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eviewing and changing standard fire fighting procedures for high rise buildings incidents
The main aim of this research paper is to not only review the current standards for fighting fire in high rise buildings but to also recommend various ways to improve those standards. Furthermore, the paper also reviews how these standards may affect the current fire fighting methods. The needs of the local Chief Fire Officers, the current fire department hierarchy as well as the international contemporary practices have been kept in mind while suggesting the recommendations for change and improvement. According to the opinion of the people working in the fire departments the reason why the high storey buildings are at a higher risk of a fire starting there is because since, these buildings are larger in size therefore a lot more people work there who can become more careless (ussell, 2004). Also, there is a…
AOC (Aukland Operations Center). (1996). High rise building procedure FG/III/5. Auckland, NZ: Auckland Area, NZFS.
Bennett, J.A. (2000). High rise firefighting from top to bottom, part 3. American Fire Journal, May, pp.16-17.
Bennett, J.A. (2000). High rise firefighting from top to bottom, part 4. American Fire Journal, October, pp.12-15.
Carter, H.R. (1992). High rise firefighting: A look at the problems. The VOICE, October, pp. 8-9.
The entire Other Benefits expenditure category budget will be reduced to $94,000 from $102,404 in 2009 (City of Piedmont, 2010).
The City of Piedmont's Fire Department strategy in order to cope with the budget reduction seems to be somewhat successful. In order for the operations budget not to suffer from this budget reduction, the department reduces adjacent expenditures, like uniform allowances, or office supplies.
Other fire departments in the country struggle with a much more difficult situation. The St. Louis Fire Department is threatened by a significant budget cut. The $50 million budget is estimated to be reduced by $3.6 million.
The amount is immense for the department's manager, who is considering several actions that he could take in order for the fire fighters and the people they serve to suffer as less as possible from this budget cut. Therefore, the city firefighters agree to having their salaries reduced, or…
1. Prochazka, M. (2010). Stop James Island Fire Department Budget Cuts. Retrieved August 30, 2010 from http://www.thepetitionsite.com/1/stop-james-island-fire-department-budget-cuts/ .
2. Fire Department Budget (2010). City of Piedmont. Retrieved August 30, 2010 from http://www.ci.piedmont.ca.us/finance/budget/09-10/fire.pdf .
3. St. Louis Fire Department Faces Possible Budget Cut (2010). FireFighting News. Retrieved August 30, 2010 from http://www.firefightingnews.com/article.cfm?articleID=80491.
There is a strong spirit of volunteerism in El Dorado: people often volunteer to improve the parks and to facilitate the transmission of local services, including those of the Fire Department (El Dorado Hills Fire Department, 2010, Official Website).
However, while public and local governmental support for funding the Fire Department is strong, recently there has been some legal controversy regarding appointments and policies within the district. For example, legal fees for the Garden Valley Fire Protection District (GVFPD) within the county of El Dorado were found to have "increased dramatically from fiscal year 2006 to fiscal year 2009" (El Dorado County Grand Jury, 2009-2010, p.1). "The legal fees were a result of personnel and disciplinary actions by the GVFPD" and there were payroll discrepancies reported during that period (El Dorado County Grand Jury, 2009-2010, p.3). The department was criticized for importing too many outside personnel to fight fires that…
About El Dorado County. (2010). Fire Safe Council. Retrieved September 6, 2010 at http://www.edcfiresafe.org/
About El Dorado Hills. (2010). El Dorado Hills Community Service District.
Retrieved September 6, 2010 at http://www.edhcsd.org/our_local_government.html
Cooper, Michael. (2010, August 26). Struggling cities shut firehouses. The New York Times.
The Department strives to keep abreast of recent developments in fire safety to ensure that all existing laws support the most fuel-efficient home and yard construction possible. The Fire Department also strives to meet the new social challenges presented by the current economic environment. According to the June 15, 2010 minutes of the Board of Directors meeting, the Department decided to engage in a "weed abatement" campaign to weed and reduce fire hazards on abandoned properties facing foreclosure.
The El Dorado Hills Fire Department continually reaches out to the community and works with local agencies and residents to reduce fires through awareness-raising endeavors. Fire Safety week seeks to educate the community about proper use and testing of smoke alarms. Fuel treatment and tree planting guidelines are widely publicized. The Department also hosts events such as an annual "Wine, Cheese, and Brew Festival" to raise money, offers CP classes, free car…
About El Dorado County. (2010). Fire Safe Council. Retrieved August 28, 2010 at http://www.edcfiresafe.org/
El Dorado Hills Fire Department. (2010). Official Web Page. Retrieved August 28, 2010 at
Having served the community since its inception in 1963, the Fire Department is fully equipped in terms of equipment and manpower to handle both its daily duties to the community and disaster events. Over the years, it has grown with the community in and is currently fully able to handle all of the community's demands for both emergency and additional services.
Currently, the El Dorado Hills Fire Department includes 15 Administrative Staff members, 51 paid Firefighters and Paramedics, and 34 Volunteers working with paid personnel. There are four stations across the District, strategically placed to serve the community effectively.
In 1963, the El Dorado Hills Fire Department was founded as part of the County Water District. At the time, the District included only one fire station to serve its 10,500 acres, ninety homes, and facilities such as a school and market. Over more than forty years since, the District grew…
El Dorado Hills Fire Department (2010). Retrieved from http://www.edhfire.com
However, even with this disclaimer, the plan does miss out on several important elements that should have been present, while detailing too much on some of the others. First of all, the strategic plan appears to be a long list of proposes strategic or tactical objectives, with a brief evaluation of their development stage, but nothing else. A proper business plan should have limited the number of objectives that the department proposes for itself and should have discussed how these objectives can be reached.
For example, the department has set for itself a goal of pursuing federal and state grants, but there was no strategy developed as to how this is going to be undertaken. At the same time, the human resource policy, just like the financial policy, seems very vague. The department has a number of objectives, but it is difficult to analyze to which degree there are the…
1. Honolulu Fire Department -- Master Strategic Plan. February 2008. On the Internet at http://www.honolulu.gov/hfd/20082012masterstrategicplan.pdf . Last retrieved on August 19, 2010
Honolulu Fire Department -- Master Strategic Plan. February 2008. On the Internet at
Fire Department Functions
The fire department is one of many emergency response divisions that are critical to protecting communities. The fire department is called to respond to or to serve as support for emergencies like wildland and structure fires, floods, earthquakes, hazardous material spills, and medical aids. (Cal Fire, N.d.). However, there roles in the community go far beyond just emergency response and they also play a proactive role in preventative measures. Prevention can include anything from education and outreach to enforcing building codes and fire safety plans. This paper will briefly introduce different ways that the fire department integrates within a community.
The fire department must work with local government and local officials regularly to coordinate efforts on many fronts. Fire departments are generally reliant upon the local governments as a source of funding and this relationship can often determine the resources that are granted to local departments. However,…
Cal Fire. (N.d.). Cooperative Efforts. Retrieved from Cal Fire: http://www.fire.ca.gov/fire_protection/fire_protection_coop_efforts.php
FEMA. (2012, February). Your Role in Fire-Adapted Communities. Retrieved from FEMA: http://www.usfa.fema.gov/downloads/pdf/publications/fire_adapted_communities.pdf
These have all been possible as a result of the rapid intervention procedures in place and the specialized training each firefighter has undergone.
Indeed, rapid intervention team operations have become the norm and have proven invaluable in almost all situations the fire service handles. ut RIT operations have only been institutionalized in the fire service during the last few decades. As McGrail writes in his book Firefighter Operations in High-Rise and Standpipe-Equipped uildings McGrail (2007, p. 59):
During the decade of the '90s, and into the beginning of the 21st century, the whole concept of rapid intervention was developed and has evolved into what it is today. From a time when even the term RIT was foreign to most fire departments, to today when RIT is not only common term to most, it is now the topic of countless articles...most fire departments operate with some form of RIT in a…
Kirby, M. & Lakamp, T. (2010, August 1). "Challenges of the modern fireground." Firefighter Nation. Retrieved July 18, 2011 from http://dev2000.firefighternation.com/article/firefighting-operations/challenges-modern-fireground
Lasky, R. (2006). Pride and ownership: A firefighter's love of the job. Tulsa, OK: PennWell Corporation.
McGrail, D.M. (2007). Firefighter operations in high-rise and standpipe-equipped buildings. Tulsa, OK: PennWell Corporation.
Moynihan, D.P. (2007, June 11). "From forest fires to Hurricane Katrina: Case studies of incident command systems." IBM Center for The Business of Government -- Networks and Partnerships Series. Retrieved July 18, 2011 from http://www.rrt9.org/external/content/document/2763/716399/1/ICS%20from%20forest%20fires%20to%20Katrina%20-%20Moynihan.pdf
Criminal and Civil Laws
Fire fighting departments operate under some civil and criminal laws. In the operations of the fire departments, there are regulations that are supposed to be taken into consideration for purposes of making the operations of the department work well. In this case, the juniors and seniors in the fire operations department have to work withing some conditions so that their service delivery becomes successful. Possibly, conflicts might arise in the process of trying to get the work done. When conflicts arise, their resolution can only be made up when there is a complement adherence to the laws and regulations (Schroll, 2011).
Criminal and civil aspects
In the process of conducting a fire-fighting mission, the personnel may encounter various tempting circumstances as they undertake their duties. The first criminal aspect regards the cause of the fire or the circumstances surrounding its occurrence. Ideally, it is important to…
Schmalleger, F. (2012). Criminal justice: A brief introduction (9th ed.). Boston: Prentice Hall.
Schroll, R. (2011). Industrial Fire Protection Handbook (2nd Ed.). Boca Raton, Fla.: CRC Press.
Acceptable Use Policy for the Fire Department
Designing, Developing, Implementing Acceptable Use Policy (AUP) Computers integral part fabric daily life fire service. Once a luxury, computer a necessity a multitude functions: computer aided dispatch, fire incident reporting, creating work schedules, outlining
Purpose of the Acceptable Use Policy
The fire department owns and operates the computing systems that are provided for use by the employees, fire men and women. The computing systems support the workers in managing and operating technology related services. These systems are to be used for the purposes of emergency response, communications, reporting, and public services only. This Acceptable Use Policy has been formulated to ensure that the computing systems, network, and facilities are used appropriately, efficiently, ethically, effectively, and in a lawful manner by all employees and community members. The AUP establishes prohibitions and rules that will define the acceptable use of the computing systems and the…
Ciampa, M.D. (2011). Security+ Guide to Network Security Fundamentals [With Access Code]. Boston, MA: Course Technology, Cengage Learning.
Flowers, B.F., & Rakes, G.C. (2000). Analyses of Acceptable Use Policies Regarding the Internet in Selected K-12 Schools. [Article]. Journal of Research on Computing in Education, 32(3), 351.
Miller, J. (2004). Intellectual Freedom and the Internet: Developing Acceptable Use Policies. [Article]. School Libraries in Canada, 23(3), 24-33.
Rusk, M. (2001). Acceptable Use Policies: Four Examples from Community College Libraries. [Article]. Community & Junior College Libraries, 10(2), 83.
Recruiting Minorities into Fire Department
A Diversity Plan for the Nashville Fire Department
The major goal of this plan is to increase the application of minority groups in the Nashville Fire Department. There are three specific objectives towards this goal, namely:
To identify problems and barriers to the recruitment of minorities into the fire department,
To develop strategies to address these problems
To develop programs and other benefits to retain minority employees within the fire department.
Despite efforts to diversify its workforce, the Nashville Fire Department still encounters problems with recruiting and retaining sexual and racial minority applicants. This proposal a request for funding to study the issues faced by minority firefighter applicants with the Nashville Fire Department. This proposal also includes a request to fund programs that aim to address these issues and thereby increase racial and gender diversity within the Nashville Fire Department.
The recruitment and retention…
Increasingly, these EMS services are becoming the bread and butter funding sources increasingly for fire departments (FEMA, 2010, p. 1-1).
These fees and the decisions that are made by city, local and county officials literally translate into life and death for the citizens of the affected areas. In addition, the question of who should pay is raised, raising basic questions of governance and equity. Should only the users of such services pay the burden of the services that they are provided with? Should the EMS and protection services be treated as we would insurance in which the fees that are charged are a function of the risks presented? Should these services be considered as being provided to those who are in need with the costs spread evenly across the whole society? Are "user charges" for such life-saving services immoral (ibid, p. 1-1)?
In addition to fees, many local agencies have…
Cueller, Dann & Bloomquist, Sarah. (2010, July 27). Philadelphia fire department faces budget cuts. Retrieved from http://abclocal.go.com/wpvi/story?section=news/local&id=7576619.
Federal Emergency Management Agency. (2010). Funding alternatives for fire and emergency services. Retrieved from www.usfa.dhs.gov/downloads/pdf/publications/fa-141.pdf
Laitner, Bill. (2010, September 16). Bloomfield mansion burns out of control. Retrieved from http://www.freep.com/article/20100916/NEWS03/100916071 .
San diego fire-rescue department 9-1-1 emergency medical services. Retrieved from http://www.sandiego.gov/fireandems/911/emshist.shtml .
The prevention also includes the department's collaboration with the community.
This is because the community must support the prevention activity of the El Dorado Hills Fire Department. This is the reason for which the department has initiated a series of training sessions and other activities intended to increase the degree of awareness among the population regarding the issues addressed by the department.
The department's initiative in this direction also allows and encourages the public to view a series of videos posted on the department's website about fire prevention. This is a low cost prevention measure that can help both the department and the community in case.
However, it seems that the community's opinion regarding the most important issues in fire and life safety is somewhat different from that of the department. The community would rather let the entire responsibility regarding fire and life safety to the El Dorado Hills Department.…
Of these the police had the least stressors while the ambulance service respondents had severe work-related pressures and problems of psychological well-being. The research showed that the work-family conflict, neuroticism and job satisfaction were similar for all these services. This is an issue that must be addressed if the fire department has to function properly.
While training the personnel to be leaders, there must be a way of removing the stress factor. This is important because the stress can cause problems in inter-personnel behavior. There is a problem of work stress and definition of roles within the system. The study by Bennett et al. (2005) says that personnel of both sexes are subject to high levels of stress and will develop trauma and depression. Some of the reasons cited are that there is no supportive environment to the staff and secondly there is no social support for the relief of…
Barrett, Mary; Davidson, Marilyn J. (2006) "Gender and Communication at Work:"
Bennett, G, et al. (2005) "Associations between organizational and incident factors and emotional distress in emergency ambulance personnel" British Journal of Clinical Psychology, vol. 44, no. 2, pp. 215-226.
Brough, Paula. (2005) "A Comparative Investigation of the Predictors of Work-Related
A town with 3,000 residents simply cannot afford the expense of hiring full-time career firefighters" ("Heat on Volunteer Firefighters," 2007, p. A15). In case of an out of control fire, smaller towns and communities traditionally rely on volunteer firefighters.
Volunteer Fire Departments' Tasks in case of out of control fire, both paid and volunteer fire departments perform basically identical tasks (Snook, et al., 2006). Services volunteer fire departments provide include, but are not limited to the following:
Emergency medical services
First responder - non-transport
Basic life support - with transport capability
Advance life support - with transport capability
Hazardous materials response
Confined space rescue
High angle rescue
5. Public information and education a. Fire prevention programs for adults and children b. Public presentations for a variety of community organizations
6. Inspection services
7. Fund raising activities…
Brown, E. (1999). The scope of volunteer activity and public service. Law and Contemporary Problems, 62(4), 17. Retrieved December 31, 2008, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5001895957 www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5001358932
Clay, F. (1998, July). Managers and the volunteer fire service: Sharing common ground. Public Management, 80, 16+. Retrieved December 31, 2008, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5001358932
The Columbia World of Quotations. (1996). New York: Columbia University Press. www.bartleby.com/66/
Fire departments. (2008). U.S. Fire Administration. Retrieved January 1, 2009, from www.usfa.dhs.gov/statistics/departments/index.shtm
Emergency personnel occupying the fire and emergency services make day-to-day decisions and their behavior contributes to the constant evolving of public perceptions. The negative perception of the public due to their scrutiny of fire and emergency operations, budgets, and behavior has slowly tarnished the image of these departments. Therefore, measures should be undertaken in saving the image of the fire and emergency services field through talking openly, reflecting on honesty, working collaboratively, taking responsibility for upcoming issues and acting professionally. The following study looks at the perceptions of the public concerning the Fire Department and the factors influencing their opinions. In addition, the paper looks at what they do in an attempt to either increase or decrease the perceptions of their communities. Furthermore, it identifies the Fire Department’s activities aimed at establishing positive perceptions from community members.
Fire Departments continue to be under scrutiny, and they continue to…
Organizational structure and physical structures are the two main components of fire departments in any community. The following is a proposal for a newly designed fire department in a suburban area. Occupational safety, integration with community infrastructure, and strategic alliances with other public service sectors will all be included in the department design proposal.
Organizational structure in fire departments is in dire need of change. In some departments, that change is happening from the top down, as departments respond to the needs of young recruits and rookies who may be unfamiliar or uncomfortable with the “paramilitary” culture that has permeated the service (Shaw, 2011). However, it is not just a matter of matching organizational culture to suit the norms of the next generation. Restructuring fire departments is best practice for safety. According to Brauer (2016), organizational structure problems have been directly linked to increased ratios of fatalities: “the…
The one-size-fits-all approach is not applicable in the context of social networking in corporate firms and workplaces. The advantages of social media are contingent on the type of networking platform, its features, and the organization itself. Since their inception, social networking sites have been known to play a critical role in improving the communication and productivity of compliant firms. In the contemporary society, the fire service also uses mainstream social networking platforms for receiving and disseminating information. The traditional reliance on print media as a source of information has faded away as social media provides an unlimited amount of data at a mere keystroke. With the help of media sources, firefighters are linked to the outside world and their communication is not limited to scanners and radios. Social media has transformed the manner in which people operate, and the fire department has stay attuned to the trends. Therefore, the fire…
hether involvement is through full time employment or volunteer service, the challenges of today's fire service demand commitment to training, education, experience and self-development. One's professional development is a journey, not a destination. Remember Patience, persistence and perspiration make an unbeatable combination for success.
You've achieved success in your field when you don't know whether what you're doing is work or play.
First In, Last Out Review in Publishers eekly, Reed Business Information, a division of Reed Elsevier Inc. (2004)
International Association of Fire Chiefs Officer Development Handbook First Edition, November 2003, Published in partnership with the IAFC Foundation, (2003), New York: International Association of Fire Chiefs, http://www.iafc.org/associations/4685/files/OffrsHdbkFINAL3.pdf (Retrieved August 20, 2006).
Salka, John, and Neville, Barret. First In, Last Out: Leadership Lessons from the New York Fire Department (New York, Penguin Group, USA, Inc. 2004).
Thomas M. Cunningham, Emergency Services Information Site: Leadership…
First In, Last Out Review in Publishers Weekly, Reed Business Information, a division of Reed Elsevier Inc. (2004)
International Association of Fire Chiefs Officer Development Handbook First Edition, November 2003, Published in partnership with the IAFC Foundation, (2003), New York: International Association of Fire Chiefs, http://www.iafc.org/associations/4685/files/OffrsHdbkFINAL3.pdf (Retrieved August 20, 2006).
Salka, John, and Neville, Barret. First In, Last Out: Leadership Lessons from the New York Fire Department (New York, Penguin Group, USA, Inc. 2004).
Thomas M. Cunningham, Emergency Services Information Site: Leadership 101: Integrity, http://www.withthecommand.com/2002-Aug/MD-TMC-leader-integ101.html (Retrieved August 20, 2006)
Kevin Golden v. Town of Collierville 06a0062n.06; 167 Fed. Appx. 474; 2006 U.S. App.
Plaintiff firefighter appealed a decision of the United States District Court for the estern District of Tennessee, which granted summary judgment in favor of defendants, a town, its administrator, a fire chief, and an assistant fire chief, on his procedural due process and equal protection claims under 42 U.S.C.S. § 1983. The district court also dismissed the firefighter's claims for civil conspiracy under state law.
The firefighter, who was white, claimed that he was offered but then denied a promotion to the position of fire lieutenant because of his race. Instead, another firefighter who was black was promoted to the position. Defendants argued that the black firefighter was promoted because he ranked above the white firefighter in the testing and interview process. On appeal from the district court's decision, the court held: the district court properly…
Biondo v. City of Chicago 2002 U.S. Dist.
Columbus Civil Service Commission v. McGlone 82 Ohio St. 3d 569; 1998 Ohio 410; 697
N.E.2d 204; 1998 Ohio
Gary L. Knapp et al. v. City of Columbus 06a0472n.06; 192 Fed. Appx. 323; 2006 U.S. App.
Fire Suppression Systems
Fire results when fuel, oxidant, and sufficient heat combine in time and place (New Zealand Institute of Chemistry, n.d.). The fuel is typically a carbon-based material like paper, wood, oil, or gas, while ambient air typically provides the oxidant in the form of oxygen. Other oxidants include nitrates, chlorates, and peroxides and therefore should never be stored alongside fuel materials. For combustion to occur the heat must sufficient to ignite the fuel. Once ignited the chemical reaction is typically extremely exothermic and becomes self-perpetuating in the presence of fuel and oxidant. If heat accumulates faster than it can be dissipated to the surrounding environment an explosion will occur.
The three ways in which heat can be dissipated is through conduction along a temperature gradient, convection due to movement of the gaseous fire matter, and radiation to other surfaces (New Zealand Institute of Chemistry, n.d.). The primary method…
IFSTA (International Fire Service Training Association). (2009). Fire Inspection and Code Enforcement, Seventh Edition. Stillwater, OK: Fire Protection Publications.
Knowlton, B.E. (2012). The effects of using fire-fighting foams: GC-MS pattern analysis of fire debris. (Masters of Science dissertation). Retrieved from ProQuest. UMI No. 1520731.
Moore, P.E. (1996). Suppressants for the control of industrial explosions. Journal of Loss Prevention in the Process Industries, 9(1), 119-123.
New Zealand Institute of Chemistry. (n.d.). Chemistry in fire fighting. Retrieved from http://nzic.org.nz/ChemProcesses/environment/14C.pdf .
Fire services are on the front lines of community safety, and are occasionally integrated with other community organizations. However, fire service affiliations with other community groups are frequently underutilized. Fire service organizations sometimes fail to form effective alliances with community groups, and vice-versa, leading to breakdowns in communication and diminished delivery of service. Given the relationship value inherent in forming deeper and broader affiliations within the community, fire service organizations and the areas they serve benefit tremendously from relational and institutional embeddedness. Relational and institutional embeddedness refers to the comprehensive coordination of communications and other critical services, not just when responding to disasters. Relationship value is created throughout the processes of disaster prevention.
One of the ways community group affiliation with the fire service creates value is through the process of education, public relations, and public awareness, and how awareness promotes public safety. Affiliated groups need to establish ongoing information…
It association with the DH means that the UFA is closer to the ecretary's office, with a direct presence at the DH headquarters.
The UFA's association with the DH brought a number of new opportunities to represent the nation's fire service. The National Operation Center (NOC), for example, works closely with the U.. FA in order to create a safe environment for citizens. The Center provides the DH with data regarding national and global situational awareness. According to Dickinson, it is vital that the fire service be represented in this organization, as it can only protect the country's citizens properly if it has access to the most relevant, up-to-date information regarding threats to the country.
Another contribution by the UFA within the Preparedness Directorate is the Incident
Management Teams created in order to handle emergencies. These teams are trained according to the best, most up-to-date training techniques of the fire…
Dickinson, Charlie. USFA Transition to the Federal emergency Management Agency (FEMA). United States Fire Administration, May 4, 2007. http://www.usfa.dhs.gov/about/chiefs-corner/
Nicholson, John. Fire Service and homeland security. NFPA Journal, Mar/Apr. 2003. Online database: FindArticles.com
Fire Investigation Unit
How important is it to a city fire department to have an investigation unit? Since police departments in most cities have an investigation unit -- it seems logical given the issues related to fire and arson that fire departments should also incorporate investigation units into their programs. This paper provides positive arguments in favor of an investigation unit, arguments that the fire chief can use in his presentation to the county council.
The field of fire investigation is "…extremely specialized" and there are a very limited number of "truly certified individuals" that have the needed training and experience to conduct "thorough, competent investigations" (United Professional Fire Fighters). In other words, fire departments should hire a proven professional in this field -- or select one or more quality firefighters from the current department to be sent to a training program -- and in either case this will cost…
Flannery Associates. (2008). Section 4 -- Fire Investigation & Arson / Unit 1 -- Fire Investigation
& Fire Loss. Retrieved October 26, 2012, from http://web.jjay.cuny.edu/~tglan/documents/101docs/FIS101fireinvestigation.pdf.
United Professional Firefighters of Contra Costa County. (2010). Fire Investigation Unit.
Retrieved October 26, 2012, from http://www.iafflocal1230.org .
The requirements are more specific in terms of the size and placement of the fire extinguishers. These shall be located no further than 75 ft (23 m) from the Class D hazard. In this case, the placement of the fire extinguishers will be determined by the location of the metal fabrication facilities. Assuming that these are located in the center of the room, and that the distance from the center to the corners is not longer than 75 ft, the fire extinguishers can be located in the four corners of each of the rooms in which the metals are produced. The size will be determined by the particular metals being produced, however, it appears that 40 should be sufficiently strong to counter a potential fire hazard.
All fire extinguishers will be inspected every 30 days, with regular maintenance every year. Given the class of fire hazard, regular maintenance can be…
1. Fire Alarm System Categories. On the Internet at http://www.sdfirealarms.co.uk/fire-alarm-systems-categories. Last retrieved on August 17, 2011
2. NFPA 10. On the Internet at http://www.minhbao.com.vn/userfiles/file/A-%20NFPA_10 (2).pdf. Last retrieved on August 17, 2011
Fire Alarm System Categories. On the Internet at http://www.sdfirealarms.co.uk/fire-alarm-systems-categories. Last retrieved on August 17, 2011
NFPA 10. On the Internet at
Deng, Tzu-Jeng, Charng-Horng Hsieh, Her-Jiun heu, Chyan Yang. (2001) A conceptual framework for improving fire-fighting service quality of a public fire department.
Includes results of a study on improving fire-fighting services by improving fire fighting and recognition techniques. Good for those interested in other than wildland fires, and those interested in going into fire management.
International Journal of Public Administration, Vol. 24, 405.
Drysdale, Dougal. (1999, October). An introduction to fire dynamics, 2nd Edition. John Wiley & ons.
Problems addressed include: the conditions necessary for ignition and steady burning of combustible materials to occur, how large a fire has to become before fire detectors and sprinkler heads will operate, and the circum- stances that can lead to flashover in a compartment.
A very comprehensive information on fire behavior, especially from an engineering viewpoint. Identifies fire science and fire dynamics and provides the scientific back- ground necessary…
Staff. (2002) Introduction to fire behavior. University Corporation for Atmospheric Research.
Provides an overview of factors that affect the ignition and spread of wildfire. Information is presented with 3-dimensional graphics and animations as well as audio descriptions and commentary provided by a fire behavior expert.
A good description of the different weather patterns affecting fire behavior, for a management and layman audience. http://meted.ucar.edu/fire/fwx
(The Hackensack Fire adio Communications Issue)
Although there was plenty of controversy surrounding the issue, wherein some stated that it was plain human error, and bad judgment, while some others stated that it was because of interference, or due to mechanical malfunction, the actual truth, as it was later discovered, was that the firefighters had been inadvertently transmitting their communications on a general channel, and since nobody listened to it, no one knew that they were all trapped upstairs, and therefore, no one could rescue them. Since the fact cannot be proved beyond reasonable doubt, and since not one of those firefighters in the incident came out alive, one must believe that a combination of different factors led to such grave fatalities in the firefighting department of Hackensack, in July 1, 1988, in New Jersey. (The Hackensack Fire adio Communications Issue)
Analysis report on Firefighter Fatalities. Fire Analysis and…
Analysis report on Firefighter Fatalities. Fire Analysis and Research Division: National Fire
Protection Association. August, 1989. Retrieved From www.everyonegoeshome.com/PDF/Fatality%2520Reports_Studies/1988%2520Report.pdf+firefighter+fatalities+in+Hackensack+in+1988&hl=en" http://www.everyonegoeshome.com/PDF/Fatality%20Reports_Studies/1988%20Report.pdf. Accessed 23 October, 2005
History of the Hackensack Fire Department. Retrieved at http://www.hackensack.org/content/49/142/229/default.aspx . Accessed 23 October, 2005
Preventing Injuries and Deaths of Fire Fighters due to Truss System Failures. National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health Publication. 2005. Retrieved at http://www.cdc.gov/niosh/docs/2005-132/#sumAccessed 23 October, 2005
Advancements in Pumpers:
The modern history of fire pumpers can be traced back to the late 19th century, when fire pumpers such as the Ronald steam-powered, horse drawn pumper was used. In many areas, private horse-team owners were relied upon to pull these pumpers when the fire bell was rung. The early 1900s saw the popularization of gasoline engine and chain driven fire pumper. Today, fire pumpers are technological marvels. Many are built on custom truck platforms, but they are upgraded to meet the specifications of the fire departments they are being built for. These are built for high durability, with upgraded suspension, tires, brakes, transmission, alternator, and cooling systems. The speed limiter is typically removed, and adjustments are made to accommodate the long idling periods ("History of the Fire Engine").
The electronics are also typically custom designed. These include visual and audible warnings. They also often include a two-way…
"Choosing a Handline Nozzle." Akron Brass Company. n.d. Web. 19 Nov. 2010. .
Gilbert, D. "History of Fire Hose
." Crown Shop Talk. n.d. Web. 18 Nov. 2010. .
"History of the Fire Engine." History of Firefighting. n.d. Web. 19 Nov. 2010. .
The Needs for Improved Technologies in the Operations of the United States Fire Administration for More Efficient Performances
February 25, 2019
Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA), is a division under the United States Department of Homeland Security (DHS). Created on the 1st April 1979 by the US former president, Jimmy Carter and was brought under DHS in 2003. For almost four decades of its creation, FEMA has been relentlessly committed to helping people before, during, and after disasters, which are its obligations as stated in its statutory mission statement. The agency has been helping US residents to prevent and avert impending dangers, and also providing succor to some in the event of natural and human-made disasters in the country. One of the responsibilities the agency is saddled with is the prevention and management of fire incidents in the country, which is managed by the U.S. Fire Administration (USFA). In carrying…
Six people died and several more were severely injured in the 2003 Chicago Loop high rise fire, at the Cook County Administrative Building. Around 2,500 government employees work in the building, which was built in the 1960s and bought by the county in 1996. Officials now believe that many of the fire's casualties could have been prevented had the building fire safety codes been up-to-date and had proper protocols for evacuation been followed by the Chicago ire Department. Although the building did have an official fire evacuation plan, it was not followed, and although evacuation drills were conducted four times a year, the evacuation procedure was chaotic and disorganized. Conflicts of interest related to political ties between the mayor's office and the building management company may be partially responsible for the building's inadequate safety features such as its lack of a sprinkler system. In addition to the building's…
Fire safety officials arrived in good time, but even their evacuation and fire fighting protocols were not followed. For example, Captain Michael Gubricky elected to fight the fire from the southeast stairwell, which was the building's smoke tower. The smoke tower is in place mainly to offer an evacuation route because of the increased ventilation. The Captain's decision was unwarranted, given that the smoke tower is supposed to be used as an evacuation route and only as a last resort for fighting the fire. Fighting the fire from the smoke tower was not only dangerous, it diverted fire fighting attention that needed to be given to the persons trapped in the building's other stairwells. Some of the victims reported that firefighters did not listen when they were told that people were trapped in other stairwells. Firefighters failed to search the southeast stairwell, not believing that anyone was trapped there. In general, evacuation procedures were chaotic.
The role of fire safety codes is to provide a clear-cut set of rules and guidelines in case of emergencies such as this. The fire safety code becomes irrelevant if it is not followed or when its guidelines conflict with the procedures practiced by the fire department. For example, only those persons located dangerously close to the fire should have been evacuated in this case; in the future, no orders should be given for a full evacuation unless the fire department itself orders one. Building tenants should known which stairwell is the smoke tower.
Furthermore, building fire safety codes should reflect the local precinct's protocols for safety and evacuation. The security officers in the building should be thoroughly briefed on the proper protocol. Drills should be regular and consistent as well. Furthermore, the fire department should make it a priority to take over the building's public address system so that evacuation orders are clear too. Fire safety officials should work with building managers regularly to ensure that codes are met, that the building is safe, and that security officers and tenants alike are familiar with the basics of fire safety. The city of Chicago and all other cities should consider diverting funds to the renovation of pre-1975 buildings. Above all there is no excuse for the lack of override system for the stairwell doors, one feature that could have alone prevented the six deaths.
Fire-ased providers as the sole form of EMS
EU member states do not follow a uniform EMS model. This often leads to difficulties at the times of crisis as the preliminary response to the situation varies from state to state. Each region is characterized by a unique set of geographical, cultural, linguistic and medical systems. The vast differences that occur can and do hamper response procedures and critical time. Health professionals and politicians need to have instant access to data of updated EMS structure from each member state to enhance proper care promptly.
The main issues that should be addressed in the uniform code for EMS services in the EU should include the academic qualifications to be possessed by the members of the response team, medical facilities and equipments that the in-hospital and out-of- hospital emergency services should mandatorily be equipped with, a reliable mode of communication between…
Axelsson, H. (2012, 08-23). The Corporate Social and Environmental Responsibility and Human Resource Division Manager/Deputy Chief Operating Officer. (H. de Joussineau, Interviewer)
Bruce ML, Klonoski E. Schools Out! The pros and cons of distance education in EMS. Emerg Med Serv. 2004;33:49-54.
Boyd DR. The conceptual develop- ment of EMS systems in the United States: part II. Emerg Med Serv. 1982;11:27 -- 35.
http://www.med.und.nodak.edu/depts/rural/pdf/remsi.pdf. Accessed September 24, 2005
If this is the case please enlist this.
A xxii) Is the hotel equipped with an organized emergency procedure in the eventuality of a fire? A copy of this has to be appended with the complete checklist.
A xxiii) Is the hotel and its facility equipped with adequate sprinkler system? In case the entire facility is not provided with such system mention may be made as to where such sprinkler system has been installed (a) Meeting rooms (b) Corridors - Public lobbies (d) Guest ooms (e) Public Washrooms (f) Other rooms xxiv) Does the entire hotel facility have smoke detectors? In case it is no, state the locations where they are located? (a) Meeting rooms (b) Corridors - Public lobbies (d) Guest ooms (e) Other rooms xxv) Are all smoke detectors connected high tensile wires to the Central Signaling System or directly into the ire department? In case such a…
Hotels and motels" (2004) Retrieved at http://www.nfpa.org/categoryList.asp?categoryID=632&URL=Research%20&%20Reports/Safety%20fact%20sheets/Safety%20in%20other%20occupancies/Hotels%20and%20motels . Accessed on 23 November, 2004
Hotels and motels: Have a Safe Trip" Retrieved at http://www.nfpa.org/itemDetail.asp?categoryID=632&itemID=20903&URL=Research%20&%20Reports/Safety%20fact%20sheets/Safety%20in%20other%20occupancies/Hotels%20and%20motelsAccessed on 23 November, 2004
Hotel fire safety checklist" Retrieved at http://www.nfpa.org/itemDetail.asp?categoryID=816&itemID=20901&URL=Research%20&%20Reports/Safety%20fact%20sheets/Safety%20in%20other%20occupancies/Hotels%20and%20motels/Hotel%20fire%20safety%20checklistAccessed on 23 November, 2004
Hotel Fire Safety" (2003) Residential Fire Safety Institute. Retrieved at http://www.firesafehome.org/General/HotelFireSafety.asp#an%20overview%20of%20hotel%20fire%20safety. Accessed on 23 November, 2004
There are several methods for achieving these conditions within the forest. The first is prescribed burning. The goal of prescribed burning is to reduce the amount and density of surface fuels in a controlled manner. Prescribed burns also scorch and kill the lower branches of trees, preventing laddering (Fitzgerald 2005). This technique lifts the canopy off the surface, lowering the ability of the fire to climb to the high-density crown. Prescribed burns are typically carried out in regular intervals, much like the natural low-intensity fires of the past.
One of the key difficulties in prescribed burns is that some preparation may be necessary in order to reduce the amount of fuels. Otherwise, the controlled burn could easily become an uncontrollable raging forest fire. Pruning and thinning of tree stands may be necessary in order to reduce the available fuel before the prescribed burn (Fitzgerald 2005). Mowing and grading…
1. Agee, J.K. 2002. Fire behavior and fire-resilient forests. In Fitzgerald, S.A., editor. Fire in Oregon's forests: risks, effects and treatment options. A synthesis of current issues and scientific literature. Special Report prepared for the Oregon Forest Resources Institute, Portland, or; 119-126. In Fitzgerald, Stephen. 2005. Fire Ecology of Ponderosa Pine and the Rebuilding of Fire-Resilient Ponderosa Pine Ecosystems. USDA Forest Service Gen. Tech. Rep. PSW-GTR-198. [Internet]. [Cited 2009 February 19]; Available from:
2. Brown, Richard, Agee, James and Franklin, Jerry. 2004. Forest Restoration and Fire: Principles in the Context of Place. Conservation Biology. [Internet]. [Cited 2009 February 19]; 18 (4): 903-912. Available at http://www3.interscience.wiley.com/journal/118784304/abstract?CRETRY=1&SRETRY=0
3. Fitzgerald, Stephen. 2005. Fire Ecology of Ponderosa Pine and the Rebuilding of Fire-Resilient Ponderosa Pine Ecosystems. USDA Forest Service Gen. Tech. Rep. PSW-GTR-198. [Internet]. [Cited 2009 February 19]; Available at
hen an airplane catches on fire and jet fuel is the catalyst, the amount of time that the plane and the object around it will burn is dependent on many different factors. One of the primary factors is the amount of fuel that is still contained on the plane. For instance a jet that is taking a transatlantic flight will have more jet fuel than a regional flight. Investigators would need to know this type of information so that they can estimate how much time it might take for the fuel to burn off or the types of measures that need to be taken to extinguish the fire.
Investigations can also be effected by the presence of cabin fires. According to Improved Fire- and Smoke-Resistant Materials for Commercial Aircraft Interiors: A Proceedings, (1995) post crash Cabin fires have been extensively researched. A great deal of this research has occurred in…
Aircraft Accident Investigations." Retrieved June 6, 2008 from; http://www.enotes.com/forensic-science/aircraft-accident-investigations
"Fire and Explosion Investigation." Retrieved June 6, 2008 from; http://www.scsi-inc.com/FEI.html
History and Mission. Retrieved June 6, 2008 from; http://www.ntsb.gov/Abt_NTSB/history.htm
Improved Fire- and Smoke-Resistant Materials for Commercial Aircraft Interiors: A Proceedings, (1995). Retrieved June 6, 2008 from; http://books.nap.edu/catalog.php?record_id=4970#toc
Recommendation: The training staff must ensure all participants in a "live" fire training exercise "have received the training and opportunities to properly perform the job." And this is pivotal to safety measures for recruits: A student's first experience "in a live burn exercise should not be in an acquired structure" (IIL).
Structures and Facilities (NFPA 1403 4.2 & 4.2.2): Buildings selected for structural fire training exercise must be properly prepared -- which in this case, the row house at 145 South Calverton Road, it was not properly prepared. A previous ventilation drill, which opened several upper floor walls to the outside air (and the wind which was 20 miles per hour at that time) made the building "unsuitable" for live fire training. Adding to the mistakes made in the exercise at 145 South Calverton Road was the serious question as to whether the fire department had permission to burn that…
BCFD Preliminary Investigation Into The Line Of Duty Death Of Recruit Racheal M. Wilson
On February 9, 2007. (2007). Retrieved November 12, 2009, from http://www.minnesotafireservice.com/pubs_open/20070226bcfd_wilsonreport.pdf.
Goodrich, Art. (2007). Baptism by Fire or Death by Diversity? Retrieved November 12,
2009, from http://chiefreasonart.com/about-2/.
U.S. Department of State: Public Policy Issue and Sexual Harassment
U.S DEPATMENT OF STATE: PUBLIC POLICY ISSUE AND 1
Policy Issue 7
ole of technology in the process
Diversity Issues Involved
Ethical Concerns and Implications
Protection for Employee
U.S Department of State: Public Policy Issue and Sexual Harassment
Sometime back in 2010, the Albany Fire Department in Georgia established a newer "sexual harassment" policy that was in accordance with the United States Equal Employment Opportunity Commission's course of action and Federal Law. At first, the idea of sexual harassment occurred merely in sexual related claims that were against an employer. Ever since the approval of the department's policy, sexual harassment has now been spreading into every part of employment discrimination as well as the creation of a work environment that is hostile. esearch shows that hostile work environment claims are founded not just…
Baugh, S.G. (2009). On the persistence of sexual harassment in the workplace. 899-908, 34(9), 34-56. Retrieved from Journal of Business Ethics.
Cabrera, N. & . (2010). Understanding and dealing with the problem of sexual harassment in the workplace. Women in Management Review,, 11(2), 21-26.
Cates, S.V. (2013). The state of sexual harassment in america: What is the status of sexual harassment in the U.S. workplace today? Journal of Global Business Management, 8(1), 133-138.
De Coster, S.E. (2009). Routine activities and sexual harassment in the workplace. Work and Occupations, 26(1), 456-459.
It is expected that department's financial resources will be reduced.
This means that the department will be forced to make a series of modifications regarding the allocation of financial resources. The department's financial situation must be assessed in order to find out which areas require the most financial resources, which areas can function with lower levels of financial resources, and how the department's money can be reallocated.
The most important aspect that must be addressed by the department is represented by communication. In order to improve efficiency of the department's activity, it is recommended to develop and implement a strategy regarding communication that helps facilitate the communication flow within the department.
The decision-making process should also be modified. The decisions must be taken by each unit, instead of waiting for top managers to take decisions that affects these units. This strategy is intended to increase the efficiency of the activity…
The organization mainly focused on analyzing the history of the construction of the building by examining its two main sections, floors, and walls.
Cause of the Collapse:
Following its extensive and detailed investigations, alter J. Hickey Associates, Inc. presented a report on the possible cause for the collapse of the hotel. After making computations, it was discovered that the load on the cast iron column from the dead load alone was approximately 200,000 pounds in consideration of a minimal allowance for the corbelling action. However, a study revealed that the arching or corbelling effect of the C-Line all was only of slight importance. Due to the load, the bearing stress on the wall was estimated at around 7 to 8 times the permissible stress for a wall of good grade brick that has a good line cement mortar ("Investigation of Collapse," p. 45).
hile the bearing stress at the opening…
CROMBIE, EDWARD. "Significant Fires - the Vendome Hotel Fire." Hooks & Irons. EDWARD CROMBIE, 11 June 2011. Web. 25 Apr. 2012. .
Fire Rescue Magazine. "Hotel Vendome: Remembering the Worst Firefighting Tragedy in Boston's History - My Firefighter Nation." My Firefighter Nation. Firefighter Nation, 17 June 2010. Web. 25 Apr. 2012. .
"Investigation of Collapse at the Hotel Vendome." Internet Archive. USA Government Documents. Web. 25 Apr. 2012. .
"Learning the Lessons from the Past." The Company Officer. Elsevier Public Safety and Hosted Bloggers. Web. 25 Apr. 2012. .
Wildfire is an uncontrolled fire occurring in combustible vegetation, typically in an wilderness area or countryside (Pyne, Andrews, & Laven, 1996). They are commonly referred to as forest fires, brush fires, or grass fires depending on the type of vegetation involved. Wildfires are characterized in terms of the cause of ignition, their physical properties such as speed of propagation, the combustible material present, and the effect of the weather on the fire (Pyne, Andrews, & Laven, 1996). A wildfire is distinguished from other types of fires due to its size, the speed at which it can spread, and its ability to suddenly change direction and traverse inflammable gaps like rivers (Pyne, Andrews, & Laven, 1996).
In the past wildfires were viewed as strictly a local phenomena; however, wildfires now are recognized as a comprehensive global scale environmental process (Collins, 2009). Wildfires have greatly influenced the biosphere and atmosphere of the…
Collins, M. (2009). Hell on earth: The rise of more dangerous wildfires forces communities worldwide to think how they handle infernos. Government Technology's Emergency
Management, 4 (6), 22-30.
McCaffrey, S. (2002). For want of defensible space a forest is lost: Homeowners and the wildfire hazard and mitigation in the residential wildland intermix at incline village, Nevada.
Berkeley: University of California Press.
aising standards and building codes makes fire prevention a priority and legal requirement that will save the government and community money and protect lives. Another critical recommendation by FEMA and the USFA is to ensure the health and safety of fire fighters. Fire departments are staffed with paid employees, and often volunteers. These individuals deserve adequate funding to invest in necessary training, equipment, and technology to make their jobs more efficient and protect their lives (Bernstein, 2002).
The fire problem in the U.S. spans across the decades and infects the entire nation. Today, in regards to both frequency and total losses of life, America has the highest total fire losses than any modern technological society, the fact of which can no longer be ignored. The tens of thousands of deaths and injuries and the billions of dollars in property losses each year to fires are a testament to the severity…
Bernstein, G.U.S. Department of Homeland Security, Federal Emergency Management Agency.
(2002). America at risk findings and recommendations on the role of the fire service in the prevention and control of risks in america (FA-223)
Federal Emergency Management Agency, United States Fire Administration National Fire Data
Center. (1999). Profile of the urban fire problem in the United States (FA-190)TriData Corporation.
Forest Fires and Suppression
Fires are a powerful, natural phenomenon that can have a huge impact on the ecosystem and the people living in the area. A forest fire (more commonly referred to as wildfire) is any fire that may occur in a combustible vegetative environment or wilderness area. Forest fires can be ignited by either natural forces or by man's negligence. Other causes are all man-made. Fires are instigated by fuel and sustained by oxygen and heat. In forests, the trees and bushes serve as fuel. Although in a very small percentage, some forest fires are caused by spontaneous combustion. Every object has a temperature at which it ignites. This temperature is known as Flashpoint. [1: Cambridge Advanced Learner's Dictionary, Third Edition. (2008). Cambridge University Press.]
The Flashpoint for wood is 572 degree Fahrenheit. hen wood heats up to a temperature 572 degree Fahrenheit, it produces a gas that…
Work Cited (Australia), V.P. Press conference: Bushfires death toll revised to 173. Media Release. 2009.Ambrosia, V.G. Disaster Management Applications -- Fire. NASA-Ames Research Center . 2003.Cambridge Advanced Learner's Dictionary, Third Edition. Cambridge University Press. 2008.China Makes Snow to Extinguish Forest Fire. FOXNews.com. 2006.Chronological List of U.S. Billion Dollar Events. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Satellite and Information Service.Fok, C.-L., Roman, G.-C., & and Lu, C.W Mobile Agent Middleware for Sensor Networks: An Application Case Study . 2004.Group, N.W. (March 2003). The New Generation Fire Shelter .Laboratory, M.F. Fire Behavior and Danger Software. 2008. Retrieved 2012, from http://www.firemodels.org/Pyne , S.J. (n.d.). How Plants Use Fire (And Are Used By It). Retrieved from Nova Online: http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/nova/fire/plants.html Schroeder, D. Evaluation of Three Wildfire Smoke Detection Systems. Advantage (Forest Enginerring Research Institute of Canada) . 2004.Specification 5100-304c Long-Term Retardant, Wildland Firefighting. U.S. Department of Agriculture Forest Service . 2007.Townsend, H. City swelters, records tumble in heat. Melbourne: The Age. 2009.]
As the old saying goes, "prevention is better than cure." It is imperative that there is effective wildfire prevention methods employed in order to minimize the risk of eventual suppression. Prevention has its benefits as it reduces the threat of fire to the lives, environment and nearby land and buildings. It also aids in the reduction of the fire damage that is caused and reduces the costs of suppression. Smokey, the Bear was created by the U.S. Department of Agriculture Forest Service, in 1944. He was created as a fire preventive messenger to warn unaware novice campers of the dangers of their careless actions. Other prevention techniques involve the supervising authorities in the area to manage the air quality and maintain the ecological balance of their region in order to prevent conditions that lead to the ignition of forests.
Rodgers, Jr. (Rodgers, 2006). The "no contest" plea, said Rodgers, will "…alleviate the victims' families and broader community from being subjected to an emotional reliving of the tragedy at trial."
Moreover, the judge said the "no contest" plea actually means that the defendants (Jeffrey Derderian and Michael Derderian) accept responsibility for installing foam in the club that was not fireproof. The Rhode Island Fire Code requires fireproof insulation and foam for buildings like the club in question.
Duval, Robert F. (2006). NFPA Case Study: Nightclub Fires. National Fire Prevention
Association. Retrieved July 20, 2010, from http://www.nfpa.org/assets/files//PDF/Research/case_study_nightclub_fires.pdf.
Madrzykowski, Daniel, Bryner, Nelson, and Kerber, Stephen I. (2008). The NIST Station Night
Club Fire Investigation: Physical Simulation of the Fire. National Institute of Standards and Technology. Retrieved July 20, 2010, from http://www.fire.nist.gov/bfrlpubs/fire08/PDF/f08033.pdf.
Parker, Paul Edward. (2007). Tally of a tragedy: 462 were in The Station on night of fire.
Duval, Robert F. (2006). NFPA Case Study: Nightclub Fires. National Fire Prevention
Association. Retrieved July 20, 2010, from http://www.nfpa.org/assets/files//PDF/Research/case_study_nightclub_fires.pdf .
Madrzykowski, Daniel, Bryner, Nelson, and Kerber, Stephen I. (2008). The NIST Station Night
Club Fire Investigation: Physical Simulation of the Fire. National Institute of Standards and Technology. Retrieved July 20, 2010, from http://www.fire.nist.gov/bfrlpubs/fire08/PDF/f08033.pdf.
It was then important to see the degree at which technology and training played a role in combating each fire.
1.2.4.ationale of the Study
What is that can be gained from this study? The reasoning behind such a study is born out of a need to provide better training for fire fighters so that fire management systems will improve and reduce the amount of loss due to the fire. By studying such a topic, one can gain the knowledge of how to better train fire fighters and how to make his or her job safer in the process. This in turn, results in reduced losses due to the fire. This also results in higher service ratings for the fire department and an increase in morale for the community.
1.3.Definition of Terms
The Underlying Causes of Fire.
It has already become a general knowledge that the majority of forest and…
Allan, C. (2003). A Ponderosa Natural Area Reveals its Secrets. USGS. Retrieved July 11, 2005 from the World Web Wide: http://biology.usgs.gov/s+t/SNT/noframe/sw153.htm4/10/03 .
Anderson, H.E. (1983). Predicting Wind-Driven Wild Land Fire Size and Shape. Research Paper INT-305. Ogden, UT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Forest and Range Experiment Station, pp. 1-26.
Beer, T. (1990). The Australian National Bushfire Model Project. Mathematical and Computer Modeling, 13, 12, 49-56.
Calabri, G. (1982). Recent evolution and prospects for the Mediterranean region, Forest Fire prevention and control. Proceedings of an International seminar.
Since ownership of the building had not changed recently, there was no requirement to upgrade to a sprinkler system, and combined with the building's historic status, this was never done. There were also problems with water pressure and receiving water during the fire, which they recommended should be addressed.
In conclusion, the Mizpah fire was a tragic fire that did not need to occur. Had the building been equipped with a sprinkler system, the tragedy and damages could have been avoided. The City of eno has begun inspections as a result of the fire, and there have been some changes in procedure. The entire building was eventually demolished, and the site is empty today. Twelve victims might be alive today if a working sprinkler system had been installed in the building, and it is a lesson for other fire departments across the nation. They need to make it easier to…
Ockershausen, J. And Cohen, H. (2008). Twelve-fatality hotel arson: Reno, Nevada. Retrieved 24 Nov. 2008 from the USFA Web site: http://www.usfa.dhs.gov/downloads/pdf/publications/tr_164.pdf .
O'Malley, J. (2007). Deaths in Mizpah fire rise to 12 as investigators sift through ruins. Retrieved 24 Nov. 2008 from the Reno Gazette Journal Web site: http://www.rgj.com/article/20061108/NEWS06/101190030/0/NEWS .
Powers, L. (2008). Chief: Mizpah justifies checks. Report: firefighters saw mattresses less than an hour before blaze. Retrieved 24 Nov. 2008 from the Reno Gazette Journal Web site: http://www.rgj.com/article/20081115/NEWS/81115032&OAS_sitepage=news.rgj.com%2Fbreakingnews .
Turner, Laura. (2007). Firefighters use hotel for training. Retrieved 24 Nov. 2008 from the High Beam Web site: http://www.highbeam.com/doc/1G1-163865675.html .
One of the main reasons that have been highlighted by the prosecutors is that the pressure to clear up the asbestos from the basement was intense and the contractors were constantly being forced to finish the work. Because of an increased pressure, the contractors and the workers working under the contractors were working in a miscalculated manner. One of the wrong decisions that were made by the contractors was to ignore the broken water pipe in one of the floors being demolished. This has been highlighted as evidence by the District Attorney Joel Seidemann in one of his closing arguments at the trial that had been going on since two months in the Manhattan Supreme Court
Other than the three contractors, the third party that had been under investigation for more than 16 months was the New York City itself. In this case, the court mentioned that the city authority…
Association Of Fire Chiefs International. Fire Inspector: Principles and Practice. Jones & Bartlett Publishers, 2011.
Bureau of National Affairs (Arlington, Va.). Construction labor report, Volume 55, Issues 2710-2736. Bureau of National Affairs., 2009.
Eligon, John. Final Defendant Acquitted in Deutsche Bank Fire. 2011. 29 November 2011. http://www.nytimes.com/2011/07/07/nyregion/final-defendant-is-acquitted-in-deutsche-bank-fire-trial.html
Italiano, Laura. FDNY Firefighter Recalls Fatal Deutsche Bank Fire. 2011. 29 November 2011. http://www.firehouse.com/news/top-headlines/fdny-firefighter-recalls-fatal-deutsche-bank-fire
role fire has played throughout my life. Perhaps that should not be too surprising that fire should be my frame of reference. After all, I have made my living in the field of firefighting.
Fire itself is a study in contrasts. The substance that can cause searing burns also brings pleasant warmth. Its forms range from flickering candlelight to blazing infernos.
Its power to destroy and consume is matched only by its power to nurture and support life.
Even before I entered firefighting, I believe that the dual qualities of fire can be seen as a metaphor for my life. Like most young boys, I was confident but unfocused, like a flame spread in all directions. With the supreme confidence of one who thought he knew it all, I dropped out of school at ninth grade. Back then, I though that school had nothing left to teach me.
These types of programs should provide refresher courses each year for the purpose of reminding firefighters what they should remember fighting and documenting the fire. The incendiary fire is one that is highly unpredictable because it does not follow the natural progression of a fire due to having been intentionally set and possibly accelerated with some type of flammable substance that may be highly toxic. The high incident of incendiary fires in institutions can only be addressed through cooperative and collaborative efforts with these types of institutions. In relation to Incendiary fires due to cooking equipment, the fire department should initiate campaigns by which to provide public information concerning prevention of these types of fires.
2. Incendiary Fires: Documentation and Evidence
Secondly, in the case of scene and evidence documentation it is stated that the investigation must by "systematic and technically sound" and that: "One of the most common mistakes…
City of Yakima - Budget Strategy Team (2004) Online available at http://www.ci.yakima.wa.us/services/finance/minutes/2004minutes/09-10-04%20Notes.doc
Incendiary Fires (2007) LSU Fire & Emergency Training Institute Glossary. Online available at http://feti.lsu.edu/glossary/browse.php?letter=I
Gilliam, Jason W. (2006) Structure Fires and Fire Deaths within the Jurisdiction of the Farmington, Missouri Fire Department. Online available at http://www.ci.farmington.mo.us/publicworks/forms/Fires.pdf,
Burnette, Guy E. Esquire (2007) Documentation of the Fire Scene: A Legal Perspective. interfere online available at http://www.interfire.org/res_file/docscleg.asp .
Residential Fire Sprinklers
Fire Administration data shows that the most dangerous fire damage happens at home. The residential fire sprinklers installation is in high demand in the coming years as people grow high awareness for their home safety. While this trend varies from every other community and locations regarding the sufficient information and instrument availability, the need to see the quality equipments and service is a must to meet the standard security purpose. The trend should also give another light for the economy and construction business; therefore it requires good industrial handling of the products and service. The research will examine how the trend affects all sectors in community and constructions.
As Karter (1994) and Holdgate (2001) said, "about 80% of all fire deaths occur in residential properties," which makes clear of no reason why people should delay any home sprinklers installation. There are three major parts that will determine…
PR Newswire Association. Jan 27, 2000. Sprinklers Cut Loss From Fires at Home and Work; Fire Sprinklers Reduce Chances of Loss of Life and Property by More Than 50%. American Fire Sprinkler Association.
US Fire Administration. Nov 09, 1998. Home Fire Safety - Residential Sprinklers. http://www.usfa.fema.gov/dhtml/public/sprinklers.cfm .(Oct 02, 2002).
US Fire Administration. The Case for Residential Sprinklers. http://www.nfsa.org/info/thecase.html .(Oct 02, 2002).
The current setting of our country's economic position leaves many questions unanswered and creates new problems in unexpected areas. Volunteer firefighters are in short demand these days and it is necessary and important to investigate and gain knowledge of the reasons why this trend is occurring. The purpose of this essay is to examine some root causes of the current decline in volunteer firefighting across the United States of America. In addition to describing the causes of this problem, I will also introduce some proposed solutions that may be helpful in setting a new trend towards solving this problem.
Most agree in today's world volunteer firefighters are in sharp decline and retention of these workers is suffering as well. Markley (2012) recently warned the firefighting community when stated that "when the National Fire Protection Association released its latest figures on the number of firefighters in the United States…
Flemming, J. (2011, July 11). Decline in volunteering hurts fire departments around the country. Firerescue 1, Retrieved from http://www.firerescue1.com /recruitment/articles/1080089- Decline-in-volunteering-hurts-fire-departments-around-the-country/
Markley, R. (2012, March 1). "A Dangerous Dilemma. Retrieved from http://firechief.com/leadership/ar/volunteer-firefighter-recruitment-changes - 201203?page=1
Salsberry, G. (2012). As number decline nationwide, local volunteer firefighters holding steady.Colletontoday.com, 20 July 2012. Retrieved from http://colletontoday.com/news/as-number-decline-nationwide-local-volunteer - firefighters-holding-steady/article_a589fee8-d26f-11e1-9ea0-0019bb2963f4.html
Lessons Learned for Nightclub Fires
In some ways the historical events that accompanied "The Station" fire were precedent setting. In other ways, however, these historical events were sadly a little too familiar. A perfect example of this sort of dichotomy is found in the trigger to this fire. According to a report compiled by obert Duvall (2006) regarding this particular fire and nightclub fires in general, the conflagration at The Station "resulted from a form of ignition not often seen when comparing other fires in assembly occupancies: pyrotechnics" (p. 22). In this regard, the fire at The Station was unique when compared to the other fires detailed for their historical events in Duvall's document. The National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) has very specific standards and requirements for the utilization of pyrotechnics in "Existing Assembly Occupancies" (Duval, 2006, p. 22). Interestingly enough, even a cursory examination of those standards introduces the…
Duvall, R. (2006). NFPA case study: Nightclub fires. National Fire Protection Association.
The occupants might have suffered panic yet most of them were able to think properly and they made three groups. Yet, one of the female occupants was so terrified that she jumped of the sixth floor and was seriously injured but she survived. (Jennings, 1989)
After proper technical investigation, the following points were enumerated as the lessons to be learnt by the accidental fire at the Peachtree 25th Building:
Automatic sprinklers are necessary for high rise buildings. Although experts says that even the automatic water sprinklers might have failed to prevent or restrict the severity of the fire, yet they also suggest that automatic sprinklers might have helped the fire fighters to fight against the extreme high temperatures and it would have also helped the occupants to evacuate the building with much more ease.
Evacuating high rise buildings during emergency often takes more time than evacuating drills in similar conditions.…
Jennings, Charles. (1989) "Five-Fatality High-rise Office Building Fire Atlanta,
Georgia." Federal Emergency Management Agency: United States Fire Administration National Fire Data Center.
Retrieved from http://www.interfire.org/res_file/pdf/Tr-033.pdf
department employed about 100 men and women to create the wiring and connect it to different universal couplings so that speedometers, oil gauges, and other instruments would work. The final product, an under-dash wiring harness, was sent to the assembly plant for installation.
Sam developed a relationship with one of his employees, Paula, and they began dating. Paula later ended the relationship with Sam. Sam wanted to continue dating Paula, and he began exhibiting unwelcome behaviors, even after she told him to stop. Sam suggested that Paula's work might be suffering from a lack of interest.
Paula decided she could no longer work with Sam and applied for a transfer to the wire-coating department, which was not under his control. Sam blocked the transfer, citing evidence that chemicals used in wire coatings could harm an early-state fetus. Because Paula could become pregnant, Sam argued, NewCorp could not take the chance…
Kuntz, A (nd) Managers Can be Manipulated and Subsequently Burned: Know the Fable of the Monkey and the Cat's Paw
United Staqtes Dpt of Labor. Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Confined Spaces
Safety and Health Considerations in Fire Incident esponse
The issue of safety during emergency response by the fire fighters has been discussed and severally emphasized. In as much as the responders are out to save lives and property, they too need to be safe so that they do not add to the count of the victims, if any be, as well as avoid injuries in the process of saving others. There are manuals that have been developed in various states and even counties all with the aim of streamlining response to emergencies and reducing the number of deaths of both the victims and the responders. Hundreds of fire fighters die in the line of duty each year with most of the death being from the exposure to rapid fire, getting trapped by objects and collapsed buildings. It can be said that there are sufficient safety regulations and guidelines concerning the…
United States Department of Labor, (2015). Incident Command system: Incident Commander. Retrieved April 9, 2015 from https://www.osha.gov/SLTC/etools/ics/inci.html
Work Safe, (2015). Fire Fighting. Retrieved April 9, 2015 from http://www2.worksafebc.com/publications/OHSRegulation/part31.asp
Value of Team Work
The cornerstone of fire service environment is usually teamwork which is evident in each and every aspect of the fire service profession from training exercises to the most involved incidences in the course of heir operations. The fire service tradition is normally rich in tradition which is the way through which the fire service teams evolve around. The method of organization and functioning in fire service environment has various divisions whereby the firefighters are divided into various companies; ladder, engine, rescue, haz mat and so on which work in rotating shifts. The engine company is usually the basic unit for the fire service whose main duty is putting out the fire. The first engine is supposed to get a hose line in place and ensure that they put water on the fire immediately. Ventilation is among the most important tasks that has to be accomplished by…
Mills, S.(2004).Teamwork: The foundation of the fire service. Retrieved April 28, 2014 from http://www.fireengineering.com/articles/print/volume-157/issue-8/features/teamwork-the-foundation-of-the-fire-service.html
Dugan, M.(2009).Working Together: Teamwork in the fire service requires organization & strategy. Retrieved April 28, 2014 from http://www.firefighternation.com/article/firefighting-operations/working-together
Vitale, T.(2008). The 10 Traits all Great Firefighters have. Retrieved April 28, 2014 from http://www.firerecruit.com/articles/781925-The-10-traits-all-great-firefighters-have webGuru, (2014). Being an Effective Team Member. . Retrieved April 28, 2014 from http://www.webguru.neu.edu/professionalism/professionalism/being-effective-team-member
Finally, consideration of the Intel-based server function is relevant for support of the Microsoft Exchange email environment. In all cases, the Company holds licensure but is not the manufacturer of the solutions to the products used in the HR Department recovery strategy. Only it engineering staff with assistance from those product suppliers will offer full provision to risk management and immediacy during the recovery.
Recovery time objectives (RTO) and Recovery Point Objectives (RPO) to the CLIENT's Human Resource network in Lincoln are targeted as > 24 hours to point of completion. To this end, in terms of cost, the CLIENT's highest cost to risk factor is where Electronic Vaulting listed as #4 might be determined as priority during the course of initial assessment of a disaster at the site. The Lincoln location is a Warm Site #3 to Cold Site #2 in reference to the reported Survey data. It is…
What factors/operations contributed to this incident?
Several factors and operations contributed to the incident resulting in a deceased and inured firefighter. The initial response was according to standard procedure, and was admirably fast and well attended by District Major 204, Engine 11, Engine 6, Emergency Medical Service EC6, and Aerial 4. The presence of a multifaceted team should have provided the diversity of services and resources needed to control the fire in a way that reduced the likelihood of unnecessary or preventable injury. Moreover, the District Major was the first on the scene and had the capacity to respond in a way consistent with leadership protocols. The District Major was correct to first interact with civilians to find out if there were people inside the dwelling.
However, there are several core elements that bear noting. One is the equipment failure on Engine 11, in which the pressure relief valve…
Department of the Army (1971) Firefighting and rescue procedures in theaters of operations. Retrieved online: https://www.wbdg.org/ccb/ARMYCOE/COETM/tm_5_315.pdf
National Fire Protection Association (2011). NFPA 1000: STANDARD FOR FIRE SERVICE PROFESSIONAL QUALIFICATIONS ACCREDITATION AND CERTIFICATION SYSTEMS. Retrieved online: http://www.nfpa.org/codes-and-standards/document-information-pages?mode=code&code=1000
Ontario Professional Fire Fighters (2015). Funeral protocol. Retrieved online: http://www.opffa.org/index.cfm?Section=10&pagenum=279&titles=0#.VRRqgTs4-mE
Fire Service Technology:
The modern fire service is characterized by increased interactions between fire researchers and service in general. The interactions have mainly been geared towards producing research outcomes that can be utilized to enhance the effectiveness and safety of firefighters. As part of the development of suitable fire service technology, recent research results have shown that changes in construction methods and fuel loads have impacted the fire environment within residential structures ("Fire Fighting esearch Online," 2013). While the changes have transformed the conventional fire behavior, they have also contributed to significant changes in fire equipment. The research outcomes have not only brought changes to fire behavior and equipment but have also resulted in the development of fire service technologies that are currently used and continue to have tremendous impacts.
Examples of Technologies in Fire Service:
The first technology used in fire service is the World Wide Web that has…
"Advances Spark New Age of Fire Safety." (2012, March 14). Emergency Management.
Campus Safety Magazine. Retrieved April 20, 2014, from http://www.campussafetymagazine.com/article/Advances-Spark-New-Age-of-Fire-Safety
"Fire Fighting Research Online." (2013, September 30). Fire.Gov -- Better Fire Fighting
Through Research. Retrieved from The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) website: http://www.nist.gov/fire/
The apathy of private landowners discussed earlier may be due to the feeling that one may not feel that individual efforts are important. However, the case in Waldo, Florida demonstrates just how important the actions of one individual can be in averting danger.
Bend, Oregon has developed large community efforts to help reduce fuel in the area. They open up the landfill several times a year free of charge to allow citizens to dispose of debris from thinning and pruning (NCS, 2003). Thinning and pruning around houses creates a barrier of defensible space should a fire threaten. The landscape and fire resistance efforts in Bend have become a social factor.
These case studies demonstrate how communities can be spurred into action. The study conducted by eams, Haines, & enner et al., (2005) found owner apathy as the number one obstacle that they faced in preparing communities in case of a…
Bureau of Land Management (BLM)(2005) Snapshots: Successful BLM Projects Supporting the National Fire Plan. May 13, 2005. Retrieved February 23, 2009 at http://www.blm.gov/pgdata/etc./medialib/blm/nifc/snapshots0/2005.Par.64322.File.dat/05-13-05.pdf
Davis, C. (2001). The West in Flames: The Intergovernmental Politics of Wildfire Suppression and Prevention. The Journal of Federalism. 31-93): 97-110.
FireWise. (2009). About Firewise. National Fire Protection Association. Retrieved February 21, 2009 at http://www.firewise.org .
FireWiseCommunities/USA. (2009). Fire wise Communities/USA. National Fire Protection Association. Retrieved February 21, 2009 at
Leadership - Gates of Fire by Steven Pressfield
Gates of Fire written by Steven Pressfield is a famous historical novel published in 1998. It tells the story of 480 B.C when Persian King decided to attack Greece. Persia was the biggest power of the world in those times and it used all its supremacy to focus on this singe goal.
Persian King brought with him a huge army of around two million soldiers with a simple message of "surrender or death" for the Greeks. On the other side, Greece put forward their 300 finest Spartan warriors under the commandment of King Leonydas and ordered them to take immediate action.
Spartans knew very well that they will be killed in this battle with Persian invaders but they did not quit and moved forward towards their mission. They bravely resisted against the Persian forces for six days and created an unbalanced fight…
Bass, B and Riggio, R. (2008). Transformational Leadership. Second edition. Lawrence Erlbaum
Cohen, W. (2010). Heroic Leadership. Leading with Integrity and Honor. Chapter 7: Put Duty Before
Self. Published by Jossey Bass.
Medford Fire -- Rescue Liability Checklist
MF-R liability checklist
Does your department have copies of all legislation, regulations, bylaws, codes, and standards that are relevant to your department's operations?
The Department has access to all legislation at Federal, State, County, District and municipal levels, including regulations, bylaws where applicable, extensive codes, and standards issued by government, agency and professional associations. These documents are dispersed widely throughout government and agency literature, but most of the relevant operational policy documents are public and available on request if not accessible through the Internet. This regulatory detail is so extensive and widespread that a large part of Department administration's continuing education is devoted to simply keeping up with the ongoing changes and amendments to these laws, codes and best practices.
Has your municipality passed a fire bylaw? If so, was it tailor-made to suit the particular needs of your department? Does it accurately reflect…