurgence (1990s onwards) - President Bush and President Clinton did not take the radical stance of their predecessor. However, President George W. Bush has taken many measures which have weakened the environmental movement instead of strengthening it. This includes opposing curbs on greenhouse emissions via the Kyoto Protocol, supporting oil drilling in the ANW or Arctic National Wildlife ange, weakening clean air standards and lifting the ban on logging in forests.

3) How does economics determine the public's opinion regarding environmental issues? Discuss the values of the dominant social paradigm…

References

Bocking, Stephen. Nature's Experts: Science, Politics, and the Environment. Rutgers University Press. 2004.

Palmer, Mike. Pathways of Nutrients in the Ecosystem - Pathways of elements in ecosystem.  http://www.okstate.edu/artsci/botany/bisc3034/lnotes/nutrient.htm 

Redclift, M. R; Woodgate, Graham. The International Handbook of Environmental Sociology. Edward Elgar Publishing, 2000.

Schmidtz, David; Willott, Elizabeth. Environmental Ethics: What Really Matters, what Really Works. Oxford University Press U.S., 2002.

Environmental Policies and Problems in
Words: 2855 Length: 11 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 65016873
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" (2007) Recommendations of this report include those as follows:

China should learn from the successes and failure of the U.S. And other developed countries in reducing the influence of energy use on air quality;

Continued dialogue and information exchange among U.S. And Chinese scientists and policy-makers should be promoted through professional organization, government support programs, and the National Academies in both countries to promote joint development of energy and pollution control strategies." (Committee on Energy Futures and Air Pollution in Urban China and the United State, Policy and Global Affairs, 2007)

Other findings of this report include the fact that "an important lesson learned is that air pollution damage imposes major economic costs, through premature mortality, increased sickness and lost productivity, as well as in decreased crops yields and economic impacts." (Committee on Energy Futures and Air Pollution in Urban China and the United State, Policy and Global Affairs,…

Bibliography

Energy Futures and Urban Air Pollution: Challenges for China and the United States (2007) Development, Security, and Cooperation (DSC) Committee on Energy Futures and Air Pollution in Urban China and the United States - Development, Security and Corporation: Policy and Global Affairs. National Academy of Engineering and National Research Council of the National Academies and the Chinese Academy of Engineering Chinese Academy of Sciences. Online Pre-publication Release available at  http://books.nap.edu/openbook.php?record_id=12001&page=R2 

Holder, Kevin (2007) Chinese Air Pollution deadliest in World - National Geographic News 9 July 2007. Online available at  http://news.nationalgeographic.com/news/2007/07/070709-china-pollution.html 

Kim, Juli S. (2007)Transboundary Air Pollution - Will China Choke On Its Success? - A China Environmental Health Project Fact Sheet. 2 Feb. 2007. China Environment Forum in partnership with Western Kentucky University on the U.S. AID-supported China Environmental Health Project (CEHP)

Wang, Alex (nd) The Downside of Growth: Law, Policy and China's Environmental Crisis. Perspectives Vol. 2 No. 2. Online available at http://www.oycf.org/Perspectives/8_103100/downside_of_growth.htm

Environmental Policies Comparing and Contrasting
Words: 375 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 62104982
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It not only recycles, but unlike Universal Studios it donates electronics, furniture, and office supplies to community organizations, so that the products will be put to good use. Like Universal Studios, the alt Disney Company is committed to purchasing recycled-content products, and uses packaging materials that can be reused or recycled. It tries to buy in bulk to minimize packaging waste ("aste Minimization: The alt Disney Company," 2007, the alt Disney Company ebsite). In a unique program that is not present at Universal Studios, the company educates Disney employees both in company policies regarding environmentally sound living and encourages and instructs employees to engage in such practices in their own homes.

orks Cited

Bernards, Kori. (21 Apr 2006). "Film studios maintain healthy recycling rate: Earth Day

Report Shows Studios' Continued Commitment to the Environment." Motion Picture Association of America: Press Release. Retrieved 17 Apr 2007 at http://www.mpaa.org/press_releases/2006_04_21.pdf

Go Metro Specials."…

Works Cited

Bernards, Kori. (21 Apr 2006). "Film studios maintain healthy recycling rate: Earth Day

Report Shows Studios' Continued Commitment to the Environment." Motion Picture Association of America: Press Release. Retrieved 17 Apr 2007 at  http://www.mpaa.org/press_releases/2006_04_21.pdf 

Go Metro Specials." (2007). MTA. Retrieved 17 Apr 2007 at  http://www.mta.net/riding_metro/special_offer/monthly_specials.htm#P8_776 

Waste Minimization: The Walt Disney Company" (2007). The Walt Disney Company

Environmental Policies and Citizen Contribution
Words: 1129 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 12528627
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Citizen Groups Shaping Environmental Policy

The environmental issues have of late been a subject of concern to many people and many organizations. Governments all over the world have been under persistent pressure to implement policies and also enact laws that are friendly to the environment or are intentionally formulated to safeguard the environment. The Kyoto protocol was a pace setter in many aspects concerning the environmental care and conservation, hence many bodies borrow from it and help in the implantation of the guidelines that were outlined in that particular meeting of the global bodies and economic giants of the world. These groups that act as custodians of the environment include the citizen groups of diverse measures and backgrounds.

The citizen groups in this aspect include the industry groups, trade associations and the not-for-profit organizations. These are the renowned groups that use their influences to shape the perspectives that the government…

References

Desai Uday, (2002). Environmental Politics and Policy in Industrialized Countries. Retrieved April 26, 2015 from  https://books.google.co.ke/books?id=oa5ykgL3cjAC&pg=PA53&lpg=PA53&dq=how+citizen+groups+shape+environmental+policies&source=bl&ots=K0PXSyUbxC&sig=vCzf4TZzmmxojF_MgnqYV5w1S9U&hl=en&sa=X&ei=wjA_Va-IHczVPL3IgLAG&ved=0CCkQ6AEwAQ#v=onepage&q=how  citizen groups shape environmental policies&f=false

Micehael E.K., (2002). Environmental Policy and Politics in the United States: Toward Environmental Sustainability? Retrieved April 26, 2015 from

Climate Change and Corporate Environmental Policies
Words: 1380 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 91225973
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Climate change is also described as global warming, the unnatural or manmade cause of the planet’s increase in temperature. Climate change is physically caused by the release of greenhouse gases which get trapped in the atmosphere, in turn trapping heat from the sun on the planet (Meyer & Roser, 2006). Other pollutants can cause problems for the environment as well, such as toxins released into the water from chemical plants, or nuclear meltdowns that result in oceans being poisoned. These are also lumped in with climate change, since they also alter the environment. One of the biggest producers This paper will describe how climate change is occurring, how corporations are involved, and what some companies are doing to address it.

A Poore, Williams and Tracey (2000) note, sea levels are rising as a result of climate change. This occurs because the heat trapped on the planet by greenhouse gases leads…

Canada Environmental Policies & Politics
Words: 3601 Length: 13 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 85863819
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4-billion expansion after it was shut down in May by the province's environment ministry due to urine-like smells wafting in to neighbouring communities from the company's new technology." (Stephenson, 2006)

III. ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY REVIEW

In the work of Ross McKitrick entitled: "Towards the Use of Emission Taxes in Canada" a paper presented to the Finance Committee Round Table on Green Taxes in Ottawa, Canada on May 31, 2001, it is stated that in the presentation of the paper covered are:."..three topics: the context (international and domestic) for environmental policy in Canada, the basic principles of pollution tax design, and the priority I would suggest for proceeding with this policy instrument." (McKitrick, 2001)

McKitrick states that "the theory of optimal environmental taxation was worked out by Agnar Sandmo in an article in the Swedish Journal of Economics in 1975. Some points that have emerged from Sandmo's work are the following:

There…

Bibliography

Macdonald, Doug (1995) Green Taxation and Environmental Policies - Presented to the annual meeting of the Environmental Studies Association of Canada, June 4, 1995. Online available at  http://www.utoronto.ca/env/papers/macdon/macdon1.htm .

Planning for Sustainability (2000) Global Problems: Local Solutions - Transport Canada; Sustainable Transportation: The Canadian Context. Online available at  http://www.tc.gc.ca/programs/environment/sd/monograph/solutions.htm .

Paehlke, Robert (2000) Environmentalism in One Country: Canadian Environmental Policy in an Era of Globalization. Policy Studies Journal, Vol. 29, 2000.

CCME Task Force on Cleaner Vehicles, Engines and Fuels (2005) 1.2 Motor Vehicle Emissions and Air Quality. 21 Apr 2005. Online available at  http://www.ec.gc.ca/cleanair-airpur/CAOL/OGEB/fuels/reports/ccme/ccme1_2_e.htm .

Environmental Crime the National Environmental
Words: 1696 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 29682431
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..as long as those programs were at least as effective as the federal program." (the Occupational Safety and Health (OSH) Act)

The passing of this Act by congress is therefore aimed at ensuring adequate health and safety standards for all workers. In terms of employers, the Act was designed to make sure that the place of employment was free of any hazards that might be injurious or detrimental to safety and health. This may include aspects such as the exposure to toxic chemical and materials as well as other environmental factors, for example excessive noise levels. (Summary of the Occupational Safety and Health Act) the Act cover a wide range of possible health and safety measures and is also intended to ensure that physical and mechanical dangers in the workplace are avoided, as well as unsanitary conditions. (Summary of the Occupational Safety and Health Act)

An important part of this…

Works Cited

Background: The Resource Conservation and Recovery Act: RCRA. http://www.chemalliance.org/tools/background/back-rcra.asp

Britannica Concise Encyclopedia: Superfund. February 7, 2009.  http://www.answers.com/topic/superfund 

Clean Air Act. February 4, 2009. ( http://www.epa.gov/air/caa/ )

Clean Water Act (CWA). February 4, 2009.  http://www.epa.gov/oecaagct/lcwa.html

Environmental Case Study Solving a Puzzle
Words: 1309 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Case Study Paper #: 21639584
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Environmental Case Study (Alberta's Oil Sands)

Alberta's Oil Sands represents one of the international environmental problems facing Canada and close to seventy countries across the globe. Albert's Oil Sands proves to be a new course of political conflict within the setting of Canada and at the international level. Oil Sands development is responsible for rapid economic growth of Alberta. This creates ethical or moral dilemma because there is a massive risk in association with the development of Oil Sands within the province. Oil Sands contribute towards ecological harm thus having a negative impact on the living conditions of the individuals in the province and the entire planet. This ethical dilemma leads to mobilization processes by environmental entities to help alleviate the situation. This is because some prominent political outfits such as Peter Lougheed recognize that the rate of the development of the oil sands in Alberta is not socially or…

Works Cited

Brown, Jordan. "The Pembina Institute: Balancing Environmental Policy with Oil Sands Development in an Industry-Oriented Economy." Undercurrent 6.2 (2009): 7-16. Academic Search Complete. Web. 31 July 2012.

Dunbar, R.B. Existing and Proposed Canadian Commercial Oil Sands Projects. Calgary: Strategy West, April 2008. Available at:

Fairley, Peter. "Alberta's Oil Sands Heat Up." Technology Review 114.6 (2011): 52. MasterFILE Premier. Web. 31 July 2012.

Pasqualetti, Martin J. "The Alberta Oil Sands From Both Sides Of The Border." Geographical Review 99.2 (2009): 248-267. Academic Search Complete. Web. 31 July 2012.

Environmental Concerns in 1900 the
Words: 1656 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 3445105
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Firstly, it is crucial to raise awareness and to actually make people listen, care and then act accordingly. verybody needs to understand that the environment should be everyone's concern because it truly affects all of us as we are all inhabitants of the same planet. This is achieved through information which in turn, is achieved through long-term campaigns which have the mission to reach as many people as possible. This is where the civil society needs to really step in and help improve the quality of information as not everything we hear or see on television is actually scientific information. In fact, spreading untrue or simply unscientific information can be very harmful to society and its attitude towards the environment because people do not know what to believe. On the other hand, there is the danger of over exposing a certain topic, in this case environmental issues, which leads to…

Europa (4 April 2007).

International Issues. Environment. Retrieved September 14 from Website:  http://ec.europa.eu/environment/international_issues/agreements_en.htm 

European Environment Agency (29 Nov. 2005). The European Environment - State and outlook 2005. Retrieved September 13, 2007 from Website: http://reports.eea.europa.eu/state_of_environment_report_2005_1/en

Environmental Crimes and Health and Safety Law
Words: 3051 Length: 11 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 96085136
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Environmental Crimes and Health and Safety Law Violation

With the current changes in weather patterns, strange climatic conditions and other uncontrollable natural disasters, there has been a lot of attention directed towards the environment and the way people may be contributing to the degradation of the environment in small ways that is summed up results into the disasters that we see on daily basis. The environment is becoming unpleasant on an increasing trend each and every day, this is a cause to worry about for each government that cares to see the consequences of our careless handling of the environment.

There are also man's contribution to the insecurity that surrounds us on a daily basis since people no longer care for the safety of the workers that work in their industries and sadly to some extent, some don care even about themselves and the safety that may be protecting their…

References

Environmental Affairs and Tourism, Republic of South Africa, (2012). Stepping up

Enforcement Against Environmental Crimes. Retrieved April 4, 2012 from  http://www.environment.gov.za/Services/booklets/Environmental/EnviroCrimesEMI.pdf 

Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) (1998). Final Guidance for Incorporating

Environmental Justice Concerns in EPA's NEPA Compliance Analyses Retrieved April 4, 2012 from  http://www.epa.gov/compliance/ej/resources/policy/ej_guidance_nepa_epa0498.pdf .

Environmental Stewardship Project Proposal What Is Environmental
Words: 2358 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 51447096
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Environmental Stewardship Project Proposal

What is Environmental Stewardship?

What are the problems?

Why do we need to be concerned about Air Pollution?

A proposed Innovative Strategy for Pollution Awareness

Today Environmental stewardship is on the rise and really needed in the community. This is because an increasing amount of people are out there making knowledgeable choices in their what they do every day, such as in the work places, and communities. These choices are considered to be good for the environment, for their finances, and for complete quality of life. By most, these actions are probably looked at as being inspiring because it shows and evidence of a developing societal commitment to environmental stewardship.

This report gives an outline of what I believe is the next step in a continuing evolution of policy objectives from pollution control to pollution sustainability and prevention. It likewise gives a reflection on the important…

References

Ayres, J.R. (2012). Air pollution and health. London: Imperial College Press.

Berry, T. (2009). The Christian Future and the Fate of the Earth. Maryknoll, NY: Orbis.

Boff, L. (2009). Cry of the Earth, Cry of the Poor. Maryknoll: Orbis.

Bourne, J. (2009). Understanding Leicestershire & Rutland Place-Names, Heart. Wymeswold: Leicestershire.

Environmental Planning Can Involve a
Words: 645 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Discussion Chapter Paper #: 72169269
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Meantime the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) was the first law establishing "the broad national framework for protecting the environment"; any proposal for an airport, or military complex, highway, parkland and other federal activities are proposed (www.purdue.edu/environsoft/grants/src/laws.htm#NEPA).

An example of the government taking steps to address environmental planning is found in Executive Order 13148, signed into law April 21, 2000. The president ordered that environmental management strategies shall be developed by "each [federal] agency" to ensure that there is compliance to all federal environmental laws and that leadership programs, policies and procedures are established and followed (http://ceq.hss.doe.gov). Another example is the final rule issued through CERDLA/EPCRA regarding an "exemption for air releases of hazardous substances from animal waste at farms" (EPA / Office of Emergency Management). The exemption is that they don't have to report the release of hazardous substances from animal waste to the air under CERCLA section 103…

Works Cited

Environmental Protection Agency. (2009). CERCLZ/EPCRA Administrative Reporting

Exemption for Air Releases of Hazardous Substances from Animal Waste at Farms.

Retrieved April 2, 2011, from  http://www.epa.gov/emergencies .

Executive Order (2000). Greening the Government Through Leadership in Environmental

Environmental Institutions in The Effectiveness
Words: 1050 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 2239448
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As Andresen points out, their quasi-legal or soft status renders intergovernmental groups legally powerless in general. Thus, intergovernmental groups need to bolster their efficacy by linking more strongly with local and state law enforcement organizations.

Another weakness of intergovernmental environmental organizations that Biermann points out in "The Case for a orld Environment Organization" is the poor communication and coordination between existing organizations. A plethora of related institutions may be working on the same environmental issue without pooling resources, when it would be far more efficient and effective to tackle global environmental threats in a cooperative manner. Likewise, Biermann cites capacity building as a key aspect of institutional coordination and cooperation.

Perceived legitimacy of intergovernmental environmental organizations is also a major concern, as many developing nations may be viewing the UNEP and other groups as being representative of estern (U.S./European) hegemony (Biermann). How to allocate funding is another critical concern, reflecting…

Works Cited

Andresen, Steinar. The effectiveness of UN environmental institutions. Int Environ Agreements (2007) 7:317 -- 336.

Bauer, Steffen and Biermann, Frank. Does Effective International Environmental Governance Require a World Environment Organization? The State of the Debate Prior to the Report of the High-Level Panel on Reforming the United Nations. Global Governance Working Paper No 13. Amsterdam, Berlin, Oldenburg, Potsdam: The Global Governance Project. 2004. Available at www.- glogov.org

Biermann, Frank. The Case for a World Environment Organization. Environment, Nov2000, Vol. 42 Issue 9, p22, 10p

Najam, Adil. "The Case Against a New International Environmental Organization." Global Governance 9(2003): 367-384.

Environmental Systems in the Past
Words: 12463 Length: 45 Pages Document Type: Capstone Project Paper #: 751326
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Although the research tools provided by the ISO 14001 framework are both qualitative and quantitative, this approach is consistent with the guidance provided by Neuman (2003) who points out that, "Both qualitative and quantitative research use several specific research techniques (e.g., survey, interview, and historical analysis), yet there is much overlap between the type of data and the style of research. Most qualitative-style researchers examine qualitative data and vice versa" (p. 16). Indeed, researchers have used qualitative and quantitative surveys to assess consumer reactions to proposed environmental initiatives at the local level (Neuman, 2003).

In fact, quantitative and qualitative research methods are characterized by a number of similarities that lend themselves to environmental systems analyses and development (as well as some differences) (Neuman, 2003). The distinct differences in the qualitative and quantitative research suggest that the use of quantitative data for environmental system development is highly appropriate, but that such…

References

Bonlac Foods. (2012). Bloomberg Businessweek. Retrieved from http://investing.business week.com/research/stocks/private/snapshot.asp?privcapId=883342.

McComb, S. (2010). Green building & green business informatics tool. Elusor. Retrieved from http://www.environmentalaccountingtools.com/magazine/tag/building.

Recardo, R. & Jolly, J. (1999). Organizational culture and teams. SAM Advanced Management

Journal, 62(2), 4-5.

Does the United States Government Have Environmental Ethics
Words: 2987 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 27254600
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Environmental Ethics

US Government and Environmental Ethics

The United States government has had a long history with the environment, beginning with the very beginning of the settlement of the Pilgrims, through the industrialization era, forming the beginning principles of having national parks, and to today with the onset of climate change and the environmental hazards of the 21st century. (National Park Service, 2012) Compared to other countries, the U.S. has had a more favorable view towards the use of the environment for business matters, often leaving entire communities scarred by the unprotected use of machinery and pollution to retrieve coal minerals, build six lane highways through forests, and even building massive subdivisions of buildings so close together that they represent risks of fire and natural disaster. There are several government agencies that have been created through the years to govern the vast territories that have been preserved, but the amount…

Work Cited

American Farmland Trust. (2012). "History of the Farm Bill." Retrieved from,  http://www.farmland.org/programs/farm-bill/history/usfarmsubsidies.asp .

The Encyclopedia of Earth. (2008). "Roosevelt, Franklin D. And his Environmental Policies." Retrieved from,  http://www.eoearth.org/article/Roosevelt,_Franklin_D ..

The Environmental Protection Agency. (2012). "About Us." Retrieved from,  http://www.epa.gov/aboutepa/ .

BBC News. (2011). "What is the Kyoto Treaty?." Retrieved from,  http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/europe/2233897.stm .

Environmental Ethical Issue Sociology Environmental
Words: 1208 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 44102580
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Current events of the environmental ethics

Some of the major current events concerning the environmental ethics are the issue of global warming. One of the leading researchers (in the causes and effects of climate change; and in the field of allergies) in Europe has discovered that the burning of the fossil fuel that has increased over the recent past has resulted into the increase of the carbon dioxide in the atmosphere. Increase of atmospheric carbon dioxide facilitates the growth of the ragweed- an invasive plant- moreover; the hay fever is triggered of by this plant's pollen grains. Both early and long seasons of allergy are caused by the bloom of the birch trees as a result of the warmer temperatures (White, 1967).

Non-environmentally friendly behaviors currently such as the increased acts of war has not only affected the environment by impoverishing the natural resources but has also caused stress in…

References

Carson, R. (1962). Silent Spring. California: Houghton Mifflin.

Van, W., & Peter C. (1997). Primitives in the Wilderness: Deep Ecology and the Missing

Human Subject. New York: SUNY Press.

Varner, G. (1998). In Nature's Interests? Interests, Animal Rights, and Environmental

Environmental Crime Throughout the Twentieth
Words: 607 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 9737426
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Awareness also plays a part on the other side of environmental crime -- laws cannot be made restricting certain activities with a detrimental environmental impact until that impact is known, and certain types of environmental crimes might remain hidden for years (Interpol, 2009).

The International Police organization, or Interpol, recognizes two major forms of environmental crime: wildlife crime and pollution crime (Interpol, 2009). Wildlife crime is the exploitation of protected plants or animals, such as the murder of elephants for ivory or whales for meat (Interpol, 2009). Because there is no direct human victim, these crimes may often go unnoticed, and if the public is not aware of the activity than the government is not very likely to do anything about it. The same is true of pollution crime, which does have a direct impact on human populations but which can often be very difficult to prove (EPA, 2009). Direct…

References

Environmental Crime." (2009). Interpol. Accessed 24 January 2009.  http://www.interpol.int/Public/EnvironmentalCrime/Default.asp 

Environmental Crime." (2009). EPA Website. Updated 13 January 2009. Accessed 24 January 2009.  http://epa.gov/compliance/criminal/investigations/environmentalcrime.html

Environmental Security the Environment and
Words: 3409 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 46094940
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The author therefore appears to suggest that the holistic approach poses a risk of costly time delays for approval that might prove too little too late for any true difference to be possible.

Brown (2005) asserts that the political involvement of security in natural resource issues holds the risk of conflict and insecurity. Indeed, competition relates to power and control issues arise where resources are abundant, while competition for resources occur where these are scarce. Brown, like Levy, asserts that there is little question that security and environmental issues are integrated. The risk lies in whether security is specifically integrated in mitigation measures, and the degree to which this is done.

It has been mentioned above that the environment directly affects human survival and well-being. Brown further addresses the interrelation between the environment and security be asserting that they are interdependent: in other words, the environment can cause insecurity, while…

Sources

Bretherton, C. & Vogler, J., the European Union as a Global Actor (Routledge, 1999), Chapter 3.

Dalby, S. Security, Modernity, Ecology: The Dilemmas of Post-Cold War Security Discourse Alternatives, 17:1 (1992), pp.95-134.

Dannreuther, Roland (ed.) European Union Foreign and Security Policy (Routledge, 2004) Chapter 11

Deudney, D. The case against linking environmental degradation and national security, Millennium, 19:3 (1990), pp.461-76.

Environmental Ethical Issues in the
Words: 868 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 86819609
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On the largest scale, the U.S. population is disproportionately responsible for the depletion of fossil fuels and other natural resources in that Americans consume approximately one-quarter of those valuable energy resources despite constituting less than five percent of the entire global population (Attfield, 2003; Poiman & Poiman, 2007).

Besides consuming such a disproportionate amount of natural resources, another major environmental ethics issue arises in connection with the deliberate export of hazardous waste from wealthy countries to poor countries and the outsourcing of dangerous jobs, such as some of those that are strictly prohibited by domestic environmental laws (Halbert & Ingulli, 2008; Poiman & Poiman, 2007). United States military operations have also contributed to new environmental ethics concerns, such as the contamination of soil and water supplies in Iraq and Central Europe by the millions of depleted uranium shells left by tactical aircraft supporting ground troops in Iraq or engaging hostile…

References

Attfield R. (2003). Environmental Ethics: An Overview for the Twenty-First Century.

Cambridge, UK: Polity.

Halbert T. And Ingulli E. (2008). Law & Ethics in the Business Environment. Cincinnati:

West Legal Studies.

Environmental Pressures
Words: 1125 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 52094195
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Environmental and Organizational

ENVIONMENTAL PESSUE

OGANIZATIONAL PESSUE

Individual Commitment to Environment

etain Employment

Family pressures

Contribute to Profits

Social Pressures

Discipline

Environmental vs. Organizational Pressure

Change is disruptive and can be the source of much anxiety and stress. egardless of these fears, changes within organizations are inevitable and are guaranteed to happen sooner or later. To better manage these changes it is helpful to compare and contrast the different types of pressures an individual may feel when working in a corporate environment. The purpose of this essay is to discuss these pressures in an organizational and environmental context to decipher their influence on organizations. For purposes of this essay I will utilize my job working for Astra Zeneca as a guide to explain these influences and how change can best be managed.

The environment contains the organization and is large in size and scope, and, in theory affecting everyone who…

References

Angell, L (1999). Environmental and Operations Management Face the Future. Decisions Sciences, May 1999. Retrieved from  http://www.decisionsciences.org/DecisionLine/Vol30/30_3/pom30_3.pdf 

Delmas, Magali A. And Michael Toffel. "Institutional Pressures and Organizational Characteristics: Implications for Environmental Strategy." The Oxford Handbook of Business and the Natural Environment. Bansal, Pratima, and Andrew Hoffman, Eds. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2012. 229-247

Donovan, F. (2013). Organizational pressures creating schizophrenia within IT. Fierce Enterprise Communications, 30 Mar, 2013. Retrieved from  http://www.fierceenterprisecommunications.com/story/gartner-organizational-pressures - creating-schizophrenia-within-it/2013-03-30

Environmental Psychology in Basic Terms Environmental Psychology
Words: 878 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 48131929
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Environmental Psychology

In basic terms, environmental psychology is taken to be an interdisciplinary subject mainly concerned with the interplay between individuals and that which surrounds them. In this text, I come up with a concise and clear definition of environmental psychology as a discipline. In so doing, I will also identify the main differences and similarities between two environmental psychology theoretical approaches. Further, I will highlight the relevance of research in the environmental psychology field.

Environmental Psychology: A Concise Definition

According to Nagar (2006), the environmental psychology field was initially known as "architectural psychology." This according to the author was based on the field's roots where the focus was chiefly on features (physical) of building design and how it impacted on the behavior of humans. According to Cassidy (1997), various definitions of environmental psychology have been formulated over time by a number of authors. One of the definitions floated according…

References

Bell, P.A., Greene, T.C., Fisher, J. & Baum A. (2005). Environmental Psychology. Routledge.

Cassidy, T. (1997). Environmental Psychology. Behavior and Experiences in Context. Psychology Press.

Coon, D. & Mitterer, J.O. (2006). Introduction to Psychology: Gateways to Mind and Behavior. Cengage Learning.

Nagar, D. (2006). Environmental Psychology. Concept Publishing Company.

Environmental Industrial Management
Words: 2089 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 99308057
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Environmental Industrial Management

Corporate social responsibility (CS) has been a hot topic in business circles for decades. The topic has gained even greater attention in the last few decades in the wake of increased attention to the impact of business activities on the environment, economy, and the society (Flammer, 2013; Schrempf-Stirling, Palazzo and Phillips, 2016). This paper discusses the principles of CS; the integration of social, economic, and environmental aspects in the organisational agenda; the importance of transparency, accountability, and stakeholder engagement in CS; and the notions of materiality in CS and sustainability reporting as outlined in the Global eporting Initiative (GI) G4 guidelines.

Whereas there is no commonly agreed definition, CS generally refers to the activities business organisations deliberately undertake with the aim of promoting social, economic, and environmental sustainability (Crowther and Aras, 2008). It denotes the pursuit of economic objectives while at the same time consciously pursuing social…

References

Barclays, 2013. Citizenship Report 2013. [online] Available at: [Accessed 9 December 2016]

Crowther, D. and Aras, G., 2008. Corporate social responsibility. New York: Ventus Publishing.

Flammer, C., 2013. Does corporate social responsibility lead to superior performance? A regression discontinuity approach. Management Science, 61(11), 1-27.

Foote, J., Gaffney, N. and Evans, J., 2010. Corporate social responsibility: implications for performance excellence. Total Quality Management, 21(8), 799-812.

Environmental Conditions Impacting Organizational Forecasting
Words: 601 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 71529883
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Insofar as many
of the nations now impacted so drastically by the food scarcity crisis are
also those developing theatres in which globalizing companies have sought
to operate, it is becoming more difficult all the time to find an
appropriate context for operation. Thus, organizations pursuing offshore
production interests, outsourced service laborers and overseas contract
management must immerse themselves in many settings where poverty,
instability and widespread suffering are all increasingly characteristic.
Forecasting organizational performance and opportunity under these terms is
marked by challenge.
So too is this case in navigating the uncertainties of legal policy
concerning environmental conditions. Under the Bush Administration, we
have experienced a significant decline in standard protections for both
dumping and emissions, due to the president's composition of ironically
entitled bills such as the Clean Air Act and the Clean ater Act. Both of
these, in spite of their titles, were marked for their historical…

Works Cited

Butler, M. (2008). Lessons from Biofuels. Greentech. Online at
 http://www.greentechmedia.com/articles/lessons-from-biofuels-10-768.html 

Reuters. (2008). States sue EPA over ozone pollution standards. Thomson
Reuters. Online at
 http://www.reuters.com/article/environmentNews/idUSN2843108220080528

Environmental Regulations in Public Transit
Words: 2971 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 60710599
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Environmental egulations in Public Transit

The negative effects of air pollution are that it can force illness on us. It can produce burning eyes and nose and an itchy, irritated throat, in addition to difficulty in breathing. The cause for certain diseases like cancer, birth defects, brain and nerve injury and long-standing wound to the lungs and breathing passages is found to be some chemicals in polluted air. Severe injury or even death can happen if some hazardous air pollutants are released by mistake. Air pollution affects environment. Air pollution also affects trees, lakes and animals. Air pollutants are contracting the shielding ozone layers above the Earth. This loss of ozone can lead to alterations in the environment in addition to more skin cancer and cataracts in people. By soiling buildings and other structures, air pollution spoils properties like home, offices, etc. Damages to stone-based structures like buildings, monuments and…

References

Background on Air Pollution. Retrieved from  http://www.nsc.org/ehc/mobile/acback.htm  Accessed on 28 May 2005

Background Sheet: The Clean Air Act. 4 November, 2000. Retrieved from  http://www.deq.state.la.us/assistance/educate/readdat4.htm  Accessed on 28 May 2005

Clean Air Act. Retrieved from  http://www.answers.com/topic/clean-air-act  Accessed on 28 May 2005

Economic aspects of sustainable development in India. Retrieved from  http://www.un.org/esa/agenda21/natlinfo/countr/india/eco.htm  Accessed on 28 May 2005

Policy Regulations II Policy Studies
Words: 2551 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 19419327
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Instead they are being left in family homes, alone while family members work to pay the bills.

One of the problems with government regulations and business is that often times the regulation applies across the board with little regard to the size of the business or the size of the population that the business serves.

To implement a regulation to businesses across an entire geographic area can harm the business in the small town. Why should the same regulation apply to a business in a town of 330 as a business in a town of 1.5 million residents? To comply with certain government regulations businesses in small towns are often left with no choice but to close the doors.

Existing regulations already put a huge burden on the U.S. economy, more than $600 billion per year, according to detailed studies by economist Thomas Hopkins of the ochester Institute of Technology.…

References

Bass, Gary (1995) Government Regulations are an Essential Part of Life

Philadelphia Tribune,

Blockbuster anti-trust case thrown out. (Law & Regulation).(Brief Article)

Screen Digest

Environmental Challenges Facing the Current Generation What
Words: 1397 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 87383522
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Environmental Challenges Facing the Current Generation

hat are the most challenging environmental issues that will face humanity over the next 50 years? And what are the best ideas for options in the face of these challenges? hat are some companies doing to mitigate (reduce, reuse, and recycle resources) the problems on a local level? These and other issues and questions will be approached in this paper.

The Main Environmental Challenges

hile there is no one single most serious environmental challenge that all scholars, scientists, researchers, policy makers, journalists and others agree on, any cursory research into future environmental challenges and issues for Planet Earth will turn up the alarming and well-documented consequences of climate change. Of course climate change is not just a future issue but very much a current worry for citizens, scientists and policy makers. Many other critical issues are related to global climate change, including the population…

Works Cited

Emmott, S. (2013). Humans: the real threat to life on Earth. The Guardian / The Observer.

Retrieved February 21, 2014, from  http://www.theguardian.com .

Foley, J. (2012). Earth in 20 Years. University of Minnesota. Retrieved February 21, 2014, from  http://www1.umn.edu .

General Motors. (2013). Innovation: Environment / Waste Reduction. Retrieved February 21,

Environmental Themes
Words: 5447 Length: 20 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 33113853
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Environmental Themes in Grapes of rath

This essay reviews environmental themes from the following five books: Dust Bowl by Donald orster, The Grapes of rath by John Steinbeck, Everglades: River of Grass by Marjory Stoneman Douglas, Killing Mr. atson by Peter Matthiessen, and River of Lakes by Bill Belleville. This paper discusses the role that culture has played in environmental issues during the past century. Five sources used. MLA format.

Environmental Themes

Humans from the very beginning of their existence have had an impact, for better or worse, on the environment. Man has for the most part tried to control the environment to suit his needs or tastes of the era. Over-grazing, over hunting, ignoring the importance crop rotations, dam building, and toxic dumping, are but a few of the ways man tries to control. Few societies have ever considered any of the above when it comes to the environment.…

Works Cited

Belleville, Bill. River of Lakes. University of Georgia

Press. 2001.

Douglas, Marjory Stoneman. The Everglades River of Grass.

Pineapple Press. 50th Anniversary Edition. 1997.

Environmental Sciences Obama Turns to Web to
Words: 1160 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Article Review Paper #: 50361966
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Environmental Sciences

Obama Turns to Web to Illustrate the Effects of a Changing Climate

This article discusses how the use of technology and the internet can aid in the overall global warming education process. The article explains how President Obama is using a mobile app to depict the effects of global warming in local communities. Through technology, Obama hopes to create awareness of the overall global warming issue, and its impact on communities. The article states that out that individuals given a list of 20 issues, rank global warming as 19th. Through the use of the app, the Obama administration hopes to create an overall sense of urgency within the general public.

A particularly interesting aspect of the article was the amount of detailed coordination needed to produce the app. The mobile app is unique in that it attempts to depict the impact global warming has on communities' overtime. As…

Environmental Changes the Physical Environmental
Words: 1019 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 68287562
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The growing population has a great impact on the extent of global warming and its consequences for society, economy and the environment. This means that there is rising in greenhouse emission, more people means more industry. Scientists worry about the emission from developing countries which may contribute to global environment problems even sooner than expected. ut not only the developing countries contributes to the emission but also rich industrialized countries have been putting carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases in the atmosphere for many years now. "20% of the world's population can not continue to indiscriminately pollute the atmosphere at the expense of the majority" (M. Glantz 2005). Rich industrialized countries contributes a higher percentage of emission at the atmosphere that increases the environment's temperature of global warming and results to change of weather pattern to different regions. "Africa's contribution to the increasing concentrations of greenhouse gases has been minimal,…

Bibliography

Glantz.H. (March 2005) Climate Change Global Warming and Sub-Saharan Africa. Fragile Ecologies. Retrieved on May 03, 2008, from website: http://www.fragilecologies.com/mar02_05.html. s

Global Warming. Natural Resources Defense Council. Retrieved on May 03, 2008, from website:  http://www.nrdc.org/globalWarming/qthinice.asp 

Klueger J. (2008). Global Warming Heats Up. Time Magazine. Retrieved on May 03, 2008, from website, www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,1176980,00.html

Environmental History According to Oelschlaeger
Words: 649 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 39312480
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On the other hand, nature-as-machine proponents view nature holistically, and the "whole is greater than the sum of its parts," (Oelschlaeger 1991 p. 130). Water is a lake, an ocean, or a river. Oelschlaeger calls seeing the forest instead of the trees "synoptic holism." The synoptic holism integral to the nature-as-organism view opposes the reductionistic atomism common to the nature-as-machine stance. In other words, where the reductionist sees a bunch of quarks, the holist sees a bird.

The nature-as-machine proponent also thinks in terms of external relations. Individual parts of the machine interact with other parts as independent entities; thus, they can be removed and replaced without upsetting the balance of nature. This stance supports the view of humanity as external to nature. On the other hand, the nature-as-organism proponent perceives nature in terms of internal relations, and human beings are part of nature's internal whole. Individual parts of nature…

References

Oelschlaeger, M. (1991). Wild nature. Chapter 4 in The Idea of Wilderness: From Prehistory to the Age of Ecology. New Haven: Yale University Press.

Policy Rules
Words: 716 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Discussion Chapter Paper #: 72291238
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Policy and Science

Fiddler on the oof

Science has traditionally been presented as the a priori fact-finding, theory-establishing stage one of policy making. Stage two of this conventional approach has policy makers utilizing the "empirical truths" that science offers in support of policies to be enacted to solve a policy problem. Yet both policymaking and empirical research are -- by their very nature -- ongoing human endeavors. Policymakers want the best that science has to offer -- when they need it -- for decision-making, policymaking, and policy implementation. Science marches to its own tune, with agendas set by dynamics such as funding for research or public and private priorities and pressures (Kingdon, 1984). And, increasingly, in a funding environment that is cooling off, the ability to do research is often determined by its application -- public service adding a positive valence -- and the ability to enact policy is dependent…

References

Haller, S.F. And Gerrie, J. (2007). The role of science in pubic policy: Higher reason, or reason for hire. Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics, 20,(2).

Kingdon, J.W. (1984). Agendas, alternatives, and public policies. New York, NY: Harper Collins Publishers.

Pressman, J.L. And Wildavsky, A. (1984). Implementation. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.

Wildavsky, A. (1979). Speaking truth to power: The art and craft of policy analysis. Boston, MA: Little, Brown Publishers.

Policy Studies the Study of Public Policy
Words: 2628 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 77093155
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Policy Studies

The study of public policy gained significant importance in the late fifties and sixties. However, policy science did not come into existence all of a sudden. It started to emerge when social scientists started researches on a wide range of sociopolitical problems. After the World War II, significant developments were made in the areas of operations research, economics and social psychology. These developments proved to be helpful in formulating new ways for more systematic and empirical investigations of policy making. Although, a considerable level of research was done in the areas of sociopolitical studies but the clear concept of a policy science was first introduced in 1951 by Harold Lasswell. "Lasswell's seminal work identified six basic characteristics of an emerging field of study, concerned with explaining policy making and policy executing process. (McCool)

The study of public policy gained momentum in the late 1960s. With the introduction of…

References

Daniel Mc Cool: The Theoretical Foundation of Policy Studies: Prentice Hall Press

Macrae Duncan: Policy Analysis for public decisions: Rowman and Littlefield Publishing Group Inc., 1985

Clarke E. Cochran: American Public Policy: An Introduction: Wadsworth Pub Co: August 1998

Van Horne, Carle E: Politics and Public Policy: CQ Press.

Policy Formulation in a World
Words: 5010 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 31469771
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This balkanization is partially driven by the lack of integration between various segments of itself, and this is primarily a technological limitation. Yet the far broader and more difficult challenge in this regard is the segregating of knowledge not just for profit, but for lasting competitive advantage between nations. On the one hand there is the need for competitive differentiation in company's offerings, yet in others including the sharing of primary research in medicine and biomedical fields and stem cell research there is the ethical responsibility to share these insights gained to foster solutions to the world's most pressing medical problems. M. Van Alstyne and E. Brynjolfsson, researchers on the growth patterns and threat of Internet balkanization from MIT, remark in their conference paper from a 1996 conference that the balkanization of science is a significant threat. The two MIT researchers cite the studies they have completed showing how despite…

References

ESRI (2006). Environmental Systems Research Institute. Retrieved from the Internet on July 14, 2006. (www.esri.com)

Gates Technology Foundation (2005). Interviews and on-site visits with GIS planners and network technicians while donating servers, laptops, and desktop computers for a major PC manufacturer. Onsite interviews in Seattle, Washington. April, 2005.

HHS (2006). Federal Register Data on Poverty Line Statistics by size of household. January 24, 2006. See table 1 of this document.

Pew Center for Internet Research (2006). Key statistics downloaded from the Internet on February 14, 2006.  http://people-press.org/

Environmental Assessment Is an Integral
Words: 4249 Length: 14 Pages Document Type: Research Proposal Paper #: 9743736
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Strategic assessment

2. Project Preparation

3. Project Implementation'

4. Facility Operation

These four assessment tools are to be standalone tools that are applied at specific stages of the Gipsy Lane brickworks road extension and the industrial development project life cycle. The assessment with one of the tools has no link or dependence with earlier stages. The tools of assessment are to be designed in a manner that they are applicable throughout the planning stage up to the point of making decisions in the project life cycle (See figure 1.).

The process of protocol assessment (Source: IHA, 2010).

The tools are to undergo repeated application so as to help in the continuous improvement of the process.

Strategic Assessments section

This section is important for the assessment of the strategic basis of the Gipsy Lane brickworks project. This part is most applicable at the stage when the Gipsy Lane brickworks is still…

References

Gratton, C., & Jones, I. (2003). Research methods for sport studies. New York: Routledge.

Fraenkel, J.R. & Wallen, N.E. (2001). Educational research: A guide to the process. Mahwah,

NJ:

Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Environmental History in The Trouble
Words: 2134 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 93525130
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Instead of valuing some parts of nature over others, we should cultivate a universal regard for all parts of nature, down to the lowliest tree in our back yard. Aldo Leopold would agree. His "land ethic" calls for a new philosophy that includes a moral respect for the land. Like Cronon, Leopold advocates an "ecological conscience," that includes a "conviction of individual responsibility," (435). Cronon realizes that humility and respect as well as "critical self-consciousness" should be the guiding forces of the environmentalist movement (p. 387).

However, Leopold too upholds a dualistic worldview that appears to be ingrained in American cultural consciousness. For Leopold, there are two different groups of people pulling in opposite directions: those who view land as soil and therefore commodity production, and those that view land as biota. Leopold makes a snickering comment about organic farming as well: "the discontent that labels itself 'organic farming' while…

Policy Reform to Promote the
Words: 7175 Length: 26 Pages Document Type: Multiple Chapters Paper #: 67566472
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In other, more charter-friendly states, there are multiple authorizers -- universities, state boards, even specially created bodies with expertise in charter school creation. The new bill before the state House and Senate will give the Board of Education an advising role on charter school applications prior to going before the local school board.

Patrick Henry School of Science and Arts opened Aug. 11, 2010 making it the 10th charter school to open in the state of Virginia since charter schools were allowed to open in 1998. However, if history repeats itself, Patrick Henry will have a bumpy road ahead. Including Patrick Henry only three charter schools are operating currently in the state of Virginia and Patrick Henry is the only one operating in the city of ichmond. At one time there were nine charter schools in Virginia, but most of them closed due to financial reasons. (citation)

According to the…

REFERENCES

Lawrence F. Garrison, & Mitchell Holifield. (2005). ARE CHARTER SCHOOLS EFFECTIVE? Planning and Changing, 36(1/2), 90-103. Retrieved December 17, 2010, from Research Library. (Document ID: 877541691).

CHARTER SCHOOLS: LESSONS in SCHOOL REFORM [review of the Charter Schools: Lessons in School Reform. (2005). Harvard Educational Review, 75(3), 341-343. Retrieved December 17, 2010, from Research Library. (Document ID: 920579091).

Victoria Benning. (1998, October 15). Fairfax Studies Charter School Plan; Measure's Guidelines Allow Only Special-Need Applications: [FINAL Edition]. The Washington Post, p. B05. Retrieved December 17, 2010, from ProQuest National Newspapers Premier. (Document ID: 35117762).

Kraft, M. & Furlong, S. (2007). Public Policy: Politics, Analysis, and Alternatives.

Environmental Governance
Words: 1366 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Book Review Paper #: 69447319
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Environmental Governance

esponsible Leadership is the culmination of Moody-Stuart's forty-five years of work in the oil, gas, metal, and mineral extraction industries. Moody-Stuart draws from his experience and observations to provide an analysis of how business has been, and can become more, responsible champions of social and environmental issues. The book includes two Forewords, one by Sir obert Wilson, former Executive Chair of io Tinto, and another by UN Deputy Secretary-General Mark Malloch-Brown. Moody-Stuart offers fifteen chapters, all related in some way to issues of economic development, globalization, free markets, free trade, corporate responsibility, and corporate ethics. The book includes Moody-Stuart's political philosophy, his opinions on nearly every major global conflict extant at the time of publishing, and on issues both relevant and irrelevant to the primary topic of the book, which is the role of business in the current global scenario.

The book begins with an introduction that outlines…

Reference

Moody-Stuart, M. (2014). Responsible Leadership. Sheffield: Greenleaf.

Policy Extension
Words: 1679 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 21719184
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Policy Extension

General Context

The company was established in 1886 and since its inception the technology developed by Daimler has revolutionized the automotive industry (Daimler AG, 2014). Daimler's initial product line started with a motor carriage and a three wheeled vehicle. The quality, safety and comfort of Daimler's vehicles have impressed their customers, establishing the standards of the industry.

With automotives being a physical product, it is very easy to measure them. Standards of the industry are established and brought to public notice, allowing all customers to understand them and rapport to them. In this industry products are physical received by customers and they enter customers' possession once all contractual and financial aspects have been attained. Product reception takes place under the terms established by the seller and agreed by the buyer.

There are several ways customers can address in order to find out information about the price and characteristics…

Reference list:

1. Tradition (2014). Daimler AG. Retrieved November 20, 2014 from  http://www.daimler.com/company/tradition .

2. Product Responsibility (2014). Daimler AG. Retrieved November 20, 2014 from  http://www.daimler.com/sustainability/product-responsibility .

3. Lis, B. et al. (2012). Oil and Cars: The Impact of Crude Oil Prices on the Stock Returns of Automotive Companies. International Journal of Economic and Financial Issues. Retrieved November 20, 2014.

4. The Automotive Industry (2014). Business and Economics Research Advisor. Retrieved November 20, 2014 from  http://www.loc.gov/rr/business/BERA/issue2/industry.html .

Environmental Engineering Environmental Engineers of
Words: 766 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 84085324
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hough the methods for solving environmental problems might be new, the skills necessary to develop and implement these solutions are not. Along with the desire and ability to take in a wide array of information and make complex decisions based on this information, environmental engineers must have the ability to plan ahead using the possible developments in this information. Long-term planning abilities, as well as the ability to communicate environmental issues and their solutions to non-engineers, are both essential skills that environmental engineers must possess (Lindner & Nyberg 1973). Without these abilities, the work of environmental engineers would not be effectively developed or implemented; they must be practically applied in the long-term in order to be useful.

he role of the environmental engineer developed essentially as a response to an ethical issue -- namely the degradation of the environment -- and thus every aspect of en environmental engineer's job can…

Though the methods for solving environmental problems might be new, the skills necessary to develop and implement these solutions are not. Along with the desire and ability to take in a wide array of information and make complex decisions based on this information, environmental engineers must have the ability to plan ahead using the possible developments in this information. Long-term planning abilities, as well as the ability to communicate environmental issues and their solutions to non-engineers, are both essential skills that environmental engineers must possess (Lindner & Nyberg 1973). Without these abilities, the work of environmental engineers would not be effectively developed or implemented; they must be practically applied in the long-term in order to be useful.

The role of the environmental engineer developed essentially as a response to an ethical issue -- namely the degradation of the environment -- and thus every aspect of en environmental engineer's job can be seen as in dialogue with certain ethical issues. This is directly and explicitly observable in the Institution of Engineers of Australia Code of Ethics (2000), which lists working "in conformity with accepted engineering and environmental standards" as a basic ethical tenet of all engineering, and as the primary goal of environmental engineering is to create and uphold these environmental standards it can be seen that environmental engineers necessarily hold up their ethical duties when they perform their jobs successfully. There may, of course, be certain dilemmas that arise in the course of environmental engineer's cuties; pressures to downplay environmental effects from corporate interests, or to divert problems and cut corners, could be very high in this type of work. Truly adhering to the engineering principles of the work however, also mandates adherence to the roper ethical behaviors and standards of the job.

Of all of the areas of engineering, environmental engineering is one of the most rapidly expanding and diversifying fields. There is a great amount of good that can be done in the field, as well as a great deal of interesting and innovating work that would be personally and intellectually fulfilling for the right candidate. From both a personal and a global perspective, then, environmental engineering is an exciting and increasingly relevant new field.

Environmental Theory and Emancipatory Knowledge
Words: 5800 Length: 20 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 66395592
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Nightingale met a friend Richard Monckton Miles in 1842. Then in 1844, Nightingale asked Dr. Howe if she could do a charitable job in a hospital like the catholic nuns, and refused her marriage to her cousin, Henry Nicholson. By 1845, Nightingale started training herself in the nearby Salisbury Hospital, but her parents were not happy about it, seeing nursing as an inappropriate job for a well to do woman like their daughter. In the next year, Nightingale began teaching herself from the government blue books. In the meantime, Monckton Miles wanted to marry her, but soon she travelled to Rome, Italy with friends to avoid him. Britain unlimited, 2009). Finally, after she attended the Herbert's Charmouth convalescent home, her knowledge was recognized. In 1849, after refusing finally to Miles proposal, she decided to go to Egypt while accompanying her friends, the Bracebridges. They then travelled through Europe, and ended…

(Source: Cody, 2006, p. 259).

Differences Between Nightingale's Theory and Emancipatory Knowing -- When Nightingale thought about the benefits of a well-ventilated room, she was not basing her view on previous knowledge. Emancipatory progress is now evident in the way world healthcare approaches a patient's room -- typically well-ventilated and clean (Beck, 2005, pg. 140). Nightingale was born in an era were by women has very little voice most of the work done by women were in-house work so most of Nightingale's major innovation was providing place for women to work with and for women (Selanders, 2005, pg., 83). Today with Emancipatory knowledge we see a more educated workforce of both men and women in nursing. Although in the late 19th century there were still arguments regarding Nightingale's visions, today's theorists use her broad-based knowledge as a best -- practice template for modern conceptions (Attewell, 2005).

The Legacy of Nightingale Part 1 -- Nursing Ethics -- Most modern ethical theorist are based on traditions dating back as far as Ancient Greece. However, medical, and in particular nursing, ethics are clearly a post-Nightingale logical evolution (never a conclusion). The philosophical combination of advocacy and ethics, while still remaining true to the realities of budgets and the need for a medical institution to

Water Legislation Origins of Environmental
Words: 11427 Length: 37 Pages Document Type: Dissertation Paper #: 87395038
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The Leblanc alkali production processes were especially pernicious, but they followed along the lines of previous industrial processes. In other words, the first British environmental legislation was a response not so much to a qualitative change in industrial processes and their environmental impact but more to a quantitative increase in sources of pollution that had up to that point been (if only barely) tolerable.

Legislation Arising From Public Anger

At the center of the first British environmental legislation was the Leblanc process, an industrial process that produced of soda ash (which is chemically sodium carbonate) that came into use in the first decades of the 19th century. Named after its inventor, Nicolas Leblanc, it replaced an older process in which soda ash had been produced from wood ash. However, as the availability of wood ash declined (because of deforestation, a process that was occuring both in Great Britain and across…

Resources Act (WRA) of 1991. This act "establishes the duties of the Environment Agency (EA) on flood defence and other areas relating to water management and quality."

"The EA has discretionary powers to improve and maintain river conditions. This means that the EA is not obliged to construct or maintain such works. In practice, the EA will only proceed with schemes that are not only beneficial but cost-effective.

"The Act also grants the EA powers to issue flood warnings and regulate what can be discharged into rivers, estuaries, coastal waters, lakes and groundwaters."

Canadian law on flooding is similarly divided between common law and statutory law.

First Nations

Aldo Leopold and Environmental History in Answering
Words: 2037 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 50103453
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Aldo Leopold and Environmental History

In answering the question of whether the United States has improved on environmental policy since the 1930s, the cyclical nature of the political system must be considered. A generational reform cycle occurs every 30-40 years, such as the Progressive Era of 1900-20, the New Deal of the 1930s and the New Frontier and Great Society of the 1960s and early-1970s. All of the progress that the United States has made in conservation, wilderness preservation and other environmental issues has happened in these reform eras. Barack Obama represents yet another reform cycle and his environmental record is better by far than any other president over the last forty years, although much of what he attempted to accomplish has been blocked by the Republicans and the corporate interests that fund them. In conservative eras like the 1920s, 1950s and 1980s and 1990s, almost nothing worthwhile happens with…

Fiscal and Monetary Policy On the Most
Words: 1364 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 69129640
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fiscal and monetary policy.

On the most basic level, the primary difference between fiscal and monetary policy is that fiscal policy pertains to the actions of the federal government designed to influence the national economy through government spending and taxation while monetary policy refers to the actions of the central bank to govern the money supply. Tight or restrictive monetary and fiscal policy is used to curb inflation; a liberal monetary and fiscal policy is used as an economic stimulus (What is the difference between fiscal and monetary policy, 2002, As Dr. Econ).

2-Compare and contrast Keynes and Hayek

According to Keynes, it was sometimes necessary for the federal government to take a role in managing the economy, to correct the ebbs and flows of the business cycle. During severe recessions consumers became wary about losing their jobs, stopped spending money, and this further curtailed economic growth. Eventually, more and…

References

Koehn, Nancy. (2011). Tale of the dueling economists. The New York Times. Retrieved:

 http://www.nytimes.com/2011/10/23/business/keynes-hayek-views-origins-of-an-economics-debate-review.html?_r=1&ref=books 

Nasar, Sylvia. (2011). Hayek, Keynes and How to Prevent Economic Crises. Bloomberg.

Retrieved:  http://www.bloomberg.com/news/print/2011-09-13/hayek-keynes-and-preventing-economic-crises-commentary-by-sylvia-nasar.html

How to Conduct an Environmental Compliance Risk Assessment
Words: 1037 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 26267938
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Environmental Risk Assessment

Over the last several years, a wide variety of businesses have been focusing on the impact that they are having on the environment. Part of the reason for this, is because many firms are realizing that the footprint they are leaving can have an effect on the ecological balance for a particular region. A good example of this can be seen with Wal Mart. In this case, the various changes in the way they package different products could save: 3,800 trees, 1,000 barrels of oil and result in reduced costs for the company. (Kee, 2010, pp. 110 -- 118) This is significant because, it is illustrating how this approach is highlighting the way an environmental compliance risk assessment program can: save corporations money and reduce their effects on the ecosystem. To fully understand the full impact of this requires conducting a risk assessment involving a specialty apparel…

Bibliography

Kee, L. (2010). Green Retailing. California Management Review, 52 (2), 110 -- 118.

Seong, J. (2010). Comparative Efficiencies. International Journal of Logistics Management, 21 (3), 490 -- 509.

Zvi, I. (2011). Are You Too Soft. Minnesota Journal of Law, Science and Technology. 12, 527 -- 539.

Transformation and Development of Environmental
Words: 2900 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 32926919
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Thereafter, Poland and the Czech Republic were required to provide evidence concerning their compliance with the requirement to improve their commitment to environmental standards as well (Medvec 2009).

Both Poland and the Czech Republic were successful in satisfying the EU's leadership of their commitment to full integration by providing evidence of their commitment to improving their track record on environmental issues and achieved membership in the EU in 2004; in fact, the Czech Republic even assumed the presidency of the EU in 2009 (Medvec 2009). Both Poland and the Czech Republic have also become more fully integrated into the EU in other ways as well, including a transition from their former status as members of the Soviet Union's Warsaw Pact to become members in the North Atlantic Treaty Organization in 1999 (Medvec 2009). Despite these achievements, both Poland and the Czech Republic are still confronted with a number of constraints…

Long-Term Orientation

Source: Hofstede, 2009

As can be readily seen

Are Protectionist Policies Beneficial to Business
Words: 850 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Reaction Paper Paper #: 8510923
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Protectionism

Are Protectionism Policies Beneficial to Business

Protectionist policies are policies that are aimed at supporting a domestic industry against international competitors. These policies can take a range of different forms in their implementation. For example, the U.S. agricultural industry is heavily subsidized and this allows domestic farmers to sell their crops at a price level that is far below what the market price would be otherwise. This represents more of an indirect subsidy because the market intervention is a direct intervention such as a tax on foreign goods. Another way governments can apply protectionist policies is through government spending.

Another example could be provided by the U.S. steel industry, which can be protected by the government only procuring steel for U.S. public works projects from domestic steel companies. hen the government places such buying restrictions on their demand for steel then they artificially influence market demand through their purchasing…

Works Cited

(n.d.). Are Protectionist Policies Beneficial to Business? . In Quantitative Foundations for Business Applications.

Djoundourian, S. (2012). Environmental Performance of Developing Countries: A Comparative Study. Loyola eCommons, 265-277.

Horn, H. (2011). The burden of proof in trade disputes and the environment. Journal of Evironmental Economics and Management, 15-29.

Edr What Is Environmental Design Research Design
Words: 1197 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 23184673
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Edr

What is Environmental Design Research?

Design and art can accept scientific principles

Environmental Design Research (EDR) = the study of the mutual relationships between human beings and the physical environment at all scales, and applications of the knowledge thus gained to improving the quality of life through better informed environmental policy, planning, design, and education. (passive and active definition)

EDR is related to many other areas of the social sciences

EDR is NOT:

building science or structural engineering

Design practice

Eg. An architect does research to apply to a single building project, but EDR applies research to things like job satisfaction and other measurable results that advance the whole field.

EDR Is:

Basic Research (generation, discovery of knowledge)

Applied Research (answering specific questions related to specific social policy or context)

Research Applications (apply research to policy, plans, designs)

**Must communicate results to policy/professional applications

EDR = Environmental Psychology =…

Political Backgrounder Policies Nova Scotia
Words: 1037 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 64217990
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Nova Scotia Government and Politics

The government's environmental discourse of "sustainable prosperity" emphasizes that in Nova Scotia the province's financial future is intensely attached with the task of making a cleaner environment. The province's Environmental Goals and Sustainable Prosperity Act pursue to "validate global leadership by having one of the cleanest and most maintainable Environments in the world by the year 2020."

The choice to relax an environmental target is perplexing for a province that has recognized this broad-minded environmental and economic vision, and from a new government that has been getting honors for its green energy wits. Nova Scotia is known to be one the first jurisdiction in Canada to put caps on Greenhouse Gas (GHG) emissions inside its electricity subdivision and it has lately propelled a strategy concentrated on making renewable energy a strategic sector for growth.

In the past there have been some promises made to the…

References:

Conrad, Catherine. 2006. Towards meaningful community-based ecological monitoring in nova scotia: Where are we vs. where we would like to be. Environments 34, (1): 25-36,

Korosi, Jennifer B., and John P. Smol. 2011. Distribution of cladoceran assemblages across environmental gradients in Nova Scotia (Canada) lakes. Hydrobiologia 663, (1) (03): 83-99,

Thompson, Shirley. 2004. from a toxic economy to sustainability: Women activists taking care of environmental health in Nova Scotia. Canadian Woman Studies 23, (1) (Fall): 108-114,

Bill 146, Environmental Goals and Sustainable Prosperity Act, Bill 146, 1st sess., 60th Leg., Nova Scotia,

Societal Collapses Caused by Misuse of Environmental Resources
Words: 2396 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 17639854
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Societal Collapses

Environmental determinism has long been out of favor among historians and social scientists, although well into the 19th Century even the majority of Westerners were highly dependent on the climate and environment for their survival. Since the entire world economy was based on agriculture, a shortfall in harvests meant famines, epidemics and death for those who were at or below subsistence level. Such famines were a primary cause for the overthrow of the monarchy in France in 1789, for example, and they led to rebellions, riots and instability wherever they occurred. As late as the 1840s in Ireland, the great potato blight led to the death or immigration of half the population, and the near-destruction of Irish society. In the case of Easter Island, Norse Greenland and the Classic Maya civilization, climate change combined with deforestation and agricultural practices that destroyed the environment led to the total collapse…

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Diamond, Jared. Collapse: How Societies Choose to Fail or Succeed (Penguin Books, 2006).

Demarest Arthur A.. Ancient Maya: The Rise and Fall of a Rainforest Civilization (Cambridge University Press, 2004).

Fagan, Brian M. The Little Ice Age: How Climate Made History (Basic Books, 2000).

Gill, Richardson B. The Great Maya Droughts: Water, Life, and Death (University of New Mexico Press, 2000).

Leadership and Foreign Policy Decision
Words: 1433 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 76967548
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The intervention in Iraq can be said to have had a humanitarian purpose; nonetheless, the U.S. then remained in the region to reconstruct the society and the country as a whole. This in turn brought up important financial gains as well as business opportunities. At the same time though, the overthrow of Saddam was important from the point-of-view of the stability in the region and for the oil markets the U.S. And the world is so dependent on.

The second model of analysis is the "domestic politics" model which is crucial for the well being of the American democracy. This is an approach based on the actual interests of the domestic actors involved. In this sense, political factors such as parties play a key role. This model, particularly adapted to the framing of the environmental policy stresses the need for consensus or at least for debate concerning a matter of…

Bibliography

Nye, Joseph. Understanding international conflicts: an introduction to theory and history. New York: Pearson, 2005

Softing, Guri Bang. "Climate change policymaking - three explanatory models." Cicero Working Papers. 2000. 14 June 2008  http://www.cicero.uio.no/media/205.pdf

Identify Government Policies on Competition
Words: 807 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 99709763
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Emissions

Policy Making and Power Plant Emissions

There are many considerations that a government official in charge of developing policy concerning gas and particulate emissions must take into account in order to protect the environment and citizens while allowing business and the basic functions of society and its infrastructure to progress. The balance that must be struck here is one of the major reasons that environmental policy is so complex, and why it is such a hot-button issue for many officials and constituents alike. The potential effectiveness of each policy detail that might be implemented, the cost of each proposed implementation, the benefits and detriments to the various parties, and all other related minutiae must be taken into account in order for the best possible policies to be developed and implemented. The following paragraphs will consider two different alternative policies for protecting the environment and the human population surrounding a…

Workplace and Environmental Safety
Words: 2468 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 37893512
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Safety Audit

Acme Fireworks is facing tremendous challenges which are similar to growing businesses. This occurs when firms need to adjust with increasing demand and expand their operations. During this process, they must examine their business model and determine if it is economically viable moving forward. In this case, the company is currently organized as a sole proprietorship.

Fireworks are known to be deadly products. This is because a flame is ignited and travels into a tube filled with gunpowder. Even those who are exercising extreme caution, have the possibility of becoming injured from debris or being too close to the explosion. In these cases, there is a likelihood of death or the person receiving extensive injuries. This is problematic, as it exposes Acme Fireworks to potential litigation from these challenges. (Okrent, 2014)

At the heart of these challenges, are potential work safety issues. This is because the company is…

References

Guide to Developing Environmental Management Systems. (2014). EPA.gov. Retrieved from:  http://www.epa.gov/ems/implement.html 

Damali, N. (2006). Environmental Management Systems. Business Strategy and the Environment,17, (1), 30 -- 45.

Delmas, M. (2006). Greening the Supply Chain. Journal of Economics and Management Strategy, 18, 117 -- 122.

Deming, W. (2000). Out of the Crisis. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

Public Organization the Word Policy Refers to
Words: 891 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 1700290
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public organization, the word "policy" refers to the direction that the organization is taking (Dictionary.com, 2014). The organization has a mandate which serves as a broad sense of direction, but the policies it enacts are more specific actions that it undertakes. At some government levels, policy can be more generalized, such as a policy of promoting free markets, for example.

Organizations set policies, so the strategic direction that the federal government is taking with respect to environmental issues will affect other agencies or public organizations. For example, if the federal government has a policy to take strong action on climate change, it will initiate a number of policy initiatives that will seek to change the actions of the other public organizations. Many organizations can be affected by a policy, depending on the type of policy that the government enacts. A broad policy like one of budget cutting in order to…

References

Dictionary.com (2014). Policy. Dictionary.com. Retrieved July 9, 2014 from  http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/policy 

Slaper, J. & Hall, T. (2011) The triple bottom line: What is it and how does it work? Indiana Business Review. Retrieved July 9, 2014 from  http://www.ibrc.indiana.edu/ibr/2011/spring/article2.html 

Le Grand, J. (2003). Motivation, agency, and public policy: Of knights, knaves, pawns and queens. Oxford University Press. Oxford.

Company With a Fairly Strong Sustainability Policy
Words: 1883 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 26627313
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company with a fairly strong sustainability policy is Wal-Mart. The company publishes a fairly extensive report about its sustainability practices. One of the interesting things about Wal-Mart's sustainability practices is that they seem very focused on efficiency, with efforts dedicated to waste reduction. This is important to the company in that by reducing waste they are lowering their costs.

The concept of sustainability, however, is the measure here. Wal-Mart's stakeholders with respect to sustainability are mostly internal, with external stakeholders being suppliers and then the world in general. The suppliers are active partners in Wal-Mart's sustainability efforts, as they must work closely with the company to ensure that sustainability initiatives are met.

Other stakeholders are more generic in nature, and do not appear to have been consulted. Environmental advocacy groups do not appear to have contributed to this effort. In general, Wal-Mart's overall business practices are not especially sustainable, given…

References

Delshad, A.B. (2012). Revisiting "Who influences whom?" agenda setting on biofuels. Congress & the Presidency, 39(2), 177 -- 198.

Huston, A., Zillmann, D. & Bryant, J. (1994). Media, children and the family: Scientific, psychodynamic and clinical perspectives. Lawrence Erlbaum: Mahwah, NJ.

Levy, G. & Razin, R. (2012). Dynamic legislative decision making when interest groups control the agenda. London School of Economics. Retrieved July 15, 2014 from  http://personal.lse.ac.uk/levyg1/jet1.pdf 

Steel, B., List, P. Lach, D., & Shindler, B. (2004) The role of scientists in the environmental policy process: A case study from the American West. Environmental Science & Policy, 7, 1 -- 13.

Environmental Fraud
Words: 860 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 8839582
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Enviromental Fraud: Virginia Beach Situation

Environmental Fraud: Virginia Beach Situation

ecently, issues related to global warming have been center-stage of various political debates. Debate has been centered to examine human influences to environment malfunctioning. Poorly treated environment poses a significant danger to the local community and the atmosphere. For this reason, the law has been configured to ensure that the environment is satisfactorily protected. Besides, states have been pursuing local policies, which are parallel to federal laws in relation to environmental protection. This report will assess the Virginia Beach city pollution. The report identifies Care A lot as a polluter and some of the EPA's regulations tackling the issue. The report will also identify two primary laws responding to Virginia Beach's environmental concerns.

Virginia Pollution

In Virginia Beach, there has been evidence on the presence of fecal contamination, which is realized in the city's brackish waters. This contamination is a…

References

Belden R.S. (2001). Clean Air Act. Washington: American Bar Association

Byrnes A.E. (2001). Saving the Bay: People Working for the Future of the Chesapeake. Upper Saddle River, NJ: JHU Press

Swarup, R. Mishra, S.N. & Jauhari V.P. (1992). Environmental Pollution Ecology. Washington: Mittal Publications

U.S. Government Printing Office, (2009). Code of Federal Regulations, Volume 40, Issues 266-299. Washington: U.S. Government Printing Office

Environmental Hazards as a Consequence of Crude
Words: 9344 Length: 30 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 22808838
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Environmental Hazards as a Consequence of Crude Oil/Natural Gas Exploration, Transportation, Refining and Storage

Ever since crude oil was first successfully drilled in the U.S. In Titusville, Pennsylvania, in 1859, the demand for oil has only been increasing over the years in countries all over the world. (Camden, 1883) Crude oil, from which various petroleum products are obtained, is a naturally occurring hydrocarbon component found trapped in rocks below the earth. The word "petroleum" means "rock oil" or "oil from the earth." Natural gas is another form of hydrocarbon that is also found in nature. oth crude oil and natural gas have excellent combustibility and are good sources of energy. Crude oil is not used in the extracted form; but it is refined to obtained products such as gasoline, liquefied petroleum gas (LPG), naphtha, kerosene, gas-oil and fuel oil. Secondary products during the purification of crude oil are obtained are…

Bibliography

Associated-Press, and Reuters. World's Biggest Oil Rig Sinks. 2001. CNN. Available:

http://www.cnn.com/2001/WORLD/americas/03/20/brazil.rig.02/.August 2, 2004.

AWMA. Oil Spills - a Fact Sheet. 2000. Air & Waste Management Association. Available:

 http://www.awma.org/education/oilspills.htm . August 1, 2004.