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Force Field Analysis is a technique developed by Kurt Lewin..Force Field Analysis is a problem solving technique based on the idea that any problem or situation is the result of forces acting on it. This technique enables one to graphically display a problem, a goal situation, and the forces that manipulate it. Furthermore this technique can be used to describe the problem, look for causes of a problem, and to get an overall sense of the whole situation. (Dale, 1978)
Force Field Analysis is a method used to get a whole view of all the forces in favor of or against a plan (make possible or obstruct a change) so that a decision can be made which takes into account all interests. The forces that help achieve the change are called driving forces, and the forces that work against the change are called restraining forces. In effect this is a…
Dale, A. And Mitiguy, N. (1978) "Planning for a Change," Citizen Involvement Training. University of Massachusetts.
Valentine, E. (1997). Conceptual Issues in Psychology,
New York, NY: Routledge Publishing.
Systems theory is described by Heylighen and Joslyn (1992) as a "transdisciplinary study of the abstract organization of phenomena," arguing that things can be understood as systems. These systems are comprised of interrelated, moving parts. To understand the system, one must understand those parts, which is where the transdisciplinary aspect comes in. The different parts that constitute a system might have been broken out in our study as many different disciplines, but they are still linked within the context of the system, and therefore such individual disciplines should not simply be understood out of context, but as being within the system.
Systems theory is often studied in business, because an organization is a number of different systems working together to win market share and profit. In environmental science, the world is understood as a system, where the different elements affect each other. That is a critical component of systems theory,…
Heylighen, F. & Joslyn, C. (1992). What is systems theory? Principia Cybernetica. Retrieved April 29, 2015 from http://pespmc1.vub.ac.be/systheor.html
MindTools.com (2015). Force field analysis. MindTools.com. Retrieved April 29, 2015 from http://www.mindtools.com/pages/article/newTED_06.htm
Change Management - Change Plan
The proposed change at BP appreciates the need for fast tracking the process and ensuring that the existing problems are addressed urgently. One of the driving forces is the existence of a court case against the company and the possible penalties they may have to foot. The other driving force is the existence of a relatively new Senior Team heading the company. Most of them are unsure if there is any job security since the previous company heads were removed in a somewhat unprofessional manner for non-performance. Another challenge acting as a driving force for the proposed change is the Gulf Oil Spill (Freudenburg, & Gramling, 2011). The crisis showed clearly how the company's management was indulging in corrupt practices that often dented their image. However, the crisis can act as an avenue for the change in company's direction and success…
Freudenburg, W.R. & Gramling, R. (2011). Blowout in the Gulf: The BP Oil Spill Disaster and the Future of Energy in America. Boston, MA: MIT Press, 2011
Wales, A., Gorman, M., & Hope D. (2010). Big Business, Big Responsibilities: From Villains to Visionaries: How Companies are tackling the World's Greatest Challenges. London: Palgrave Macmillan
Walton, R.E., Cutcher-Gershenfeld, J., & Mckersie, R.B. (2014). Strategic Negotiations: A Theory of Change in Labor-Management Relations. Ithaca, NY: ILR Press.
Force Field Analysis
Among change management models, the Force Field Analysis Model is one of the most famous. Kurt Lewin originally developed it, and since that time it has continued to grow and be used in numerous organizations. In my current organization, there are several issues where the model has come into play. The most important one of those issues involves the support from top management. My organization is very good about making sure management does what is needed to provide support to the workers. A recent situation came up with a new person, where she did not feel she was getting enough training from her immediate supervisor. Top management stepped in and addressed the problem right away, in order to make sure the person got the training she needed. That allowed her to learn the job properly, and also made her feel as though she was a valued member…
Change Implementation in Healthcare
Bringing quality improvement processes to nursing practices invariably means that nursing leaders must give considerable attention to the management of change. esistance to change is an integral aspect of any quality improvement effort. Sometimes the resistance stems from fear or the inability to see how things can improve. When patients present challenging behavior problems, staff may naturally be concerned for their own safety and be worried that the challenging behaviors are getting in the way of providing the best possible nursing care. This paper examines the implementation of a change process for addressing challenging behavior in patients within the framework of Kurt Lewin's change management theory (Sare and Ogilvie, 2009).
Veterans with cognitive problems from memory loss and dementia were regularly exhibiting the hitting, kicking, biting, yelling, spitting, repetitious questioning of staff, and other impulsive aggressive behaviors. Staff began a series of Challenging Behavior Meetings twice…
____. (2012, February 6). Tips for dealing with difficult behaviors associated with dementia. eCaring.com
Alzheimer's Association. (2005). Behaviors: What causes dementia-related behavior like aggression, and how to respond. The A-B-C Behavior Chain. Retreived from http://www.alz.org/national/documents/brochure_behaviors.pdf
Institute of Medicine. (2004). Keeping Patients Safe: Transforming the Work Environment for Nurses. Washington, DC: National Academies Press.
Jones, S. (2012, November). Change management: A classic theory revisited. Nursing Review. Retrieved from http://www.nursingreview.co.nz/issue/november-2012/change-management-a-classic-theory-revisited/#.VN5Sp7DF91g
decision making tool.
Forced Field Analysis: a decision making tool
In business applications, health care, or private life there arise many occasions when one is faced with making a major decision. Although many individuals face such instances with their wits alone, relying on his or her "gut feelings" to assist them in their quandary, many find that such an unscientific approach can lead them to the wrong action. Indeed, when one lacks a basic "tool" approach to decision making, the odds of coming to the correct or workable solution is significantly reduced in most circumstances. Having a method such as the "Forced Field Analysis" tool is extremely useful.
In simple terms, Forced Field Analysis involves identifying, compiling a list concerning, discussing and evaluating the possible "forces" in favor of as well as against a possible change or decision. In essence, the technique helps the decision maker see the true context…
The second step taken may be to convince staff that changes are essential for surviving in the business and this would provide a new force in support which may be called survival with strength of 2. Then there may be an action to convince the workers that new machines would increase variety to their jobs and this would introduce a new positive force with strength of 1. Even existing negatives can be changed into positive and wages can be increased providing a positive of 1 and a simultaneous loss of 2 due to removal of overtime. (Force Field Analysis - Understanding the Pressures For and Against Change)
Another possible change is of filters which would eliminate pollution and this would remove a negative strength of 1. All these actions would make the balance which was against the change by 11 to 10 to a balance in favor of the plan…
Cost/Benefit Analysis-Evaluating Quantitatively Whether to Follow a Course of Action.
Retrieved at http://www.mindtools.com/pages/article/newTED_08.htm . Accessed 20 October, 2005
Force Field Analysis - Understanding the Pressures for and Against Change" Retrieved at http://www.mindtools.com/pages/article/newTED_06.htm . Accessed 20 October, 2005
Minimizing Stress in Your Working Environment" Retrieved at http://www.mindtools.com/stress/EnvironmentalStress/WorkingEnvironmentStress.htm . Accessed 20 October, 2005
Apollo 13 analysis and diagnosis using the 1995 film "Apollo 13" starring tom hanks
Apollo 13 analysis and diagnosis
The exploration of the space brought a lot of excitement. The super power countries, each has sought to establish its dominance and security by exploring the space. NASA is the United States agency for exploring the space. This report has evaluated the Apollo 13 incident in view of the film that was released of the same. The discussion centers on the two groups that is the ground and space teams.
The exploration of the space began in the late 1950s. It started after the Second World War ended. It was as a result of the United States and the Soviet Union having a cold war (McCray 2013). The space exploration hence provided the arena for this competition. Hence, this was the basis for the need for an organization that…
Gorn, M.H., & Aldrin, B. (2005). NASA: The complete illustrated history. Norwalk, CT: Easton
Goodloe, A.E., Person, S., & International Symposium on Nasa Formal Methods, NFM. (2012).
Nasa formal methods: Third international symposium, NFM 2011, Pasadena, CA, USA,
DRIVING FORCES E AUGMENTED OR THE RESTRAINING FORCES E REDUCED?
This question deals directly with the management expert Kurt Lewin's analysis of the crux of improving efficiency as the increasing of productive or driving forces in the workplace, and the decreasing of restraining or hostile forces. (Accel-Team.com, 2000 Force Field Analysis) How can a state of equilibrium be created on the ward, where hostile forces do not predominate over driving forces?
As discussed in the answer to the previous question, there is a great sense of hostility on the nursing ward because of the belief that management has been unresponsive to the issues of safety on the ward. Nurses do not have adequate support, and they are overworked. To reduce this sense of hostility towards management, there must be adequate support for all of the nurses on staff when restraining difficult patients. Individuals who are physically and technically equipped to…
2000 Acel-team.com. "Force Field Analysis. http://www.accel-team.com/techniques/force_field_analysis.html. Accessed April 10, 2002. (2000)
Analysis of an Organizational Vision
Describe the company and its vision statement.
Toyota Motor Corporation, established in 1937, is an automotive company that has grown to become one of the biggest organizations in the world. Toyota designs, manufactures, assembles and retails vehicles in approximately 190 nations and regions across the globe. Toyota Motor Corporation is a multinational corporation with its main center of operations situated in Aichi, Japan. Since its establishment, the corporation had significantly grown and developed to become the largest car manufacturer in the world.
The vision statement of Toyota is:
“Toyota will lead the way to the future of mobility, enriching lives around the world with the safest and most responsible ways of moving people. Through our commitment to quality, constant innovation and respect for the planet, we aim to exceed expectations and be rewarded with a smile. We will meet our challenging goals by engaging the…
police management affect the way police officers use force?
The Force Continuum
Style of Leadership and Management
Proper Management of Police esources
Innovations in Excessive Force Training
Protection of its citizens is the fundamental mission of any government. And on the forefront of this mission are the law enforcement officers who are in fact the most visible arm that the government utilizes to protect the citizens and also to preserve public order ("Police Use of Excessive Force: A Case Study of Lethal (Deadly) Force," 2016).
And to achieve these missions, the police are given authorities that are unique in civil governments as well as granted by the society - authority to control the behaviors of the citizens with the ultimate aim of protecting them from harm. Hence in a manner that is most direct, the behavior of the members of the society are controlled and managed by the police personnel…
Atherley, L., & Hickman, M. (2014). Controlling Use of Force: Identifying Police Use of Excessive Force through Analysis of Administrative Records. Policing, 8(2), 123-134. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/police/pau003
Banker, R., Chang, H., & Pizzini, M. (2004). The Balanced Scorecard: Judgmental Effects of Performance Measures Linked to Strategy. The Accounting Review, 79(1), 1-23. http://dx.doi.org/10.2308/accr.2004.79.1.1
Bass, B., & Avolio, B. (1994). Improving organizational effectiveness through transformational leadership. Thousand Oaks, CA [etc.]: Sage Publications.
Belasen, A., Eisenberg, B., & Huppertz, J. Mastering leadership.
Victims of a Meaningless Show of Force
In the article "Victims of a Meaningless Show of Force" the author uses language to express her point that police firing on two polar bears was unacceptable behavior and as the author says "it was illogical, unfair, and a meaningless show of force." While this statement makes her opinion clear, the author also uses language to create the same opinion in the reader.
The title of the article is a clear example of loaded language. The word 'victims' implies that the polar bears were helpless, while the words 'meaningless show of force' imply that the police officers were only acting to prove something, with no real purpose to their actions.
Before offering an opinion on the shooting, the author describes the shooting. This includes the statement "the four police officers emptied twenty blasts from a 12-gauge shotgun and a.38 caliber revolver…
Honolulu International Airport (HNL) is one of the world's largest, oldest, and most beautiful airports.
As the principal aviation gateway of the city and county of Honolulu on Oahu in the State of Hawaii, HNL is also identified as one of the busiest airports in the United States. Total traffic now exceeds 21 million passengers a year and is rising (Honolulu International Airport, 2016).
Owned and operated by the State of Hawaii Department of Transportation, HNL covers 4,520 acres of fast and submerged land. The airport itself is larger than the major resort destination of Waikiki, which is located 10 miles to the south (Honolulu International Airport, 2016).
HNL has four active runways, including the 12,000-foot Reef Runway. When it was built, the Reef Runway was the world's first major runway built entirely offshore (Honolulu International Airport, 2016). The airport is served by 27 international and domestic carriers, two interisland…
One of the authors in the review, in fact details a reporting system that effectively makes the use of force scene an investigated crime scene, where forensic and other evidence, physical and testimonial, is collected to develop a clear understanding of the events as they unfolded. (2005) Some would argue that this sort of method smacks of the police policing the police, and yet the OSCE Guidebook and many experts would argue that this sort of transparency is necessary for public trust and the insurance of reduced opportunity for corruption at every level. (2006) This emphasis on transparency is relatively new to policing, but in my opinion is demonstrative of positive social change and the eventual development of a much clearer sense on the part of the police, their governing agencies and the public of the nature and definitions of justifiable.
Suspect Coercion by Force or Threat of Force:
Buker, H. (2005) Book Reviews, International Journal of Police Science and Management 7: 3 pp. 208-312
Carty, K. (2006) "Guidebook of Democratic Policing Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe" Vienna
Council of Europe Committee of Ministers (COECM) "Recommendation Rec (2001)10 of the Committee of Ministers to member states on the European Code of Police Ethics" 19 September 2001, Retrieved, November 15, 2007, at http://www.legislationline.org/legislation.php?tid=155&lid=4886
Evans, M.D., & Morgan, R. (1998). Preventing Torture: A Study of the European Convention for the Prevention of Torture and Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
A number of factors have affected the costs of healthcare in the United States over the past 3 decades, and there has been a corresponding impact on the nursing field as a result. To determine the facts about these issues, this paper reviews the literature to identify those factors that have had an effect on increasing healthcare costs over the past 30 years following by an analysis concerning how nursing has been impacted by efforts to contain costs. Finally, a summary of the research and important findings concerning factors affecting healthcare costs and their impact on the nursing field are presented in the conclusion.
Factors Affecting Healthcare Costs in Past 30 Years
Although the $2.8 trillion healthcare industry in the United States has become more efficient over the past 30 years, there have been some forces at work that have continued to drive increases in the costs of…
Fischer, K. M. (2016, January 1). How the educational funding provisions of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act will affect the nursing shortage in the United States. Northwestern Journal of Law and Social Policy, 11(1), 54-57.
Medical cost trends: Behind the numbers 2015. (2014). Price-Waterhouse-Cooper: Health Research Institute.
The facts about rising healthcare costs. (2016). Aetna. Retrieved from http://www.aetna.com/health-reform-connection/aetnas-vision/facts-about-costs.html .
Schreuders, L. & Bremner, A. P. (2012, June 1). Nurse perceptions of the impact of nursing care on patient outcomes: An exploratory study. Contemporary Nurse: a Journal for the Australian Nursing Profession, 41(2), 190-193.
World is Flat" is taken from a metaphorical point-of-view to highlight the development and advancement of technology in the world. The author, Thomas Friedman, asserts that the world has become flatter because technology together with other factors has turned the world into a smaller place. The author describes the manner in which technology has made the world become more competitive and elucidates what is necessary to compete in this new world that is deemed flat. For instance, Friedman offers a description of how manufacturing firms have relocated the location of their plants to international areas to make the most of cheaper labor and raw materials.
This is towards objective of coming up with products that are cost-effective and more competitive in the marketplace. This particular aspect of outsourcing has disseminated into the service industry also. Friedman describes various instances where tax returns of companies in the United States are accounted…
Caldwell, J. (2005). Book Report On The World Is Flat. Retrieved 17 October 2015 from: http://www.workforceincubator.org/Portals/0/flat_world.pdf
Friedman, T. L. (2005). The World is Flat: A Brief History of the Twenty-First Century. New York: Picador
Griedsom, T. S. (2007). Book Review. The World is Flat: A Brief History of the Twenty-First Century. Association for Financial Counseling and Planning Education. Retrieved 17 October 2015 from: https://afcpe.org/assets/pdf/12-book-review-world-is-flat-volume-18-issue-2.pdf
Lee, M. (n.d). Book Summary: The World is Flat (Thomas L. Friedman).
Forensic Sciences in the USA and the United Kingdom
Over the last two decades, the forensic science has assisted in producing valuable evidence that has contributed to a successful conviction and prosecution of criminals and exoneration of innocent citizens. Typically, an advanced in forensic science and DNA technology have been a great assistance for law enforcement agency for an identification and prosecution of criminals. In the United States and the UK, many cases that have been formally unsolved have now been solved based on the great assistance of the forensic science investigators. (National esearch Council, 2009). Forensics or forensic science is a field of investigation drawing different scientific disciplines in law, criminal and civil services. This practice requires an application of scientific knowledge, quantitative, qualitative and empirical skills to collect and analyze data that will assist in presenting evidence in a tribunal or court of law. However, the method the…
Butler, J.M. (2015). U.S. initiatives to strengthen forensic science & international standards in forensic DNA. Forensic Sci Int Genet. 18: 4 -- 20.
Goulka, J.E. Matthies, C. Steinberg, P. (2010). Toward a Comparison of DNA Profiling and Databases in the United States and England. Technical report (Rand Corporation).
House of Common (2013). Forensic Science. House of Commons Science and Technology Committee.
Mallett, X. & Evison, M.P. (2013). Forensic Facial Comparison: Issues of Admissibility in the Development of Novel Analytical Technique. J Forensic Sci, 58 (4):859-865.
These are the two most powerful factors that anchor the Force Field Model analysis of the enterprise software industry. With the driving and restraining forces in continual interaction and at times conflict, productivity shifts drastically across the continuums of industries based on the impact of driving and restraining forces (Paquin, Koplyay, 2007).
Cincom is being affected by the disruptive driving forces of CAPEX and OPEX most severely as competitors are quick to create a competitive advantage for themselves by seizing these areas and exploiting them in the market. CAPEX and OPEX are driving such a high rate of disruptive innovation and transformation change that it is in turn disrupting cultures of companies and reordering stakeholder dynamics as well (Koslowski, Struker, 2011). The political and technological forces are also driven by these economic ones, with the restraining forces of the Force Field Model applied to enterprise software being led by CIOs…
Armenakis, a.A. & Harris, S.G. 2002, "Crafting a change message to create transformational readiness," Journal of Organizational Change Management, vol. 15, no. 2, pp. 169-183.
Boga, I. & Ensari, N. 2009, "The Role of Transformational Leadership and Organizational Change on Perceived Organizational Success," the Psychologist Manager Journal, vol. 12, no. 4, pp. 235.
Bordum, a. 2010, "The strategic balance in a change management perspective," Society and Business Review, vol. 5, no. 3, pp. 245-258.
Brown, a.D. 1994, "Transformational leadership in tackling change," Journal of General Management, vol. 19, no. 4, pp. 1-1.
There are several benefits that a global consumer electronic firm could derive from inter-project learning.
First, inter-project learning allows firm to enhance project completeness. Prencipe, & Tell (2001) argue that inter-project learning allows firms to execute a project in a best method. In the present competitive market environment, project is the key to the dynamic competitive capabilities. Typically, accumulation of knowledge builds project competencies, which could enhances market performances of a global consumer electronic firm. Experience has revealed that project-based firm has been able to record high profit in the market environment. ( Brady, and Davies, 2004).Through inter-project learning, a global consumer electronic firm will be able to better estimate the project costs and this will enhance ability to deliver the project with success. Moreover, the inter-project learning will enable the company to estimate the project risks efficiently. By better evaluating the project risks, the project manager will be…
Anbari, F.T., Carayannis, E.G. And Voetsch, R.J. (2008) Post-project reviews as a key project management competence, Technovation, Vol. 28, pp.633-643.
Brady, T. And Davies, a. (2004) Building of the Project Capabilities: From Exploratory to Exploitative Learning, Organization Studies, Vol.25, No.9, pp.1601-1621.
Prencipe, a. & Tell, F. (2001). Processes and outcomes Inter-project learning: knowledge codification in project-based firms. Research Policy. 30: 1373 -- 1394
Part 6.1. I would seek to change the cognitions of the employee in order to change the affects and the behaviors. The cognitions underlie the other two traits, so any change must start with the underlying values and beliefs. It is important for managers to have an understanding of organizational behavior because managers are responsible for guiding that behavior in directions that support the organization's objectives. Knowledge of OB is more important at lower levels because those are the managers that must deal directly with the organization's rank and file. Higher level managers dedicate more time to strategy formulation and environmental analysis, which involves setting directions for the organization, but the lower level managers are the ones that must implement the strategies and that means dealing with the human elements of the organization.
2. Of the four components of emotional intelligence, the one that I feel is most important for…
Rafaeli, A. & Worline, M. (1999). Symbols in organizational culture. Technion. Retrieved September 18, 2010 from http://iew3.technion.ac.il/Home/Users/anatr/symbol.html
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QuickMBA.com (2007). SWOT analysis. QuickMBA.com. Retrieved September 18, 2010 from http://www.quickmba.com/strategy/SWOT/
Porter, M. (2008). The five competitive forces that shape strategy. Harvard Business School. Retrieved September 18, 2010 from http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=mYF2_FBCvXw
Use this sample to fine-tune your questions, decide how to analyze the data, and change your questions to make your analysis easier" (p. 6). The posters described above helped to raise awareness throughout the hospital concerning the availability of the custom survey instrument on the hospital's intranet which had previously received few responses.
In reality, the problems described above were well-known throughout the hospital and steps were underway to resolve some of these problems, but at a snail's pace. These problems are also endemic to many larger organizations that have well entrenched bureaucracies.
Providing world-class healthcare in the 21st century is a challenging enterprise, but patients deserve the best care that hospitals can provide. Because resources are by definition scarce, it is therefore important for organizations of all types and sizes to maximize their resources in order to achieve a competitive advantage over those that do not. For…
Chaudron, D. (2008). 'Master of all you survey: Planning employee surveys.' OrganizedChange.com. [online] available: http://www.organizedchange.com/pdfs / employeesurveys.pdf.
Cravens, D.W. (2000). Strategic Marketing 6th Edition. New York: Irwin McGraw-Hill.
Cronshaw, S.F. & McCulloch, a.N. (2008). 'Reinstating the Lewinian Vision: from Force Field
Analysis to Organization Field Assessment.' Organization Development Journal, vol. 26,
In regard to organizational strategy, the companies can work towards a similar strategy of delivering high quality products to their clients. This would be the same for their shared values. The efforts towards integrating the structures, systems and strategy should however be given most attention. The strategy of partnerships, strategic alliance and acquisitions must be upheld.
Using this framework, we can see the need for new leadership so as to ensure that the new acquisition does not suffer from the past bad decisions.
Congruence Model for Organization Analysis
The congruence model of organizational analysis specifies the inputs, outputs and the throughputs in manner which is more consistent with the open systems theory as noted by Katz and Kahn (1978).In this regard the inputs, outputs and the throughputs of both Skype and Microsoft must be analyzed with a view of transforming them into a clear and concise organizational model.According to this…
Bryce, DJ (2011). Microsoft's Skype Deal: How to Make it Work.Available online at http://blogs.hbr.org/cs/2011/05/microsofts_skype_deal_how.html
Cummings, T.G. & Worley, C.G. (1993). Organization development and change. Fifth Edition. New York, NY: West Publishing.
Gable, R.K. & Wolf, M.B. (1993). Instrument development in the affective domain: Measuring attitudes and values in corporate and school settings. Boston, MA: Kluwer Academic Publishers
French, W.L. & Bell, C.H. (1995). Organization development: Behavioral science interventions for organization improvement. Fifth Edition. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.
1.3. Summary of argument, Hypothesis
The role of leadership styles and their applicability to the success or failure of mergers, acquisitions and alliances is the focus of this research. Any leadership study, to be relevant, must also focus on the needs of those served by the organizations studies. That is why in the proposed Change Management Equilibrium Model have customer-driven processes at their center or core. The focus of the research to either validate or refute the model is based on consistency and collaboration as two factors that also serve to create greater levels of integration between the two or more healthcare providers merging or changing their organizational structures to better serve the market. This market orientation is what many public-ally-owned and operated healthcare providers struggle with, as often the source of funding becomes their "customer" or whom they serve (Brinkmann, O'Brien, 2010). Studies by AM esearch for example show…
Abbott, R., Ploubidis, G., Huppert, F., Kuh, D., & Croudace, T.. (2010). An Evaluation of the Precision of Measurement of Ryff's Psychological Well-Being Scales in a Population Sample. Social Indicators Research, 97(3), 357-373.
Faten Fahad Al-Mailam. (2004). Transactional vs. Transformational Style of Leadership-Employee Perception of Leadership Efficacy in Public and Private Hospitals in Kuwait. Quality Management in Health Care, 13(4), 278-284.
Antonakis, J., & House, R.J. (2002). The full-range leadership theory: The way forward. In B.J. Avolio & F.J. Yammarino (Eds.) Transformational and Charismatic Leadership, Volume 2, p. 3 -- 33. Boston: JAI Press.
Avolio, B.J., & Yammarino, F.J. (2002). Introduction to, and overview of, transformational and charismatic leadership. In B.J. Avolio & F.J. Yammarino (Eds.) Transformational and Charismatic Leadership, Volume 2, p. xvii -- xxiii. Boston: JAI Press.
Change anywhere is never easy, in fact most people in an organization usually have a difficult adjustment when it comes to that. However, it is a process that cannot be avoided, it must happen. An organization may have no other choice but to change. hen this occurs, it is important to make sure that the employees are all on the same page and that this change is good and scary at the same time. There are so many various reasons for an organization to change, for instance a sudden change of the financial climate or the arising threat of competition. Through getting a good understanding of the procedure and theory of organizational change, an organization such as the Fairfax Media Group can manage change in the best conceivable way.
In Jennifer M. George's and Gareth R. Jones book, Contemporary Management, organizational change is well-defined as "the crusade of…
Fisher, D.R. (2000). Global and domestic actors within the global climate change regime: Toward a theory of the global environmental system. Journal of Organizational Change Management, 17(3), 221-234.
Ford, R. (2004). Organizational learning, change and power: Toward a practice-theory framework. The Learning Organization,, 13(5).
Macri, D.M., Tagliaventi, M.R., & Bertolotti, F. (2002). A grounded theory for resistance to change in a small organization. Journal of Organizational Change Management, 15(3), 292-310.
Nelson, L. (2005). A case study in organisational change: Implications for theory. The Learning Organization, 12(3), 18-30.
Management and Organizational Development
CHAPTE V - SUMMAY ESULTS
Fresno County Department of Children and Family Services emancipates twenty and thirty eighteen-year-old foster children each month. These children face many challenges as they work through a transition into the adult, working world. Children in a foster care setting have not had the stability needed for them to develop the life skills necessary to adjust to life on their own. Many of the emancipated youth have either not graduated from high school, nor hold a G.E.D. certificate. In addition, they do not have adequate basic living skills.. The youths typically do not have employment, nor have they built a history during their teen years of successful part time entry level jobs.
The housing experiences of these children, as they have moves from home to home, have not taught them the basic skills needed to keep a home, or apartment. These young…
director for this program, recommended by his or her peers from within the foster care system. This person should be someone who has demonstrated a high level of commitment to the foster care system, and has a track record of frequently going "above and beyond" the normal course of daily activities in order to benefit the well being of children in the system.
Funds for an additional training program to teach foster care workers about the benefits of mentoring relationships.
Standards, goals and objectives must be written for the Mentor, and for his or her case worker to follow and use as guidelines for the ongoing relationship
Connection event planning. Location, supplies, budget for event foods, decorations, and other ambiance.
Systems Design Project
Change is integral to the survival of any commercial enterprise in today's globalized, technologically advanced business environment. This requires stakeholders to have personal and organizational transition skills to attain the desired change for future success (Hughes, 2006). Strategizing drives organizational change giving it direction through activities (Thornhill, Lewis, Millmore and Saunders, 2000). Internal and external environmental considerations are both relevant; along with change management required to align with strategic change. Singular change is integral to organizational modification; a concept that bears adopting as a precursor to internalizing change across the organization.
The change agent is responsible for comprehending the concept of strategic change which encompasses an understanding of change models, approaches and tools for proper implementation. Furthermore they must possess an aptness for analytical assessment of contexts, critical thinking adeptness - both of which will be applied along the change continuum within the organization through use of…
Balogun, J., and Hailey, V.H. (2008), Exploring Strategic Change, Pearson Education Limited, England
Burnes, B. (2004), 'Emergent change and planned change - competitors or allies?: The case of XYZ construction', International Journal of Operation & Production Management, Vol. 24 No. 9, pp. 886-902
Change Management Learning Center (2009), 'Five tips for: Succeeding in change management', Change Management Learning Center, available at: http://www.change-management.com/tutorial-5-tips-cm-success.htm (accessed 19 November 2009)
Chris, R. (2009), 'Working with Emergent Change in Organisations', available at: http://www.oikos-uk.com/docs_influences/Emergent%20Change%20print.pdf (accessed 20 November 2009)
Manage identification planning
This chapter discusses the management and planning of change process within the clinical setting. Change management plan is very critical to the success of any healthcare unit. Change may be threatening to organizations, however, successful implementation of changes is very crucial for the success of an health organization. Failing to make a change move could lead to the consistence of medical errors among the medical staff and this may damage the reputation of the organization. Typically, medical errors are among the serious issues that many medical institutions are facing, and these are among the setbacks to the implementation of quality healthcare delivery. (Mills, 2008). Identification of the critical issues that may hamper the quality healthcare delivery is very important to address the number of preventable medical errors. With analysis of the current system, several areas need to be changed before the hospital could become a vibrant organization.…
Abrahamson, E. Change without Pain: How Managers Can Overcome Initiative
Overload, OrganizationalChaos, and Employee Burnout (Boston: Harvard Business School Press, 2004).
American Nurses Association (ANA). (2001). Code of Ethics for Nurses with Interpretive Statements. Washington, D.C.: American Nurses Publishing.
American Society of Health-System Pharmacists (2011). ASHP Guidelines on Preventing Medication Errors in Hospitals, Medication Misadventures -- Guideline
Organizational Diagnosis of Palm
Palm Computing had reinvented the hand held computer market overnight with the line of PalmPilot and similar devices geared to the mobile gadget industry. According to Clancy (1999), "Palm Computing ultimately sold faster than the videocassette recorder, the color TV, the cell phone, even the personal computer that was its great-grandfather. Introduced in April 1996, within 18 months Palm Computing had shipped more than 1 million units of the handheld and some estimate there were 2 million Palm devices shipped in 1998 alone." (Clancy, 1999)
Such incredible demand for Palm Computing's products were a function of the brilliant and innovative management and design team that launched and built the company. The two prominent executives of the company, responsible for developing product and marketing, and product releases, were Jeff Hawkins and Donna Dubinsky.
According to Clancy (1999), "In Hawkins, Silicon Valley has one of its most independent,…
Enderle R. (2010) "HP and Palm: The Explosion that Will Rock the Computer Industry"
Leadersphere (2008) "HR Intelligence Report -- Organizational Diagnostic Models -- A Review & Synthesis"
Niccolai J., Gohring N. (2010) "A Brief History of Palm" http://www.pcworld.com/article/195199/a_brief_history_of_palm.html
Organizational Diagnostic Models
Falletta (2005) outlines several different organizational diagnostic models. The first such model is the Force Field model, developed by Kurt Lewin in 1951. In this model, an organization remains in as state of equilibrium until it is shifted out of that state by a driving force that overcomes the restraining forces. The current state then becomes a problem (Falletta, 2005). This model can be used to explain what situation an organization is in, and even how that situation came about. The downside is that it provides little in terms of information about how the company can move to its new equilibrium point. But Lewin's model explains how companies enter into an equilibrium state. The company's current equilibrium has still allowed for steady gains in revenue and profit based on growth, but stability in profit margin (MSN Moneycentral, 2014).
Leavitt's model is a somewhat different representation…
Falletta, S.V. (2005) Organizational Diagnostic Models: A Review and Synthesis. Retrieved January 15, 2014, from http://www.iei.liu.se/fek/frist/723g16/files/1.120328/Orgmodels.pdf
McMillan, T. (2014). Can Whole Foods change the way poor people eat? Slate.com. Retrieved November 28, 2014 from http://www.slate.com/articles/life/food/2014/11/whole_foods_detroit_can_a_grocery_store_really_fight_elitism_racism_and.html
MSN Moneycentral. (2014). Whole Foods Market. Retrieved November 28, 2014 from http://www.msn.com/en-us/money/stockdetails/fi-126.1.WFM.NAS?symbol=WFM&form=PRFIEQ
National Defense University, Systems Thinking and Learning Organizations, Retrieved November 7, 2012 from http://www.au.af.mil/au/awc/awcgate/ndu/strat-ldr-dm/pt1ch4.html
The open communication and team objectives will make the COA team realize high energy, renewed commitment to the change process, and openness. In this stage, the FHA team has adopted the change, and requires leadership to sustain the drive. At this stage, an effective leadership style to maintain the drive to change is the management by objectives (Bridges & Bridges, 2009). This leadership style drives people to connect to the objectives of the change process and to the change plan. I would also motivate the team by recognizing the effort in the change process to avoid complacency.
Key Elements in the Leadership Organizational Change Process
The leadership model created in the change process was accentuated with smart-power or the model of visionary leadership. In this model, organizational and project team communication was achieved by adopting the principals of strategic control, balance of constraint and creativity, transfer of information,…
Bridges, W. & Bridges, S. (2009). Managing Transitions: Making the Most of Change. 3rd ed., Da Capo Lifelong Books.
Kondalkar, V.G. (2010). Organization Effectiveness and Change Management. PHI Learning.
Martini, P.H. (2008). Toward an Integrated Model of Visionary Leadership: A Multilevel Study. Regent University, Proquest, AAT 3340923.
Nieuwenhuizen, C. & Rossouw, D. (2008). Business Management: A Contemporary Approach. Cape Town, South Africa; Juta & Co.
Leaders Can Manage Change
Transforming the Client Organization:
From Transactional Management to Transformational Leadership
Staying in step with customer and client needs is more than fulfilling their requests on a periodic basis and meeting their basic expectations, as any company that excels in client management understands. It is the ability to align every aspect of an enterprise to the needs and expectations, experiences and requirements of clients. Often internally-based organizations including those that are given the objective of being client-focused, end up paradoxically being the most myopic and inward-focused, resistant to change. Any organization that is experiencing this is in danger of losing the most valuable relationships and trust they have with customers. As leaders must continually push accountability, ownership and a clear sense of responsibility for results to the front lines of their enterprises, when traditional management and leadership strategies fail to deliver results, change is required. The intent…
Bibliography and References
Armenakis, A.A. & Harris, S.G. (2002) "Crafting a change message to create transformational readiness," Journal of Organizational Change Management, vol. 15, no. 2, pp. 169-183.
Boga, I. & Ensari, N. (2009), "The Role of Transformational Leadership and Organizational Change on Perceived Organizational Success," The Psychologist Manager Journal, vol. 12, no. 4, pp. 235.
Bordum, A. (2010), "The strategic balance in a change management perspective," Society and Business Review, vol. 5, no. 3, pp. 245-258.
Brown, A.D. (1994), "Transformational leadership in tackling change," Journal of General Management, vol. 19, no. 4, pp. 1-1.
Decision Making Model
Decision making is defined as the cognitive process of selecting a course of action from among multiple alternatives (Wikipedia, 2004). Effective decision making, however, is contingent on an individual or group's ability to select the course of action, which is most likely to result in goal or task accomplishment. In the business world, this is easier said than done since most decisions involve taking into consideration a myriad number of variables such as environmental factors, competitive activities, customer needs, internal goals and organizational constraints. Therefore, most organizations deem it advisable to use decision making support systems or models, which have been developed specifically to assist in the through analysis and evaluation of various alternative courses of action.
One such model is the Force Field Analysis. It is the objective of this paper to describe how the Force Field Analysis model helps weigh the pros and cons of…
Ashley, W.C., & Morrison, J.L. (1997, September -- October). Anticipatory Management:
Tools for Better Decision Making. The Futurist. Vol. 31:5, p. 47+ Retrieved Nov. 24, 2004: www.questia.com
Bauer, G.J., Baunchalk, M.S., Ingram, T.N., & Laforge, R.W. (1998). Emerging Trends in Sales Thought and Practice. Westport, CT: Quorum Books.
Bounds, G.M., & Stahl, M.J. (1991). Competing Globally through Customer Value: The
What are the significant trends you found in Workforce 2020?
This textbook was written in 1997 based on data the authors had at that time. Now that we are into the year 2003, do you agree or disagree with the various topics being assessed/predicted/presented in the book?
Select two topics from the following list and discuss:
The trends found in the book included the prediction that the United States will deal with very tight labor markets in the years to come. The book also discusses the impact of technology on the job force and concludes that new technologies will create more jobs than they will destroy. The authors describes this theory by explaining that, experience suggests that the development, marketing, and servicing of ever more sophisticated products-- and the use of those products in an ever richer ensemble of personal and professional services -- almost certainly will create…
Kippen Rebecca and Mcdonald, Peter. Labor Supply Prospects in 16 Developed Countries, 2000-2050.
Population and Development Review, Vol. 27, 2001
R.W. Judy & C. D'Amico, Workforce 2020: Work and Workers in the 21st Century. Indianapolis, IN: Hudson Institute, 1997.
Organizational theory refers to the behavioral and social theories which help in the understanding of both informal and formal organizations. It makes references to a number of fields - anthropology, sociology, psychology, semiotics, economics, communications science, history and cybernetics (Sage Publications, n.d). The field has become popular with sociological researchers. Many of these researchers, drawn from such fields as medical sociology, social movements, political sociology and education, have realized the need to study this concept because of the role in empirical research that big organizations play. Scholars out of this field have always found discussions regarding organizational theory arcane. These scholars also hold the view that all that organizational theory concerns itself with is firms and so it is not applicable in other social situations. The formal or complex organization is the study object in organizational theory. Assumptions are made that there exists goals, rules, hierarchy and definitions of membership…
Ascher, W. (2000). Applying classic organization theory to sustainable resource & environmental management. Retrieved from http://law.duke.edu/news/papers/ascher.pdf
Boundless. (2014). Why Study Organizational Theory?. Retrieved from https://www.boundless.com/management/textbooks/boundless-management-textbook/organizational-theory-3/why-study-organizational-theory-28/why-study-organizational-theory-163-7564/
Cohen, D, & Prusak, L. (2001). In Good Company. How social capital makes organizations work. Boston: Harvard Business School Press.
Conner, D. (1990). The changing nation: Strategies for citizen action (Handout materials). Atlanta: ODR, Inc.ent document.
Kotter's and Lewin's models and discusses their roles as diagnostic tools and as implementation agents. It is the nature of organizations to face constant change, whether the source comes from competitive pressures, new opportunities, technological advances or new initiatives and so forth. Both models offer a methodology for effectively managing change.
Kotter's 8-Step Change Model
Change management models help organizations to effect change in a systematic manner while avoiding some of the pitfalls associated with organizational change development. According to John Kotter, organizations frequently make the same mistakes when they try to bring about change; they allow too much complacency or they fail to communicate and so forth (Reynolds, 2009).
Kotter's 8-step change model has been shown to be a powerful and successful method for implementing change. The purpose of Kotter's model is to efficiently and effectively achieve change management. People respond better to change when they are actively involved…
21st Century Leader. (n.d.). Kotter's eight step model of change. Retrieved January 12, 2012 from: http://www.21stcenturyleader.co.uk/kotter/
Chapman, A. (2010). Change management. Retrieved January 12, 2012 from: http://www.businessballs.com/changemanagement.htm
DealTime. (2000). Leading change, or changing leaders? [Review of the book Leading Change]. Retrieved from http://www.dealtime.com/Leading_Change_by_John_P_Kotter/leading-change-or-changing-leaders/RD-990772/reviews
Faucheux, M. (2009). Negotiating the advantages and disadvantages of change management. Retrieved January 12, 2012 from: http://www.brighthub.com/office/project-management/articles/18477.aspx
According to Cummings and Worley (2014), the relevance of organizational diagnostic models cannot be overstated when it comes to the identification of the appropriate data required to highlight the deficiencies as well as strengths of a company, and the existing opportunities to improve operations and processes. For this discussion, the following organizational diagnostic models will be highlighted; the 7S model, the congruence model, the Burke-Litwin model, Leavitt’s model, force field analysis, and the Weisbord’s six-box model.
The 7S Model
This model seeks to highlight the organizational design of an entity by focusing of seven primary internal elements. The said elements include; strategy, structure, skills, style, staff, systems, and shared values (Falletta, 2005). In essence, the goal in this case is to determine whether these elements are aligned in a way that permits an entity to effectively pursue its objectives. It is important to note that as per the 7S model,…
The decision has a relatively low cost and low risk. It can easily be reversed if any problems arise. At its most successful, this strategy is unlikely to yield a very high level of profit, but it could provide a short-term profit boost at best.
DQ -- 3. Globalization has affected the fast food industry. Whereas early fast food growth was confined to domestic markets, today's fast food marketers operate in multiple countries and the largest ones are global in nature. The change came about as firms sought to achieve high levels of growth even when domestic markets became saturated. These companies began to grow slowly into Western markets, but have since targeted growth in developing nations. Fast food chains from developing nations are now beginning to target international growth of their own. Thus far, the industry has managed this shift successfully, and many firms have successfully built their international…
Group Dynamics and Teams
This paper examines an experience I had in a group dynamic that did not go well. The group was tasked with a rush project and the members of the group were not prepared professionally or personally to meet the demand. The result was a complete failure, but looking back on it I can see why it failed. This paper will describe the experience, discuss it from multiple points of view, and show what could be done to turn a similar situation into a success the next time around.
We were a team of five: Paul was the group leader; Bishop was from sales; I was heading the social media team; Carlos was from product development; Dodd was from HR; and Michelle was from PR. Each of us had worked together in the past, so we were familiar with one another; however, on this…
The Congruence Model for Organizational Analysis appears thorough in terms of both the internal and external environment. The model operates on the basis of inputs, throughputs and outputs, with the external environment providing feedback on inputs and outputs. The organization is regarded as a dynamic system, which is influenced by means of a number of variables. Of all the models, this one appears to be the most applicable to Walgreens.
Tichy's TPC Framework and Diagnosing Group and Individual ehavior are also regarded as particularly applicable to Walgreens, as a result of the significant influence of the environment. Tichy's model increases the complexity of the internal environment by recognizing that some relationships among variables are stronger than others. Environmental influence is recognized through inputs, outputs and the feedback loop. Diagnosing Individual and Group ehavior focuses mainly upon human relationships within the internal environment. It is also assumed that there are minimal…
Falletta, S.V. (2005)
Organizational Diagnostic Models: A Review and Synthesis. Retrieved at http://www.leadersphere.com/img/Orgmodels.pdf
Walgreens Health Services. (2009).
Open Systems ISA, Inc.
Due to the delay of my understanding, I was able to complete the writing but haven't inserted the APA footnotes yet. I'm doing that now but I opted to upload the text first. I will use the message system and provide you with another version with the footnotes shortly. Sorry, but I wanted to show you it would be ready pretty close to the due date and time! You should have the second version with the footnotes in less than an hour.
Whether one goes to a large medical facility or to a free community clinic, step one is generally the same: Someone in the organization initiates both a financial and a physical assessment of your condition. It's as if the doctor needs to know your symptoms and what resources are at hand before he or she can even consider how to plot out their response.…
Burke-Litwin Model of Organizational Performance & Change (1992) -- The end result of the experiences of the past, this approach is seen as introducing a broad-based assessment of the best of the above. It introduces new or more refined constructs and anticipates the differences between an operational climate (which may be time or location specific) and culture in similar ways to how transactional and transformative considerations come into play. Invested with a strong theoretical foundation, this approach is deemed measurable and is nearly fully encircled with feedback loops that are now thought to be measurable because of their inclusion in the theories that support the complexity.
MAKING THE ISA CASE
As previously noted, ISA is well appreciated because it deems itself responsive to both the patient and the circumstances (including costs) for prescribing and implementing a cure to what ails the many communities/clients that have waste disposal issues. It has learned how to maximize and resell what it reclaims and has survived into a market where the repurposing of recycled materials is now as cost-effective as finding the raw resources themselves. The company has experienced some quarterly profit fluxuations, but overall is has continued to grow in response to the needs and expectations of its mission, or perhaps more importantly, the varying levels and spectrums of its many missions that are thought to be highly responsive to the needs of its many clients. It is this variability in the company that has allowed it to be successful in the emerging environmental market and thus enable reviewers to diagnose its organizational functionality. However, because the conditions for environmental understanding and complexity are somewhat decentralized and tied to the needs of particular locations, it is best diagnosed using not the final, most interactive of models (Burke-Litwin), but instead the DIGB model. In diagnosing individual and group behavior that is specific to its various clients' conditions, it is possible to get a greater understanding of the dynamics of what is brought to each condition and enables them to adapt as needed to local requirements and expectations. The feedback they receive in being able to provide everything from basic transportation to appropriate uses of "each pound" of their reclamations allows for the kind of responsiveness that is tied to the actions and reactions of particular players. While it might generally be said that any environmental entity of this sort must be conceived of as being effectively without boundaries -- because of the diversity of expectations of their clients -- in reality, they appear to be operating within measurable expectations that exist at the time of their activity. In so doing, however, they appear to allow for growth and change that comes as communities or political forces bring about new expectations and as governing laws evolve.
decision making tools and techniques whereby 6 Thinking Hats has been chosen as one of its tools. This decision making tool is widely used in the business world of today.
Decision making in science and indeed any other field of study is a difficult thing and for this, one needs to understand what are the basic ways in which a decision can be arrived at, without wasting much time and using the best tools and techniques in order to achieve the same. These decisions are very crucial to the outcome of a project but certain things should be kept in mind that information is the single most significant thing in this whole process. Decision-making is indeed a very complex and well-developed area, one that has to be looked at by the researchers and lecturers with particular care. This paper is about the decision-making tools and techniques…
URL: http://www.mindtools.com/pages/article/newTED_07.htm . Author Unknown
Evidenced-Based Practice - Environment
There are perhaps few environments and professions within which change is both as important and as difficult as it is within health care. While there are many barriers to the change process, there are at least an equal amount of drivers that indicate the necessity for change. In evidence-based practice, nursing practitioners, administration personnel, management personnel, and all involved in the health care profession need to form teams with patients and family members in order to ensure an optimal environment for change. This is not a process that will happen overnight, especially in the hospital and nursing home settings, where recognizing the need for change is often subordinate to more immediate and severe problems such as personnel and funding shortages.
The readiness for change in the hospital and nursing home environment is often subordinate to practical day-to-day challenges, including severe personnel and funding shortages. These create…
Current Nursing (2011). Change Theory: Kurt Lewin. Retrieved from: http://currentnursing.com/nursing_theory/change_theory.html
Dudley-Brown, S. (2012. Challenges and Barriers in Translation. Translation of Evidence Into Nursing and Health Care Practice edited by Kathleen M. White and Sharon Dudley-Brown. New York: Springer Publishing Co.
Pipe, T.B., Wellik, K.E., Buchda, V.L., Hansen, C.M., and Martyn, D.R. (2005). Implementing Evidence-Based Nursing Practice. Urologic Nursing 25(5). Retrieved from: http://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/514532_5
White, K.M. (2012). Change Theory and Models: Framework for Translation. Translation of Evidence Into Nursing and Health Care Practice edited by Kathleen M. White and Sharon Dudley-Brown. New York: Springer Publishing Co.
A consistent problem for many of the thousands if not millions of airline passengers that pass through airports every day is keeping track of luggage, and making sure that their baggage remains with them. Once the bags are checked in with the airline, it truly is out of the passengers' hands, and lost or misdirected luggage is still a major problem -- though numbers are down significantly from previous years, bags are still lost at a rate of three out of every thousand handled (USDOT, 2011). Given the number of bags handled each day, this quickly adds up to a significant problem. The proposed wireless network and PDA application will provide a way for both airport/airline personnel and passengers to track their bags by establishing a network that covers all baggage handling areas as well as passenger terminals, and is connected to computer terminals at customer service desks…
RO. (2010). Device Could Track Phones, PDAs In Airports. Accessed 11 February 2012. http://www.redorbit.com/news/technology/1840829/device_could_track_phones_pdas_in_airports/
Sehlhorst, S. (2010). The economics of software-as-a-service vs. software-as-a-product. Accessed 11 February 2012. http://www.pragmaticmarketing.com/publications/magazine/6/5/the-economics-of-software-as-a-service-saas-vs.-software-as-a-product
SPEA. (2010). SMART Baggage Reconciliation System. Accessed 11 February 2012. http://www.speaairportsystems.net/SPEA-SMART-Baggage-Reconciliation-System.html
USDOT. (2011). Air Travel Consumer Report. Accessed 11 February 2012. http://airconsumer.dot.gov/reports/2011/December/2011DecemberATCR.PDF
Gaps occur in various situations. They can be in lesson plans or healthcare. When it comes to the MICU, practice gaps happen. To implement a quality improvement proposal one needs to see what works and how to use it to meet the needs of the proposal. Early Progressive Mobility in a Medical Intensive Care Unit has shown to be helpful in meeting the medical goals of patients. In this proposal, evidence as well as strategies will show how important it is for patients to gain mobility early on in recovery and the problems these kinds of programs face.
The MICU or ICU is for patients who are very ill. When in the ICU, it's been demonstrated patients acquire weakness from the acute onset of neuromuscular/functional impairment caused by unknown factors other than their critically ill condition. This weakness impairs ventialtor wearing and functional mobility. (AACN PEAL, n.d.,…
A framework for diagnosing and classifying int... [Crit Care Med. 2009] - PubMed - NCBI. (n.d.). National Center for Biotechnology Information. Retrieved March 20, 2013, from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20046114
AACN PEARL (n.d.). E - Early Exercise and Progressive Mobility Session Notes from NTI 2012 (ABCDE Bundle). American Association of Critical-Care Nurses. Retrieved March 20, 2013, from http://www.aacn.org/wd/nti/nti2012/docs/pearl/early%20exercise%20and%20progressive%20mobility/early-mobility-nti-session-notes.pdf
Armoni, A., & IGI Global. (2002). Effective healthcare information systems. Hershey, Pa: IGI Global (701 E. Chocolate Avenue, Hershey, Pennsylvania, 17033, USA.
Duarte, P. (2012). Mobilization of ventilated patients in the intensive care unit: Patient disposition. Davis, Calif: University of California, Davis.
European Society of Intensive Care Medicine. (2011). Clinical evidence in intensive care. Berlin, Germany: Med.-Wiss. Verl.-Ges.
Garber, J. S., Gross, M., & Slonim, A. D. (2010). Avoiding common nursing errors. Philadelphia: Wolters Kluwer Health/Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.
Kotter, J. P. (2012). Leading change. Boston: Harvard Business Review Press.
Lancet. (1975). Screening for disease: A series from the Lancet. London, United Kingdom: The Lancet.
Egan's skilled helper model is a 3-stage model that is designed to help people become self-empowered. Very similar to oger's famous counseling system, the model is client-oriented, refers to the client as individual who leads the process and structures his goals and is used on the context of the recent past and future. The ogerian guides, too, of empathic listening, unconditional judgment, and respect are its fundamentals.
The Egan model addresses three primary questions
What is going on?
What do I want instead?
How might I get to what I want?
Stage 1: What is going on Each person perceives his or her particular life narrative in her own specific way. Similarly, too, does one accord one's challenges a personal interpretation. Egan encourages the helper to allow the client to articulate his perspective of the account and to fully listen to that account. Articulation of the story frames the narrative…
Birmingham City Univ. Counseling skills: Egan's skilled helper model. Continuing Professional Development Unit.
Egan, G. & Cowan, M.A. (1979) People in systems: A model for development in the human services and professions. CA: Brooks.
Battle Analysis: Battle of Fredricksburg
The Fredericksburg Battle
The fighters who took part in the battle
A number of 31,659 soldiers constituting the Union Forces fought at the Battle of Fredericksburg. The Union Forces came from the Grand Division and were commanded by MG Edwin V. MG Joseph Hooker commanded Sumner from the Center Grand Division which consisted of 40,396 soldiers. MG William B. Franklin was at the helm of affairs of 46,897 soldiers from the Left Grand Division. They were supported by Engineer Corps of 1,329, eserve Artillery of 1,121, Baynard's Calvary of 3,500, and Provost Guard of 1,096, soldiers.
The Fredericksburg battle had Confederate Forces which included the First Corps consisting of 41,294 soldiers who were commanded by LTG James Longstreet. The Second Corps had LTG Thomas J. Jackson as the commander and consisted of 38,931 soldiers. J.E.B Stuart commanded the Calvary Division of…
Mitchell, J.B. (1955). Decisive Battles of the Civil War. New York: G.P. Putnam's Sons.
Parish, P.J. (1991). The American Civil War. New York: Holmes & Meier Publishers, Inc.
Stackpole, E.J. (1991). The Fredericksburg Campaign. Mechanicsburg, Pennsylvania: Stackpole Books.
Canadian Forces, small group military relationships
Within the Canadian Forces, how are small group military relationships on operational deployments in Kabul, Afghanistan?
A group is mostly defined to be two or more people interacting together so they can achieve a common specific goal. The main purpose of the group would be towards a shared and desired outcome. With this in mind, Military groupings are formed to achieve a common interest like defeating a common foe, or lobbying for a specific cause. The group will have some form of leadership structure to ensure it is not mistaken for a crowd. The leadership for military groups is formal. Military groups report to one leader, and follow the orders or instructions given by their leader. For the effectiveness of the military groups, the group members should work together. Working closely together, and for long periods, the group members will form certain bonds, and…
Cox, D.R., & Snell, E.J. (1974). The Choice of Variables in Observational Studies. Journal of the Royal Statistical Society. Series C (Applied Statistics), 23(1), 51-59.
Jiroutek, M.R., Muller, K.E., Kupper, L.L., & Stewart, P.W. (2003). A New Method for Choosing Sample Size for Confidence Interval-Based Inferences. Biometrics, 59(3), 580-590.
Johnson, B.A., & Tsiatis, A.A. (2004). Estimating Mean Response as a Function of Treatment Duration in an Observational Study, Where Duration May Be Informatively Censored. Biometrics, 60(2), 315-323.
Morgan, D.L. (1996). Focus Groups. Annual Review of Sociology, 22(ArticleType: research-article / Full publication date: 1996 / Copyright © 1996 Annual Reviews), 129-152.
Learning Needs Assessment and Analysis
The University of San Diego Counseling Center (USDCC) has been established to provide enrolled students with access to quality counseling and healthcare services. Employing a diverse selection of the university's most accomplished psychiatrists, psychologists, medical doctors, registered nurses, and other healthcare professionals, the USDCC operates a high-volume Critical Intensive Care Unit with the assistance of a 50-member nursing staff. Although the USDCC has built a reputation for delivering competent and qualified critical care services across a number of years, the organization's management structure has become concerned that educational priorities have not been updated to reflect modern advancements in the field. To that end, the USDCC recently elected to conduct a comprehensive Learning Needs Assessment and Analysis to identify the paramount educational needs in place, and the institutional forces working to facilitate or impede the implementation of these needs. Empirical research on the efficacy of various…
Lewin, K. (1939). Field theory and experiment in social psychology: Concepts and methods.
Journal of Sociology, 44, 868-896. Retrieved from http://www.jstor.org/discover/10.2307/2769418?uid=3739552&uid=2129&uid=2&uid=7
Morrison, G.R., Ross, S.M., Kalman, H.K., & Kemp, J.E. (2011). Designing effective instruction (6th ed). Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
eviromental analysis, Porters powers SWOT analysis sbout a project . My project open a retailing medical company buys locally import medical surgical consumables . The company manufacture prodect, copmany import consumables saudi arabia resell local market, Also company buy medical surgical items local market bulk quantities factories resell .
Medic etailers is intended to be a large organization that will deal in the sale of medical supplies to consumers in Saudi Arabia. Indeed, doing business in the medical field is usually intensely involving given that the area is extremely regulated in order to ensure that standards are kept high. Similarly, the regulatory authorities are generally ultra-fast in closing down any businesses. Nevertheless, Medic etailers intend to come up with a precise elucidative process that will ensure high levels of hygiene and efficiency in its operations. The business will be about the importation of medical and surgical equipment from foreign countries…
Drucker, P.F. (1999). Management: tasks, responsibilities, practices (1st ed). New York: Harper & Row.
Freeman, R.E. (2007). Strategic management: a stakeholder approach. Boston: Pitman.
Huggins, R. (2011). Competition, competitive advantage, and clusters: the ideas of Michael Porter. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Owens, R.N. (2004). Introduction to business policy. Homewood, Ill: R.D. Irwin.
job analysis is the process of identifying the best person for a job based on examining the tasks performed, the competencies required to perform those tasks, and the connection between the task and the competencies ("Assessment & Selection," 2013). Performing such an analysis allows the company to better understand the requirements of a given job in the hopes of finding the person best suited to fill the role. There are four main elements involved in performing a thorough job analysis. The first is a description of the work activity that is gathered through a vigorous review of the job and the all the tasks related to adequately performing the work. Second, the knowledge, skills, and abilities or competencies required to perform the job are assessed and catalogued. A large amount of data is compiled to study the range of allowable job performance and the characteristics of the workplace (Prien, Goodstein,…
Assessment & selection: Job analysis. (2013). U.S. Office of Personnel Management. Retrieved February 28, 2013 from:
Biddle, D.A. (2008). Are the Uniform Guidelines outdated? Federal guidelines, professional standards, and validity generalization. The Industrial-Organizational Psychologist, 45(4),
Analysis of the Price of Inequality
In the year 2013, issues of socioeconomic inequality are perhaps as pressing and problematic as they have ever been. This is the assertion at the crux of Joseph E. Stiglitz text, The Price of Inequality: How Today's Divided Society Endangers Our Future (ISBN-13: 9780393345063). Released in 2012 by .. Norton & Company publishers, the 560-page text is a timely and compelling contribution to the current public discourse on our need for greater economic equality in the United States.
Understanding the orientation of the text at the center of this analysis requires a more complete understanding of its author, the economist, Columbia professor and winner of 2001's Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Sciences. According to his self-composed biography at the Memorial Foundation site, Stiglitz (2001) was born in Gary Indian in 1943. By his own report, his interests as a young student would lead…
Chinni, D. (2012). 'The Price of Inequality' and 'The Betrayal of the American Dream.' Jefferson Institute.
Columbia University. (2013). Curriculum Vitae-Stiglitz. Gsb.columbia.edu.
Edsall, T.B. (2012). Separate and Unequal. The New York Times.
Stiglitz, J.E. (2001). Biographical. The Nobel Foundation.
The Field Experience Project that I participated over this course has enlightened me in many ways. Having a different perspective as an observer was a very valuable way of examining the teaching environment. The purpose of this essay is to summarize my experience as an interviewer and observer at the Clay County High School in Clay, V. This essay will first give some background on the circumstances of my situation before capturing some specific items that occurred while I was there.
After describing some of the background information about the school, I will then give an account of my experiences at the school. I will describe the details about my activities and interactions while I was present as an observer. The final part of the essay will discuss some of my specific observations about culture and how culture affected the school that I observed.
Clay County High…
Barth, R. (2002). The Culture Builder. Educational Leadership, 59, 8. pp 6-11. Retrieved from http://cursa.ihmc.us/rid=1207228897993_605800142_8024/Barth - %20Culture%20Builder.pdf
Chenoweth, E., & Galliher, R.V. (2004, October 15). Factors in-uencing college aspirations of rural West Virginia high school students. Journal of Research in Rural Education, 19(2). Retrieved [date] from http://jrre.psu.edu/articles/19-2.pdf
Clay Count High School Website. Viewed 1 March 2013. Retrieved from http://www.claycountyhighschool.org/index.html
US News and World Report. Clay County High School. Viewed 1 March 2013. Retrieved from http://www.usnews.com/education/best-high-schools/west-virginia/districts/clay-county- schools/clay-county-high-school-21332
Indeed, even the most outspoken critics of law enforcement will likely be the first to dial "9-1-1" when their homes are being burglarized or members of their families are being attacked, but the fact remains that many police department remain primarily white and male in composition. The impetus for effecting substantive changes in the composition of the nation's police forces will therefore need to be mandated in order for things to change in any meaningful way. The desirability of developing a more diverse police force that reflects the demographic composition of the larger communities they serve has been recognized as an important element in this regard. For instance, as Hood, othstein and Baldwin (2004) emphasize, "Any geographically extended political system can set standards from the center, but diversity in law enforcement is often seen as both necessary and desirable" (p. 175). Although it may be necessary and desirable, there are…
Barlow, David E. And Melissa Hickman Barlow. 1999. "Cultural Diversity Training in Criminal Justice: A Progressive or Conservative Reform?" Social Justice 20(3-4): 69-70.
Bedi, K. And R.K. Agrawal. 2001. "Transforming values for principle-centered living: Evidence from Delhi police personnel." Journal of Power and Ethics 2(2): 103.
Broadnax, Walter D. 2000. Diversity and Affirmative Action in Public Service. Boulder, CO: Westview Press.
Culver, Leigh. 2004. Adapting Police Services to New Immigration. New York: LFB Scholarly Publishing.
While he supported me in my endeavors, he raised many questions, >Why do you want to enter social work? How do you think you are going to provide for your family and the lifestyle you are accustomed to?" Deferring to socialization pressures that still impel them to fulfill the "breadwinner" role and avoid feminine characteristics, they may segregate themselves from women in the profession, selecting specialties or positions that society deems as more appropriate for men (Williams, 1995). They too may emphasize the masculine aspects of their jobs to "reduce the dissonance between their professional and gender identities" and to justify their career choices (Christie, 1998, p. 506). Thereby, male social workers adhere more closely to the social definition of masculinity" (ritton, J. & Stoller M., 1998).
The young people who are trying to enter into a social work profession "hope to advance research and social work services for men…
Britton, J. & Stoller M. (Autumn, 1998), Engendered disparity: Males in Social Work, Retrieved December 6, 2006, from The Advocate's Forum, Vol.5, No.1, Web Site: http://www.ssa.uchicago.edu/publications/advforum/v5n1/v5i1a2.html
Chattopadhay, T. (2004), Role of men and boys in promoting gender equality: advocacy brief / Asia-Pacific Programme of Education for All (APPEAL), United Nations Educational Scientific and Cultural Organization, Bangkok: UNESCO Bangkok, Retrieved December 6, 2006, at http://www.ungei.org/resources/files/unesco_role_of_men.pdf
Christie, A.(2001), Men and social work, New York, NY USA: Palgrave Publishers, Retrieved December 3, 2006, at http://site.ebrary.com/lib/csueastbay/Doc?id=2002957
Gillingham, P. (January, 2006), Male social workers in child and family welfare: New directions for research, in Social work, Volume 51, number I
These refer to the characteristics of the political and regulatory environment (P), the economic environment (E), the socio-cultural environment and finally, the technological environment. The analysis of the climate in which an organization activates is also known as the PEST analysis.
Starbucks offers a wide selection of coffee-based beverages, with both caffeine and without caffeine. Aside their coffee beverages, they also offer whole-bean coffees, food items and coffee-related products and hardware equipment. "Starbucks stores offered a choice of regular or decaffeinated coffee beverages, a special "coffee of the day," and a broad selection of Italian-style espresso drinks. In addition, customers could choose from a wide selection of fresh-roasted whole-bean coffees (which could be ground on the premises and carried home in distinctive packages), a selection of fresh pastries and other food items, sodas, juices, teas, and coffee-related hardware and equipment."
About 61% of the sold items…
2008, Starbucks Corporation, Hoovers, http://www.hoovers.com/starbucks/--ID__15745 -- /free-co-factsheet.xhtmllast accessed on September 12, 2008
Moon, Y., Quelch, J., July 10, 2006, Starbucks: Delivering Customer Service, Harvard Business School
2008, Analysis of Starbucks, KNOL Beta - a Unit of Knowledge, http://knol.google.com/k/-/analysis-of-starbucks/ow5jbvr76bz9/8#last accessed on September 11, 2008
McPherson also points out that following the Union victory at Laurel Hill, McClellan was given the responsibility of training the newly-named Army of the Potomac at Washington, D.C. Upon arriving in the city, McClellan "found no army to command, only a mere collection of regiments, perfectly raw and dispirited... " He then "took hold with a firm hand to reorganize and train these troops" which demonstrates his excellent skills as an organizer and administrator, two very important traits for a general. In response, national newspapers hailed McClellan as "the man to save his country... And talked of him as the next President." This praise "went to his head and came to regard himself" as a master over Lincoln and every other high-ranking military officer. McPherson refers to this as McClellan's "Messiah complex" which seems quite accurate, especially since McClellan said to Lincoln that "I can do it all" in…
George McClellan." (2007). Internet. Retrieved April 14, 2008 at http://www.spartacus.schoolnet.co.uk/USACWmcclellan.htm.
Guelzo, Allen C. (2004). Lincoln's Emancipation Proclamation: The End of Slavery in America. New York: Simon & Schuster.
McPherson, James M. (1993). Ordeal by Fire: The Civil War and Reconstruction.
New York: McGraw-Hill Companies.
ethnological investigation and analysis, is centered on cultural and religious activity in a contemporary community situation. Essentially, the aim of this research was to observe various cultural and social behavior patterns as they pertain to religion and spirituality in society. Two faiths were observed over a period of time. A Western religious faith such as Catholicism was compared to an Eastern faith such as Buddhism.
This topic was chosen for a number of reasons. In the first instance religion is a central facet of all cultures and societies. The search for a larger and more existential meaning to life is a cultural trait that can be observed in every culture throughout human history. It is therefore a subject that is central to cultural life and which has enormous ramifications in terms of its influence on other dimensions of cultural activity.
However, religion per se is a very broad and somewhat…
EMIC AND ETIC PERSPECTIVES. Retrieved from http://www.uwec.edu/minkushk/anth%20161emic.htm
Ethnographic fieldwork. Retrieved from http://manual.recoup.educ.cam.ac.uk/wiki/index.php/Ethnographic_fieldwork
Hoey B. What is Ethnography? Retrieved from http://www.brianhoey.com/General%20Site/general_defn-ethnography.htm
Humanist profile: John Dewey (1859-1952) (2009) The Humanist, 2009. Retrieved from http://www.highbeam.com/doc/1G1-207350169.html
Standard Construction of Modern High Field Magnets Used in Modern Nuclear Magnetic esonance Devices
Nuclear magnetic resonance devices are playing an increasingly important role in healthcare and research today. As the term implies, magnets, specifically high field magnets, are an essential part of these sophisticated devices with important implications for a wide range of valuable healthcare and research applications. To gain additional insights into how these devices operate, this paper provides a discussion concerning the standard construction of modern high field magnets used in nuclear magnetic resonance devices, including a detailed graphic illustrated the different components of a representative magnet. An examination of the effects of transitions to higher magnet strengths on cooling systems is followed by an analysis of the superconducting materials used and a brief description of magnet construction. A discussion concerning the differences between shielded magnets and non-shielded magnets and innovations in technology that may allow room…
Carlisle, R. (2004). Scientific American Inventions and Discoveries: All the Milestones in Ingenuity -- From the Discovery of Fire to the Invention of the Microwave Oven. Hoboken,
NJ: John Wiley & Sons.
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16, pp. 44-47.
A number of modifications have occurred within the area of arts instruction, leading to a redesigning of the whole curriculum. A few transformations involve modern trends like literacy training via art, worldwide popular culture, 21st-century abilities, social justice, art evaluation, cultural diversity, and interdisciplinary approaches.
Teaching Literacy through Art
According to Moody-Zoet, art-teaching offers distinctive and useful intellectual behaviors and skill sets which aid in the learning of other academic disciplines. The following skills are introduced, cultivated and honed by arts education: craft creation capacity; task involvement and determination when it comes to task completion; envisioning, expression, and seeking of a vision for oneself; observation; reflection; stretching; exploration; and understanding of the art community/world. Arts education represents a vital component of every learner's holistic scholastic literacy. The arts, after all, are entrenched in representation and cognition, in addition to be profoundly involved in the way education expands as well as…
Zara Case Analysis
Zara: IT for Fast Fashion is a unique case study in that it powerfully illustrates how a lack of IT integration and process efficiency can over time force an organization into complacency, lowering the standards of performance due to a lack of real-time market and operations data and analytics. The POS terminals that are running on a discontinued version of the Microsoft DOS operating system is a metaphor of the entire company's approach to using IT more effectively. Adopting a more agile IT architecture based on the Software-as-a-Service (SaaS) platform is needed. Integrating ordering fulfillment, distribution and manufacturing is needed.
Zara's management teams are being pulled in spe4rate directions as the company continues to aggressively expand, operating 11,558 stores in 45 countries as part of the Inditex group, 550 of which are branded as Zara stores. Inditex is on pace to open one store a…
Azevedo, S., & Ferreira, J.. (2009). RFID Technology in Retailing: An Exploratory Study on Fashion Apparels. IUP Journal of Managerial Economics, 7(1), 7-22.
Carr, K.. (2010, April). It's about value, not cost. Marketing: Field Marketing Essays,15.
Wujin Chu, & Paul R. Messinger. (1997). Information and channel profits. Journal of Retailing, 73(4), 487-499.
Howard Cox, & Simon Mowatt. (2004). Consumer-driven innovation networks and e-business management systems. Qualitative Market Research, 7(1), 9-19.