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In addition, we might ask ourselves if the richer nations have or not a greater responsibility as far as the research and development in the area of sustainable energy are concerned. (Reid, environmentalleader.com)
elieving that there are such energy sources or consumption policies which would allow the planet's resources to be maintained for a longer period, while making sure that all the nations are provided with a comfortable living is rather naive. Under these circumstances, it has been argued that doing the moral thing means choosing the least terrible solution. The problem is that this implies a relativistic evaluation of the matter which impacts the manner in which the moral principles are conceived.
efore stepping into a debate regarding the character of the moral principles, we may state that we agree with the opinions which state that there is no such thing as objective moral principles."Ethics can be seen as…
Aristotle, Nicomachean Ethics (Ross, W.D. Translator). Retrieved fromhttp://socserv.mcmaster.ca/econ/ugcm/3ll3/aristotle/Ethics.pdf September 30, 2010
Hartman Laura P. & Joe DesJardins. Business Ethics Decision Making for Personal integrity & Social Responsibility, Second Edition
The author therefore appears to suggest that the holistic approach poses a risk of costly time delays for approval that might prove too little too late for any true difference to be possible.
Brown (2005) asserts that the political involvement of security in natural resource issues holds the risk of conflict and insecurity. Indeed, competition relates to power and control issues arise where resources are abundant, while competition for resources occur where these are scarce. Brown, like Levy, asserts that there is little question that security and environmental issues are integrated. The risk lies in whether security is specifically integrated in mitigation measures, and the degree to which this is done.
It has been mentioned above that the environment directly affects human survival and well-being. Brown further addresses the interrelation between the environment and security be asserting that they are interdependent: in other words, the environment can cause insecurity, while…
Bretherton, C. & Vogler, J., the European Union as a Global Actor (Routledge, 1999), Chapter 3.
Dalby, S. Security, Modernity, Ecology: The Dilemmas of Post-Cold War Security Discourse Alternatives, 17:1 (1992), pp.95-134.
Dannreuther, Roland (ed.) European Union Foreign and Security Policy (Routledge, 2004) Chapter 11
Deudney, D. The case against linking environmental degradation and national security, Millennium, 19:3 (1990), pp.461-76.
Although the research tools provided by the ISO 14001 framework are both qualitative and quantitative, this approach is consistent with the guidance provided by Neuman (2003) who points out that, "Both qualitative and quantitative research use several specific research techniques (e.g., survey, interview, and historical analysis), yet there is much overlap between the type of data and the style of research. Most qualitative-style researchers examine qualitative data and vice versa" (p. 16). Indeed, researchers have used qualitative and quantitative surveys to assess consumer reactions to proposed environmental initiatives at the local level (Neuman, 2003).
In fact, quantitative and qualitative research methods are characterized by a number of similarities that lend themselves to environmental systems analyses and development (as well as some differences) (Neuman, 2003). The distinct differences in the qualitative and quantitative research suggest that the use of quantitative data for environmental system development is highly appropriate, but that such…
Bonlac Foods. (2012). Bloomberg Businessweek. Retrieved from http://investing.business week.com/research/stocks/private/snapshot.asp?privcapId=883342.
McComb, S. (2010). Green building & green business informatics tool. Elusor. Retrieved from http://www.environmentalaccountingtools.com/magazine/tag/building.
Recardo, R. & Jolly, J. (1999). Organizational culture and teams. SAM Advanced Management
Journal, 62(2), 4-5.
These claims are virtually all based on the concept that corporations - particularly multinationals -- should be held accountable for their actions within their sphere of operations. "Corporations, for their part, have responded in numerous ways, from denying any duties in the area of human rights to accepting voluntary codes that could constrain their behavior" (atner, 2001, p. 436). In fact, this very point is echoed throughout the literature; for example, "At the turn of the 20th century, corporations tended to disregard the public interest willy-nilly. And even as recently as one-half century ago, corporations had so much power over the marketplace and so little responsibility to society" (Sriramesh & Vercic, 2003, p. 450). Despite these trends, things are changing, though, as atner points out: "The last decade has witnessed a striking new phenomenon in strategies to protect human rights: a shift by global actors concerned about human rights from…
Blackburn, V.L., Doran, M., & Shrader, C.B. (1994). Investigating the dimensions of social responsibility and the consequences for corporate financial performance. Journal of Managerial Issues, 6(2), 195.
Cable, V. (1995). The diminished nation-state: A study in the loss of economic power. Daedalus, 124(2), 23.
Casmir, F.L. (1997). Ethics in intercultural and international communication. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Dalton, D.R., & Metzger, M.B. (1996). Seeing the elephant: An organizational perspective on corporate moral agency. American Business Law Journal, 33(4), 489-576.
Environmental Concern on Green Products Purchase: Empirical Study of German etailers
Evaluation of results
The analysis exhibits various results about the perceptions of German consumers with reference to green products. The findings have been able to achieve the research objectives and test the hypothesis based on the demographic characteristics of the sample population. The results reveal that all the sample population is well educated with 84% of participants have completed the graduate programs. Thus, the participant has advanced knowledge of health benefits of green products. They also have knowledge about the impact of conventional products on the environment, which influences consumer buying decisions of sustainable products. Larsson, & Arif Khan (2011) argue that green awareness motivates consumer's choice of pursuing the green criteria, and consumer's choice of product is also influenced by earlier purchases experience. When informed consumers decide to purchase sustainable products, they search for both primary and secondary…
Andrea K. M. (2016). Buying organic -- decision-making heuristics and empirical evidence from Germany, Journal of Consumer Marketing, 33(7): 552 -- 561.
Delafrooz, N. Taleghani, M. & Nouri, B. (2013). Effect of green marketing on consumer purchase behaviour. QScience Connect:5.
Larsson, S. & Arif Khan, M. (2011). A Study of Factors That Influence Green Purchase. Umea School of Business and Economics.
Moser, A.K. (2016). Consumers' purchasing decisions regarding environmentally friendly products: An empirical analysis of German consumers. Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services. 31: 389 -- 397.
Chain of Events
Improper storage of hazardous chemicals can cause possible fire and explosion through lightning, accidents, injuries produced by inhalation and ingestion, among other fatalities. The implementation of control measures during the early design stage and operation facilitates the elimination of the undesirable occurrences (Tompkins, White, Bozer, & Tanchoco, 2010). The continual human intervention comes in handy in promoting built-in protection within the storage mechanisms. The choice of chemical storage methods depends on a comprehensive comprehension of the risks and hazards engulfed within the procedures of storing chemicals. A risk management system plays a crucial role in facilitating the assessment of all factors that include hazard-related activities that involve chemicals. As a result, considerable judgment comes about after making considerations in associated risks. Consequently, the factors facilitate the choice in implementing the appropriate controls. Development of an Environmental Management System (EMS) encompasses efficient utilization of time and resources. As…
CCPS (Center for Chemical Process Safety) .Guidelines for the Management of Change for Process Safety. New York: John Wiley & Sons
Tinsley, S. & Pillai, I. (2012).Environmental Management Systems: Understanding Organizational Drivers and Barriers. New York: Taylor & Francis
Tompkins, J., White, J., Bozer, Y., & Tanchoco, J. (2010). Facilities Planning. New York: John Wiley & Sons
Environmental Case Study (Alberta's Oil Sands)
Alberta's Oil Sands represents one of the international environmental problems facing Canada and close to seventy countries across the globe. Albert's Oil Sands proves to be a new course of political conflict within the setting of Canada and at the international level. Oil Sands development is responsible for rapid economic growth of Alberta. This creates ethical or moral dilemma because there is a massive risk in association with the development of Oil Sands within the province. Oil Sands contribute towards ecological harm thus having a negative impact on the living conditions of the individuals in the province and the entire planet. This ethical dilemma leads to mobilization processes by environmental entities to help alleviate the situation. This is because some prominent political outfits such as Peter Lougheed recognize that the rate of the development of the oil sands in Alberta is not socially or…
Brown, Jordan. "The Pembina Institute: Balancing Environmental Policy with Oil Sands Development in an Industry-Oriented Economy." Undercurrent 6.2 (2009): 7-16. Academic Search Complete. Web. 31 July 2012.
Dunbar, R.B. Existing and Proposed Canadian Commercial Oil Sands Projects. Calgary: Strategy West, April 2008. Available at:
Fairley, Peter. "Alberta's Oil Sands Heat Up." Technology Review 114.6 (2011): 52. MasterFILE Premier. Web. 31 July 2012.
Pasqualetti, Martin J. "The Alberta Oil Sands From Both Sides Of The Border." Geographical Review 99.2 (2009): 248-267. Academic Search Complete. Web. 31 July 2012.
The 1980s (the period when onald eagan was the U.S. President) witnessed a series of government measures targeting environmental regulations. This resulted in public outrage against the anti-environmental policies of the government leading to a renewed interest in nature clubs and groups and the formation of radical groups who led strong movements to protect the environment. (vii) the post- eagan resurgence (1990s onwards) - President Bush and President Clinton did not take the radical stance of their predecessor. However, President George W. Bush has taken many measures which have weakened the environmental movement instead of strengthening it. This includes opposing curbs on greenhouse emissions via the Kyoto Protocol, supporting oil drilling in the ANW or Arctic National Wildlife ange, weakening clean air standards and lifting the ban on logging in forests.
3) How does economics determine the public's opinion regarding environmental issues? Discuss the values of the dominant social paradigm…
Bocking, Stephen. Nature's Experts: Science, Politics, and the Environment. Rutgers University Press. 2004.
Palmer, Mike. Pathways of Nutrients in the Ecosystem - Pathways of elements in ecosystem. http://www.okstate.edu/artsci/botany/bisc3034/lnotes/nutrient.htm
Redclift, M. R; Woodgate, Graham. The International Handbook of Environmental Sociology. Edward Elgar Publishing, 2000.
Schmidtz, David; Willott, Elizabeth. Environmental Ethics: What Really Matters, what Really Works. Oxford University Press U.S., 2002.
Firstly, it is crucial to raise awareness and to actually make people listen, care and then act accordingly. verybody needs to understand that the environment should be everyone's concern because it truly affects all of us as we are all inhabitants of the same planet. This is achieved through information which in turn, is achieved through long-term campaigns which have the mission to reach as many people as possible. This is where the civil society needs to really step in and help improve the quality of information as not everything we hear or see on television is actually scientific information. In fact, spreading untrue or simply unscientific information can be very harmful to society and its attitude towards the environment because people do not know what to believe. On the other hand, there is the danger of over exposing a certain topic, in this case environmental issues, which leads to…
Europa (4 April 2007).
International Issues. Environment. Retrieved September 14 from Website: http://ec.europa.eu/environment/international_issues/agreements_en.htm
European Environment Agency (29 Nov. 2005). The European Environment - State and outlook 2005. Retrieved September 13, 2007 from Website: http://reports.eea.europa.eu/state_of_environment_report_2005_1/en
This is a pertinent observation and one that is possibly central to understanding the problem of environmental ethics today.
Bugeja goes on to state that "…the new technologies that now keep us constantly connected also keep us constantly distracted" (Bugeja, 2008). He also makes the important point that, "Digital distractions now keep us from addressing the real issues of the day. Each of us daily consumes an average of nine hours of media through myriad technological platforms…" (Bugeja, 2008). In other words, we have become distracted from the holistic view of reality by modern communications technology to the extent that we are out of contact with the environmental issues that surround us.
Bugeja is also of the opinion that this situation has deprived us of the important aspect of critical thought. Critical thinking is defined as "… the ability to engage in reflective and independent thinking, and being able to…
Bugeja M. ( 2008) The Age of Distraction: The Professor or the Processor? The
Futurist, 42 (1).
Consequentialism: The Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Retrieved from http://www.iep.utm.edu/c/conseque.htm .
Environmental Ethics. Retrieved from http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/ethics-environmental/
Environmental Industrial Management
Corporate social responsibility (CS) has been a hot topic in business circles for decades. The topic has gained even greater attention in the last few decades in the wake of increased attention to the impact of business activities on the environment, economy, and the society (Flammer, 2013; Schrempf-Stirling, Palazzo and Phillips, 2016). This paper discusses the principles of CS; the integration of social, economic, and environmental aspects in the organisational agenda; the importance of transparency, accountability, and stakeholder engagement in CS; and the notions of materiality in CS and sustainability reporting as outlined in the Global eporting Initiative (GI) G4 guidelines.
Whereas there is no commonly agreed definition, CS generally refers to the activities business organisations deliberately undertake with the aim of promoting social, economic, and environmental sustainability (Crowther and Aras, 2008). It denotes the pursuit of economic objectives while at the same time consciously pursuing social…
Barclays, 2013. Citizenship Report 2013. [online] Available at: [Accessed 9 December 2016]
Crowther, D. and Aras, G., 2008. Corporate social responsibility. New York: Ventus Publishing.
Flammer, C., 2013. Does corporate social responsibility lead to superior performance? A regression discontinuity approach. Management Science, 61(11), 1-27.
Foote, J., Gaffney, N. and Evans, J., 2010. Corporate social responsibility: implications for performance excellence. Total Quality Management, 21(8), 799-812.
Environmental and Organizational Pressures Sample
Create a table where at least three (3) organizational pressures and at least three (3) environmental pressures in the organization are illustrated and rank those pressures according to their influence.
Carbon emissions and overall sustainability
anking and promotion characteristics with the military.
Dependency on natural resources and their overall depletion
The ability to attract, hire and retain talented individuals to serve in the military
Identifying and using alternative energy and packaging solutions
Cultural sensitivity and its meaning within the organization.
Describe in detail the environmental and organizational pressures that exist in the organization and how they have evolved over time.
In regards to organization pressures within the military, much has changed due to varying societal norms. What was once deemed unacceptable by society has now become acceptable for society overall. As such, these changes have manifested themselves in…
1) Visser, Wayne, Dirk Matten, Manfred Pohl, and Nick Tolhurst (Editors) (2007). The A to Z. Of Corporate Social Responsibility. London, England; New York, NY: Wiley. ISBN 978-0-470-72395-1
2) Armstrong, Scott (1977). "Social Irresponsibility in Management." Journal of Business Research (Elsevier North-Holland Inc.) 15: 115 -- 203. http://marketing.wharton.upenn.edu/ideas/pdf/armstrong2/social.pdf .
3) Kalinda, B. (Ed.). Social Responsibility and Organizational Ethics. (2001). Encyclopedia of Business and Finance (2nd ed., Vol. 1). New York: Macmillan Reference
Environmental Stewardship Project Proposal
What is Environmental Stewardship?
What are the problems?
Why do we need to be concerned about Air Pollution?
A proposed Innovative Strategy for Pollution Awareness
Today Environmental stewardship is on the rise and really needed in the community. This is because an increasing amount of people are out there making knowledgeable choices in their what they do every day, such as in the work places, and communities. These choices are considered to be good for the environment, for their finances, and for complete quality of life. By most, these actions are probably looked at as being inspiring because it shows and evidence of a developing societal commitment to environmental stewardship.
This report gives an outline of what I believe is the next step in a continuing evolution of policy objectives from pollution control to pollution sustainability and prevention. It likewise gives a reflection on the important…
Ayres, J.R. (2012). Air pollution and health. London: Imperial College Press.
Berry, T. (2009). The Christian Future and the Fate of the Earth. Maryknoll, NY: Orbis.
Boff, L. (2009). Cry of the Earth, Cry of the Poor. Maryknoll: Orbis.
Bourne, J. (2009). Understanding Leicestershire & Rutland Place-Names, Heart. Wymeswold: Leicestershire.
Environmental Stewardship can be simply described as "the comprehensive understanding and effective management of critical environmental risks and opportunities related to climate change, emissions, waste management, resource consumption, water conservation, biodiversity protection and ecosystem services" ("Environmental Stewardship," 2010). Thus, environmental stewardship is actually the responsibility for environmental superiority shared by everyone by whose actions the environment is affected. This sense of responsibility is that rare value that is mirrored through the choices that individuals, businesses, societies, and government make to shape the environment, society, and economy (Johnson, 2005). Environmental stewardship can also be regarded as a behavior that is exhibited by means of incessant upgrading and enhancement of environmental performance along with a dedication to "efficient use of natural resources, protection of ecosystems, and, where applicable, ensuring a baseline of compliance with environmental requirements" (Johnson, 2005 ).
In the contemporary society, environmental stewardship is on the increase. Nowadays, a majority…
Environmental Stewardship Strategy: Overview and Resource for Corporate Leaders. (2010). Retrieved August 18, 2012 from http://www.unglobalcompact.org/docs/issues_doc/Environment/Environmental_Stewardship_Strategy.pdf
Johnson, S.L. (2005). Everyday Choices: Opportunities for Environmental Stewardship. Retrieved August 19, 2012 from http://www.epa.gov/osem/pdf/rpt2admin.pdf
Manning, D.J. (2004). Benefits of Environmental Stewardship. Review of Business, 25 (2), Retrieved August 19, 2012 from http://www.questia.com/read/1G1-119108637/benefits-of-environmental-stewardship
Awareness also plays a part on the other side of environmental crime -- laws cannot be made restricting certain activities with a detrimental environmental impact until that impact is known, and certain types of environmental crimes might remain hidden for years (Interpol, 2009).
The International Police organization, or Interpol, recognizes two major forms of environmental crime: wildlife crime and pollution crime (Interpol, 2009). Wildlife crime is the exploitation of protected plants or animals, such as the murder of elephants for ivory or whales for meat (Interpol, 2009). Because there is no direct human victim, these crimes may often go unnoticed, and if the public is not aware of the activity than the government is not very likely to do anything about it. The same is true of pollution crime, which does have a direct impact on human populations but which can often be very difficult to prove (EPA, 2009). Direct…
Environmental Crime." (2009). Interpol. Accessed 24 January 2009. http://www.interpol.int/Public/EnvironmentalCrime/Default.asp
Environmental Crime." (2009). EPA Website. Updated 13 January 2009. Accessed 24 January 2009. http://epa.gov/compliance/criminal/investigations/environmentalcrime.html
Environmental egulations in Public Transit
The negative effects of air pollution are that it can force illness on us. It can produce burning eyes and nose and an itchy, irritated throat, in addition to difficulty in breathing. The cause for certain diseases like cancer, birth defects, brain and nerve injury and long-standing wound to the lungs and breathing passages is found to be some chemicals in polluted air. Severe injury or even death can happen if some hazardous air pollutants are released by mistake. Air pollution affects environment. Air pollution also affects trees, lakes and animals. Air pollutants are contracting the shielding ozone layers above the Earth. This loss of ozone can lead to alterations in the environment in addition to more skin cancer and cataracts in people. By soiling buildings and other structures, air pollution spoils properties like home, offices, etc. Damages to stone-based structures like buildings, monuments and…
Background on Air Pollution. Retrieved from http://www.nsc.org/ehc/mobile/acback.htm Accessed on 28 May 2005
Background Sheet: The Clean Air Act. 4 November, 2000. Retrieved from http://www.deq.state.la.us/assistance/educate/readdat4.htm Accessed on 28 May 2005
Clean Air Act. Retrieved from http://www.answers.com/topic/clean-air-act Accessed on 28 May 2005
Economic aspects of sustainable development in India. Retrieved from http://www.un.org/esa/agenda21/natlinfo/countr/india/eco.htm Accessed on 28 May 2005
Environmental Crimes and Health and Safety Law Violation
With the current changes in weather patterns, strange climatic conditions and other uncontrollable natural disasters, there has been a lot of attention directed towards the environment and the way people may be contributing to the degradation of the environment in small ways that is summed up results into the disasters that we see on daily basis. The environment is becoming unpleasant on an increasing trend each and every day, this is a cause to worry about for each government that cares to see the consequences of our careless handling of the environment.
There are also man's contribution to the insecurity that surrounds us on a daily basis since people no longer care for the safety of the workers that work in their industries and sadly to some extent, some don care even about themselves and the safety that may be protecting their…
Environmental Affairs and Tourism, Republic of South Africa, (2012). Stepping up
Enforcement Against Environmental Crimes. Retrieved April 4, 2012 from http://www.environment.gov.za/Services/booklets/Environmental/EnviroCrimesEMI.pdf
Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) (1998). Final Guidance for Incorporating
Environmental Justice Concerns in EPA's NEPA Compliance Analyses Retrieved April 4, 2012 from http://www.epa.gov/compliance/ej/resources/policy/ej_guidance_nepa_epa0498.pdf .
A company working on such a goal might claim that the intent is to use less pesticides, but really they just want to decrease the cost of production.
Another example of why a food organism might be modified is to make the final product more resilient to the means of distribution, such as what is seen with tomatoes being genetically modified to have more resilient skins, so they can be grown, harvested and distributed in mass. Many think of these types of modifications as positive, for the development of sustainable food growth, to feed a growing population, more efficiently and effectively. In many ways the positive aspects of this trend are good, and yet genetically modified plants and foods also create potential threats. Some examples of this are plants that if left on their own can overcome natural and indigenous plants, such as are seen with grain crops that have…
Cook, Guy. Genetically Modified Language: The Discourse of Arguments for GM Crops and Food. New York: Routledge, 2004.
Gaudet, Mary. "Without a Trace: Controversy Buzzes around the Mysterious Disappearance of Bees on Prince Edward Island." Alternatives Journal July 2005: 32.
"Give a Weed an Inch, it'll Take a Smile." The Register-Guard (Eugene, or) 12 June 2005: c1.
Instead of valuing some parts of nature over others, we should cultivate a universal regard for all parts of nature, down to the lowliest tree in our back yard. Aldo Leopold would agree. His "land ethic" calls for a new philosophy that includes a moral respect for the land. Like Cronon, Leopold advocates an "ecological conscience," that includes a "conviction of individual responsibility," (435). Cronon realizes that humility and respect as well as "critical self-consciousness" should be the guiding forces of the environmentalist movement (p. 387).
However, Leopold too upholds a dualistic worldview that appears to be ingrained in American cultural consciousness. For Leopold, there are two different groups of people pulling in opposite directions: those who view land as soil and therefore commodity production, and those that view land as biota. Leopold makes a snickering comment about organic farming as well: "the discontent that labels itself 'organic farming' while…
2. Project Preparation
3. Project Implementation'
4. Facility Operation
These four assessment tools are to be standalone tools that are applied at specific stages of the Gipsy Lane brickworks road extension and the industrial development project life cycle. The assessment with one of the tools has no link or dependence with earlier stages. The tools of assessment are to be designed in a manner that they are applicable throughout the planning stage up to the point of making decisions in the project life cycle (See figure 1.).
The process of protocol assessment (Source: IHA, 2010).
The tools are to undergo repeated application so as to help in the continuous improvement of the process.
Strategic Assessments section
This section is important for the assessment of the strategic basis of the Gipsy Lane brickworks project. This part is most applicable at the stage when the Gipsy Lane brickworks is still…
Gratton, C., & Jones, I. (2003). Research methods for sport studies. New York: Routledge.
Fraenkel, J.R. & Wallen, N.E. (2001). Educational research: A guide to the process. Mahwah,
Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
esponsible Leadership is the culmination of Moody-Stuart's forty-five years of work in the oil, gas, metal, and mineral extraction industries. Moody-Stuart draws from his experience and observations to provide an analysis of how business has been, and can become more, responsible champions of social and environmental issues. The book includes two Forewords, one by Sir obert Wilson, former Executive Chair of io Tinto, and another by UN Deputy Secretary-General Mark Malloch-Brown. Moody-Stuart offers fifteen chapters, all related in some way to issues of economic development, globalization, free markets, free trade, corporate responsibility, and corporate ethics. The book includes Moody-Stuart's political philosophy, his opinions on nearly every major global conflict extant at the time of publishing, and on issues both relevant and irrelevant to the primary topic of the book, which is the role of business in the current global scenario.
The book begins with an introduction that outlines…
Moody-Stuart, M. (2014). Responsible Leadership. Sheffield: Greenleaf.
The Japanese government has taken measures to prevent this from happening again, settlements have been reached, and today the national government is the body that certifies a person as afflicted by the disorder.
Harada, Masazumi. M.D., Ph.D. "Minamata Disease and the Mercury Pollution of the Globe." (accessed 31 January 2005). http://www.einap.org/envdis/Minamata.html)."
Minamata Disease Archives. (accessed 31 January 2005). http://www.nimd.go.jp/archives/english/tenji/a_corner.html).
Minamata Disease, The History and Measures. (accessed 31 January 2005). http://www.env.go.jp/en/topic/minamata2002/ch2.html).
Political Settlement of Minamata Disease Issues. (accessed 31 January 2005). http://www.env.go.jp/en/topic/minamata2002/ch5.html).
The Chisso Minamata Disease Kansai Lawsuit. (accessed 31 January 2005). http://www1.odn.ne.jp/~aah07310/english/index-e.html).
Unknown. "Supreme Court holds state responsible for Minamata Disease." Kyodo orld News Service. (2004): 15 October.
Harada, Masazumi. M.D., Ph.D. "Minamata Disease and the Mercury Pollution of the Globe." (accessed 31 January 2005). http://www.einap.org/envdis/Minamata.html )."
Minamata Disease Archives. (accessed 31 January 2005). http://www.nimd.go.jp/archives/english/tenji/a_corner.html).
Minamata Disease, The History and Measures. (accessed 31 January 2005). http://www.env.go.jp/en/topic/minamata2002/ch2.html).
Political Settlement of Minamata Disease Issues. (accessed 31 January 2005). http://www.env.go.jp/en/topic/minamata2002/ch5.html).
Nightingale met a friend Richard Monckton Miles in 1842. Then in 1844, Nightingale asked Dr. Howe if she could do a charitable job in a hospital like the catholic nuns, and refused her marriage to her cousin, Henry Nicholson. By 1845, Nightingale started training herself in the nearby Salisbury Hospital, but her parents were not happy about it, seeing nursing as an inappropriate job for a well to do woman like their daughter. In the next year, Nightingale began teaching herself from the government blue books. In the meantime, Monckton Miles wanted to marry her, but soon she travelled to Rome, Italy with friends to avoid him. Britain unlimited, 2009). Finally, after she attended the Herbert's Charmouth convalescent home, her knowledge was recognized. In 1849, after refusing finally to Miles proposal, she decided to go to Egypt while accompanying her friends, the Bracebridges. They then travelled through Europe, and ended…
(Source: Cody, 2006, p. 259).
Differences Between Nightingale's Theory and Emancipatory Knowing -- When Nightingale thought about the benefits of a well-ventilated room, she was not basing her view on previous knowledge. Emancipatory progress is now evident in the way world healthcare approaches a patient's room -- typically well-ventilated and clean (Beck, 2005, pg. 140). Nightingale was born in an era were by women has very little voice most of the work done by women were in-house work so most of Nightingale's major innovation was providing place for women to work with and for women (Selanders, 2005, pg., 83). Today with Emancipatory knowledge we see a more educated workforce of both men and women in nursing. Although in the late 19th century there were still arguments regarding Nightingale's visions, today's theorists use her broad-based knowledge as a best -- practice template for modern conceptions (Attewell, 2005).
The Legacy of Nightingale Part 1 -- Nursing Ethics -- Most modern ethical theorist are based on traditions dating back as far as Ancient Greece. However, medical, and in particular nursing, ethics are clearly a post-Nightingale logical evolution (never a conclusion). The philosophical combination of advocacy and ethics, while still remaining true to the realities of budgets and the need for a medical institution to
Public elations (Corporate social responsibility)
The term 'Corporate Social esponsibility' refers to the social responsibility that a Company must honor towards the public, especially those people who have direct contact with and are therefore directly affected by the policies and actions of the company. The feeling that the social responsibility of multi-national companies are not of such standards that would satisfy the general public has lead to widespread protests and demonstrations against these companies at almost every free-trade meeting at the regional and national as well as the multi-national levels. The protests are also generally against worldwide globalization. Almost all major multinational companies are found lacking in their responsibilities towards the public. It is not at all sufficient for a company to satisfy its shareholders and investors and employees and the community in which they function from; in fact, these companies are expected to be aware of and take an…
CEO's Message" HP Standards of Business Conduct. Retrieved at http://www.hp.com/hpinfo/globalcitizenship/csr/sbcbrochure.pdf . Accessed on 7 September, 2004
Corporate Social Responsibility" 2004. Retrieved at http://www.takingitglobal.org/themes/csr/ . Accessed on 7 September, 2004
Corporate Social Responsibility" Retrieved at http://www.hp.com/hpinfo/globalcitizenship/csr/. Accessed on 7 September, 2004
Danng, Lyng. 2004. "Who is monitoring the multinational?" 17th May. Retrieved at http://www.vibewire.net/articles.php?id=2671Accessed on 7 September, 2004
Ethics and Social esponsibility
General Motors (commonly known as GM) is an American multinational automobile manufacturer. It is the world's largest corporation in the automotive industry with respect to unit sales. GM is headquartered in Michigan, United States and operates with fully-owned subsidiaries as well as joint ventures in 157 countries of the world. The manufacturing units are being operated in 31 countries. It employs more than 202,000 people who work in its 158 different operational areas in all six operating regions of the world. General Motors was established in 1908 by William C. Durant. It has a very well-established brand image across the Globe with a high level of brand acceptability and loyalty by its customers and stakeholders (General Motors, 2012).
Having business operations at the Global scale, General Motors operates in a highly complex and uncertain business environment. There are a number of environmental factors that…
Banerjee, S.B. (2007). Corporate social responsibility: the good, the bad and the ugly, 1st Edition. Cheltenham, Glos, UK; Northampton, MA: Edward Elgar.
General Motors, (2012). Environment. Retrieved on January 3rd, 2013, from
General Motors, (2012). Our Company. Retrieved on January 3rd, 2013, from
General Motors, (2012). Our Commitment. Retrieved on January 3rd, 2013, from
One of the most notable of them is the inferiority of women in the Middle East as compared to their equality with men in the West. Another example is constituted by the societies in Africa where children still die of starvation, where medicine is unavailable and where the elderly are in their 30s. In Angola and Zambia for instance, the life expectancy at birth is of 38 years -- the lowest at the global level (Central Intelligence Agency, 2010). The list of examples could go on, but fact remains that the cultural differences of states teach the individual of the importance of safeguarding human rights and supporting wealth and stability throughout the planet. Both environmental and social teachings motivate the individual to become more responsible and take action to make the world a better place.
C. Personal and group influences on other groups and cultures
The believes, attitudes, actions, values…
Hinz, M.O., Gatter, F.T., Global responsibility -- local agenda: the legitimacy of modern self-determination and African traditional authority, LIT Verlag Munster, 2006
Lenk, H., Global technoscience and responsibility: schemes applied to human values, technology, creativity and globalization, LIT Verlag Munster, 2007
Leonard, A., The story of stuff, http://www.storyofstuff.com / last accessed on October 13, 2010
The world factbook, Central Intelligence Agency, 2010, https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/rankorder/2102rank.html?countryName=Kuwait&countryCode=ku®ionCode=me&rank=52#ku last accessed on October 13, 2010
But the shareholders themselves need to be more aware and more involved in their company's business in order for any meaningful change to sustain itself:
Shareholders, the intended beneficiaries of the corporate vehicle, are the ultimate capitalists: avaricious accumulators with little fiscal risk and no legal responsibility for the way in which they pursue their imperative to accumulate. Shareholders, not corporations, show indifference to the needs and values of society. It is their behaviour that is most appropriately characterized as amoral indifference to the plight of others and their environment. Shareholders, not corporations, behave in a pathological manner. And shareholders should be the targets for the cure that we need for our ills. (Glasbeek 2005: 24)
There is also the problem of victimisation of other cultures in a global market. As Strike, Gao and Bansal (2006) point out in their article, 'Being Good While Being Bad: Social esponsibility and the…
Berkhout, Tom. 2005. 'Corporate Gains: Corporate Social Responsibility Can Be the Strategic Engine for Long-Term Corporate Profits and Responsible Social Development.' Alternatives Journal, January/February, pp. 15-22.
Carroll, B.A. 2004 'Managing ethically with global stakeholders: Annual Editions' Business Ethics 06-07: Contemporary Learning Series 30, pp. 114-120.
Dean, Dwane Hal. 2004. 'Consumer Reaction to Negative Publicity: Effects of Corporate Reputation, Response, and Responsibility for a Crisis Event.' The Journal of Business Communication 41:192-201.
Dickens, Charles. 1912. A Christmas Carol. Chicago: Rand McNally.
NEPA and SEQA
The National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA)
The National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) was ratified in 1970. It is a federal law that is designed to assess the damage to the environment from various projects. This was in response to decades of neglect to the ecosystem and its effect on the general public. Under the law, any project that is initiated by the federal government must conduct some type of evaluation to determine the impact of its activities on nature. This takes place by having all federal agencies conduct Environmental Assessments and Environmental Impact Studies prior to implementation. These tools are helping to provide an objective analysis of the proposed project on the ecosystem. It is at this point, that the effects will clear by taking into account a number of perspectives (prior to beginning). What these regulations do is to create a standard that must be utilized…
"National Environmental Policy Act." CEQ, 2012. Web. 15 Oct. 2012.
"State Environmental Quality Review Act." ELR, 2012. Web. 15 Oct. 2012
"SEQR." DEC, 2012. Web. 15 Oct. 2012
"Village of Pomona v. Town of Ramapo." New York Court of Appeals, 2012. Web. 15 Oct. 2012
This has lead to a greater corporate awareness of their impact in the multitude of regions they work and sell in. It has lead the concept of Corporate Social esponsibility to become a highlighted feature in the nature of global business today.
There are numerous examples of successful implementations of Corporate Social esponsibility in today's marketplace. Take one for example, the Caremark Corporation which is typically known to Americans as the owners of the CVS chain pharmacy and drug stores. This corporation has expanded rapidly over the past few years and has now become a global powerhouse. Yet, within its store locations, even in nations many corporations might exploit, they sill over excellent employee health packages that are equitable with the ones they offer their American employees in the United States. This seemingly small token shows corporate responsibility for their employees. However, not all seemingly wholesome American companies end up…
Assadourin, Erik. (2006). "State of Corporate Responsibility and the Environment." Georgetown International Environmental Law Review. Bnet.com. Retrieved August 8, 2009 at http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_qa3970/is_200607/ai_n16692849/ .
Eom, Sean B. (1994). "Transitional Management Systems: An Emerging Tool for Global Strategic Management." SAM Advance Management. 59(2):22-27.
Ruggie, John Gerard. (2007). "Business and Human rights: The Evolving International Agenda." Corporate Social Responsibility Initiative. Working Paper No. 31. Harvard University. Retrieved August 8, 2009 at http://www.hks.harvard.edu/m-rcbg/CSRI/publications/workingpaper_38_ruggie.pdf .
Vogel, David. (2008). "CSR Doesn't Pay." Forbes Magazine. Retrieved August 8, 2008 at http://www.forbes.com/2008/10/16/csr-doesnt-pay-lead-corprespons08-cx_dv_1016vogel.html .
Powerful Stakeholder Policy to Prevent Industrial Environmental Impact
Friedman's stakeholder theory emphasizes the critical function of stakeholders in determining company's goals and responsibilities. Responsibility in a corporation is stated as individual role of each employee and manager to act and report to the upper level and finally to the decision-making boards.
As the top-level management and decision makers, corporate directors address their responsibility to the stakeholders, literally as the "owners" of the company, to whom all the running processes in the company, goal settings, and money spent should be reported. To follow the track, a manager is tied to what his/her employers have defined in the tasks list. Whatever skills and creativity managers possess must be utilized within the range of responsibility they have to the stakeholders, as stakeholders are the top decision-making board.
Company directors act based on the interest of shareholders as stakeholders. Scholl reads them as the…
Camill, Phil. Dec 15, 1999. The Deforestation of the Amazon: A Case Study in Understanding Ecosystems and Their Value. Department of Biology Carleton College. http://ublib.buffalo.edu/libraries/projects/cases/case.html.(Mar28, 2002).
De Leon, R. And White A.T. 1997. Mangrove Resources Decline in the Philippines: Government and Community Look For New Solutions. Intercoast Network Newsletter. Special Edition # 1.
Demosthenous, M. June 20, 2000. The Social Responsibility of Business: A Review. School of Commerce. The Flinders University of South Australia. http://commerce.flinders.edu.au/research/00-8.htm.(Mar28, 2002).
CS in Saudi Firms
Corporate Social esponsibility
eferences to corporate social responsibility (CS) reportedly occurred numerous times before the 1950s, however, in regard to CS definitions, that particular decade birthed the "modern era." Carroll (1999) compliments the researcher's current study as it expands on the historical progression of CS definitions. According to Carrol, Bowen initially defined the social responsibilities of businessmen; explaining that the concept relates to the obligations businessmen have to pursue particular policies, to make deliberate desirable decisions, "or to follow those lines of action which are desirable in terms of the objectives and values of our society" (Bowen as cited in Carroll, p. 270). During the 1960s, the "Iron Law of esponsibility," held that "social responsibilities of businessmen need to be commensurate with their social power" (Davis, as cited in Carroll, p. 271). Davis and others during this decade, however, did not include specific details regarding the…
Baldo, M.D. (2009). Corporate social responsibility and corporate governance in Italian SMEs the experience of some spirited businesses. Journal Management Government.
Carroll, A.B. (1999). Corporate social responsibility: Evolution of a definitional construct.
Business Society, 38; 268-295. DOI: 10.1177/000765039903800303
Corporate Social esponsibilities
Comparison of CS Practices
In the 21st century, attaining some degree of social responsibility is recognized as a business quality that most corporations use in their daily operations to keep being in business Enquist, Edvardsson, & Petros, 2008.
The inclusion of social responsibility into a corporation helps to form a connection between the corporation's objectives with the idea of sustainable developments Samuel & Walter, 2009.
Corporate social responsibility helps corporations to show their ethical concern for sustainable development and that for their stakeholders. In this paper, a comparison of corporate social responsibility of three companies is given.
CS practices of IKEA, Hennes & Mauritz (H&M) and Starbucks compared
H&M philosophy in conducting business as the third largest retailer of clothing in the world is to offer the best price for fashion and quality outfits. The issue of the quality by H&M does not only involve the final…
Chaudhary, K., & Krishin, V.R. (2007). Impact of Corporate Social Responsibility and Tranformational Leadership on Brand Community: An Experimental Study'. Global Business Review, 8(2), 205-220.
Enquist, B., Edvardsson, B., & Petros, S., S. (2008). Corporate Social Responsibility for Charity or for Service Business? . The Asian Journal of Quality, 9(1), 55-67.
Samuel, O.I., & Walter, L.F. (2009). Global Practices of Corporate Social Responsibility. Heidelberg: Springer.
In fact, the changes in technology and complexities of modern life enhance this idea. This is nowhere as apparent as it is in the idea of environmental safety and health, for actions taken in one part of the world do have a profound effect on other parts of the world. Even in modern, developed nations like the United States, we find mercury from Chinese factories, dust from Saharan Africa and smog from Mexico -- accounting for about 30% of the nation's ozone problems (Watson, 2005).
The Gaia Hypothesis, in fact, is a theory that the entire planet is large and complex living organism. This proposes that everything on earth, organic and inorganic, are completely integrated into a single and self-regulating complex system that maintains the conditions for life on earth (Gribbin, 2009). The complexity is so vast that we may not be able to completely understand it at present. For…
Environmental Protection Agency. (2010). Our Nation's Air: Status and Trends Through 2010. Government Printing Office. Retrieved from: http://www.epa.gov/airtrends/2011 / report/fullreport.pdf
Gribbin, J. (2009). James Lovelock: In Search of Gaia. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
Watson, T. (March 14, 2005). Air Pollution from Other Countries Drifts into USA. USA Today -- the Nation. Retrieved from: http://www.usatoday.com/news/nation/2005-03-13-pollution-_x.htm
World Health Organization. (2006). Preventing Disease Through Healthy Environments. Retrieved from: http://www.who.int/quantifying_ehimpacts/publications/preventingdisease/en/
Environmental Hazards as a Consequence of Crude Oil/Natural Gas Exploration, Transportation, Refining and Storage
Ever since crude oil was first successfully drilled in the U.S. In Titusville, Pennsylvania, in 1859, the demand for oil has only been increasing over the years in countries all over the world. (Camden, 1883) Crude oil, from which various petroleum products are obtained, is a naturally occurring hydrocarbon component found trapped in rocks below the earth. The word "petroleum" means "rock oil" or "oil from the earth." Natural gas is another form of hydrocarbon that is also found in nature. oth crude oil and natural gas have excellent combustibility and are good sources of energy. Crude oil is not used in the extracted form; but it is refined to obtained products such as gasoline, liquefied petroleum gas (LPG), naphtha, kerosene, gas-oil and fuel oil. Secondary products during the purification of crude oil are obtained are…
Associated-Press, and Reuters. World's Biggest Oil Rig Sinks. 2001. CNN. Available:
http://www.cnn.com/2001/WORLD/americas/03/20/brazil.rig.02/.August 2, 2004.
AWMA. Oil Spills - a Fact Sheet. 2000. Air & Waste Management Association. Available:
http://www.awma.org/education/oilspills.htm . August 1, 2004.
Exxon and Environmental Policy
Despite its assurance of the complete safety of its operations, the Exxon Valdez tanker hit a reef in Alaska's Prince William Sound at midnight of March 24, 1989 and poured 11 million gallons of Alaska North Slope crude oil from a ruptured hull of the ship (Explore North 1999). Within the next two months following the wreck, oil had spread to 470 miles to the southwest. The initial cleanup in the succeeding three years cost more than $2 billion, although no lives were lost. Wildlife destruction was staggering and the full impact of the disaster may never be known. The State of Alaska and the federal government filed both criminal and civil suits against Exxon in October 1991
In settling the civil charges, Exxon agreed to pay the State of Alaska and the United States $900 million within a 10-year period and the money would be…
1. Alaska Oil Spill Commission. SPILL: the Wreck of the Exxon Valdez. Final report, State of Alaska, 1995. http://www.evostc.state.ak.us/facts/details.html
2. Earle, Sylvia. Sea Change: a Message of the Ocean. Perspectives on Marine Environment Quality Today. 1998-Year of the Ocean. National Oceanic Atmospheric Administration, 1995. http://www.yoto98.noaa.gov/yoto/meeting/mar_env_316.html
3. Explore North. The Exxon Valdez Oil Spill Disaster, 1998. http://www.explorenorth.com/library/weekly/aa032499.htm
4. Lefevre, Greg. The Exxon Valdez Oil Spill. Cable News Network, Inc., 1998. http://www.cnnsf.com.newsvault/output/bigspill.html
Human Need for Privacy
Environmental psychology is the study of the interaction between the physical world and human behavior. In recent years, the topic of privacy has been a key aspect of this field of study, as research reveals that it directly relates to a sense of well being and control. A supportive physical environment has been proven to contribute to a successful social, private and work life, and privacy is a key factor in creating a positive environmental setting.
hy e Need Privacy
There are many theories as to why people need privacy. Many psychologists believe that people need to maintain personal space between themselves and others to avoid overstimulation. According to Scott (1993), when people are too close to one another, they are bombarded with too many social or physical stimuli.
Some researchers argue that people need to maintain personal space to avoid various stressors associated with very…
Altman, I. (1975). The environment and social behavior. Monterey, CA: Brooks/Cole.
Altman, I. (1976). Privacy: A conceptual analysis. Environment and behavior, 8, 7-29.
Altman, I. (1977). Privacy regulation: Culturally universal or culturally specific? Journal of Social Issues, 33(3), 66-84.
Baum, A., Singer, J.E., & Baum, C.S. (1981). Stress and the environment. Journal of Social Issues, 37(1), 4-29.
individuals with the ability to understand their connection to the world around them is the fundamental characteristic of an effective environmental education. To do this successfully requires two important things: individuals that are inspired by and actively involved in the physical world around them; and institutions of learning that provide curricula delineating the individual's link to these natural systems and societies at large.
The current environmental educational system in America, for the most part, illustrates a mis-educative experience. The system is mis-educative because most learning still takes place inside a classroom. Students are not encouraged to explore their relationship with the outside world either by literally going outside or through their studies. There is little or no formal attempt to encourage students to make the connection between what they learn in mathematics, science, economics or business to other subjects or the outside world. Any learning is thus, compartmented. It is…
Hardin, Garrett. "The Tragedy of the Commons." Science 162 (1968):1243-1248
Orr, David. Ecological Literacy: Education and the Transition to a Postmodern World. New York: State University of New York Press, 1992.
- -- . The Last Refuge: Patriotism, Politics and the Environment in an Age of Terror.
Washington, D.C.: Island Press, 2005.
Just this past week, the Environmental Protection Agency released a report on the effects and reality of global warming. In the investigative commission that yielded the findings, an admission was submitted that there is no way to fully determine how much of the planet's climatic change has been due to natural variation in weather and temperature patterns. However, the report did assert the certainty that global warming is in large part due to human behavior and environmental practices. Particularly, global warming is partially the result of extensive burning of fossil fuels such as oil, thus placing a great deal of blame on an international practice upon which economies and political systems have operated for a great many years. And it has been in the last two decades that these proclivities have begun to catch up with environmental conditions and, subsequently, various ecosystems and the broader social structures that are dependent…
psychology and human behavior. Specifically it will discuss the effects of population density on individuals, including noise and territoriality. Population density has a dramatic affect on the population, and it can even lead to major health concerns. Studies show that residents of high-noise areas suffer a variety of ailments, from loss of attention span to hearing loss and stress. The denser the population, the more noise, stress, and lack of personal space all come together to make living conditions far less bearable than any other living situation.
Noise is one of the biggest problems facing the residents of high-density population centers. Noise can affect just about every aspect of life, and it can make sleeping, learning, conversing, and every aspect of life nearly unbearable. Noise is a part of life, but high noise levels are often most prevalent in inner cities and areas of high population density, meaning that more…
Editors. (2009). The San Francisco noise model. Retrieved 23 Dec. 2009 from the San Francisco Department of Public Heath Web site: http://www.sfphes.org/HIA_Tools_Noise.htm .
Goines, L. And Hagler, L. (2007). Noise pollution: A modern plague. Southern Medical Journal, Volume 100: p. 287-294.
Harris, A.S., Fleming, G.G., Lang, W.W. And Schomer, P.D. (2004). Reducing the impact of environmental noise on quality of life requires an effective national noise policy. Retrieved 23 Dec. 2009 from the Volpe.dot.gov Web site: http://www.volpe.dot.gov/acoustics/docs/2000/dts-34-03_2.pdf .
elieving Cassandra: An Optimist Looks at a Pessimist's World is a book about the environment, its blunderings, and the sustainability of our world. This is a book for people trying to understand our intricate world and how it is failing and succeeding. I found the approach this book takes to the environment to be entertaining and worthwhile, for not just the information it provides, but the fresh perspective it offers on environmental issues. The author restores the reader's optimism in the world and explains how we can do even better for our future. The people who have predicted the end of the world, AtKisson says, "have been proven wrong, and have served to relegate all environmentally concerned comments to the fate of Cassandra's mutterings: They are ignored. And so they should be." (p. 12) He says, the earth is not a lost cause. And that's why he's written the…
AtKisson, Alan, Believing Cassandra: an Optimist Looks at a Pessimist's World, Chelsea Green, 1999.
Corporate Social esponsibility and Environmental Ethics
Abstract/Introduction -- No one can argue that the international business community is becoming more and more complex as a result of globalism. In turn, this complexity is driven by an increasing understanding of sustainability, going "green," and bringing ethical and moral philosophy into the business community. British Telecom, for instance, noted in 2007 that it had reduced its carbon footprint by 60% since 1996, setting itself a target of 80% reductions by 2016 (Hawser, 2007). Francois Barrault, CEO, BT Global Services, said that by supporting sustainability his company hoped not only to reduce its carbon footprint but also to attract younger people who prefer to work for environmentally and socially responsible companies. He didn't always think that way, though. Barrault said that when he first met former U.S. vice president and environmental activist Al Gore, who showed him pictures of icecaps melting, he thought…
Career Services. The University of Edinburgh. Retrieved from:
Corporate Social Responsibility in the Global Supply Chain.. APEC
Human Resources Development Working Group. Retrieved from: http://hrd.apec.org/index.php/Corporate_Social_Responsibility_in_the_Global_Supply_Chain.
The Leblanc alkali production processes were especially pernicious, but they followed along the lines of previous industrial processes. In other words, the first British environmental legislation was a response not so much to a qualitative change in industrial processes and their environmental impact but more to a quantitative increase in sources of pollution that had up to that point been (if only barely) tolerable.
Legislation Arising From Public Anger
At the center of the first British environmental legislation was the Leblanc process, an industrial process that produced of soda ash (which is chemically sodium carbonate) that came into use in the first decades of the 19th century. Named after its inventor, Nicolas Leblanc, it replaced an older process in which soda ash had been produced from wood ash. However, as the availability of wood ash declined (because of deforestation, a process that was occuring both in Great Britain and across…
Resources Act (WRA) of 1991. This act "establishes the duties of the Environment Agency (EA) on flood defence and other areas relating to water management and quality."
"The EA has discretionary powers to improve and maintain river conditions. This means that the EA is not obliged to construct or maintain such works. In practice, the EA will only proceed with schemes that are not only beneficial but cost-effective.
"The Act also grants the EA powers to issue flood warnings and regulate what can be discharged into rivers, estuaries, coastal waters, lakes and groundwaters."
Canadian law on flooding is similarly divided between common law and statutory law.
NHS Corporate Social esponsibility Practice
In a contemporary business environment, organizations are struggling with the new roles to meet the needs of present generation without compromising the needs of future generation. Within a business environment, stakeholders are calling upon corporate organizations to implement operations that will meet the societal values and the natural environment. Organizations are also being called upon to apply principles of corpo-rate social responsibility (CS) in the business operations. Corpo-rate social responsibility (CS) is the process where corporate organizations demonstrate the inclusion of social responsibility and environmental concerns in their business activities. (D'Amato, Henderson, & Henderson, 2009). It is no longer acceptable for a firm to conduct business without demonstrating societal concern.
The objective of this report is to evaluate the current Corporate Social esponsibility practice of National Health Service (NHS). The report uses Carroll's pyramid models to demonstrate the effectiveness of NHS Corporate Social esponsibility practice,…
Bowie, N.E. (1999). Business Ethics and Normative Theories. Black well Publishing. UK.
Burton, B.K., Farh, J.L. & Hegarty, W.H. (2000). Comparison of a Cross-Cultural Corporate Social Responsibility Orientation: Hong Kong vs. United States Students. Teaching Business Ethics, 4(2):151-167.
Carroll, A.B. (1999). Evolution of a Definitional Construct of Corporate social responsibility Business and Society, 38(3): 268-295.
D'Amato, A. Henderson, S. & Henderson, S.(2009).Corporate Social Responsibility and Sustainable Business. CCL Press. USA.
Apple's Current Position On Its Ethical And Social esponsibilities
Corporations are increasingly seeking a vision in maintaining social responsibility alongside a vision in business. There are also demands for greater accountability and transparency in corporate actions of organized consumers, state representatives and grass movements (Garsten, 2003). Many corporations aim to engage in corporate citizenship and to be socially responsible by adhering to social accountability standards and voluntary codes of conduct. This essay endeavors to examine Apple's current position on the social and ethical responsibilities and to determine whether it has met the responsibilities. The study also determines the impact caused by the violation of ethics and social responsibilities among Apple's suppliers.
Current Position on the Company's Ethical and Social esponsibilities
Corporate Social esponsibility comprises of actions that are not required by the law, but extend beyond the transactional interest of companies and further social good. CS is often used to…
Creel, T. (2010). Environmental Reporting Practices of the Largest U.S. Companies. Management Accounting Quarterly 12(10): 13-20
Garsten, C. (2003). The cosmopolitan organization -- an essay on corporate accountability. Global Networks 3(3):355 -- 370
Kenney, M. (2011). How venture capital became a component of the U.S. National System of Innovation. Industrial and Corporate Change, 20(6): 1677 -- 1723
Northrop, E. (2013). The Accuracy, Market Ethic, and Individual Morality Surrounding the Profit Maximization Assumption. American Economist, Vol. 58, No. 2: 111-124
Corporate Social Responsibility
Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) has recently reached an unprecedented level of salience with the emergence of global protests that seem to be driven in a large part by concerns over social issues such as equality as wells as environmental issues such as the regulation of greenhouse gas emissions. Although the protestors are occupying various parts of the world for a plethora of mixed motivations, it is reasonable to speculate that much of these individual motivations are embodied in the concept of CSR. The concept of CSR covers a lot of ground but there are two core principles that account for most of the commentary.
The first concept embodied within the notion of CSR is in respect to the manner that people are treated. Under classical models this would only include investors, customers, and internal employees. However the CSR approach includes all stakeholders locally, regionally, or even…
Drucker, P. "What is Business Ethics?" The Public Interest (1981): 18-36.
Friedman, M. "The Social Responsibility of Business is to Increase its Profits." The New York Times Magazine 13 September 1970.
Hui, L. "Combining faith and CSR: a paradigm of corporate sustainability." International Journal of Social Economics (2008): 449-465. Web.
Peloza, J. And L. Papania. "The Missing Link between Corporate Social Responsibility and Financial Performance: Stakeholder Salience and Identification." Corporate Reputation Review (2008): 169-181. Web.
Corporate ocial Responsibility: Bowen and Carroll
Howard R. Bowen was the founder of the concept of corporate social responsibility. In his book "ocial Responsibility of the Businessman," Bowen argued that business was a major force that touched the lives of numerous individuals. ince business was inextricably and continuously involved in processes of judgment and decision-making, many of their proposals and assertions touched the lives of vast numbers of citizens. These included not only employees of the firm but also their families, acquaintances, and so forth. The larger the firm, therefore, the more corporate responsibility, accordingly the industry had in regards to the decisions that it formulated. As Bowen asked: "What responsibilities to society may businessmen reasonably be expected to assume?" (p. xi). And he responded:
"It refers to the obligations of businessmen to pursue those policies, to make those decisions, or to follow those lines of action which are desirable…
Sniderman, S. (2011). "Bill & Melinda gates Foundation outlines 7 social good initiatives for 2011" yourolivebranch.org http://news.yourolivebranch.org/2011/02/07/bill-melinda-gates-foundation-outlines-7-social-good-initiatives-for-2011/
Whoriskey, P. (Oct. 6, 2011) Record thin on Steve Job's philanthropy. Washington Post.
Some trades are much more environmentally difficult than others, and the WTO should consider upholding sanctions that are justified by the MEAs that have already been put into place (Singh, 2009).
If the WTO refuses to work with governments to ensure that MEAs are also taken seriously, it would be difficult to determine whether the MEAs have any place or any relevance at all. If there is no strength behind them and they are not taken seriously, what value do they have? What purpose do they serve? Originally, they were designed to protect the environment. However, if they are being overruled by the WTO at nearly every turn, they are no longer able to do what they were designed to do when it comes to making sure the environment is not sustaining lasting damage because of the way goods are being produced or the ways in which they are being…
Eckersley, R. (2004). The big chill: The WTO and multilateral environmental agreements. Global Environmental Politics, 4: 2
Krist, W. (2002). The WTO and MEAs -- Time for a good neighbor policy. A Policy Brief from the Trade and Environment Forum. Woodrow Wilson International for Scholars
Mushkat, R. (2003). Potential impacts of China's WTO accession on its approach to the trade-environment balancing act. Chinese JIL
O'Neill, M. (2002). Agriculture, the EC and the TWO: A legal critical analysis of the concepts of sustainability and multifunctionality. Environmental Law Review, 4: 144-155.
Under the new policy, the United States was committed to keep all commitments to treaties, provide a shield if nuclear power threatens the freedom of an ally or a nation that is important to U.S. security, and, in cases of other aggression, supply military economic assistance in accordance with treaty commitments, but should look to the nation threatened to assume primary responsibility to provide its own manpower for its defense. The goal was to reduce U.S. aid as the other country strengthens its own military for protection against attack.
Each of these movements created feelings that action was needed to force the government to enforce the laws they had created. Some of them took actions in protests, some in advocating for certain rights, and some took actions using violence. Where women took actions to advocate for women's rights, youth took actions of rebellion against traditions and voicing discontent and disagreement…
Civil Rights Movement. (n.d.). Retrieved from John F. Kennedy Presidential Library and Museum: http://www.jfklibrary.org/JFK/JFK_in_History/Civil-Rights-Movement.aspx
Decades of change: The rise of cultural and ethnic pluralism. (2008, Apr). Retrieved from IIP Digital: http://iipdigital.usembassy.gov/st/english/publica...80407123655eaifas0.7868769.html#axzz2QNCLypoo
Hill, L. (2007). America Dreaming: How Youth Changed America in the 60s. Boston, NY: Little Brown and Company.
The civil rights movement 1960-1980. (n.d.). Retrieved from Country Studies: http://countrystudies.us/united-states/history-130.htm
Socially esponsible Efforts
Social responsibility is quite often associated with corporate organizations and governments with individuals' input being relegated to the periphery. Corporate bodies, governments, and individuals have a duty of care to the greater society. These entities perception of what is socially responsible is; however, a preserve of their ideals and beliefs. Organizations that are sustainability-minded may undertake to develop green buildings where as others may give monetary donations to the neighboring communities towards construction of social amenities. Some organizations may donate their time to volunteer organizations that perhaps endeavor to increase forest cover. Individuals or organizations with businesses that negatively impact environment may undertake to recycle their products or even champion for the use of Compact Fluorescent Light (CFL) Bulbs that save energy. This paper seeks to compare the differences and similarities between two different communities and finally evaluate the effects of socially responsible efforts in each community.…
City of San Jose California. (2011). Welcome to the City of San Jose. Retrieved October 30, 2012 from http://www.sanjoseca.gov/index.asp
City of Santa Clara California (2012). Community. Retrieved October 30, 2012 from http://santaclaraca.gov/index.aspx?page=5
Divine, C. (2012). Intel: Making the World Better For Every Person on Earth, That's all.
Retrieved October 30, 2012 From http://www.divinecaroline.com/33/131695-intel-making-world-better-earth/2
Environmental management system is an important element in the modern business environment in light of the increased demands for environmental protection. The increases demands are fueled by the considerable effects that manufacturing processes have had on the environment and ecosystems across the globe. This paper provides a report of the need for an environmental management system for a small, growing manufacturing company that produces lithium-ion battery for aviation and automotive industries. The discussion examines what an EMS is, its goals, how it will help the firm comply with environmental laws, and how it will assist the organization to decrease its liability exposures. An explanation of additional benefits of the EMS for the organization and why the company should pursue its certification by ISO 1400 standards is also provided.
Environmental Management System (EMS) in an Organization
A small, growing manufacturing company that focuses on manufacturing lithium-ion battery for the automotive and…
Christini, G., Fetsko, M. & Hendrickson, C. (2004, June). Environmental Management Systems
and ISO 14001 Certification for Construction Firms. Journal of Construction Engineering and Management, 130(3), 330-336.
Environmental Protection Agency. (2013, April 10). Environmental Management System (EMS).
Retrieved from The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency website: http://www.epa.gov/ems/
Environmental Risk Assessment
Over the last several years, a wide variety of businesses have been focusing on the impact that they are having on the environment. Part of the reason for this, is because many firms are realizing that the footprint they are leaving can have an effect on the ecological balance for a particular region. A good example of this can be seen with Wal Mart. In this case, the various changes in the way they package different products could save: 3,800 trees, 1,000 barrels of oil and result in reduced costs for the company. (Kee, 2010, pp. 110 -- 118) This is significant because, it is illustrating how this approach is highlighting the way an environmental compliance risk assessment program can: save corporations money and reduce their effects on the ecosystem. To fully understand the full impact of this requires conducting a risk assessment involving a specialty apparel…
Kee, L. (2010). Green Retailing. California Management Review, 52 (2), 110 -- 118.
Seong, J. (2010). Comparative Efficiencies. International Journal of Logistics Management, 21 (3), 490 -- 509.
Zvi, I. (2011). Are You Too Soft. Minnesota Journal of Law, Science and Technology. 12, 527 -- 539.
Any business that pursues making a profit at the expense of the society in which it operates will find its success to be nothing more than temporary (Chapter 1: Corporate Social esponsibility and Business Sustainability, n.d.).
The idea of Corporate Social esponsibility (CS) is generally understood to imply that corporations have an amount of responsibility not only for the economic consequences of their activities, but also for the social and environmental implications. This is often called the triple bottom line approach. This approach takes into consideration the economic, social and environmental aspects of corporate activities. The meaning and value of CS often differs in various situations, depending on local issues including culture, environmental conditions, and the legal framework (Corporate Social esponsibility & Human ights, 2008).
Human rights are significant to the economic, social and environmental aspects of all corporate activity. Labor rights that require companies to pay fair wages influence…
A multi-dimensional view of corporate responsibility. (2010). Retrieved August 1, 2010, from CSR Quest Web site: http://www.csrquest.net/
Chapter 1: Corporate Social Responsibility and Business Sustainability. (n.d.). Retrieved August
1, 2010, from Web site: http://www.unescap.org/tid/publication/indpub2565_chap1.pdf
Corporate Social Responsibility. (2010). Retrieved August 1, 2010, from As you Sow Web site:
The activities of businesses affect different stakeholders within the communities they operate in. They affect customers, employees, shareholders, suppliers, financiers, regulatory authorities, and communities. Accordingly, in their pursuit of economic objectives, business organizations have a responsibility to satisfy the concerns of stakeholders affected by their operations. This is the core of corporate social responsibility (CSR). CSR theory asserts that business organizations exist for not only profit motives, but also social and environmental objectives (Schwartz, 2011). Indeed, CSR has become so that important governments in most countries around the world have enacted laws and regulations that businesses must adhere to so as to foster community wellbeing and environmental sustainability. Inattention to social and environmental concerns may harm an organization's public reputation or have serious legal ramifications on the organization.
WECAREHealth (WCH), a New Jersey-based pharmaceutical company, is facing serious human rights issues and environmental concerns due to its activities in the…
Governmental CS policies do not only assist consumers or organizations, they assist both the consumer and the organization (The Impact of Government egulations on Corporate Social esponsibility - How Government Policies Shape CS, 2009).
It is often said that international environmental laws do not differ from one another. European environmental regulations are very similar to the U.S. environmental laws. The United States Environmental Protection Agency has set up a database that contains all of the contaminated lands in the U.S. This database includes existing and formerly contaminated lands. The European Union, especially France has also put into place databases to track existing and formerly contaminated lands within France. These efforts are there to protect the public from coming into contact with contaminated lands. International governmental environmental policies do not differ from one another in the fact that they all seek to protect the public and the organizations (The Impact of…
Emani, Gazelle. (2010). BP Oil Spill: 7 Secrets BP Doesn't Want You to Know. Retrieved July
19, 2010, from The Huffington Post Web site:
Freeland, Chrystia. (2010). What's BP's social responsibility? Retrieved July 19, 2010, from The
This kind of competition can prove to be more effective than governmental regulations since firms are reluctant to follow government mandates.
Secondary research has been used as the main tool. Important journal articles, case studies and analyses have been included to understand the concept of CS and its use in gain competitive advantage.
ANALYSIS and DISCUSSION
Social responsibility is closely connected with concern for financial growth. According to this belief, firms seek to maximize their profits by investing in a healthy environment and other public good projects. The firms that have successfully attained the prestigious image of being socially responsible follow this ideology. These firms choose to be more socially conscious not because of any real intention of creating a healthier society but because their actions seem to influence buyer behavior in a positive manner. Companies are thus rapidly developing serious CS policies with exclusive departments dealing with this.…
Miller, H. "Businesses don't have social responsibilities; people do." The Miami Herald 21 July 2004.
The Good Company." The Economist. 22-28 Jan. 2005: 11.
Braungart, M; McDonough, W. Cradle to Cradle. New York: North Point Press, 2002.
Aaronson, S; Reeves, J. Corporate Responsibility in the Global Village: The Role of Public Policy. Washington, DC: National Policy Association, 2002.
Social esponsibilty Strategy for Community
Social esponsibility Strategy for Community Hospital
Corporate Social esponsibility
The following is a fictional plan of that will describe the development of a fictional Hospital's Corporate Social esponsibility initiative. It will include things such as the philanthropic, community and environmental benefit that document Alexandria Hospital's commitment and concern in regards to the welfare of their employees and the patients that they will serve, in the community development and health, human rights, enabling people through education and material, public reporting and transparency, business ethics and providing a community benefit (ohini & Mahadevappa, 2010).
Community Benefit and Free Care
Alexandria Hospital will bring great benefit to the surrounding communities in order to be able to serve in countless methods, the hospital has future plans of giving nearly $923,000 in Community Health Improvement Services, supporting the care that will be provided to patients who are covered…
Castka, P., & Balzarova, M.A. (2008). Adoption of social responsibility through the expansion of existing management systems. Industrial Management + Data Systems, 108(3), 297-309.
Galbreath, J. (2010). The impact of strategic orientation on corporate social responsibility. International Journal of Organizational Analysis, 18(1), 23-40.
Kakabadse, N.K., & Cecile Rozuel. (2006). Meaning of corporate social responsibility in a local French hospital: A case study. Society and Business Review, 1(1), 77-96.
Luu, T.T. (2013). Corporate social responsibility, upward influence behavior, team processes and competitive intelligence. Team Performance Management, 19(1), 6-33.
Additionally, it has been observed that whenever companies implement strategies of CS, they do this not out of individual choice and desire, but as a result of imposed legislations. "All of these decisions are made under the mandatory legal rules embodied in employment and labor law, workplace safety law, environmental law, consumer protection law, and pension law. Such rules, because they often apply to all businesses, are not susceptible to easy evasion through choice of form. As a result, those charged with governing a corporation find their decision tree considerably trimmed and their discretion decidedly diminished by mandatory legal rules enacted in the name of protecting stakeholders" (Winkler, 2005). In other words, the modern day evolutions of corporate social responsibility "caution against a rush to declare the ultimate triumph of shareholder primacy" (Winkler, 2005).
As a direct result of this changing legislation, more companies have commenced corporate social responsibility programs.…
Akerstrom, a., 2009, Corporate governance and social responsibility: Johnson & Johnson, GRIN Verlag, ISBN 364045605X
Boyd, C., 2003, Human resource management and occupational health and safety, Routledge, ISBN 0415265908
Conley, J.M., Williams, C.A., 2005, Engage, embed and embellish: theory vs. practice in the corporate social responsibility movement, Journal of Corporation Law, Vol. 31, No. 1
Greenwald, R., 2005, Wal-Mart: the high costs of low price (documentary available on DVD)
Corporate Social and Environmental eporting
Companies have presented investigations about their motivation towards voluntarily social and environmental as insolvent. This paper argues in agreement with Adam's view that the goal of CS reporting is to promote credibility and corporate image of stakeholders operating in a particular industry. Whereas companies must focus their efforts on enhancing their profitability, they should also ensure that the welfare of other stakeholders is protected.
Previous literature offers a revelation on various competing theories based on why companies make voluntarily report and engagements in corporate social responsibility. The major perspectives considered are within the scope of application include accountability and image promotion. Many studies hold consequential evidence towards accountability to shareholders making it difficult for organizations to distinguish relevance from accountability based on continued practice. The absence of actual legitimacy crises makes it hard to identify voluntarily reporting as a proactive measure in preventing future crises…
Adams, C. (2002). "Internal organizational factors influencing corporate social and ethical reporting beyond theorizing." Accounting, Auditing, and Accountability Journal, Vol. 15 No. 2, pp. 223-250
Bebbington, J., Larringa-Gonzalez, C., and Moneva, J. (2008). "Corporate social responsibility reporting and reputation risk management." Accounting, Auditing, and Accountability Journal, Vol. 21 No. 3, pp. 337-361.
Brennan, N.M. And Merkl-Davies, D.M. (2013). "Accounting Narratives and Impression management," In Jackson, L., Davison, J., and Craig, R. (Eds.). Routledge Companion to Communication in Accounting. Routledge, pp. 109-132. (on blackboard)
Daft, R.L. (2011). The leadership experience (5th ed.). Mason, OH: Thomson, Southwestern
AES Vision Social esponsibility |
AES's vision social responsibility
Social responsibility is one of the corporate values at AES (others being fun, fairness and integrity). The founders of the company oger Sant and Dennis W. Bakke were intent on providing clean, safe and reliable electricity even if it meant that profits were sacrificed. It was identified that AES contributed towards global warming by emitting CO2 from fossil fueled plants and thus steps were taken to mitigate this impact by investment in control technology and funding projects such as those of planting trees.
However in recent times AES has been forced to reconsider its strategy for social responsibility. With the expansion of the business in developing countries in the 1990's the company found out that although global warming is an important issues there are issues of far greater significance that require immediate attention such as provision of quality education, hunger, poverty,…
"A power producer is intent on giving power to its people," Wall Street Journal, July 3, 1995, p. A1. (pg 4)
AES Social Responsibility, Sharon Belanger, The AES Corporation, October 20, 1999 (pg 1)
Dennis W. Bakke, "Erecting a grid for ethical power," The Marketplace, May/June 1996, (pg 3)
Harvard Business School, Publication Date:, May 18, 1999, Discipline: Social Enterprise (pg 2)
" (Kotler and Lee 2005, p.3). Since this study was published, the contributions have steadily increased making CS an integral part of every major company today.
A report by Price Water Cooper House in 2010 shows that the CS initiatives and reporting has increased despite the sagging economy and this points to a positive change in the mindset of the management of companies. "PWC explains that such reports have become critical to a company's credibility, transparency and endurance." (Business & the Environment 2010, p.5). The reduced role of the Government in business circles is only going to further increase this trend because companies feel they have an obligation to the society at large and they want to make this country a better place for living. All this is done out of their own interest and initiative rather than any force by any external institution. Also, many companies understand the significance…
Associated Press. 2011, February 25. State and Local Budget Cuts are slowing the U.S. Economy. Fox News. [Online] Available at: http://www.foxnews.com/us/2011/02/25/government-budget-cuts-pose-threat-recovery / [Accessed 27 March 2011]
No Author. 2011. Political Conditions. United States Country Review. 1(5). pp29-258.
Kotler, Philip; Lee, Nancy. 2005. Corporate Social Responsibility: Doing the most good for your company and your cause. New York: John Wiley and Sons.
BSD Global. 2011. Corporate Social Responsibility. International Institute for Sustainable Development. [Online]. Available at: http://www.iisd.org/business/issues/sr.aspx [Accessed 27 March 2011]