Fire Department Essays (Examples)

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Fire Service Law Consensus Standards

Words: 3242 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 30347693

Kevin Golden v. Town of Collierville 06a0062n.06; 167 Fed. Appx. 474; 2006 U.S. App.

Plaintiff firefighter appealed a decision of the United States District Court for the estern District of Tennessee, which granted summary judgment in favor of defendants, a town, its administrator, a fire chief, and an assistant fire chief, on his procedural due process and equal protection claims under 42 U.S.C.S. § 1983. The district court also dismissed the firefighter's claims for civil conspiracy under state law.

The firefighter, who was white, claimed that he was offered but then denied a promotion to the position of fire lieutenant because of his race. Instead, another firefighter who was black was promoted to the position. Defendants argued that the black firefighter was promoted because he ranked above the white firefighter in the testing and interview process. On appeal from the district court's decision, the court held: the district court properly…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Biondo v. City of Chicago 2002 U.S. Dist.

Columbus Civil Service Commission v. McGlone 82 Ohio St. 3d 569; 1998 Ohio 410; 697

N.E.2d 204; 1998 Ohio

Gary L. Knapp et al. v. City of Columbus 06a0472n.06; 192 Fed. Appx. 323; 2006 U.S. App.
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Fire Suppression Systems

Words: 1707 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 65588559

Fire Suppression Systems

Fire results when fuel, oxidant, and sufficient heat combine in time and place (New Zealand Institute of Chemistry, n.d.). The fuel is typically a carbon-based material like paper, wood, oil, or gas, while ambient air typically provides the oxidant in the form of oxygen. Other oxidants include nitrates, chlorates, and peroxides and therefore should never be stored alongside fuel materials. For combustion to occur the heat must sufficient to ignite the fuel. Once ignited the chemical reaction is typically extremely exothermic and becomes self-perpetuating in the presence of fuel and oxidant. If heat accumulates faster than it can be dissipated to the surrounding environment an explosion will occur.

The three ways in which heat can be dissipated is through conduction along a temperature gradient, convection due to movement of the gaseous fire matter, and radiation to other surfaces (New Zealand Institute of Chemistry, n.d.). The primary method…… [Read More]


IFSTA (International Fire Service Training Association). (2009). Fire Inspection and Code Enforcement, Seventh Edition. Stillwater, OK: Fire Protection Publications.

Knowlton, B.E. (2012). The effects of using fire-fighting foams: GC-MS pattern analysis of fire debris. (Masters of Science dissertation). Retrieved from ProQuest. UMI No. 1520731.

Moore, P.E. (1996). Suppressants for the control of industrial explosions. Journal of Loss Prevention in the Process Industries, 9(1), 119-123.

New Zealand Institute of Chemistry. (n.d.). Chemistry in fire fighting. Retrieved from .
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Fire Technology the Firefighting Industry

Words: 980 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 21488235

It association with the DH means that the UFA is closer to the ecretary's office, with a direct presence at the DH headquarters.

The UFA's association with the DH brought a number of new opportunities to represent the nation's fire service. The National Operation Center (NOC), for example, works closely with the U.. FA in order to create a safe environment for citizens. The Center provides the DH with data regarding national and global situational awareness. According to Dickinson, it is vital that the fire service be represented in this organization, as it can only protect the country's citizens properly if it has access to the most relevant, up-to-date information regarding threats to the country.

Another contribution by the UFA within the Preparedness Directorate is the Incident

Management Teams created in order to handle emergencies. These teams are trained according to the best, most up-to-date training techniques of the fire…… [Read More]


Dickinson, Charlie. USFA Transition to the Federal emergency Management Agency (FEMA). United States Fire Administration, May 4, 2007.

Nicholson, John. Fire Service and homeland security. NFPA Journal, Mar/Apr. 2003. Online database:
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Fire Investigation

Words: 734 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 35924235

Fire Investigation Unit

How important is it to a city fire department to have an investigation unit? Since police departments in most cities have an investigation unit -- it seems logical given the issues related to fire and arson that fire departments should also incorporate investigation units into their programs. This paper provides positive arguments in favor of an investigation unit, arguments that the fire chief can use in his presentation to the county council.

The field of fire investigation is "…extremely specialized" and there are a very limited number of "truly certified individuals" that have the needed training and experience to conduct "thorough, competent investigations" (United Professional Fire Fighters). In other words, fire departments should hire a proven professional in this field -- or select one or more quality firefighters from the current department to be sent to a training program -- and in either case this will cost…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Flannery Associates. (2008). Section 4 -- Fire Investigation & Arson / Unit 1 -- Fire Investigation

& Fire Loss. Retrieved October 26, 2012, from

United Professional Firefighters of Contra Costa County. (2010). Fire Investigation Unit.

Retrieved October 26, 2012, from
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Fire Protection Consulting Services Business

Words: 1121 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 28689720

The requirements are more specific in terms of the size and placement of the fire extinguishers. These shall be located no further than 75 ft (23 m) from the Class D hazard. In this case, the placement of the fire extinguishers will be determined by the location of the metal fabrication facilities. Assuming that these are located in the center of the room, and that the distance from the center to the corners is not longer than 75 ft, the fire extinguishers can be located in the four corners of each of the rooms in which the metals are produced. The size will be determined by the particular metals being produced, however, it appears that 40 should be sufficiently strong to counter a potential fire hazard.

All fire extinguishers will be inspected every 30 days, with regular maintenance every year. Given the class of fire hazard, regular maintenance can be…… [Read More]


1. Fire Alarm System Categories. On the Internet at Last retrieved on August 17, 2011

2. NFPA 10. On the Internet at Last retrieved on August 17, 2011

Fire Alarm System Categories. On the Internet at Last retrieved on August 17, 2011

NFPA 10. On the Internet at Last retrieved on August 17, 2011
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Fire Behavior

Words: 426 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 95468997

Fire Behavior

Annotated Bibliography

Deng, Tzu-Jeng, Charng-Horng Hsieh, Her-Jiun heu, Chyan Yang. (2001) A conceptual framework for improving fire-fighting service quality of a public fire department.

Includes results of a study on improving fire-fighting services by improving fire fighting and recognition techniques. Good for those interested in other than wildland fires, and those interested in going into fire management.

International Journal of Public Administration, Vol. 24, 405.

Drysdale, Dougal. (1999, October). An introduction to fire dynamics, 2nd Edition. John Wiley & ons.

Problems addressed include: the conditions necessary for ignition and steady burning of combustible materials to occur, how large a fire has to become before fire detectors and sprinkler heads will operate, and the circum- stances that can lead to flashover in a compartment.

A very comprehensive information on fire behavior, especially from an engineering viewpoint. Identifies fire science and fire dynamics and provides the scientific back- ground necessary…… [Read More]

Staff. (2002) Introduction to fire behavior. University Corporation for Atmospheric Research.

Provides an overview of factors that affect the ignition and spread of wildfire. Information is presented with 3-dimensional graphics and animations as well as audio descriptions and commentary provided by a fire behavior expert.

A good description of the different weather patterns affecting fire behavior, for a management and layman audience.
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Fire Service the Hackensack Fire

Words: 1776 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 56430319

(The Hackensack Fire adio Communications Issue)

Although there was plenty of controversy surrounding the issue, wherein some stated that it was plain human error, and bad judgment, while some others stated that it was because of interference, or due to mechanical malfunction, the actual truth, as it was later discovered, was that the firefighters had been inadvertently transmitting their communications on a general channel, and since nobody listened to it, no one knew that they were all trapped upstairs, and therefore, no one could rescue them. Since the fact cannot be proved beyond reasonable doubt, and since not one of those firefighters in the incident came out alive, one must believe that a combination of different factors led to such grave fatalities in the firefighting department of Hackensack, in July 1, 1988, in New Jersey. (The Hackensack Fire adio Communications Issue)


Analysis report on Firefighter Fatalities. Fire Analysis and…… [Read More]


Analysis report on Firefighter Fatalities. Fire Analysis and Research Division: National Fire

Protection Association. August, 1989. Retrieved From" Accessed 23 October, 2005

History of the Hackensack Fire Department. Retrieved at Accessed 23 October, 2005

Preventing Injuries and Deaths of Fire Fighters due to Truss System Failures. National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health Publication. 2005. Retrieved at  23 October, 2005
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Fire Service Hydraulics This Begins

Words: 1621 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 45337981

Advancements in Pumpers:

The modern history of fire pumpers can be traced back to the late 19th century, when fire pumpers such as the Ronald steam-powered, horse drawn pumper was used. In many areas, private horse-team owners were relied upon to pull these pumpers when the fire bell was rung. The early 1900s saw the popularization of gasoline engine and chain driven fire pumper. Today, fire pumpers are technological marvels. Many are built on custom truck platforms, but they are upgraded to meet the specifications of the fire departments they are being built for. These are built for high durability, with upgraded suspension, tires, brakes, transmission, alternator, and cooling systems. The speed limiter is typically removed, and adjustments are made to accommodate the long idling periods ("History of the Fire Engine").

The electronics are also typically custom designed. These include visual and audible warnings. They also often include a two-way…… [Read More]

Works Cited

"Choosing a Handline Nozzle." Akron Brass Company. n.d. Web. 19 Nov. 2010. .

Gilbert, D. "History of Fire Hose

." Crown Shop Talk. n.d. Web. 18 Nov. 2010. .

"History of the Fire Engine." History of Firefighting. n.d. Web. 19 Nov. 2010. .
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Loop High Rise Fire

Words: 1219 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 85802421

ire Safety

Six people died and several more were severely injured in the 2003 Chicago Loop high rise fire, at the Cook County Administrative Building. Around 2,500 government employees work in the building, which was built in the 1960s and bought by the county in 1996. Officials now believe that many of the fire's casualties could have been prevented had the building fire safety codes been up-to-date and had proper protocols for evacuation been followed by the Chicago ire Department. Although the building did have an official fire evacuation plan, it was not followed, and although evacuation drills were conducted four times a year, the evacuation procedure was chaotic and disorganized. Conflicts of interest related to political ties between the mayor's office and the building management company may be partially responsible for the building's inadequate safety features such as its lack of a sprinkler system. In addition to the building's…… [Read More]

Fire safety officials arrived in good time, but even their evacuation and fire fighting protocols were not followed. For example, Captain Michael Gubricky elected to fight the fire from the southeast stairwell, which was the building's smoke tower. The smoke tower is in place mainly to offer an evacuation route because of the increased ventilation. The Captain's decision was unwarranted, given that the smoke tower is supposed to be used as an evacuation route and only as a last resort for fighting the fire. Fighting the fire from the smoke tower was not only dangerous, it diverted fire fighting attention that needed to be given to the persons trapped in the building's other stairwells. Some of the victims reported that firefighters did not listen when they were told that people were trapped in other stairwells. Firefighters failed to search the southeast stairwell, not believing that anyone was trapped there. In general, evacuation procedures were chaotic.

The role of fire safety codes is to provide a clear-cut set of rules and guidelines in case of emergencies such as this. The fire safety code becomes irrelevant if it is not followed or when its guidelines conflict with the procedures practiced by the fire department. For example, only those persons located dangerously close to the fire should have been evacuated in this case; in the future, no orders should be given for a full evacuation unless the fire department itself orders one. Building tenants should known which stairwell is the smoke tower.

Furthermore, building fire safety codes should reflect the local precinct's protocols for safety and evacuation. The security officers in the building should be thoroughly briefed on the proper protocol. Drills should be regular and consistent as well. Furthermore, the fire department should make it a priority to take over the building's public address system so that evacuation orders are clear too. Fire safety officials should work with building managers regularly to ensure that codes are met, that the building is safe, and that security officers and tenants alike are familiar with the basics of fire safety. The city of Chicago and all other cities should consider diverting funds to the renovation of pre-1975 buildings. Above all there is no excuse for the lack of override system for the stairwell doors, one feature that could have alone prevented the six deaths.
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Iaff Fire-Based EMS

Words: 2998 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 5725373

Fire-ased providers as the sole form of EMS

EU member states do not follow a uniform EMS model. This often leads to difficulties at the times of crisis as the preliminary response to the situation varies from state to state. Each region is characterized by a unique set of geographical, cultural, linguistic and medical systems. The vast differences that occur can and do hamper response procedures and critical time. Health professionals and politicians need to have instant access to data of updated EMS structure from each member state to enhance proper care promptly.

Short-term recommendations:

The main issues that should be addressed in the uniform code for EMS services in the EU should include the academic qualifications to be possessed by the members of the response team, medical facilities and equipments that the in-hospital and out-of- hospital emergency services should mandatorily be equipped with, a reliable mode of communication between…… [Read More]


Axelsson, H. (2012, 08-23). The Corporate Social and Environmental Responsibility and Human Resource Division Manager/Deputy Chief Operating Officer. (H. de Joussineau, Interviewer)

Bruce ML, Klonoski E. Schools Out! The pros and cons of distance education in EMS. Emerg Med Serv. 2004;33:49-54.

Boyd DR. The conceptual develop- ment of EMS systems in the United States: part II. Emerg Med Serv. 1982;11:27 -- 35. Accessed September 24, 2005
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Fire Project Over the Years

Words: 2001 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 46597343

If this is the case please enlist this.

A xxii) Is the hotel equipped with an organized emergency procedure in the eventuality of a fire? A copy of this has to be appended with the complete checklist.

A xxiii) Is the hotel and its facility equipped with adequate sprinkler system? In case the entire facility is not provided with such system mention may be made as to where such sprinkler system has been installed (a) Meeting rooms (b) Corridors - Public lobbies (d) Guest ooms (e) Public Washrooms (f) Other rooms xxiv) Does the entire hotel facility have smoke detectors? In case it is no, state the locations where they are located? (a) Meeting rooms (b) Corridors - Public lobbies (d) Guest ooms (e) Other rooms xxv) Are all smoke detectors connected high tensile wires to the Central Signaling System or directly into the ire department? In case such a…… [Read More]


Hotels and motels" (2004) Retrieved at Accessed on 23 November, 2004

Hotels and motels: Have a Safe Trip" Retrieved at on 23 November, 2004

Hotel fire safety checklist" Retrieved at on 23 November, 2004

Hotel Fire Safety" (2003) Residential Fire Safety Institute. Retrieved at Accessed on 23 November, 2004
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Fire Ecology in Ponderosa Pine

Words: 2773 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 66029469

Prescribed Burns

There are several methods for achieving these conditions within the forest. The first is prescribed burning. The goal of prescribed burning is to reduce the amount and density of surface fuels in a controlled manner. Prescribed burns also scorch and kill the lower branches of trees, preventing laddering (Fitzgerald 2005). This technique lifts the canopy off the surface, lowering the ability of the fire to climb to the high-density crown. Prescribed burns are typically carried out in regular intervals, much like the natural low-intensity fires of the past.

One of the key difficulties in prescribed burns is that some preparation may be necessary in order to reduce the amount of fuels. Otherwise, the controlled burn could easily become an uncontrollable raging forest fire. Pruning and thinning of tree stands may be necessary in order to reduce the available fuel before the prescribed burn (Fitzgerald 2005). Mowing and grading…… [Read More]


1. Agee, J.K. 2002. Fire behavior and fire-resilient forests. In Fitzgerald, S.A., editor. Fire in Oregon's forests: risks, effects and treatment options. A synthesis of current issues and scientific literature. Special Report prepared for the Oregon Forest Resources Institute, Portland, or; 119-126. In Fitzgerald, Stephen. 2005. Fire Ecology of Ponderosa Pine and the Rebuilding of Fire-Resilient Ponderosa Pine Ecosystems. USDA Forest Service Gen. Tech. Rep. PSW-GTR-198. [Internet]. [Cited 2009 February 19]; Available from:


2. Brown, Richard, Agee, James and Franklin, Jerry. 2004. Forest Restoration and Fire: Principles in the Context of Place. Conservation Biology. [Internet]. [Cited 2009 February 19]; 18 (4): 903-912. Available at

3. Fitzgerald, Stephen. 2005. Fire Ecology of Ponderosa Pine and the Rebuilding of Fire-Resilient Ponderosa Pine Ecosystems. USDA Forest Service Gen. Tech. Rep. PSW-GTR-198. [Internet]. [Cited 2009 February 19]; Available at
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Department of Health and Human

Words: 3373 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 58176948

In 2002, "President Bush signed into law the Public Health Security and Bioterrorism Preparedness and Response Act of 2002, which, among other things, eliminated the need to convene an advisory committee to amend the list of diseases" listed as quarantineable (Misrahi, Foster, Shaw, & Cetron 2004).

This law became significant during the SARS scare. Before 2002 "the list of federal quarantinable diseases in the United States had not been revised since 1983. It included cholera, diphtheria, infectious tuberculosis, plague, smallpox, yellow fever, and viral hemorrhagic fevers such as Marburg, Ebola, and Congo-Crimean" fevers (Misrahi, Foster, Shaw, & Cetron 2004). The CDC was able to quickly ad SARS to the list. In the past, the CDC "generally deferred to state and local health restrict the movement of persons within their boundaries" with such diseases (Misrahi, Foster, Shaw, & Cetron 2004). Its greater legislative ability to move quickly in classifying the…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Definition of HHS. (2008). Medicine Net. Retrieved January 2, 2009 at

DeNoon, Daniel. (2008). Controversy over new 'conscience' rule. Medicine Net.

Retrieved January 2, 2009 at 

Dowshen, Steven. (2008, August). CDC: Measles outbreaks may be tied to parents' choice not to vaccinate. The Children's Hospital. Retrieved January 2, 2009 at
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Fire Aircraft Accidents Involving Fires

Words: 2478 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 49235378

hen an airplane catches on fire and jet fuel is the catalyst, the amount of time that the plane and the object around it will burn is dependent on many different factors. One of the primary factors is the amount of fuel that is still contained on the plane. For instance a jet that is taking a transatlantic flight will have more jet fuel than a regional flight. Investigators would need to know this type of information so that they can estimate how much time it might take for the fuel to burn off or the types of measures that need to be taken to extinguish the fire.

Investigations can also be effected by the presence of cabin fires. According to Improved Fire- and Smoke-Resistant Materials for Commercial Aircraft Interiors: A Proceedings, (1995) post crash Cabin fires have been extensively researched. A great deal of this research has occurred in…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Aircraft Accident Investigations." Retrieved June 6, 2008 from;

"Fire and Explosion Investigation." Retrieved June 6, 2008 from; 

History and Mission. Retrieved June 6, 2008 from;

Improved Fire- and Smoke-Resistant Materials for Commercial Aircraft Interiors: A Proceedings, (1995). Retrieved June 6, 2008 from;
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Niosh Fire Fighter Investigation

Words: 5201 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 41511616

Recommendation: The training staff must ensure all participants in a "live" fire training exercise "have received the training and opportunities to properly perform the job." And this is pivotal to safety measures for recruits: A student's first experience "in a live burn exercise should not be in an acquired structure" (IIL).

Structures and Facilities (NFPA 1403 4.2 & 4.2.2): Buildings selected for structural fire training exercise must be properly prepared -- which in this case, the row house at 145 South Calverton Road, it was not properly prepared. A previous ventilation drill, which opened several upper floor walls to the outside air (and the wind which was 20 miles per hour at that time) made the building "unsuitable" for live fire training. Adding to the mistakes made in the exercise at 145 South Calverton Road was the serious question as to whether the fire department had permission to burn that…… [Read More]

Works Cited

BCFD Preliminary Investigation Into The Line Of Duty Death Of Recruit Racheal M. Wilson

On February 9, 2007. (2007). Retrieved November 12, 2009, from

Goodrich, Art. (2007). Baptism by Fire or Death by Diversity? Retrieved November 12,

2009, from .
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U S Department of State Public Policy Issue

Words: 4527 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 73334685

U.S. Department of State: Public Policy Issue and Sexual Harassment


Policy Issue 7

esolution Procedures

Policy Outcome

Leaders Influence

ole of technology in the process

Diversity Issues Involved

Ethical Concerns and Implications

Protection for Employee


U.S Department of State: Public Policy Issue and Sexual Harassment

Sometime back in 2010, the Albany Fire Department in Georgia established a newer "sexual harassment" policy that was in accordance with the United States Equal Employment Opportunity Commission's course of action and Federal Law. At first, the idea of sexual harassment occurred merely in sexual related claims that were against an employer. Ever since the approval of the department's policy, sexual harassment has now been spreading into every part of employment discrimination as well as the creation of a work environment that is hostile. esearch shows that hostile work environment claims are founded not just…… [Read More]


Baugh, S.G. (2009). On the persistence of sexual harassment in the workplace. 899-908, 34(9), 34-56. Retrieved from Journal of Business Ethics.

Cabrera, N. & . (2010). Understanding and dealing with the problem of sexual harassment in the workplace. Women in Management Review,, 11(2), 21-26.

Cates, S.V. (2013). The state of sexual harassment in america: What is the status of sexual harassment in the U.S. workplace today? Journal of Global Business Management, 8(1), 133-138.

De Coster, S.E. (2009). Routine activities and sexual harassment in the workplace. Work and Occupations, 26(1), 456-459.
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El Dorado Hills CA Fire

Words: 1738 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 90108715

It is expected that department's financial resources will be reduced.

This means that the department will be forced to make a series of modifications regarding the allocation of financial resources. The department's financial situation must be assessed in order to find out which areas require the most financial resources, which areas can function with lower levels of financial resources, and how the department's money can be reallocated.

The most important aspect that must be addressed by the department is represented by communication. In order to improve efficiency of the department's activity, it is recommended to develop and implement a strategy regarding communication that helps facilitate the communication flow within the department.

The decision-making process should also be modified. The decisions must be taken by each unit, instead of waiting for top managers to take decisions that affects these units. This strategy is intended to increase the efficiency of the activity…… [Read More]

Reference list:

1. Core Values (2010). El Dorado Hills Fire Department. Retrieved September 17, 2010 from /  about-us/mission-statementcore-values.

Fire Chief

Deputy Chief

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Hotel Vendome Fire and Collapse

Words: 1351 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 30191540

The organization mainly focused on analyzing the history of the construction of the building by examining its two main sections, floors, and walls.

Cause of the Collapse:

Following its extensive and detailed investigations, alter J. Hickey Associates, Inc. presented a report on the possible cause for the collapse of the hotel. After making computations, it was discovered that the load on the cast iron column from the dead load alone was approximately 200,000 pounds in consideration of a minimal allowance for the corbelling action. However, a study revealed that the arching or corbelling effect of the C-Line all was only of slight importance. Due to the load, the bearing stress on the wall was estimated at around 7 to 8 times the permissible stress for a wall of good grade brick that has a good line cement mortar ("Investigation of Collapse," p. 45).

hile the bearing stress at the opening…… [Read More]

Works Cited:

CROMBIE, EDWARD. "Significant Fires - the Vendome Hotel Fire." Hooks & Irons. EDWARD CROMBIE, 11 June 2011. Web. 25 Apr. 2012. .

Fire Rescue Magazine. "Hotel Vendome: Remembering the Worst Firefighting Tragedy in Boston's History - My Firefighter Nation." My Firefighter Nation. Firefighter Nation, 17 June 2010. Web. 25 Apr. 2012. .

"Investigation of Collapse at the Hotel Vendome." Internet Archive. USA Government Documents. Web. 25 Apr. 2012. .

"Learning the Lessons from the Past." The Company Officer. Elsevier Public Safety and Hosted Bloggers. Web. 25 Apr. 2012. .
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Wildfire Is an Uncontrolled Fire Occurring in

Words: 935 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 278703

Wildfire is an uncontrolled fire occurring in combustible vegetation, typically in an wilderness area or countryside (Pyne, Andrews, & Laven, 1996). They are commonly referred to as forest fires, brush fires, or grass fires depending on the type of vegetation involved. Wildfires are characterized in terms of the cause of ignition, their physical properties such as speed of propagation, the combustible material present, and the effect of the weather on the fire (Pyne, Andrews, & Laven, 1996). A wildfire is distinguished from other types of fires due to its size, the speed at which it can spread, and its ability to suddenly change direction and traverse inflammable gaps like rivers (Pyne, Andrews, & Laven, 1996).

In the past wildfires were viewed as strictly a local phenomena; however, wildfires now are recognized as a comprehensive global scale environmental process (Collins, 2009). Wildfires have greatly influenced the biosphere and atmosphere of the…… [Read More]


Collins, M. (2009). Hell on earth: The rise of more dangerous wildfires forces communities worldwide to think how they handle infernos. Government Technology's Emergency

Management, 4 (6), 22-30.

McCaffrey, S. (2002). For want of defensible space a forest is lost: Homeowners and the wildfire hazard and mitigation in the residential wildland intermix at incline village, Nevada.

Berkeley: University of California Press.
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U S Fire Problem Everyday in

Words: 1829 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 52187272

aising standards and building codes makes fire prevention a priority and legal requirement that will save the government and community money and protect lives. Another critical recommendation by FEMA and the USFA is to ensure the health and safety of fire fighters. Fire departments are staffed with paid employees, and often volunteers. These individuals deserve adequate funding to invest in necessary training, equipment, and technology to make their jobs more efficient and protect their lives (Bernstein, 2002).

The fire problem in the U.S. spans across the decades and infects the entire nation. Today, in regards to both frequency and total losses of life, America has the highest total fire losses than any modern technological society, the fact of which can no longer be ignored. The tens of thousands of deaths and injuries and the billions of dollars in property losses each year to fires are a testament to the severity…… [Read More]


Bernstein, G.U.S. Department of Homeland Security, Federal Emergency Management Agency.

(2002). America at risk findings and recommendations on the role of the fire service in the prevention and control of risks in america (FA-223)

Federal Emergency Management Agency, United States Fire Administration National Fire Data

Center. (1999). Profile of the urban fire problem in the United States (FA-190)TriData Corporation.
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Forest Fires and Suppression Fire and Smoke Control

Words: 2754 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 33560116

Forest Fires and Suppression

Fires are a powerful, natural phenomenon that can have a huge impact on the ecosystem and the people living in the area. A forest fire (more commonly referred to as wildfire) is any fire that may occur in a combustible vegetative environment or wilderness area. Forest fires can be ignited by either natural forces or by man's negligence. Other causes are all man-made. Fires are instigated by fuel and sustained by oxygen and heat. In forests, the trees and bushes serve as fuel. Although in a very small percentage, some forest fires are caused by spontaneous combustion. Every object has a temperature at which it ignites. This temperature is known as Flashpoint. [1: Cambridge Advanced Learner's Dictionary, Third Edition. (2008). Cambridge University Press.]

The Flashpoint for wood is 572 degree Fahrenheit. hen wood heats up to a temperature 572 degree Fahrenheit, it produces a gas that…… [Read More]

Work Cited (Australia), V.P. Press conference: Bushfires death toll revised to 173. Media Release. 2009.Ambrosia, V.G. Disaster Management Applications -- Fire. NASA-Ames Research Center . 2003.Cambridge Advanced Learner's Dictionary, Third Edition. Cambridge University Press. 2008.China Makes Snow to Extinguish Forest Fire. 2006.Chronological List of U.S. Billion Dollar Events. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Satellite and Information Service.Fok, C.-L., Roman, G.-C., & and Lu, C.W Mobile Agent Middleware for Sensor Networks: An Application Case Study . 2004.Group, N.W. (March 2003). The New Generation Fire Shelter .Laboratory, M.F. Fire Behavior and Danger Software. 2008. Retrieved 2012, from, S.J. (n.d.). How Plants Use Fire (And Are Used By It). Retrieved from Nova Online: Schroeder, D. Evaluation of Three Wildfire Smoke Detection Systems. Advantage (Forest Enginerring Research Institute of Canada) . 2004.Specification 5100-304c Long-Term Retardant, Wildland Firefighting. U.S. Department of Agriculture Forest Service . 2007.Townsend, H. City swelters, records tumble in heat. Melbourne: The Age. 2009.]

As the old saying goes, "prevention is better than cure." It is imperative that there is effective wildfire prevention methods employed in order to minimize the risk of eventual suppression. Prevention has its benefits as it reduces the threat of fire to the lives, environment and nearby land and buildings. It also aids in the reduction of the fire damage that is caused and reduces the costs of suppression. Smokey, the Bear was created by the U.S. Department of Agriculture Forest Service, in 1944. He was created as a fire preventive messenger to warn unaware novice campers of the dangers of their careless actions. Other prevention techniques involve the supervising authorities in the area to manage the air quality and maintain the ecological balance of their region in order to prevent conditions that lead to the ignition of forests.

End Notes
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Station Night Club Fire What

Words: 1748 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 47993115

Rodgers, Jr. (Rodgers, 2006). The "no contest" plea, said Rodgers, will "…alleviate the victims' families and broader community from being subjected to an emotional reliving of the tragedy at trial."

Moreover, the judge said the "no contest" plea actually means that the defendants (Jeffrey Derderian and Michael Derderian) accept responsibility for installing foam in the club that was not fireproof. The Rhode Island Fire Code requires fireproof insulation and foam for buildings like the club in question.

orks Cited

Duval, Robert F. (2006). NFPA Case Study: Nightclub Fires. National Fire Prevention

Association. Retrieved July 20, 2010, from

Madrzykowski, Daniel, Bryner, Nelson, and Kerber, Stephen I. (2008). The NIST Station Night

Club Fire Investigation: Physical Simulation of the Fire. National Institute of Standards and Technology. Retrieved July 20, 2010, from

Parker, Paul Edward. (2007). Tally of a tragedy: 462 were in The Station on night of fire.

The Providence…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Duval, Robert F. (2006). NFPA Case Study: Nightclub Fires. National Fire Prevention

Association. Retrieved July 20, 2010, from

Madrzykowski, Daniel, Bryner, Nelson, and Kerber, Stephen I. (2008). The NIST Station Night

Club Fire Investigation: Physical Simulation of the Fire. National Institute of Standards and Technology. Retrieved July 20, 2010, from
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Forest Fire Management Systems and

Words: 17324 Length: 63 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 50516012

It was then important to see the degree at which technology and training played a role in combating each fire.

1.2.4.ationale of the Study

What is that can be gained from this study? The reasoning behind such a study is born out of a need to provide better training for fire fighters so that fire management systems will improve and reduce the amount of loss due to the fire. By studying such a topic, one can gain the knowledge of how to better train fire fighters and how to make his or her job safer in the process. This in turn, results in reduced losses due to the fire. This also results in higher service ratings for the fire department and an increase in morale for the community.

1.3.Definition of Terms


The Underlying Causes of Fire.

It has already become a general knowledge that the majority of forest and…… [Read More]


Allan, C. (2003). A Ponderosa Natural Area Reveals its Secrets. USGS. Retrieved July 11, 2005 from the World Web Wide:

Anderson, H.E. (1983). Predicting Wind-Driven Wild Land Fire Size and Shape. Research Paper INT-305. Ogden, UT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Forest and Range Experiment Station, pp. 1-26.

Beer, T. (1990). The Australian National Bushfire Model Project. Mathematical and Computer Modeling, 13, 12, 49-56.

Calabri, G. (1982). Recent evolution and prospects for the Mediterranean region, Forest Fire prevention and control. Proceedings of an International seminar.
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Mizpah Hotel Fire in Reno

Words: 1748 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 76609655

Since ownership of the building had not changed recently, there was no requirement to upgrade to a sprinkler system, and combined with the building's historic status, this was never done. There were also problems with water pressure and receiving water during the fire, which they recommended should be addressed.

In conclusion, the Mizpah fire was a tragic fire that did not need to occur. Had the building been equipped with a sprinkler system, the tragedy and damages could have been avoided. The City of eno has begun inspections as a result of the fire, and there have been some changes in procedure. The entire building was eventually demolished, and the site is empty today. Twelve victims might be alive today if a working sprinkler system had been installed in the building, and it is a lesson for other fire departments across the nation. They need to make it easier to…… [Read More]


Ockershausen, J. And Cohen, H. (2008). Twelve-fatality hotel arson: Reno, Nevada. Retrieved 24 Nov. 2008 from the USFA Web site:

O'Malley, J. (2007). Deaths in Mizpah fire rise to 12 as investigators sift through ruins. Retrieved 24 Nov. 2008 from the Reno Gazette Journal Web site:

Powers, L. (2008). Chief: Mizpah justifies checks. Report: firefighters saw mattresses less than an hour before blaze. Retrieved 24 Nov. 2008 from the Reno Gazette Journal Web site:

Turner, Laura. (2007). Firefighters use hotel for training. Retrieved 24 Nov. 2008 from the High Beam Web site:
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Deutsche Bank Fire Reasons of

Words: 3044 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 49024282

One of the main reasons that have been highlighted by the prosecutors is that the pressure to clear up the asbestos from the basement was intense and the contractors were constantly being forced to finish the work. Because of an increased pressure, the contractors and the workers working under the contractors were working in a miscalculated manner. One of the wrong decisions that were made by the contractors was to ignore the broken water pipe in one of the floors being demolished. This has been highlighted as evidence by the District Attorney Joel Seidemann in one of his closing arguments at the trial that had been going on since two months in the Manhattan Supreme Court

Other than the three contractors, the third party that had been under investigation for more than 16 months was the New York City itself. In this case, the court mentioned that the city authority…… [Read More]

Work Cited

Association Of Fire Chiefs International. Fire Inspector: Principles and Practice. Jones & Bartlett Publishers, 2011.

Bureau of National Affairs (Arlington, Va.). Construction labor report, Volume 55, Issues 2710-2736. Bureau of National Affairs., 2009.

Eligon, John. Final Defendant Acquitted in Deutsche Bank Fire. 2011. 29 November 2011.

Italiano, Laura. FDNY Firefighter Recalls Fatal Deutsche Bank Fire. 2011. 29 November 2011.
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Role Fire Has Played Throughout My Life

Words: 1893 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 38731150

role fire has played throughout my life. Perhaps that should not be too surprising that fire should be my frame of reference. After all, I have made my living in the field of firefighting.

Fire itself is a study in contrasts. The substance that can cause searing burns also brings pleasant warmth. Its forms range from flickering candlelight to blazing infernos.

Its power to destroy and consume is matched only by its power to nurture and support life.

Even before I entered firefighting, I believe that the dual qualities of fire can be seen as a metaphor for my life. Like most young boys, I was confident but unfocused, like a flame spread in all directions. With the supreme confidence of one who thought he knew it all, I dropped out of school at ninth grade. Back then, I though that school had nothing left to teach me.

Instead, I…… [Read More]

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Incendiary Fires Impact Upon Firefighters

Words: 812 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 46529666

These types of programs should provide refresher courses each year for the purpose of reminding firefighters what they should remember fighting and documenting the fire. The incendiary fire is one that is highly unpredictable because it does not follow the natural progression of a fire due to having been intentionally set and possibly accelerated with some type of flammable substance that may be highly toxic. The high incident of incendiary fires in institutions can only be addressed through cooperative and collaborative efforts with these types of institutions. In relation to Incendiary fires due to cooking equipment, the fire department should initiate campaigns by which to provide public information concerning prevention of these types of fires.

2. Incendiary Fires: Documentation and Evidence

Secondly, in the case of scene and evidence documentation it is stated that the investigation must by "systematic and technically sound" and that: "One of the most common mistakes…… [Read More]


City of Yakima - Budget Strategy Team (2004) Online available at

Incendiary Fires (2007) LSU Fire & Emergency Training Institute Glossary. Online available at

Gilliam, Jason W. (2006) Structure Fires and Fire Deaths within the Jurisdiction of the Farmington, Missouri Fire Department. Online available at,

Burnette, Guy E. Esquire (2007) Documentation of the Fire Scene: A Legal Perspective. interfere online available at .
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Residential Fire Sprinklers

Words: 828 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 11435845

Residential Fire Sprinklers

Fire Administration data shows that the most dangerous fire damage happens at home. The residential fire sprinklers installation is in high demand in the coming years as people grow high awareness for their home safety. While this trend varies from every other community and locations regarding the sufficient information and instrument availability, the need to see the quality equipments and service is a must to meet the standard security purpose. The trend should also give another light for the economy and construction business; therefore it requires good industrial handling of the products and service. The research will examine how the trend affects all sectors in community and constructions.

As Karter (1994) and Holdgate (2001) said, "about 80% of all fire deaths occur in residential properties," which makes clear of no reason why people should delay any home sprinklers installation. There are three major parts that will determine…… [Read More]

PR Newswire Association. Jan 27, 2000. Sprinklers Cut Loss From Fires at Home and Work; Fire Sprinklers Reduce Chances of Loss of Life and Property by More Than 50%. American Fire Sprinkler Association.

US Fire Administration. Nov 09, 1998. Home Fire Safety - Residential Sprinklers. 02, 2002).

US Fire Administration. The Case for Residential Sprinklers. 02, 2002).
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Decline in Fire and EMS Volunteers in the US

Words: 960 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 81392414

Volunteer Firefighting

The current setting of our country's economic position leaves many questions unanswered and creates new problems in unexpected areas. Volunteer firefighters are in short demand these days and it is necessary and important to investigate and gain knowledge of the reasons why this trend is occurring. The purpose of this essay is to examine some root causes of the current decline in volunteer firefighting across the United States of America. In addition to describing the causes of this problem, I will also introduce some proposed solutions that may be helpful in setting a new trend towards solving this problem.

Most agree in today's world volunteer firefighters are in sharp decline and retention of these workers is suffering as well. Markley (2012) recently warned the firefighting community when stated that "when the National Fire Protection Association released its latest figures on the number of firefighters in the United States…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Flemming, J. (2011, July 11). Decline in volunteering hurts fire departments around the country. Firerescue 1, Retrieved from /recruitment/articles/1080089- Decline-in-volunteering-hurts-fire-departments-around-the-country/

Markley, R. (2012, March 1). "A Dangerous Dilemma. Retrieved from 201203?page=1

Salsberry, G. (2012). As number decline nationwide, local volunteer firefighters holding, 20 July 2012. Retrieved from firefighters-holding-steady/article_a589fee8-d26f-11e1-9ea0-0019bb2963f4.html
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National Fire Protection Agency Codes

Words: 1528 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 26263395

Lessons Learned for Nightclub Fires

In some ways the historical events that accompanied "The Station" fire were precedent setting. In other ways, however, these historical events were sadly a little too familiar. A perfect example of this sort of dichotomy is found in the trigger to this fire. According to a report compiled by obert Duvall (2006) regarding this particular fire and nightclub fires in general, the conflagration at The Station "resulted from a form of ignition not often seen when comparing other fires in assembly occupancies: pyrotechnics" (p. 22). In this regard, the fire at The Station was unique when compared to the other fires detailed for their historical events in Duvall's document. The National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) has very specific standards and requirements for the utilization of pyrotechnics in "Existing Assembly Occupancies" (Duval, 2006, p. 22). Interestingly enough, even a cursory examination of those standards introduces the…… [Read More]


Duvall, R. (2006). NFPA case study: Nightclub fires. National Fire Protection Association.
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Atlanta High Rise Office Fire

Words: 824 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 32091858

The occupants might have suffered panic yet most of them were able to think properly and they made three groups. Yet, one of the female occupants was so terrified that she jumped of the sixth floor and was seriously injured but she survived. (Jennings, 1989)

After proper technical investigation, the following points were enumerated as the lessons to be learnt by the accidental fire at the Peachtree 25th Building:

Automatic sprinklers are necessary for high rise buildings. Although experts says that even the automatic water sprinklers might have failed to prevent or restrict the severity of the fire, yet they also suggest that automatic sprinklers might have helped the fire fighters to fight against the extreme high temperatures and it would have also helped the occupants to evacuate the building with much more ease.

Evacuating high rise buildings during emergency often takes more time than evacuating drills in similar conditions.…… [Read More]


Jennings, Charles. (1989) "Five-Fatality High-rise Office Building Fire Atlanta,

Georgia." Federal Emergency Management Agency: United States Fire Administration National Fire Data Center.

Retrieved from
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Department Employed About 100 Men and Women

Words: 1274 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 25745656

department employed about 100 men and women to create the wiring and connect it to different universal couplings so that speedometers, oil gauges, and other instruments would work. The final product, an under-dash wiring harness, was sent to the assembly plant for installation.

Sam developed a relationship with one of his employees, Paula, and they began dating. Paula later ended the relationship with Sam. Sam wanted to continue dating Paula, and he began exhibiting unwelcome behaviors, even after she told him to stop. Sam suggested that Paula's work might be suffering from a lack of interest.

Paula decided she could no longer work with Sam and applied for a transfer to the wire-coating department, which was not under his control. Sam blocked the transfer, citing evidence that chemicals used in wire coatings could harm an early-state fetus. Because Paula could become pregnant, Sam argued, NewCorp could not take the chance…… [Read More]


Kuntz, A (nd) Managers Can be Manipulated and Subsequently Burned: Know the Fable of the Monkey and the Cat's Paw,-be-wary-of-the-monkey-and-the-cat%E2%80%99s-paw-fable.aspx

United Staqtes Dpt of Labor. Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Confined Spaces
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Fire Incidences and the Safety Guidelines

Words: 947 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 48224465

Safety and Health Considerations in Fire Incident esponse

The issue of safety during emergency response by the fire fighters has been discussed and severally emphasized. In as much as the responders are out to save lives and property, they too need to be safe so that they do not add to the count of the victims, if any be, as well as avoid injuries in the process of saving others. There are manuals that have been developed in various states and even counties all with the aim of streamlining response to emergencies and reducing the number of deaths of both the victims and the responders. Hundreds of fire fighters die in the line of duty each year with most of the death being from the exposure to rapid fire, getting trapped by objects and collapsed buildings. It can be said that there are sufficient safety regulations and guidelines concerning the…… [Read More]


United States Department of Labor, (2015). Incident Command system: Incident Commander. Retrieved April 9, 2015 from

Work Safe, (2015). Fire Fighting. Retrieved April 9, 2015 from
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Fire Fighters Team Spirit

Words: 1076 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 98885113

Value of Team Work

The cornerstone of fire service environment is usually teamwork which is evident in each and every aspect of the fire service profession from training exercises to the most involved incidences in the course of heir operations. The fire service tradition is normally rich in tradition which is the way through which the fire service teams evolve around. The method of organization and functioning in fire service environment has various divisions whereby the firefighters are divided into various companies; ladder, engine, rescue, haz mat and so on which work in rotating shifts. The engine company is usually the basic unit for the fire service whose main duty is putting out the fire. The first engine is supposed to get a hose line in place and ensure that they put water on the fire immediately. Ventilation is among the most important tasks that has to be accomplished by…… [Read More]


Mills, S.(2004).Teamwork: The foundation of the fire service. Retrieved April 28, 2014 from

Dugan, M.(2009).Working Together: Teamwork in the fire service requires organization & strategy. Retrieved April 28, 2014 from 

Vitale, T.(2008). The 10 Traits all Great Firefighters have. Retrieved April 28, 2014 from webGuru, (2014). Being an Effective Team Member. . Retrieved April 28, 2014 from
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Department Name Human Resources List

Words: 1245 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 13397082

Finally, consideration of the Intel-based server function is relevant for support of the Microsoft Exchange email environment. In all cases, the Company holds licensure but is not the manufacturer of the solutions to the products used in the HR Department recovery strategy. Only it engineering staff with assistance from those product suppliers will offer full provision to risk management and immediacy during the recovery.

Recovery time objectives (RTO) and Recovery Point Objectives (RPO) to the CLIENT's Human Resource network in Lincoln are targeted as > 24 hours to point of completion. To this end, in terms of cost, the CLIENT's highest cost to risk factor is where Electronic Vaulting listed as #4 might be determined as priority during the course of initial assessment of a disaster at the site. The Lincoln location is a Warm Site #3 to Cold Site #2 in reference to the reported Survey data. It is…… [Read More]

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Fire Fighting Event

Words: 970 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 4034016


What factors/operations contributed to this incident?

Several factors and operations contributed to the incident resulting in a deceased and inured firefighter. The initial response was according to standard procedure, and was admirably fast and well attended by District Major 204, Engine 11, Engine 6, Emergency Medical Service EC6, and Aerial 4. The presence of a multifaceted team should have provided the diversity of services and resources needed to control the fire in a way that reduced the likelihood of unnecessary or preventable injury. Moreover, the District Major was the first on the scene and had the capacity to respond in a way consistent with leadership protocols. The District Major was correct to first interact with civilians to find out if there were people inside the dwelling.

However, there are several core elements that bear noting. One is the equipment failure on Engine 11, in which the pressure relief valve…… [Read More]


Department of the Army (1971) Firefighting and rescue procedures in theaters of operations. Retrieved online:


Ontario Professional Fire Fighters (2015). Funeral protocol. Retrieved online:
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GIS Technology in Fire Service

Words: 1027 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 83123338

Fire Service Technology:

The modern fire service is characterized by increased interactions between fire researchers and service in general. The interactions have mainly been geared towards producing research outcomes that can be utilized to enhance the effectiveness and safety of firefighters. As part of the development of suitable fire service technology, recent research results have shown that changes in construction methods and fuel loads have impacted the fire environment within residential structures ("Fire Fighting esearch Online," 2013). While the changes have transformed the conventional fire behavior, they have also contributed to significant changes in fire equipment. The research outcomes have not only brought changes to fire behavior and equipment but have also resulted in the development of fire service technologies that are currently used and continue to have tremendous impacts.

Examples of Technologies in Fire Service:

The first technology used in fire service is the World Wide Web that has…… [Read More]


"Advances Spark New Age of Fire Safety." (2012, March 14). Emergency Management.

Campus Safety Magazine. Retrieved April 20, 2014, from 

"Fire Fighting Research Online." (2013, September 30). Fire.Gov -- Better Fire Fighting

Through Research. Retrieved from The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) website:
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National Fire Plan & Community

Words: 4014 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 24111281

The apathy of private landowners discussed earlier may be due to the feeling that one may not feel that individual efforts are important. However, the case in Waldo, Florida demonstrates just how important the actions of one individual can be in averting danger.

Bend, Oregon has developed large community efforts to help reduce fuel in the area. They open up the landfill several times a year free of charge to allow citizens to dispose of debris from thinning and pruning (NCS, 2003). Thinning and pruning around houses creates a barrier of defensible space should a fire threaten. The landscape and fire resistance efforts in Bend have become a social factor.

These case studies demonstrate how communities can be spurred into action. The study conducted by eams, Haines, & enner et al., (2005) found owner apathy as the number one obstacle that they faced in preparing communities in case of a…… [Read More]


Bureau of Land Management (BLM)(2005) Snapshots: Successful BLM Projects Supporting the National Fire Plan. May 13, 2005. Retrieved February 23, 2009 at

Davis, C. (2001). The West in Flames: The Intergovernmental Politics of Wildfire Suppression and Prevention. The Journal of Federalism. 31-93): 97-110.

FireWise. (2009). About Firewise. National Fire Protection Association. Retrieved February 21, 2009 at

FireWiseCommunities/USA. (2009). Fire wise Communities/USA. National Fire Protection Association. Retrieved February 21, 2009 at
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Leadership - Gates of Fire by Steven

Words: 1771 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 89138188

Leadership - Gates of Fire by Steven Pressfield

Gates of Fire written by Steven Pressfield is a famous historical novel published in 1998. It tells the story of 480 B.C when Persian King decided to attack Greece. Persia was the biggest power of the world in those times and it used all its supremacy to focus on this singe goal.

Persian King brought with him a huge army of around two million soldiers with a simple message of "surrender or death" for the Greeks. On the other side, Greece put forward their 300 finest Spartan warriors under the commandment of King Leonydas and ordered them to take immediate action.

Spartans knew very well that they will be killed in this battle with Persian invaders but they did not quit and moved forward towards their mission. They bravely resisted against the Persian forces for six days and created an unbalanced fight…… [Read More]


Bass, B and Riggio, R. (2008). Transformational Leadership. Second edition. Lawrence Erlbaum


Cohen, W. (2010). Heroic Leadership. Leading with Integrity and Honor. Chapter 7: Put Duty Before

Self. Published by Jossey Bass.
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Medford Fire -- Rescue Liability Checklist Mf-R

Words: 1160 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 27998008

Medford Fire -- Rescue Liability Checklist

MF-R liability checklist

Does your department have copies of all legislation, regulations, bylaws, codes, and standards that are relevant to your department's operations?

The Department has access to all legislation at Federal, State, County, District and municipal levels, including regulations, bylaws where applicable, extensive codes, and standards issued by government, agency and professional associations. These documents are dispersed widely throughout government and agency literature, but most of the relevant operational policy documents are public and available on request if not accessible through the Internet. This regulatory detail is so extensive and widespread that a large part of Department administration's continuing education is devoted to simply keeping up with the ongoing changes and amendments to these laws, codes and best practices.

Has your municipality passed a fire bylaw? If so, was it tailor-made to suit the particular needs of your department? Does it accurately reflect…… [Read More]

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Clandestine Drug Laboratories and the Fire Service

Words: 2356 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 2459808

Clandestine Drug Labs and the Fire Service

hat are the risks and inherent dangers when firefighters are facing a blaze that resulted from a meth lab? hat should firefighters do when they suspect a fire has been caused by the existence of a meth lab? Are clandestine meth labs more prevalent then they were a few years ago? These questions and others will be addressed in this paper.

hat States' Firefighters have the biggest Threats from Meth Labs?

According to the U.S. Department of Justice (and the Drug Enforcement Agency) the states with the most meth labs (as of 2011) are Missouri (2,684 busts in 2011), Indiana (1,364 busts in 2011), Kentucky (with 1,084 busts) and Tennessee (1,130 busted meth labs). Other states that have a great deal of meth lab activity include Oklahoma (916), Michigan (365 labs busted), Mississippi (269 labs shut down) and Iowa (380 labs busted) (DOJ,…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Hadlock, Tim. (2010). Clandestine Drug Labs Present Hidden Dangers for Firefighters.

Fire Engineering. Retrieved September 14, 2012, from

Jordan, Larry P. (2011). Calhoun firefighters lean about dangers of meth labs. The Times and Democrat. Retrieved September 15, 2012, from

Lindsey, William, and DeNicola, Michael. (2010). Trust Your Instincts. Fire Chief. Retrieved September 15, 2012, from
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Clandestine Drug Laboratories and Fire Service the

Words: 1611 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 98658709

Clandestine Drug Laboratories and Fire Service

The menace of clandestine drug labs has been in existence for decades now and is a widespread issue over all the states across the country. The labs are established in homes, backyards, stores, apartments, hotel rooms, covered boats and even trunk homes.

The police departments and the concerned authorities do invade on intelligence information, several of these clandestine drug labs but the worrying this is the contamination that remains once the found equipment and substance is confiscated.

These materials that remain behind can contaminate porous walls and floor covers, the house heating vents as well as the air conditioning system, let alone the furniture that is daily exposed to the elements. Lots of times the next occupants are not aware of the activities of the previous occupants and even if they are aware, they may not know the dangers that lie therein.

Without proper…… [Read More]


Asia & Pacific Amphetamine-Type stimulants Information Centre, (2009). Clandestine

Labs. Retrieved March 9, 2011 from

David P, (2011). Clandestine Drug Labs. Retrieved March 9, 2011 from Film Group, (2011). Meth Labs -- A to Z. Hazards for Emergency Responders.

Retrieved March 9, 2011 from
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Man Who Was Apparently Fired From His

Words: 1314 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 70781495

man who was apparently fired from his job for a Facebook 'like'. The person in question works for a sheriff's department, and liked the page of his boss' challenger in the election. hen his boss won re-election, the staffer was fired for supporting the challenger. In this case, the circuit court judge ruled that a Facebook 'like' was insufficient speech to be considered protected under the First Amendment. I am taking the position that this is protected speech under the First Amendment and the staffer should not have been fired. The Sheriff's Office committed a violation of the law and an even more serious violation of ethics in firing the staffers for expressing their opinions online.

The first issue that needs to be addressed in the article is the legality of the issue. The deputy sheriff holds an unelected staff position within the sheriff's office, while the sheriff is elected…… [Read More]

Works Cited:

DiMicco, J.; Millen, D.; Geyer, W.; Dugan, C.; Brownholtz, B.; Muller, M. (2008). Motivations for social networking at work. IBM Research. Retrieved October 23, 2012 from  

Erickson, M. (2012). ACLU and Facebook say Facebook "like" button = free speech. Social Networking Law Blog. Retrieved October 23, 2012 from  

Kelleher, D. (2009). Social networking at work: Fear not Facebook, Myspace? IT World. Retrieved October 23, 2012 from

US Constitution, Amendment 1. Retrieved October 23, 2012 from
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Texas Department of Insurance

Words: 1067 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 37997392

Texas Department of Insurance illustrates why and when the Texas Department of Insurance was formed and how much it has accomplished since the time it was established. This paper highlights the number of people employed by the TDI, their annual budget and their board of governors.

The Texas Department Of Insurance

The prime purpose of the Texas Department of Insurance is to efficiently manage files on all the insurance carriers in Texas. These files are categorized by their respective types and region and are provided to other school districts upon request. The Texas Department of Insurance is divided in such a way that each group governs each insurance type. "For example, property and casualty, life and health, and workers' compensation are each separate departments with teams of experts capable of answering inquiries and complaints about each of those specific types of insurance" (Texas Comptroller Of Public Accounts, Purchase School District…… [Read More]

Work Cited

SLSOT Procedures Manual. Available on the address

Accessed on 9 Feb. 2004.

Texas Comptroller Of Public Accounts. Purchase School District Insurance Through

Cooperative Agreements. Available on the address Accessed on 9 Feb. 2004.
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Nightclub Fires on the Fire

Words: 2983 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 20557273

ecause the busboy in the Cocoanut Grove fire lit a match in the basement area of the nightclub, the code changes also called for the prohibition on using basement areas for assembly.

When firemen did get into the building, they were impeded again by overturned tables. The new code addressed that by ordering that tables be secured to the floor.

Limitations were placed on materials that could be used in furnishings to ensure they were as fire-resistant as possible.

This also included the finishes on tables, chairs and other furnishings. The rapid spread of these fires and the thick smoke that blinded patrons, were due to the finishes used on the furniture and decorations. The fire codes were changed, however, the enforcement of that code is particularly hard to enforce. The Station fire many years later was caused by the pyrotechnics igniting foam insulation that was being used as a…… [Read More]


Beitler, S. "Natchez, MS Rhythm Nightclub Fire, April 1940." 9 November 2007. (from The Delta Democrat-Times Greenville Mississippi 1940-04-24). 12 July 2009 . "Cocoanut Grove Fire." 2009. 12 July 2009 .

CNN. "At least 996 killed in nightclub inferno." 21 February 2003. 12 July 2009 .

Committee on Laws and Law Enforcement. "The President's Conference on Fire Prevention." 6 May 1947. Department of Homeland Security. 18 July 2009 .
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National Fire Academy Established in 1971 the

Words: 685 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 90186490

National Fire Academy

Established in 1971, the purpose of the National Fire Academy is to provide up-to-date training in fire service coursework, including a 4-year executive-level course. In addition, the Academy collaborates with other federal agencies, including the Fire esearch Laboratory, the National Institute of Standards and Technology's Building and Fire esearch Laboratory, the International Association of Arson Investigators, the United States Fire Administration, and the National Fire Protection Association to develop improved investigative, prosecutorial and training methodologies (Donahue, 2002). The responsibilities for the administration of the National Fire Academy fall to Academy Superintendent, Dr. Denis Onieal and the stated mission of the Academy is to, "Promote the professional development of the fire and the emergency response community and its allied professions" (National Fire Academy, 2013). In addition, the Academy is also tasked with developing, delivering and managing educational and training programs with a national focus that transcends state and…… [Read More]


Application forms. (2013). U.S. National Fire Academy. Retrieved from http://www.usfa.fema.


Donahue, M.L. (2002, January). The ATF Fire Research Laboratory: A new forensic resource for fire-scene investigations. Forensic Science Communications, 4(1), 37-39.

Eligibility. (2013). National Fire Academy. Retrieved from / attend/eligibility.shtm.
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Leadership Position Mandated Reduce Department's Labor Force

Words: 619 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 43373719

leadership position mandated reduce department's labor force 8%. What steps identify lay ? What staff roles regulatory requirements staffing patterns, roles assistive personnel, cross training, arriving a viable solution.


In a context in which the managerial team at the organization has decided to downsize its staff members by 8 per cent in a respective department, the manager of the respective department plays an essential role in helping to identify the staffs to be downsized.

The process of identifying people to downsize is highly complex and it could take several forms. For instance, a principle could be implemented of firing the newest members to the team. These have the least experience within the firm and within the project and, from the standpoint of the project, they would be easier to lose than, say, an employee who had been within the project for five years and is highly familiar with it.…… [Read More]


Javitch, D.G. (2009). The layoff and downsizing dilemma. Entrepreneur. accessed on October 17, 2012

Downsizing with dignity. accessed on October 17, 2012
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Bordering Fires The Vintage Book

Words: 1056 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 23303544

172). Another man writes of his obvious charms to his female customers at the gift counter in a department store, and how he works the system and gets caught. There is something innocent about all these stories, even though the characters are not all innocent or even in some cases likable. However, just like the theme of the book, they show the melting pot that forms Chicano/a culture, and how so many different people and personalities make up these people. It also shows the view they have of one another, which is not always positive, and indicates again that all these writers are writing about people who are searching for their culture, their voice, and their purpose in a life that pulls them in two directions at once.

Finally, the New Departures section is the hope of the culture in the future. These beautiful works, which read more like fairy…… [Read More]


Garcia, C. 2006. Bordering fires: The vintage book of contemporary Mexican and Chicano/a literature. New York: Vintage Books.
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Philadelphia Department of Licenses and

Words: 531 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 98597663

Primary competitors

As the Philadelphia Department of Licenses and Inspection is a government-run organization and is sanctioned by the statutes and laws of the City of Philadelphia, there are no major competitors to their service. There is no other government entity that can offer building permits, define zoning laws, handling inspectional, legislative, and administrative zoning and compliance. The only exception to this is when builders decide to build out of the city limits in one of the many neighboring cities surrounding Philadelphia.


There are many opportunities for the Philadelphia Department of Licenses and Inspection to increase its service to the citizens of Philadelphia. Here are several excellent ideas for how this department can increase its value to the citizens of Philadelphia:

Make Non-Health Related Licenses Available Online - While today the Department makes these licenses available only via PDF for later mailing in, it would save much time if…… [Read More]

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Arizona Dept Of Corrections 2004

Words: 1330 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 27560682

And if that policy is already in effect, then further training in that area is necessary.

The kitchen is an obvious source of "weapons" (like the heavy soup ladle used). It should be guarded more heavily and made less easily accessible. Routine searches of that area should be as thorough as possible. There was no video surveillance of this area -- a significant oversight. That is part of the reason the escape attempt went undetected for so long after the two employees were overwhelmed by the convicts.

There is no question that, in this situation, the escape attempt could have been stopped before it became dangerous if only one or two of the above recommendations had been followed.

~There existed too much open access to the security tower, and procedures to enforce security became lax and ineffective. Again, there is no doubt that had proper procedures been in place or…… [Read More]


Associated Press. (2004, March 4). Arizona prison standoff probe blames past decisions in part. Retrieved May 30, 2009, from

Baker, J. (2004). Anatomy of a hostage negotiation: An interview with a primary negotiator. Retrieved May 31, 2009, from The Negotiator Magazine: 

Epler, P., & Rushton, B. (2004, February 19). Federal judge questions credibility of Arizona department of corrections director. Retrieved May 29, 2009, from

NICIC. (2004). Preliminary finding and recommendations: The morey unit hostage incident. Retrieved May 29, 2009, from National Institute of Corrections Information Center (NICIC):
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Arizon Department of Corrections Morey

Words: 2200 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 43436219

This could be on account of the normal human reaction to being placed in frustrating conditions, or drawbacks like very poor security, and lethargy of the authorities. Investing in controlling mechanisms like weapons, guards, and other means of surveillance and control, while suppressing the violent tendencies of most inmates do little to help remove the causes of aggression. A more comprehensive approach is required that takes a study of the whole gamut of psychological emotional, physical needs and suffering into one group and then provide better training to the personnel in handling these emotions and the prisoners. They must be adepts in identifying the threat potential is necessary. (Carter; Glaser, 1977)

Another important fact that was clearly visible in the negotiation process and the later handling of the issue was the tardy help received from the outside, or the reluctance to get outside help. The negotiators must have gone in…… [Read More]


Carter, Robert Melvin; Glaser, Daniel. (1977) "Correctional Institutions" Lippincott.

Philadelphia, PA.

Corcoran, Michael H; Cawood, James S. (2003) "Violence Assessment and Intervention: The Practitioner's Handbook" CRC Press. Boca Raton, FL.

Garrett, Michael. (2004, Jun) "In Need of Correction: Arizona's prison system is overloaded and its staff is overwhelmed" Retrieved 4 April, 2008 at
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Shortleaf Pine Forest Fires Have

Words: 2898 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 61309133

Small fires, on the other hand, are less intense, and therefore cause less damage to the pine. The low air temperature in many areas of shortleaf pine growth help the heat of the fire dissipate, and therefore, more fire is required to raise the temperature of the plant cambium to the point of killing the tree. Also, if debris on the ground is only dry on top, but has moisture underneath, the fire is unable to spread to the base cambium, saving the pine (Little, 1978).

On the other hand, the frequency of fires in shortleaf pine areas also has an effect.

Young shortleaf pines sprout at the root if the crown of the tree is badly damaged, as mentioned. This ability, however, is confined to trees up to 8 inches in diameter, or the trees most likely damaged in a fire. Many of the sprouts on even these trees…… [Read More]

Bibliography of Conifers. 2nd edition. The Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.

Gilmore, G. Prescribed Fire for Forest Regeneration [Internet]. 2007 [cited Nov. 18, 2007]. Available at .

Halls, L.K. 1977. Pines Pinus. in: Lowell K. Halls, editor. Southern Fruit-Producing Woody Plants Used by Wildlife. USDA Forest Service, General Technical Report SO-16. Southern Forest Experiment Station, New Orleans, LA.

Higgins, Kenneth F., Arnold D. Kruse, and James L. Piehl. 1989. Effects of fire in the Northern Great Plains. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service and Cooperative Extension Service, South Dakota State University, Brookings, South Dakota. Extension Circular 761. 47 pp.

Huggett, J. 2004. Fundamentals of Biogeography. New York: Routledge Sparks, J.C, Masters, R.E., and Engle, D.M. 2002. Season of burn influences: Fire behavior and fuel consumption in restored shortleaf pine grassland communities. Restoration Ecology 10(4): 714-722.
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Prescribed Burns to Prevent Wildland Fires While

Words: 701 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 17043380

Pescibed Buns to Pevent Wildland Fies

While technology may help solve many poblems in fiefighting, it is man's use of the pescibed bun that is ultimately his best weapon against unwanted wildland fies and the theat they pesent.

Wildland fies continue to theaten the foest aeas of United States at an alaming pace. Although we can neve eliminate them, we can limit the damage caused by wildland fies by using a combination fie suppession, fie pevention, and most impotantly, fie use.

This is the belief of seveal diffeent fie management oganizations including the Society of Ameican Foestes, the U.S. Depatment of the Inteio and the USDA Foest Sevice.

Pevention of foest fies is the message that has been hammeed home to us since we wee all young by eveyone fom Native Ameicans with teas in thei eyes to Smokey the Bea. But nonetheless, pevention still emains a top pioity of…… [Read More]

references several works: a. Society of American Foresters. 1984. Forestry Handbook. Second Edition. Karl Wenger, Editor. p 235. New York, NY: Wiley-Interscience; b. MacCleery, D.W. 1992. AMERICAN FORESTS: A History of Resiliency and Recovery. FS-540. Washington, DC: States Department of Agriculture; c. U.S. Department of Agriculture and U.S. Department of the Interior. 1995. Federal Wildland Fire Management Policy and Program Review. Final Report. Boise, ID: National Interagency Fire Center; d. Northern California Society of American Foresters. 1997. Position Statement: The Need for Expanded Wildland Fuel Management in California. Rancho Cordova, CA. (

National Interagency Fire Center, Boise, Id.; National Fire News, June 17, 2002.
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Sarah's House Caught on Fire

Words: 1802 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 84788976

The purpose of a contract remedy is to make each party whole. An appropriate remedy would have been for the contractor to be responsible for the necessary repairs, and to pay for any resulting damages (for example, hotel charges if the repairs rendered the house unusable or the costs of restaurant meals if the kitchen could not be used).

5. Protein entered into a contract to buy stock in a small corporation from Gingerich. They refused to take the stock and Gingerich sought specific performance, on the grounds that the stock was not sold on the general market and its value could not be easily ascertained. Gingerich was not entitled to specific performance. Specific performance is only available when a money judgment cannot make a party whole, such as when the subject of a contract is unique. If they entered into a sales contract, the parties clearly identified a value…… [Read More]

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Fatalities in Fire Fighting Spur

Words: 931 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 13952258

The idea of this and similar programs is to keep physical demands high of fire fighters in order to keep them in the best physical health possible. outine medical checks are required, along with a strenuous exercise routines and expectations. Additionally, there are other support and safety programs that focus on working to increase mental and behavioral health as well as just physical health. These aim to help keep the firefighter's mentally cognizant, and thus better capable of doing their difficult job with less incidents and greater motivation to come out alive and well out of every fire situation. Stronger first responder health care provisions and options allow preventative programs to focus on generating a support system for first responders, including firefighters (Bourgeois 2013). This aims t strengthen fire fighter's mental as well as physical capacities on the job, reducing mistakes and resulting injuries.

In regards to preventing fatalities more…… [Read More]


Bourgeois, Paul. (2013). Behavioral health programs in the fire service. Firefighter Nation. Web. 

National Fallen Firefighters Foundation. (2013). The 16 safety initiatives. Everyone Goes Homes. Web.

Noe, Rebecca S., Proudfoot, Steven L., Jackson, J. Scott, Hales, Thomas R., & Baldwin, Tommy N. (2008). NOISH Fire Fighter Investigation and Prevention Program: Leading Recommendations for Preventing Fire Fighter Fatalities 1998-2005. Department of Health and Human Services. Web.
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Labor the Department of Labor Is Present

Words: 2901 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 7859708


The Department of Labor is present today to promote, foster and develop the welfare of the employees or the labor force in the United States. The labor system focuses on the improvement of the working conditions and the fulfillment of opportunities for more profitable employment. As it would be known, rules and regulations are there to keep things in order. Similarly, the Labor system in the country is guided by laws that guarantee the rights and privileges of the labor force of the country.

The Department of Labor has made laws concerning working conditions, minimum hourly wage, and freedom from employment discrimination, worker's compensation and unemployment insurance. The labor system also aids in job training programs and it helps workers find jobs. Everyone needs a decent source of income and if a person has some sort of skill or talent, they should definitely make use of it.

The basic…… [Read More]


Baron, J.N., Jennings, P.D. & Dobbin, F.R. (1988). Mission control? The development of personnel systems in us industry. American Sociological Review, pp. 497 -- 514.

Bronfenbrenner, K. (1996). Role of union strategies in nlrb certification elections, the. Indus. & Lab. Rel. Rev., 50 p. 195.

Democratizing the Global Economy: Empowering Workers, Building Democracy, Achieving Shared Prosperity. (2005). [e-book] Available through: AFL-CIO  [Accessed: 21 Feb 2014].

Lindsey, A. (1964). The pullman strike. Chicago: University Of Chicago Press.
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Fashion Industry the Decline of the Department

Words: 1367 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 55326715

Fashion Industry

The decline of the department store has been ongoing for a number of years. I agree with the general statement that department stores in struggling in part because they have facing a more competitive environment. Not only do department stores compete against each other, but they also must compete against discount stores, specialty stores and category killers. In essence, the department store is a generalist in an environment full of specialists. The department store must find ways to innovate its business model in order to succeed in the future.

Competition has taken its toll on department stores. Department stores essentially thrive in an era when there was a certain degree of information asymmetry for consumers, as they were relatively unable to comparison shop beyond more than a few stores. Consumers may have been price sensitive, but their price awareness was not as acute as it is today. Moreover,…… [Read More]

Works Cited:

Cavallino Capital (2009). Cause of department stores' decline: Changing spending habits. Seeking Alpha. Retrieved May 1, 2011 from 

Levinson, M. (2005). The decline of the department store. CIO Magazine. Retrieved May 1, 2011 from

QuickMBA. (2010). Porter's generic strategies. Retrieved May 1, 2011 from
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Improving Emergency Department Flow by Using a Provider in Triage

Words: 11016 Length: 25 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 23819753

Emergency oom Efficiency

Improving Emergency Department Flow by Using a Provider in Triage

Emergency room triage plays an essential role in the speed and quality of the emergency room departments. Triage represents only one small part of the process that determines quality of patient care. Emergency rooms can be crowded. Busy times are often unpredictable, making it difficult to avoid bottlenecks in the system. This has an affect on the amount of time between arrival and when the patient sees a physician. Patients can be in for frustrating long waits while sitting in the hospital lobby.Patients often leave the emergency room waiting areas without being seen because they get tired of waiting. These patients are referred to as left-without-being seen (LWBS). educing LWBS rates is crucial for improving quality of patient care in emergency rooms. Long waits also cause a potential liability for the hospitals, as patients that are critically…… [Read More]


Arkun, A,, Briggs, W., & Patel, S. et al. (2010). Emergency Department Crowding: Factors

Influencing Flow. West J. Emerg Med. 11(1): 10 -- 15. PMCID: PMC2850834

Armstrong, J., Hammond, J, & Hirshberg A, et al. (2008).Is overtriage associated with increased mortality? The evidence says "yes." Disaster Med Public Health Prep. P. D: 18388647. 2(1):4-5;

Bieler, G., Paroz, S., & Faouzi M, et al. (2012). Social and medical vulnerability factors of emergency department frequent users in a universal health insurance system. Acad Emerg Med. 19(1):63-8.
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Helpdesk Optimization for Many Organizations Support Departments

Words: 626 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 66496370

Helpdesk Optimization

For many organizations, support departments for the resolution of customer problems are an afterthought. After all, shouldn't the product be so well-developed, so user-friendly, so cleverly designed, so perfect that no one should need help implementing and using it? However, aside from apples (the edible kind) the foolproof product has yet to be developed. This means that users will require support -- and in order to maintain customer loyalty and satisfaction, this support should come from the source. Helpdesk dynamics need to be as well-engineered as possible in order to ensure maximum efficiency and minimum customer frustration. Below, I'll talk about the five most important things IT managers need to do in order to optimize helpdesk performance.

The ight Tools For The ight Job: Support techs and consultants need to be able to stay on a call as long as it takes to close the problem satisfactorily. Help…… [Read More]


Lopp, M. (2007). Managing Humans. New York: Apress.

Mager, R., & Pipe, P. (1997). Analyzing Performance Problems. Atlanta: Center for Effective Performance.