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Motivation: Intrinsic vs Extrinsic
Motivation plays a critical role in the success of an organization. Employees who are motivated to achieve organizational goals and targets leave a positive impression on the overall performance of that organization. While there are many theories and strategies concerning motivation, the one that is most critical is the debate regarding intrinsic and extrinsic rewards. Motivational theories like Maslow's theory or Vroom's expectancy theory fail to completely answer the question of which kind of reward is more important for motivation: intrinsic or extrinsic. For example can we truly motivate a person by showing him how extra effort on a task can enhance his knowledge or do we really need to attach a monetary reward with it? A student may be motivated to study harder for intrinsic reward like more knowledge and higher learning but without appreciation and recognition, will he continue to put in the effort…
Weinberg R, & Gould, D (2003). Foundations of Sport and Exercise Psychology:
Deci, E.L. And Ryan, R.M. (1994). Promoting Self Determined Education.
Scandinavian Journal of Educational Research. 38, 3-41.
Motivation refers to the driving force that results from desire and an individual's will in life. Motivation has been seen to have roots in the behavioral, physiological, social, and cognitive area. This is rooted in the basic impulse where individual's skills and well-being are utilized for the benefit of the organization. It is the inner drive to act or behave in a certain manner. The innermost conditions of an individual such as goals, desires, and wishes activate an individual to move in a positive direction. This report endeavors to explain about the motivators that exist in the public agency based on Maslow's hierarchy of needs. It also endeavors to explain the assumptions made concerning employees in my agency: the City Hall supervisor's office.
Maslow's Hierarchy of needs.
Maslow assumed that individuals are motivated by needs that are unmet. When an individual's needs are not met, they feel driven and motivated…
Ryan, R; Deci, L.E (2000). "Intrinsic and Extrinsic Motivations: Classic Definitions and New Directions." Contemporary Educational Psychology 25.1: 54 -- 67.
Motivation is the key to materializing energy and getting things accomplished. Organizational relationships require proper motivation from all sides of the relationships. Leaders must be motivated and workers must be motivated as well in order to succeed at any mission. The purpose of this essay is to design an organizational motivation plan that encourages and maintains a high level of performance from the members of the Woo Widget Company. The essay will first describe the need for the plan before introducing key components of the system that intends to increase the productivity and efficiency of the employees at Woo.
Before designing a motivational plan that will work in this environment, it is necessary to reveal some important facts that contribute to the motivating factors of the employees at this organization. WooWoo designs widgets, but the widget that WooWoo makes is a clone of a nationally known widget. Woo sells their…
Amabile, T. (1997). Motivating Creativity in Organizations. California Management Review 40, 1, 1997. Retrieved from http://bear.warrington.ufl.edu/weitz/mar7786/articles/amabile%20ccal%20mgt%20revie w.pdf
Osterloh, M. et al. (2002). The Dynamics of Motivation in New Organizational Forms. International Journal of the Economics of Business, 9,1, 2002; 61-77. Retrieved from http://www.bsfrey.ch/articles/366_02.pdf
Vallerand, R.J. (March 08, 1993). The Academic Motivation Scale: A Measure of Intrinsic, Extrinsic, and Amotivation in Education. Educational and Psychological Measurement, 52, 4, 1003-17.
esearch has identified ability, effort, task difficulty, and luck as the most important achievement attributions. The last category focuses on two issues: how motivation gets translated into regulated behavior, and how motivation and cognition are linked.
These theories can provide insights into the leader who is trying to motivate others to follow. It must be understood that no two people are motivated in the same way. For a committee with a small number of members, it may be best to look at each person and define how he or she is best motivated and then put these different individuals into groups and decide what can be the specific motivator for each group. For example, those individuals who are extrinsically motivated may be motivated if they receive some form of gratitude from the principal. In order to determine the particular motivations of these individuals, it may be necessary to talk one-on-one…
Wigfield, a (2002). Motivational Beliefs, Values and Goals. Annual Review of Psychology. 109+.
What is it like to have enthusiasm? Does this come from within one person? Are outside influences important as well? Can it change someone's life? One will discuss motivation and provide examples as to how it impacts an individual on regular basis.
Intrinsic motivation is what comes from inside a person. For example, he or she is motivated to learn at school in order to get the best grade possible. This can make someone work hard at achieving their goals. If he or she wants an A in Biology, then he or she will work twice as hard to accomplish this. In the long run, the individual may or may not get what it is they want despite having the drive. Extrinsic motivation is important as well.
When it comes to extrinsic motivation, a person looks outside of themselves in order to seek ways in which to do a…
These performance appraisals are usually given to employees by managers. Such appraisals occur once or twice per year, depending upon the industry and the position of the employee. In some cases, performance appraisals are carried out by colleagues. egardless of how feedback is given most organizations recognize it as a legitimate and productive way to judge performance and present employees with ways to improve job performance.
Examples of Employee motivation
According to Neff (2002) the ability to motivate employees is an essential component in creating an organization that is successful. The author points out that the most successful organizations in the world are always succeeding in making certain that job satisfaction and motivation are primary priorities. These organizations have realized that employees who are motivated are also more productive and therefore improve the bottom line. Greater productivity usually leads to greater job satisfaction and ultimately greater customer satisfaction. The author…
Brief, a.P., & Weiss, H.M. (2002). Organizational Behavior: Affect in the Workplace. 279+.
Cameron, J., & Pierce, W.D. (2002). Rewards and Intrinsic Motivation: Resolving the Controversy. Westport, CT: Bergin & Garvey.
Kermally, S. (2005). Gurus on Managing People. London: Thorogood.
London, M. (2003). Job Feedback: Giving, Seeking, and Using Feedback for Performance Improvement. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Additionally, those who were in the test group also scored, on average 20% higher on the test when it was graded by the researcher. Though the case study was based on an abnormal psychology case the questions are associated with content (i.e. reading comprehension) and are not expected to be interpretive. The group was also debriefed at the close of the exam and informed of the nature of the exam and the resulting scoring, which was based on participation as apposed to test scores.
This brief research work demonstrates that extrinsic motivation (in an anomalous form) motivates students to achieve success on tests. The balance between intrinsic (results of moderate scores on MSLQ) and extrinsic, the motivation to score high on the exam as an impetus to a higher extra credit score, as apposed to a participation only score motivated those students in the test group to pay closer…
The present study aims to establish a relationship between academic motivation and academic self-efficacy. More specifically we will be looking at whether individuals with high academic self-efficacy possess high intrinsic or high extrinsic motivation levels. A sample of approximately 100 undergraduate students will complete the Academic Motivation Scale, which measures their level of academic motivation as well as their type of motivation, and the College Academic Self-Efficacy Scale to measure their level of academic self-efficacy. It is expected that individuals with high levels of academic self-efficacy will also show high levels of intrinsic academic motivation. These findings are significant in that they would give insight as to the reason students strive toward success, which if known could play a role in the increase in college admission and retention, for if it is known what motivates one to perform well academically, it is thus known what to target as far…
Bandura, A. (1991). Social cognitive theory of self-regulation. Organizational Behavior
and Human Decision Processes, 50, 248 -- 287.
Bandura, A. (1997). Self-efficacy: the exercise of control. New York, Freeman.
Carway, K., Tucker, C.M., Reinke, W.M., & Hall, C. (2003). Self-efficacy, goal orientation, and fear of failure as predictors Of school engagement in high school students, Psychology in the School, 40, 417 -- 427.
Intrinsic vs. Extrinsic Motivation
A detailed analysis of how differing organizations use various blends of extrinsic and intrinsic compensation and benefits strategies to maximize organizational potential to meet the needs of the workforce. Describes the myriad factors including the industry, strategic planning, compensation philosophy and recruitment/retention strategies that when balanced, create a changing yet dynamic and motivated generational workforce that succeeds in accomplishing workplace goals.
Intrinsic vs. Extrinsic Motivation
The purpose of this analysis is to describe how different organizations can potentially use different blends of extrinsic and intrinsic compensation and benefits strategies to maximize organizational potential to meet the needs of their workforce. Traditionally compensation has been a highly volatile and controversial aspect of human resource management, with managers typically siding on the intrinsic or extrinsic side of compensation strategies. However research suggests that a program must address multiple factors that will balance both extrinsic and intrinsic factors…
Hendriks, P. & Sousa, S. 2008. Motivating University Researchers. Higher Education Policy, 21,
Kunz, J. & Quitmann, A.2011. The influence of incentive systems on intrinsic motivation.
Zeitschrift fur Personal forschung, 25(1), 55-76.
Intrinsic vs. Extrinsic Motivation in Schools
"Do students Care About Learning?"
"What Engages Underachieving Middle School Students in Learning?"
"Intrinsic vs. Extrinsic Motivation in Schools: A Reconciliation"
In "Intrinsic vs. Extrinsic Motivation in Schools: A Reconciliation," Martin V. Covington argues that both approaches can be effective if done well, and do not necessarily have to be incompatible. In his evaluation of the literature, he found that other factors, such as how interested the student is in the work, how successful they feel, affect student effort. He also found that the extrinsic reward of a good grade increased intrinsic motivation. He recommended a grading practice that compared each student's performance to a set standard, rather than grading on a curve, can increase intrinsic motivation.
In "Do students Care About Learning?" Marge Scherer interviewed author Mihaly Csikszentmihalyi regarding his book about youth and the world of work. The participants reported eight times…
In this case one may imagine the student who attending class in school and cannot concentrate on what is being taught because their stomach is rumbling from lack of having eaten and they also have a headache from a general lack of nutrition. Furthermore, this student has no sense of security or safety and is nervous and anxious.
Example 2: The individual in this example is not hungry and they are not tired but they are nervous because their parents fought all night and this resulted in their being awake and scared the neighbors would call the police again and that their parents would wind up in jail by morning. This individual has no inner motivation to learn because they are worried and stressed about their own safety and security in their home life. This individual may very well be extrinsically motivated to learn but have not reached the level…
Soenens, Bart et al. (2005) Maladaptive Perfectionist Self-representation: The mediational link between psychological control and adjustment. Personality and Individual Differences 38 (2005). Online available at Science Direct:
Michalik, Nicole M. et al. (2007) Longitudinal Relations among Parental Emotional Expressivity and Sympathy and Prosocial Behavior in Adolescence. Social Development May 2007 Vol. 16 No.2. Online available at: ttp:/ / www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?artid=1949391
Experience Alters How We Perceive Emotion (2002) Science Daily - Science News. 18 Jun 2002. Online available at http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2002/06/020618072601.htm
This paper investigates the issue of motivation as it applies to an organizational setting.
The research regarding motivation in the workplace has been a major area of investigation that is of interest to corporate leaders, managers, organizational psychologists, and educators. The issue that this paper will discuss has to do with the particular factors that managers and leaders can address to increase the motivation of their workers to perform as well as to increase the job satisfaction levels of their employees. However, motivation is only one issue regarding increased productivity or increased job satisfaction; we would certainly think that at a basic level an employee would need a certain level of motivation to perform as well as the ability to actually do the job (as it turns out the research is consistent with this type of common-sense thinking). However, the actual types of interventions/activities that can be used…
Argyris, C. 1993, Knowledge for action: a guide to overcoming barriers to organizational change, Jossey-Bass, San Francisco, CA.
Chien, J.C. 2013,'Examining Herzberg's Two Factor Theory in a large Chinese chemical fiber company' World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology, vol. 78, no. 248, pp.1433-1438.
Gneezy, U. And Rustichini, A. 2000, 'Pay enough or don't pay at all', Quarterly Journal of Economics vol. 115, no. 3, pp. 791-810.
Hackman, J.R. And Oldham, G.R. 1980, Work redesign. Pearson Education Inc., Upper Saddle River, N.J.
Extrinsic rewards should only be used when other efforts to actively engage students in learning has failed; (3) In the event extrinsic rewards must be utilized, they should be "just powerful enough to control behavior" and should be eliminated in phases before all intrinsic motivation is lost.
Jones, Vermette, and Jones posit in their article, "An Integration of "Backwards Planning' Unit Design with the "Two Step" Lesson Planning Framework," planning and engaging students in effective lessons is a fundamental component of successful teaching and therefore, motivating students (Skowron, 2001). The authors created the concept of backwards planning which requires educators to start with a nominal list of essential questions all students must answer by the end of the lesson plan. With the end goal in mind, teachers then design assessments based on those understandings and strategically crafted lessons to achieve the desired objectives. Once the goals and assessments have been…
Alvermann, L. (1999). Classroom goal orientation, school belonging, and social goals as predictors of students' positive and negative affect following the transition to middle school. Journal of Research and Development in Education, 32(2), 89-103.
Assor, A., Kaplan, H., Kanat-Maymon, Y., & Roth, G. (2005). Directly controlling teacher behaviors as predictors of poor motivation and engagement in girls and boys: The role of anger and anxiety. Learning and Instruction, 15, 397-413.
Assor, A., Kaplan, H., & Roth, g. (2002). Choice is good, but relevance is excellent: Autonomy enhancing and suppressing teaching behaviors predicting students' engagement in schoolwork. British Journal of Educational Psychology, 27, 261-278.
Assor, A., Roth, G., & Deci, E. (2004). The emotional costs of parents' conditional regard: A self-determination theory analysis. Journal of Personality, 72, 47-88.
In the absence of both factors, employee motivation will not work. Green and Butkus also shared that although Vroom's model had been widely accepted for a number of years, it lacked applicability that it cannot be used in practice.
Aside from Vroom, Green and Butkus (1999) also shared about Green's own Belief System model. This model was actually a practical application of Viktor Vroom's Expectancy Theory and was reported to be better utilized by the workforce. The Belief System Theory focused on using a structured and facilitated meeting between the supervisor and the staff. This meeting becomes a venue to discuss motivational problems on the areas that Vroom had developed and will provide the manager and the employee with a specific period to help address motivational issues in their workplace.
Whiteley and Kerr's ideas focus on an individual's motivation and how it can be used to help him contribute…
The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language, 4th Edition. (2000). Houghton Mifflin Company.
Kerr, Steven. (1997). Ultimate Rewards: what really motivates people to achieve. Boston, Ma. Harvard Business School Press.
Whiteley, Philip. (2002). Motivation. Oxford, United Kingdom Capstone Publishing, Ltd.
Green, Thad B. And Butkus, Raymond T. (1999). Motivation, beliefs and organizational transformation. Westport, Conn. Quorum Books.
Motivation and Job Satisfaction in the Banking Sector
The success of any organization relies much on the employees and the productivity of the employees. Members of staff who are highly motivated are the key to bringing in high performance to the organization hence there is a constant need to ensure that the spirits of the employees and their satisfaction are always high and that the employees find meaning and purpose in their obs.
As a manager of one of the branches of our bank, it is my duty to ensure that the employees under my jurisdiction are well motivated for me to post good results at the end of the year. Of critical concern to me at the moment is increasing the performance of the lending officers in my branch and also reducing the levels of absenteeism and the currently high turn over of the tellers.
The approaches that I…
Cherry K, (2015). What Is the Difference Between Extrinsic and Intrinsic Motivation? Retrieved April 5, 2015 from http://psychology.about.com/od/motivation/f/difference-between-extrinsic-and-intrinsic-motivation.htm
Ryan R.M. & Deci E.L., (2000). Contemporary Educational Psychology: Intrinsic and Extrinsic Motivations: Classic Definitions and New Directions. Retrieved April 5, 2015 from http://www.self-determinationtheory.org/SDT/documents/2000_RyanDeci_IntExtDefs.pdf
Although his theory is not necessarily incompatible with Maslow and Alderfer's ideas, Herzberg places less emphasis on basic needs, and more upon using higher, internal needs to elicit optimal performance from the individual.
One common objection to theories of human motivation, of course, is that different types of people appear to be motivated by different things. For example, one teacher may choose his or her position because of job security, while another teacher may be more motivated by the idea of changing children's lives. This means that different strategies must be deployed in motivating people within the same organization or within different professions: a salesperson may be motivated by different things than a professor. "According to David McClelland's an individual's specific needs are acquired over time and are shaped by one's life experiences. Most of these needs can be classed as either achievement, affiliation, or power" (McClelland's theory of needs,…
Herzberg's Two-Factor theory. (2010). Net MBA. Retrieved February 23, 2010.
McClelland's theory of needs. (2010). Net MBA. Retrieved February 23, 2010.
I find that what motivates me most are intrinsic and extrinsic types of motivation. Extrinsic types of motivation include things like praise and simple communications of appreciation for a job well done. They also include things like bonus time for vacation or raises or even job promotions if a project really turns out to be a big success for the company. However, even just little things like smiles, compliments and positive feedback—things that have no direct cost on the company—are good extrinsic motivators, as Hauser (2014) points out, and I find them to be good motivators for me all the time. Appreciation and kind words from a manager or shows of respect can be enough of an extrinsic motivator to fill me with a sense of worth and pride and make me want to do a good job on projects. When managers show that they are aware of how…
The vertical differentiations are associated with the components of abstraction that permit individuals to determine both their intentions and their behaviors. The horizontal differentiation is associated with different intentions including the completion of the project.
Tubbs and Eckeberg (1991) assert that understanding the intentional model has implications associated with understanding the effects of goal setting. The authors argue that the intentional behavior model explains the cognitive effects of goals which is rarely seen in research pertaining to work motivation. The authors posit that the research is important because it is the first time that research has sought to determine the impact that goals have on people.
Finally Latham and Pinder (2005) discuss Work Motivation Theory and research at the dawn of the twenty-first century. The author point out that interest in motivational theories has not waned since they first begin to surface. According to the authors, work motivation represents a…
Klein J.I. (1990) Feasibility Theory: A Resource Munificence Model of Work motivation and Behavior. Academy of Management Review. 15 (4) pgs. 646-645.
Latham G.P., Pinder, C.C. (2005) Work Motivation Theory and Research at the Dawn of the Twenty-First Century. Annual Review of Pyschology. 56: 485-516.
Tubbs M.E., Eckeberg S.E. (1991) Academy of Management Review. 15(1) pgs. 180-199.
At Western Motels, when maids quit their job, they refuse to give a reason for this. Such a situation may occur because they do not feel comfortable talking to their superiors.
This is connected with the organizational problems discussed above. In order to improve communication, it is important that managers build the right infrastructure and to communicate openly (Smith, 2003).
7. There are many problems that must be addressed at Western Motels. The problems with employee retention cannot be solved in a short period of time. Their solution is based on building a consistent, solid, sustainable organizational culture that is able to fulfill the needs and requirements of employees.
The starting point should be represented by building a strong set of values to represent the company and to attract and retain employees. Next, the company should focus on the financial aspects that are important for all employees, no matter what…
1. Reiss, S. (2004). Multifaceted Nature of Intrinsic Motivation: The Theory of 16 Basic Desires. The Ohio State University. Retrieved March 16, 2010 from http://nisonger.osu.edu/papers/Multifaceted%20nature%20of%20intrinsic%20motivation.pdf .
2. McNamara, C. (2000). Organizational Culture. Management Library. Retrieved March 16, 2010 from http://managementhelp.org/org_thry/culture/culture.htm .
3. Smith, S. (2003). Remove Your Workplace Communication Barriers: They Are Costing You More Than You Think. Next Level Consulting. Retrieved March 16, 2010 from http://www.nextlevel-consulting.com/articles/management/article06.html .
Organizational Motivation Leadership
Effective and positive leadership is a basic foundation for any administrative institution to yield good results and therefore cause a great impact.
In this study we base our focus on a critical organization which is the infant daycare.
Infant daycare organization
Infant daycare centers are organizations that focus on the welfare of the child by providing care while the parent goes to work or gets engaged in other activities that may not allow the mother of father to be around the child during the day. The state requires that such organizations meet certain standards of safety, health and that the staff should have proper training. These institutions are normally equipped with fun toys and learning materials with the qualified caregivers trying as much as they can to make the life of infants as comfortable as possible. With the many challenges that infants face including having to master…
Bob Whipple, (2012). Leaders Creating Meaning. Retrieved April 4, 2012 from http://leadergrow.com/articles/105-leaders-create-meaning
CEO Flow, (2008). CEO Flow, (2008). The Four Rewards of Intrinsic Motivation. Retrieved April 4, 2012 http://www.ceoflow.com/2008/08/the-four-rewards-of-intrinsic-motivation/
David McCelland, (2012). Human Relations Contributors. Retrieved April 4, 2012
For instance, LaFleur and Hyten (1995) suggested that performance of hotel banquet staff improved when staff members received monthly bonuses function of their ability to meet accuracy and timeliness goals in setting up banquet functions (cited in Ambrose & Kulik, 1999).
Implementing these strategies should be facilitated by the fact that the two strategies complete each other. Establishing clear goals and their attainment is facilitated by the incentive, which may increase goal commitment, motivation, and thus, performance.
Incentive media kit (2005), etrieved from site: http://www.huttonmedialimited.com/images/pdfs/Incentive-rates-Production2005.pdf
Ambrose, M.L., & Kulik, C.T. (1999). Old friends, new faces: Motivation research in the 1990s. Journal of Management, 25(3), 231-292.
Steven H. Appelbaum, ammie Kamal (2000). An analysis of the utilization and effectiveness of non-financial incentives in small business. Journal of Management Development, Volume: 19 Issue: 9 Pp. 733-763
t Hon. Andrew Smith MP. "Making a difference - motivating people to improve performance," etrieved…
Incentive media kit (2005), Retrieved from site: http://www.huttonmedialimited.com/images/pdfs/Incentive-rates-Production2005.pdf
Ambrose, M.L., & Kulik, C.T. (1999). Old friends, new faces: Motivation research in the 1990s. Journal of Management, 25(3), 231-292.
Steven H. Appelbaum, Rammie Kamal (2000). An analysis of the utilization and effectiveness of non-financial incentives in small business. Journal of Management Development, Volume: 19 Issue: 9 Pp. 733-763
Rt Hon. Andrew Smith MP. "Making a difference - motivating people to improve performance," Retrieved from site, http://www.hm-treasury.gov.uk/Documents/Public_Spending_and_Services/Public_Services_Productivity_Panel/pss_pspp_makingadifference.cfm ?
Mr. Cardot is doing a great job using extrinsic motivation, but what would really help his students to grasp the concept of setting in stories would be to increase the use of intrinsic motivation. Increasing intrinsic motivation requires Mr. Cardot to connect with this second grade class, understanding their needs and creating lessons that are responsive to their needs to be "competent, connected, and in control," (Chapter 12, p. 451). Being competent, connected, and in control simply means that the students need to be challenged just enough. As Woolfolk puts it, "Moderate difficulty provides a challenge, but not an unreasonable one," (p. 452). Lessons that are too difficult might end up creating long-term problems in the classroom including learned helplessness and frustration.
Perhaps the lessons on setting have been over their heads, offering concepts or vocabulary that they are unfamiliar with and so are not responding. It is also possible…
education is struggling to uncover the reasons for continuing levels of academic achievements, and recover its place of world class leadership which it once held. While academic levels in public schools have suffered to the greatest extent over the years, the same cannot be said regarding religious education, in particular catholic schools. These schools continue to produce higher levels of academic achievement, and more students who continue on to college that similar public schools. This research is an initial investigation into possible reasons for this phenomenon.
Educational difficulties across the nation have been receiving increasing amounts of attention. Despite the attention of teachers, researchers, and rhetoricians, the academic performance in public schools is not making appreciable improvements. The classroom is becoming more diverse, and multicultural. While this perceived shift is understood as a positive adaptation to he different needs of the individual student, the results is that the teacher is…
Batson, D.C., Schoenrade, P., & Ventis, L.W. (1993). Religion and the Individual: A Social-Psychological Perspective. New York, New York: Oxford University Press.
Baumol, W., and R. Highsmith. (1988). "Variables affecting success in economic education: Preliminary findings from a new data base." American Economic Review Papers and Proceedings 78 (May): 257-62.
Bryk, A.S., Lee, V.E., & Holland, P.B. (1993). Catholic Schools and the Common Good. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press.
Power, E. (1996) Religion and the Public Schools in 19th Century America: The Contribution of Orestes A. Brownson. Paulist Press.
HR Performance Issues and Motivation
A performance issue that has occurred in the past was the problem of getting employees to volunteer for the fund drive. At the local radio station, the non-profit organization depends upon its seasonal fund drive to make the money it needs to stay in business. Because the radio station is the only one of its kind in town—it provides classical music 24/7 along with NPR talk shows—it is viewed as a valuable contributor to the local arts scene. Many wealthy donors contribute but the station also relies on loyal listeners to contribute every spring, summer, fall and winter as well to keep doors open and staff employed. Staff find the fund drive to be tedious and demeaning as they never feel that enough appreciation is shown them for all the extra hard work it requires of them. They have to work longer hours, be…
(Reading for the 21st Century: Adolescent Literacy Teaching and Learning Strategies," 2004)
2. Alphabetic Principle-related Skills: This includes: "phonemic awareness, the ability to manipulate the sounds of oral language and phonics and the relationship of letters to sound." (Ibid) Strategies includes instruction" that focuses on high-frequency, sound- spelling relationships." (Ibid)
3. Fluency: This is the ability to read "quickly, accurately and with appropriate expression." (Ibid) Strategies include: "guided oral reading and repeated reading" (Ibid) for improving fluency and comprehension.
4. Vocabulary: The size of the learner's vocabulary is that which leads to "large variations in reading ability." (Ibid) Strategies include "direct [and] explicit instruction and learning from context while reading" (Ibid) for increasing vocabulary among students.
5. Reading Comprehension: This is the most "apparent deficit in students' reading abilities at the secondary level." (Ibid) Strategies include the following:
a) Comprehensive monitoring;
b) Cooperative learning;
d) Story structure;
Davey, Heidi (2006) Motivation and Adolescent and Adult Readers. PowerPoint presentation. Hoffman Estates High School, Northern Illinois University. Online available at http://www.reading.ie/conferences/2006/Motivation%20and%20the%20Adolescent%20Reader.ppt.
Alvermann, Donna E. (2001) Effective Literacy Instruction for Adolescents. National Reading Conference (NRC) position paper - revised. 25 Oct 2001. Online available at http://www.coe.uga.edu/reading/faculty/alvermann/effective2.pdf .
Reading Literacy for the 21st Century (2004) published online and available at http://www.all4ed.org/publications/Reading%20for%2021st%20Century.pdf .
Wigfield, Alan (nd) Motivation for Literacy During Adolescence. Online available at http://www.soe.umich.edu/events/als/downloads/wigfield.pdf .
Once I put my mind to doing something I find that I am totally committed to do it. I have learned that if I am not totally committed, not only does it make whatever I am doing very annoying, it often does not turn out well in the end.
A person who possesses initiative and optimism is always ready to seize opportunities that present themselves. These people pursue goals beyond what is expected or them and are always utilizing unusual and enterprising effort to accomplish things (Goleman, 2000). People who possess initiative have the drive to want to make things happen. These people almost always have optimism at the same time which allows them to believe that they can make whatever they want to happen. I find myself always wanting to get things done but not always having the optimism to follow through.
According to Cherry (2011) there are three…
Cherry, K. (2011). What is motivation? Retrieved from http://psychology.about.com/od/mindex/g/motivation-definition.htm
Goleman, D. (2000). Working with emotional intelligence. New York: Bantam.
How can Deci and Ryan's (2008) self-determination theory assist individuals in their personal or professional goals?
Deci & Ryan’s (2008) self-determination theory is a theory of motivation that can help individuals set and achieve personal and professional goals. The theory can be applied to almost every area of life, including health choices or interpersonal relationships. One of the most unique features of self-determination theory is that it can be adapted to different applications. As Deci & Ryan (2008) show, self-determination theory distinguishes between different types of motivation including autonomous motivation and controlled motivation. Self-determination theory also takes into account the importance of both intrinsic and extrinsic motivation. The basic motivational goals people have include competency, relatedness, and autonomy (Deci & Ryan, 2008). Deci & Ryan (2008) also claim there are two main categories of individual difference regarding motivation: causality orientation and goals. By showing people what motivates them and why,…
" (Herbig et al., 563) These motivational priorities, manifesting concretely in such terms as pay rate and personal interest, are relatively common throughout the working world. However, a point of distinction in this discussion may be raised from the fact that different cultures often produce distinct motivational forces. To this extent, the differences that are accounted for betwixt nations and demographics may be seen as directly pertinent to specific cultural realities within each of these contexts. Moreover, as our reading on the subject of significantly culturally divergent nations suggests, "the type of work goals whose pursuit is encouraged and rewarded depend in part on the prevailing cultural value emphasized in society." (Jaw et al., 2) This is consistent with our findings here thus far, including the intrinsic ideals of Maslow, which may be read to suggest that the exact manifestation of work values will be reflected on a larger social…
Becker, Brian & Barry Gerhart. (1996). The Impact of Human Resource Management on Organizational Performance: Progress and Prospect. The Academy of Management Journal, 39(4), 779-801.
Boeree, C. George. (2006). B.F. Skinner. Shippensburg University.
Deci, E.L. & Ryan, R.M. (1985). Intrinsic Motivation and self-determination in human behavior. Springer.
Herbig, Paul & Alain Genestre. (1997). International Motivational Differences. Texas A&M International University: Department of Management and Marketing.
Equity theory recognizes that individuals are concerned not only with the absolute amount of rewards they receive for their efforts, but also with the relationship of this amount to what their peers receive (amlall, 2004). Adams (1963, 1965) posits that individuals are motivated by the perception of inequality, as measured by "input" and "outcome" ratios in comparison to others. Equity theory draws from multiple empirical theories and is utilized to make predictions about how individuals manage their relationships with others (Huseman, et al., 1987). If equity exists, the individual is at peace with the exchange and therefore not moved to action. If the individual perceives that his or her outcome/input ratio is less than that of a referent individual, then inequity exists, and motivation to restore equity arises (Chhokar et al., 2001).
Perception of inequity
Behavioral response (define)
Individuals may respond by choosing a behavioral response by reducing their inputs…
Byrne D.E., Lindgren H.C. 1971. Psychology: an Introduction to a Behavioral Science.
Wiley: New York.
Drillings M., O'Neil H.F. Jr.
Motivation: Theory and Research. Contributors: - editor,. - author. Publisher: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. Place of Publication: Hillsdale, NJ. Publication Year: 1994. Page Number: 14.
Many psychologists have put forward theories to advance the concept of motivation. Some of the psychological theories and models that explain motivation include incentive theory, drive theory, self-control model, push and pull model, intrinsic and extrinsic model, and rational motivations among others. Motivation stems from a number of sources, which dictate the way a person acts. It is paramount to note that motivation is one of the greatest determinants of motivation, and one can tell the level of motivation of a person through the way one behaves. The discussion below is an insight into this concept for a better understanding of motivation.
Motivation is a term in psychology that is hard to define; a number of theories have different views of motivation. These views of motivation include drive theories, incentive theories, and homeostasis, and one can draw a common definition of motivation from these views (Kalat, 2011). According to…
Bernstein, D.A. (2007). Psychology. Boston, Mass: Houghton Mifflin.
Dinibutun, S.R. (2012). Managing Effective Motivation. GSTF Journal on Business Review, 1(4). Retrieved from http://dl.globalstf.org/index.php?page=shop.product_details&flypage=flypage_images.tpl&product_id=1671&category_id=73&option=com_virtuemart&Itemid=4
Kalat, J.W. (2011). Introduction to psychology. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth Cengage Learning.
Katzenbach, J.R. (2006). Motivation beyond money: Learning from peak performers. Leader to Leader, 2006(41), 59-62. Retrieved from http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=aph&AN=22223121&site=ehost-live&scope=site
Motivation is probably one of the most important factors affecting a student's learning progress and achievement in school. For this reason, it is the chief concern of teachers today as most of them fail to understand how to generate interest in a course or lesson without using the common threats and retaliatory tools such as grades, poor remarks, expulsion etc.
Rinne, Carl H. (1998) in his article 'Motivating students is a percentage game', it appears, has managed to reach what can be called the root cause of motivation and has been able to unearth some important components of this highly sought after characteristic. Rinne feels that the best way to motivate a student to focus on the 'intrinsic appeals' of a lesson as he declares, "Teachers need to discuss the intrinsic appeals of lesson content to motivate students to learn." The article has been written with a clear idea of…
Data collection is a set of information obtained through a systemic investigation (Depoey and Gitlin 1998). This study proposes to attain an in-depth understanding of the motivation factors possessed by people who make a commitment to voluntary work, in order to be able to maintain or increase their current level of involvement using a qualitative approach. The study would be somewhat restricted since the sample would be taken from only three voluntary organizations, though the decision to reserve the three subsets to those who are the most represented in the Maltese system of NGO's will attempt to lesson the limitation and bias of the study. The work will focus upon the most largely represented of the four types of NGO's who employ a large number of volunteers; Social work activities with accommodation social work activities without accommodation support and pressure activities. According to Bailey (1991), by highlighting the limitations…
http://www.questia.com /PM.qst?a=o&d=5001895962' target='_blank' REL='NOFOLLOW'>
Many H performance issues result underlying motivational problems external work environment finance. Describing a motivational problem hinders goal attainment. Briefly describe problem (,) Use theory motivation explain problem
H performance issues:
Motivational problems in the financial services industry
"Often an employee knows how to perform correctly, the process is good, and all resources are available, but for one reason or another, chooses not to do so, which normally means it is a motivational issue" (Clark 2010). In the past, during the era of scientific management, motivational issues were dealt with by rigorously governing employee movement in a very strict and controlled fashion. However, this can stifle employee creativity and enthusiasm for the task. The obvious motivator for most people to work is money. For example, in the financial services industry, money is a major motivator in terms of how salary and compensation is structured. The expectation of a…
Clark, Don. (2010). Motivation and performance. Big Dog Little Dog. Retrieved from:
Hollon, John. (2011). Weekly wrap: Best Buy and ROWE -- Yes, flex work works, at least for them. TLNT. Retrieved from:
') (Tingstrom et al., 226) in correspondence with the example provided by the researchers responsible for this evaluation, it may be deduced that such method of positive reinforcement implementation is best suited to a younger educational context such as grammar school. It may only be considered appropriate to attach the positive consequences of individual efforts with the capabilities of an entire class in settings where future prospects such as class rank and college admissions have not yet entered into the discourse over performance motivators.
Tingstrom et al. also identify the independent group-oriented contingencies, which "involve consequences, and criteria for all group members, but access to reinforcement for each group member is based on each member's performance (e.g., 'whoever makes a 90% or higher on the end chapter math test will be able to pick a prize from the treasure chest.' (Tingstrom et al., 226) in many ways, this has proved…
Bunderson, C.V. (1990). Computers in Educational Assessment: An Opportunity to Restructure Educational Practice. Educational Resource and Information Center.
Eisner, E. (1997). The Promise and Perils of Alternative Forms of Data Representation. Educational Researcher, Vol. 26, No. 6, p. 4-10.
Emerson, J. (1989). Review: Dead PoetsSociety. Jeems Cinepad. Online at http://cinepad.com/reviews/deadpoets.htm.
Florio-Ruane, Suzanne; Marianne George & Taffy E. Rapheal. (2004). Book Club Plus: Organizing Your Literacy Curriculum to Bring Students to High Levels of Literacy. Australian Journal of Language and Literacy, Vol. 27.
Group Motivation and Evaluation
Group Motivation Inventory
I work very hard in my group.
I work harder in this group than I do in most other groups.
Other members work very hard in this group.2
I am willing to spend extra time on group projects.
I try to attend all group meetings.4
Other members regularly attend group meetings.
I often lose track of time when I'm working in this group.
Group members don't seem to mind working long hours on our project.2
hen I am working with this group, I am focused on our work.
10.I look forward to working with the members of my group.2
I enjoy working with group members.
Group members enjoy working with one another.3
I am doing an excellent job in my group.
I am doing better work in this group than I have done in other groups.4
The other members are making excellent contributions…
Lei, s., Kuestermeyer, B., Westmeyer, K. (2010). Group Composition Effecting Student
Interaction and Achievement: Instructor's Perspectives. Journal of Instructional
Psychology, 37(4), 317-325.
Nihalani, P., Wilson, H., Thomas, G., Robinson D., (2010). What Determines High- and Low-
As Moore and Anderson emphasize, "Another driver is that distance education students have as much right to expect effective library services as traditional on-campus students. Therefore, services have been enhanced to ensure easy access and equitable delivery of resources and services" (p. 384).
Clearly, then, although the mission of many university libraries to provide the resources and tools students need to achieve successful academic outcomes has not changed in substantive ways in recent years, technological innovations have demanded that they transform the manner in which they achieve these missions. A survey of university librarians conducted by Moore and Anderson (2003) determined that, "y far the major thrust of the libraries surveyed was the inclusion of information literacy skills into the curriculum, either imbedded into the discipline-specific information or as assessable tests within foundation or first-year subjects" (p. 382). The provision of these types of services, Moore and Anderson suggest, may…
Droege, S.B. And J.M. Hoobler. 2003. "Employee turnover and tacit knowledge diffusion: A network perspective." Journal of Managerial Issues, 15(1): 50.
Finnegan, R.P., F.D. Frank and C.R. Taylor, C.R. 2004. "The race for talent: Retaining and engaging workers in the 21st century." Human Resource Planning 27(3): 12.
Milgate, Michael a. 2004. Transforming Corporate Performance: Measuring and Managing the Drivers of Business Success. Westport, CT: Praeger.
Phillips, Jack J. 2005. Investing in Your Company's Human Capital: Strategies to Avoid Spending Too Little -- or Too Much. New York: AMACOM.
Generally, online students need to have a high level of self-motivation for their studies. Being aimed towards the adult, working student body, Strayer attracts students who are not motivated only by the subject matter of their studies, but also by what this can mean in terms of their self-development. This extra level of motivation is encouraged by the structure and aims of Strayer University. This relates to the individual needs and goals variable.
Each student entering the university has a specific goal for furthering their studies; they wish to improve their careers or themselves in some way. This serves as motivation to not only complete, but also to excel at their studies. This is so for both online and campus students. Lecturers in turn are motivated by the needs of these students to deliver excellence in the material that they offer learners, in order to ensure excellent student performance not…
Silberman, Robert S. (2009). Letter to Shareholders. Strayer Education, Inc. Annual Report 2009. Retrieved from http://files.shareholder.com/downloads/STRA/916322741x0x353509/C4984D55-27AA-440A-B370-CE3D306CF2D5/STYR_09AR_Final.pdf
Strayer Education, Inc. (2010). Financial Performance. Retrieved from http://www.strayereducation.com/growth.cfm?pageSection=growth
Strayer University (2010). CTI College Search. Retrieved from http://www.citytowninfo.com/school-profiles/strayer-university
Burke, W. Warner, Litwin, George H. A Causal Model of Organizational Performance and Change. Journal of Management. Bloomington: Sep 1992. Vol. 18, Iss. 3
student motivation in the learning environment and what motivates students to study. The evaluation begins with a theoretical background on the issue of student motivation based on existing literature and studies on the issue. This is followed by a literature review of 10 studies that have been carried out on the student motivation in various classroom settings and learning environments. Through this review the author has identified various factors that motivate students to study including creation of a supportive learning environment, use of suitable teaching practices, and use of multi-level strategies. The article also includes a discussion regarding the significance of student motivation in the learning process.
One of the most important goals of an educational environment is to motivate students toward environmentally friendly behavior change. The need for student motivation in the high school setting is attributed to the fact that motivation creates positive experience, which helps in improving…
Daniels, E. (2011, November). Creating Motivating Learning Environments: Teachers Matter.
Middle School Journal, 32-37.
Darner, R. (2012, August). An Empirical Test of Self-determination Theory As A Guide to Fostering Environmental Motivation. Environmental Education Research 18(4), 463-472.
Hardre, P.L. (2012). Standing in the Gap: Research that Informs Strategies for Motivating and Retaining Rural High School Students. Rural Educator, 12-18.
To support of refute the research problem requires looking at one research and two sub-questions to include:
Research Question 1
How does employee compensation contribute to the underlying levels of motivation at an employer?
What roles do managers / executives play in how enthusiastic staff members are inside a firm?
What is the impact of coworkers on new employees in the workplace?
These different elements are important, because they will offer specific insights about what factors is influencing employee motivation. Once this occurs, is when the data will be able to support or refute the hypothesis that has been presented.
Significance of the Study
The significance of the study is to understand the specific factors are contributing to the underlying levels of motivation in the workplace. As, these kinds of issues can have a dramatic impact on how effective an organization will be able…
Comparative Analysis. (2011). Business Dictionary. Retrieved from: http://www.businessdictionary.com/definition/comparative-analysis.html
Qualitative Research. (2011). CSULB. Retrieved from: http://www.csulb.edu/~msaintg/ppa696/696quali.htm
Aswagen, S. (2008). Fresh Perspectives. Cape Town: Pearson Education.
Beazley, H. (2002). Continuity Management. New York, NY: Wiley.
Learning, Motivation, Performance of Employees of Public Safety Organizations
The motivation is defined as the intrinsic phenomenon affected four factors: temperament, situation, tool, and goal. Typically, people are motivated to achieve their goals, instincts and necessities, thus, the concept motivation assists people to complete a task, gain a goal as well as achieving a certain degree of success from their job. Thus, the concept motivation explains why some people behaves in a certain way and the reasons for their behaviors. In essence, motivated people are oriented, and energetic in characteristics, which influence their behaviors. From the educational point-of-view, motivation is the polyhedral structure associated with academic achievement and learning, however, employees' motivation is low in the public sector compared with the private organizations. The public safety organizations are the government agencies that include law enforcement agencies, EMS (Emergency Medical Services), rescue squads, and fire departments. The Department of Safety in…
Blanchard, P. N., & Thacker, J. W. (2013). Effective Training Systems, Strategies, and Practices (5th Ed.) ISBN 13:978-0-13-272904-8
Ford, L. (2009). Improving training transfer. Journal of Industrial and Commercial Training, 4, 6-92.
Fortenbery, M.J.A. (2015). Improving Motivation and Productivity of Police Officers. FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin.
Giran, H. Amin, A. & Halim, A. (2014). The Impact of Self-Efficacy towards Training Motivation at Kolej Poly-Tech MARA Kuantan, Malaysia. Asian Social Science; 10(19):69:76.
ventilated leadership failures and motivation strategies that can be put into practice to increase productivity and performance. A vacuum in leadership negatively impacts productivity and performance. Lack of integrity, lack of maturity, and lack of fallibility is a sign that there is a deficiency in leadership credentials.
Leaders have to exhibit acceptable moral standards. Individuals who have learnt wrong lessons early in life or those with tainted views on how to get ahead can least provide that leadership that an organization needs. Such people can do anything in life to get ahead. Bad leaders are an embodiment of integrity lapses. Poor judgment on the part of company executives is an indication they are immature. Immaturity can also be exhibited in such leaders' lack of foresight and judgment to see the outcome of their behavior. They have problems with controlling their impulses. This overwhelms their decision making ability. Immature leaders are…
Although it is controversial to say so, it does appear that early childhood exposure to media violence can precipitate aggressive behavior and violence in adulthood. In a longitudinal study that actually was able to determine causality in the same population sample, Huesmann, Moise-Titus, Podolski & Eron (2003) show that there is a connection between media violence exposure and violent behavior. The type of violent behavior differed, largely due to gender. For example, men in the study were more likely to use physical aggression and violence but females were more likely to use other forms of aggression like verbal abuse. Regardless, the study should alert parents about how to monitor their children and how to talk to children about the violence they see. It is not simply the exposure to the violence, but the duration of exposure or frequency of viewing. Other factors that impact violence and aggression include personality…
"Evaluate sociocultural explanations of the origins of violence," (n.d.). Retrieved online: http://www.appsychology.com/IB%20Psych/IBcontent/Options/Humanrelationships/Rel9.htm
Huesmann, L. R., Moise-Titus, J., Podolski, C., & Eron, L. D. (2003). Longitudinal relations between children's exposure to TV violence and their aggressive and violent behavior in young adulthood: 1977-1992. Developmental Psychology, 39, 201-221.
Organizational Behavior & Culture
Complete summary of chapter 4
The chapter illustrates that the perception process is based on stages such as stimulation, organization, registration, and interpretation. The individual's acceptance and awareness levels for ascertained stimuli play critical roles in the perception process. The authors add that receptiveness towards certain stimuli remains highly selective in limiting a person's existing personality, motivation, attitude, and beliefs. People select various stimuli that satisfy certain needs (perceptual vigilance) while disregarding stimuli causing perceptual defense (psychological anxiety).
The chapter insists that guidelines facilitate companies in improving their workplaces through the surveying content. The employees can ask questions regarding observable behavior above thoughts and motives. The concept also includes items that are verified independently. The measures also attract behavioral consideration in the recognition of the company's performance. Attitude transformation requires time, determination, and effort to achieve. It is critical to relax expectations of changing an individual's…
Grant, A. (2013). Instead of Monitoring Employees, Try Motivating Them. The Huffington Post. Retrieved on 8th March 2015 from http://www.huffingtonpost.com/adam-grant/instead-of-monitoring-emp_b_3869778.html
Porter, E. (2014). Motivating Corporations to Do Good. The New York Times. Retrieved on 8th March 2015 from http://www.nytimes.com/2014/07/16/business/the-do-good-corporation.html
Classical conditioning for instance is defined as a "simple form of associative learning that enables organisms to anticipate events" while Operant Conditioning is defined as learning to do/not do actions as a result of being conditioned to know what consequences to expect of the said actions. The chapter looks at the contributions of B. F. Skinner to the field work of conditioning, reinforcements and punishments used in conditioning, different methods of reinforcement (fixed-interval schedule versus variable-interval schedule). Chapter touches on the effects of violence in media on aggression of subjects watching, indicates that there is a circular relationship between media violence and aggression in persons who watch.
Chapter 6 examines the subject of memory, the three stages of memory according to the Atkinson-Shiffrin model (sensory memory, short-term memory, long-term memory). Information processing theory describes how sensory memory impacts working memory which in turn impacts and is then impacted by long-term…
Evidence-Based Homework Policy
Homework enables a student to better learn what is being taught in the classroom. It gives more experience of the subject principals. At the same time, homework and homework policies teach students social interaction skills, self-motivation, and active engagement skills and promote best practices in these areas. Homework policies work better based on grade levels of the student.
Ms. Zalogwe's homework policy does promote social interaction. Human use tools from their culture, such as reading, writing, etc., to develop social functions (Vygotsky, 2014). A teacher's collaboration with students to develop meaningful construction leads to higher thinking skills. This in turn, builds social interactions with others. Students learn communication skills that builds interactions with others.
Self-efficacy enhances motivation for more learning and skill building (Schunk, 1985). As homework brings more practice with classroom activities, students gain more confidence in what they are learning. This would also apply to…
Schunk, D. (1985). Self-Efficacy and Classroom Learning. Pschology in the Schools, 22(2), 208-223 retrieved from http://libres.uncg.edu/ir/uncg/f/D_Schunk_Self_1985 ...
Simonsen, B. e. (2008). Evidence-Based Practices in Classroom Management: considerations for Research to Practice. Education and Treatment of Children, 31(3), 351-380 retrieved from http://www.mepbis.org/docs/cace-11-15-10-PBISclassroom.pdf.
Vygotsky. (2014). Social Development Theory (Vygotsky). Retrieved from Learning Theories.com: http://learning-theories.comvygotskys-social-learning-theory.html
you pick 2 companies write their motivation techniques. I pick intrinsic motivation and extrinsic motivation. And compare companies. Do papers have database, searches people pulled web. You find UOPHX Website writes companies listed, pick.
Motivating employees at two companies:
Ben & Jerry's versus Southwest
Motivational theories by their very nature address companies in a fairly generic, prescriptive format. However, two corporations exist that continue to be very successful, after many years of impressive financial growth, seem to break all molds, yet confirm one of the most noteworthy theories regarding what motivates employees -- intrinsic vs. extrinsic motivation. Ben & Jerry's began as a small company based in Vermont that, despite or because of its ethical ideals, has become an integral part of American culture. Ben & Jerry's changed the way Americans consume ice cream, shifting the focus from quantity to quality. Southwest Airlines is a largely regional airline…
Activism. (2012). Ben & Jerry's. Retrieved:
Bailey, Jeff. (2008). Southwest. The New York Times. Retrieved:
There are two ways to view the issue of government intervention in hiring. The firm-level view would definitely hold that the firm should be able to hire without any intervention. Interventions place limits on hiring, for example by mandating drug testing for companies that do business with the federal government, through the Civil Rights Act and other similar acts regarding different protected groups. These interventions place some constraints on the hiring for the firm, and may result in sub-optimal results. The problem, of course, is that this is a somewhat erroneous interpretation of the legal environment. Aside from drug testing, the other laws only state that the firm cannot discriminate -- these laws do not mandate quotas. So a lot of the complaints from business are red herrings, as the government does not step in and tell the business who to hire and who not to hire.
job redesign approaches to revise the selected position.
There are various job redesign approaches that can be adopted in order to revise the role of the supervisor at GM. Grant & Parker (2009, p. 5) pointed out that job design describes how various jobs, roles and tasks are structured, modified and enacted. It also describes the impact of the structures. Job design has also been pointed out by Strumpfer (2006) to be of increasing importance to various organizations. This is because a well designed job results in an improvement of employee well-being. And yet again, it can observed as the process in which a given supervisor makes up his/her mind to change an element of the job, roles as well as tasks of a given individual (Tims and Bakker,2010)
The proposed and improved Job edesign system
General Motors should redesign their jobs to follow the framework of job…
Armstrong M. And Murlis H. (1994) Reward Management. A Handbook of Remuneration
Strategy and Practice, Third Edition. Kogan Page, London.
Grant, A.M., & Parker, S.K. (2009). Redesigning work design theories: The rise of relational and proactive perspectives. The Academy of Management Annals, 3, 317 -- 375.
Gross.,S. (1995) Compensation for teams: How to design and implement team-based reward programs, American Management Association. New York. NY
Regency Project is that there does not appear to be a coherent termination method. At best, this project is abandoned, because it has lost its leader and champion. Financing is starting to dry up for the project, but overall the project is still ongoing and there is no real sense that it will ever be completed. Over time, without adequate leadership or funding, the project will simply wither its way out of existence.
There are several motivation issues for employees that have been assigned to a project that is earmarked for termination. The first is that the assignment is almost an insult. The employee feels that their contribution to the company is not valued because they have been assigned to a project that is to be terminated. Their talents and skills are simply not being utilized and the result is that they do not feel any motivation, because they feel…
Through statistical analysis of the data, it is expected that the following hypotheses will be revealed:
H1: Women are more likely than men to fill their free time with volunteer work.
H2: Women are more emotionally affected by their volunteer role than men, which causes them to devote more of their time to it.
H3: Extrinsic and controlled motivation factors will be more effective at recruiting, but not necessarily retaining, men in volunteer positions versus intrinsic factors.
Regarding the first hypothesis, that women are more likely than men to fill their free time with volunteer work, the statistical tests are predicted to reveal a statistically significantly larger number of women than men working at the animal shelters. After evaluating the difference between the before-intervention versus after-intervention, it will be shown that even after viewing the videos, the number of females will still outnumber males as volunteers at the…
(Fletcher & Crochiere, 2004)
Motivation to Learn
Motivation to learn can be defined as the degree of cognitive effort invested to achieve educational goals (Li, 2003). It can also be understood as the degree of "seriousness" with which a student attempts to address the commitments and targets school with the purpose of: a) master the knowledge and skills rather than and get away with doing the minimum, b) clearly verify the status of their knowledge rather than try to complete the task independently of being sure that they actually learned something (MacIntyre, 2002).
Marshall (2001) have proposed to distinguish two types of motivation to learn, one that manifests itself as a personality trait and one that manifests itself as a state. In the first sense, the concept refers to a general provision that allows a student to perceive learning as an inherently valuable and satisfactory and therefore to engage in…
Barbetta, P., Norona, K. & Bicard, D. (2005). Classroom behavior management: A dozen common mistakes and what to do instead. Preventing School Failures. Vol. 49, Issue 3, p 11-19.
Bear, G.G. (2008). Best practices in classroom discipline. In Thomas, A. & Grimes, J. (Eds.), Best Practices in School Psychology V (1403-1420). Bethesda, MD: National Association of School Psychologists
Bear, G.G., Cavalier, A., & Manning, M. (2005). Developing self-discipline and preventing and correcting misbehavior. Boston: Allyn & Bacon.
Fletcher, L., & Crochiere, N. (2004). How to Design and Deliver Speeches (8th ed.). Boston, MA: Allyn and Bacon.
Motivation Theory on a High School Wrestler
Motivational theories can be utilized to encourage individuals in different settings towards the realization of specific goals and outcomes. An example of an individual who can be motivated through the use of these theories is a high school wrestler. ichie Smith is a senior on the high school wrestler team who has displayed some great signs or potential in wrestling. These skills have been demonstrated through the better than average record that he has achieved in his first three seasons as a college wrestler on the school's wrestling team. ichie has established a goal of becoming a state wrestling champion with proven skills and accomplishments. In order to achieve his ultimate goal, ichie needs to be motivated at different points in his career. The motivation can be achieved through the use of motivation theories, especially the Self-Determination Theory.
ichie Smith is a…
Darner, R. (2012, August). An Empirical Test of Self-determination Theory As A Guide to Fostering Environmental Motivation. Environmental Education Research 18(4), 463-472.
Ryan, R.M. & Deci, E.L. (2000). Intrinsic and Extrinsic Motivations: Classic Definitions and New Directions. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 25, 54-67.
The first consideration is that employees may be reluctant to reveal their innermost feelings about the company for fear that they will be punished for their responses. For this reason, it is imperative that employees are assured of absolute anonymity. This will also encourage honest answers and be the most likely to result in discovering the root causes of the problem. Employees will be able to respond anonymously by dropping their folded responses into a box by human resources.
Those that feel good about their job may be more eager to respond to a survey than those that are unhappy. A voluntary response would be more likely to result in a biased sample population. It is important that the sample is representative of the entire plant, rather than a small, select group. Therefore, employees will be told that the survey is mandatory. Although, there will be no real way to…
Gibson, S. (2004). Social Learning (Cognitive) Theory and Implications for Human Resource Development. Advances in Developing Human Resources. 6 (2): 193-210.
Manta Company Intelligence.(2008)Cardington Yutaka Technologies, Inc. (CYT). Retrieved May 28, 2008 at http://www.manta.com/comsite5/bin/manta_tt_page.pl?page=uecp_help_sidebar&mf=coms2/dnbcompany_cc305sq
Zimmerman, M. (2007). Intrinsic vs. Extrinsic value. Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Retrieved May 28, 2008 at http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/value-intrinsic-extrinsic
Working with young people in an educational setting can be an enlightening experience, and one can quickly discover that most young students will do almost anything possible to please their teacher. This can be especially true in the elementary grades, but oftentimes the enthusiasm shown by these youngsters begins to wane by the time they reach the middle school groups.
Teachers of middle school students are therefore faced with instructing students who may or may not be motivated to be instructed, and this can be a very difficult situation, specifically when regarding a basic skill such as reading. Experts agree that "reading is a fundamental and necessary skill in order to successfully participate in society, yet employers lament that high school graduates lack the necessary literacy skills to be productive employees" (Kelley, Decker, 2009, p. 467). Many times the lack of reading skills can be traced directly to the lack…
Aarnoutse, C. And Schellings, G.; (2003) 'Learning reading strategies by triggering reading motivation, Educational Studies, Vol. 29, Issue 4, pp. 387-409
Fawson, P.C. & Moore, S.A.; (1999) Reading incentive programs: Beliefs and practices, Reading Psychology, Vol. 20, Issue 4, pp. 325-340
Gambrell, L.B.; Palmer, B.M.; Codling, R.M.; Mazzoni, S.A.; (1996) Assessing motivation to read, the Reading Teacher, Vol. 49, No. 7, pp. 518 -- 533
Guthrie, J.T.; Mcrae, a.; Klauda, S.L.; (2007) Contributions of concept-oriented reading instruction to knowledge about interventions for motivations in reading, Educational Psychologist, Vol. 42, Issue 4, pp. 237 -- 250
However, the sum total of the organization's output extends beyond the realm of the quantifiable. Qualitative measures also exist, and they can impact on the quality of the organization's output as well. It can be argued that even qualitative outputs will eventually impact on quantitative outputs. Ford's loss of reputation as the result of the Pinto scandal, for example, cannot be quantified but the sales and profit decreases that flow from the scandal can be quantified. The implications, however, of the damaged reputation cannot be avoided once the damage has been done. Thus, it is important for managers to control the qualitative output before the impacts appear in quantitative form. It may be impossible to control the impacts once the damage has already occurred.
In this way, the notion of quality as typically defined in production-oriented theories like Six Sigma or TQM, proves inadequate. As Ordonez, et al. (2009) showed,…
Ordonez, Lisa D,; Schweitzer, Maurice E.; Galinsky, Adam D. & Bazerman, Max H. (2009). Goals Gone Wild: The Systematic Side Effects of Overprescribing Goal Setting. Academy of Management Perspectives.
Wood, J.C. & Wood, M.C. (2002). F.W. Taylor: Critical Evaluations in Business and Management, Vol. 1. Taylor and Francis: London.
Hashmi, Khurram. (2009). Introduction and Implementation of Total Quality Management (TQM). iSixSigma.com. Retrieved September 6, 2009 from http://www.isixsigma.com/library/content/c031008a.asp
Kouzes, Jim & Posner
Incentive Program Proposal eal Estate Company
Employee motivation is the key to increasing productivity at any organization, but it is particularly important in sales related industries such as eal Estate. The real estate sales force must be able to remain motivated even in the face of continual ejection from buyers. To remain motivated and productive requires a combination of both intrinsic and extrinsic motivation. Pay incentives and other benefits are not enough. The employee must gain a sense of satisfaction in order to remain motivated. However, research findings suggest that pay can be used to produce intrinsic motivation if it is used as a source of recognition and reward. This project proposal explores the method that will be used for introducing a new employee motivation program at the real estate company.
Objective for Setting Up the Program
The objective of the proposed incentive and rewards plan is to…
Ahmed, I, (2011). Relationship between Motivation and Job Satisfaction: A Study of Higher
Educational Institutions. Journal of Economics and Behavioral Studies. 3(2): 94-100.
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Leonard, R. (2012). The impact of motivation and leader behavior on satisfaction and nonprofits. Proceedings of ASBBS. 19 (1):521-543. Retrieved from http://asbbs.org/files/ASBBS2012V1/PDF/L/LeonardR.pdf
Paul Minneapolis states that the conference asked three individuals to join the conference and to share "their experiences in guiding non-profit organizations to achieve greater results for the common good, whether it is in a new organization, organizations that have reached stability and are looking to move to a higher level, or organizations that are experiencing tough and challenging times." The speakers at this conference each offer what they believe defines the 'transformational' leader. One of the interviewees referred to as Mr. Graham states that transformational leaders are leaders who "do the right thing." (ennett, Dorsey, and Graham, 2006) the transformational leader is said to be the leader who has a 'vision' and who is able to communicate that vision with a passion. This conference greatly provides insight to the myriad of issues of leadership that are inclusive in the non-profit organizational repertoire of necessary skills for the organization's leader.…
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Chris Argyris (2007) Human Relations Contributors. Employee Motivation, the Organizational Environment and Productivity. ACCEL Team. Online available:
This ownership of the issue will ensure that any changes that need to be implemented will not be met with resistance as well as ensuring their motivation toward the potentially changing tasks (Wagner & Gooding, 1987).
A leader in this environment will need to continue to reinforce the level of achievement motivation in each employee, emphasizing department excellence and pride in job performance (Sing, 2002). eminders about the goal of the police department to ensure the safety of the general public will take the focus off of the increased work load and put it back on the larger picture of the importance of police work to the community.
An increase in direct communication between the leader and the staff will also contribute to sustained motivation and job performance. This can take the form of an increase in regular supervision or support meetings between the manager and the individual staff. Specific…
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When will you begin that long journey into yourself? One of the most famous philosophers in history of mankind, Rumi emphasized on exploring or discovering one self. Self-exploration is one of the fundamentals of philosophy. efore contemplating over the wonders of universe, man asked himself the very basic questions about his own existence. Without knowing one's origin and the reason of being born, man cannot shape his beliefs and thus remain directionless. As Aristotle said that the foundation of all wisdom is based on self.
The ideas, beliefs, values and norms of a person originate from his immediate surroundings. Among them, the first encounter is with parents. Parents transmit their own beliefs and values into the child's mind. Later on, siblings, family members and close friends influence a person's self-concept. Gradually, a man's social circle expands and as he becomes able to identify and choose among things,…
Dyer, W.W. (1995). Your Sacred Self: Makin the Decision to be Free. HarperCollins Publishers.
Eccles, J.S. & Wigfield, A. (2002). Motivational Beliefs, Values and Goals. Annual Review of Psychology. Vol 53, 109-132. The H.W Wilson Company.
Maslow, A.H. (1987). Motivation and Personality. HaperCollins Publishers.
Pasnau, R. (2011). Philosophy of Mind and Human Nature. Epistemology of Life and Human Nature. 348-368.
As governments look to eradicate deficits, it is often organization that fall under discretionary spending categories that bear the brunt of those cuts. Not only does the productive capacity of these organizations suffer but so, too, does morale. ith declining funding, public sector organizations also often have difficult recruiting top talent into their organizations.
Another issue that arises with public organization decline is that there is a lack of motivation and a lack of innovation. Innovation in particular is a challenge. hen considering Sayre's Model it is not hard to see how excessive bureaucracy can stifle the innovative capabilities of public organizations. Pathak (2007) argues that middle management needs to take a lead role in not only keeping up morale, but encouraging high levels of performance in public organizations as a policy to stem decline.
Cutbacks can be particularly challenging for public organizations. The most important aspect of cutbacks is…
McCarthy, R. & Aronson, J. (2001). Analyzing the balance between consumer, business and government: The emergent Internet privacy legal framework. IACIS 2001. Retrieved November 19, 2012 from http://iacis.org/iis/2001/mccarthy275.PDF
Padhi, N. (2010). The eight elements of TQM. iSixSigma.com. Retrieved November 19, 2012 from http://www.isixsigma.com/methodology/total-quality-management-tqm/eight-elements-tqm/
Pathak, P. (2007). The decline of public sector organizations: Can middle managers play the role of saviour? Indian School of Mines. Retrieved November 19, 2012 from http://www.ediindia.org/Creed/data/Govind%20Swaroop%20Pathak%20&%20Pallavi%20Pathak.htm
Sheppard, G. (2009). Public sector reward: More than motivation. Personnel Today. Retrieved November 19, 2012 from http://www.personneltoday.com/articles/06/07/2009/51319/public-sector-reward-more-than-motivation.htm