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Vietnam was ripe for revolution by the time Ho Chi Minh returned to Indo-China. In 1929, he thought the time was ripe to form a cohesive Communist group, so he traveled to Hong Kong and urged three split parties there to form one group, the Indochinese Communist Party, who stood for independence and a proletarian government for Vietnam. Eventually he was arrested by British police, and jailed, but he persuaded an employee to say he was dead. He escaped to China and then to Moscow. He did not return to Vietnam until 1941, and he sided with the United States during World War II, because he felt they would defeat Japan, who had taken over the country, and return it to the Vietnamese when the war ended. However, France regained the country, and that made Ho Chi Minh even more determined to take back his country. In 1945, he drafted…
Karnow, Stanley. 1997. Vietnam: A history. New York: Penguin Books.
Green, Richard. 1996. Biography of Ho Chi Minh. Tactile Interactive: http://www.tactileint.com/seasia/saigon/hochiminh.html (accessed April 6, 2010).
History Of Vietnamese Society
Vietnam is one of the peculiar countries in the history of nations. One of the most selling stories of Vietnam is the case where it defeated the United States in a war that the Super Power had initiated. At that time, it was almost unheard of for a country (small as Vietnam) to defeat the U.S. In any war. The country is also known for the resilience and determination of its people amidst the economic and political challenges that the country has been facing for a long time (Buttinger, 2010). This study discusses the issues of two special leaders who lead both the North and South Vietnam during the period of first and second world wars. These two leaders are Ho Chi Minh and Ngo Dinh Diem. In this paper, the lives of these two leaders are discussed and related to the fortunes and losses that…
Buttinger, J. (2010). The Smaller Dragon; a Political History of Vietnam. New York: Praeger.
Corfield, J. (2009). The history of Vietnam. Westport, Connecticut: Greenwood Press.
Levine, M. (2013). Ho Chi Minh and Ngo Dinh Diem: A comparative study. New York: Paperback
Ho Chi Minh was for a long time of the most controversial dictators of the world. In this sense, "for westerners Ho Chi Minh has been a figure of some mystery for many years. His death on September 3, 1969 did not end the fascination he holds for people who have found his life enigmatic and his political position unclear." Therefore, it is fair to say that to this day, there are people who more or less worship him and the system he created as a result of his desire for power and supremacy. The power of Ho Chi Minh was his response to the Western world. As he was incarcerated Ho Chi Minh defied the Western world by defending himself and supporting the idea of him being a nationalist. As stated before, the idea of the adherence to a country has always been a successful one because people will…
Asian Political News. China to mark 30th anniversary of Mao's death, tight grip on legacy. 2006. http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m0WDQ/is_2006_Sept_11/ai_n16715796
C.E. Dent, "Sociological indoctrination under conditions of dictatorship." 1936.
Calvocoressi, Peter. World politics since 1945. New York: Longman, 1987.
DeCaro, Peter a. Rhetoric of Revolt: Ho Chi Minh's Discourse for Revolution. Westport, CT.: Praeger. 2003.
Ho Chi Minh was highly educated and attended various universities around the world according to the literature from numerous sources including the Eastern Worker's University and Lenin School in Moscow. He was trained in Moscow involving revolutionary tactics (Columbia Encyclopedia 2008).
Minh had a strong desire to make Vietnam an independent country and spent his whole life in pursuit of this dream. In southern China, Minh trained the exiles in techniques involving revolutionary tactics. According to by 1925 he had organized the exiles into the Viet Nam Thanh Nien Cach Menh Dong Chi Hoi (Revolutionary Youth League) and the inner group within the Revolutionary League, the Thanh Nien Cong San Doan, or Communist Youth League (CYL) (Wars and Battles 2010 the Revolutionary). Years of oppression and hardship drove the Vietnamese people to join Minh in his ideals. The seemingly ordinary man was highly educated according to all sources referred and…
ole of Media in Vietnam
There can be various reasons for a nation to get involved in war and conflict of cultures is considered to be the major reason. Silence can be men's greatest enemy and history is evident that many wars are fought to break vicious circle of silence, pain and agony. It is not easy for humans to get out of their comfort zone and raise their voice against the injustice, unethical practices and even government policies. When a situation comes where individuals realize that human spirit no longer existed and their self-esteem is being engulfed by the so called principals of justice in the hands of law; this point is the verge of tolerance, forbearance and moderation and ultimately gives rise to uncertainty and turbulence.
Nations are in continuous thirst of power, territorial usufruct and control over resources to gain economic control. In this battle of power…
Donohue, G, Tichenor, P, & Olien, C. (1995). A Guard Dog Perspective on the Role of Media. Journal of Communication, 45(2), 115 -- 132.
Halberstam, D, Sheehan, N, & Arnett, P. (1996). Once upon a distant war. Vintage Books: NY.
Hallin, D. (1984). The media, the war in Vietnam, and political support: a critique of the thesis an oppositional media. The Journal of Politics, 46, 1-24.
King, L. (1992). A Time to Break Silence. Retrieved June 16, 2011 from http://www.deanza.edu/faculty/swensson/king.html
Ngo Dinh Diem's government in Vietnam [...] social base of the government of Ngo Dinh Diem, and answer the questions: What were the provisions of the land reform which Diem implemented as opposed to the programs implemented by the National Liberation Front in areas under their control? Was the Diem government democratic? Why did the United States install, and later seek to remove, Diem? What did the uddhist Crisis reveal about the Diem government?
Ngo Dinh Diem
Ngo Dinh Diem was a vehement anti-communist who initially impressed many American leaders, who then supported his as Prime Minister of the Republic of Vietnam after the French left the country. Unfortunately, Diem's government was corrupt, and socially based on his family and the Catholic refugees from the North, which angered most of the South Vietnamese. Many of his supporters touted his government as "democratic," but it was not. Diem fixed elections, installed…
Adamson, Michael R. "Ambassadorial Roles and Foreign Policy: Elbridge Durbrow, Frederick Nolting, and the U.S. Commitment to Diem's Vietnam, 1957-61." Presidential Studies Quarterly 32.2 (2002): 229+.
Freedman, Samuel, and Olson, James S., eds. Historical Dictionary of the 1960s. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1999.
Where, he would portray himself as a staunch anti-communist that supported the ideas of liberty. Yet, when he had taken control of the country he immediately began to rule with an iron fist. This authoritarian rule and the way that Diem was able to single-handedly throw elections, would set the tone as to what kind of President he would be. Then, when you combine this with the fact that just 10% of the country was Catholic; and that the Catholics held a position of privilege in the country. Meant that the actions by Diem; would be seen as even more illegitimate by the people. This is especially troubling when the French had raised concerns about a rising uddhist threat, as 70% of the population was uddhist. These two elements allowed for the overall actions against the Diem government to increase during his reign as President. Where, both the North and…
South Vietnam -- DCI Briefing. GWU. 1963. 21 Feb. 2010
Carter, James. Inventing Vietnam: The United States and State Building 1954 -1968. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2008.
Jacobs, Seth. America's Miracle Man in Vietnam: Ngo Dinh Diem, Religion,
and U.S. Intervention in Southeast Asia. Durham, Duke University Press, 2005.
The intelligence, from allegedly captured Vietminh radio messages, stated that the Vietminh forces were shaken by the strike and refusing to follow orders (Dien Bien Phu, ¶11). The conclusion was later made, that the Vietminh had sent the messages to catch the French off guard and boost their confidence.
By the 22nd of April, the Vietminh had captured the entire air strip and all parachute drops were brought to a halt by the Vietminh. The battle became a battle of who could hold out the longest and all French attacks failed to have much or any success.
The French made some ground with the huge attacks on both the 1st and 6th of May; but on the 7th of May, Vietminh General Giap ordered a full scale attack of the stronghold, sending in almost all of his troops at once. A French radio transmission received at this time from the…
Dien Bien Phu. History Learning Site. 2010. Web 14 June 2010.
Fall, B. Battle of Dien Bien Phu. Vietnam. April 2004. Web 14 June 2010.
War has undoubtedly shaped the course of human history. Conflicts, through sheer human nature often arise through disagreement. Occasionally these conflicts end with war as opposing sides believe so vehemently in their respective reasonings and doctrinal views. Oftentimes, these war's end with one "victor" and on defeated party, however, in war everyone losses.
The Vietnam War in particular is an example of how war is a zero sum game that only results in losses for all those involved. This paper examines how the conflict started, taking particular care to express both points-of-view regarding core issues followed by a discussion concerning Special Forces operations and their overall impact on the outcome of the war. Finally, a summary of the research and important findings about Special Forces in Vietnam in the conclusion.
Review and Analysis
Origins of the Vietnam War
The Vietnam War was a long, costly armed conflict that pitted the…
Dyhouse, Tim. (2002, March). Delta Force: Secret Wielders of Death. VFW Magazine 89(7), p. 16.
Beckwith, Charles (with Donald Knox) (1983). Delta Force. San Diego: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich. ISBN 9780151246571.
Kelly, Francis J. Green Berets of Vietnam - The U.S. Army Special Forces 61-71 - the. S.l: Archive Media Publishing, 2013.
America's wars have historically been a reflection of America's very own cultural tendencies; they're usually enormous in scale, they traditionally consist of a colorful variety of fronts and they are most often regarded as a man's game. So it doesn't strike one as peculiar, perhaps, that the perpetually striking images of Vietnam are of camouflaged nineteen-year-old men enduring the graces and horrors hosted by Southeast Asia during the skirmish that lasted over a decade. It may seem more peculiar, however, when one considers that more than 15,000 women relocated from their American homes to the perilous, jungle canopied land. Vietnam's legacy of physical handicapping, psychological desecration and cultural rifting echoes in an innumerable collection of films, books, publications, organizations and documentation detailing the heroics, trials and disgraces of a generation of men. But the women that this nation sent off to serve in a countless number of indispensable capacities have…
2. Evans, Barbara. Caduceus in Saigon: A Medical Mission to South Viet-Nam. London: Hutchinson, 1968.
3. Youngstrom-Diebolt, Jean. Keynote Address. Women's Memorial. Austin, TX. 1993.
4. Wilson, Captain Barbara A. Vietnam Southeast Asia. Military Women in Vietnam, 1996.
Ngo Dinh Diem
orn in the year 1901 to an aristocratic family, Ngo Dinh Diem rose to become the Prime Minister of South Vietnam in the year 1954. This paper looks in detail at the events during the life of Ngo Dinh Diem, his era of governance and the events that took place in the aftermath of his assassination. Catholic missionaries converted his predecessors into Christianity several years back in the 17th century. Much like his pervious family generations, he too was educated in French Catholic schools. Following his successful graduation he was trained as an administrator who worked in conjunction with the French authorities based in Vietnam. At a very young age of twenty-five, he became a provincial governor. This was his foray into a long political career, which marked dramatic incidents both in his personal life and the history of Vietnam.
At a time when communism was rising…
Diem, Ngo Diem' Retrieved at http://us.history.wisc.edu/hist102/bios/29.html Accessed on April 5, 2004
Ngo Dinh Diem - Encarta: An Encyclopedia Article' Retrieved at http://encarta.msn.com/encyclopedia_761576219/Ngo_Dinh_Diem.html Accessed on April 5, 2004
Colby's Vietnam: History Misrepresented' Retrieved at http://www.hartford-hwp.com/archives/54/099.html Accessed on April 5, 2004
Letter to John F. Kennedy' Retrieved at http://pages.xtn.net/~wingman/docs/lettdiem.htm Accessed on April 5, 2004
Tesco in Vietnam
There are a number of pros to entering the Vietnamese market. First, this is a market where there are few competitors. The main competitor, Big C, is a Thai company that entered Vietnam by buying Carrefour's stores as it exited Southeast Asia[footnoteRef:1]. While many other markets in the region have multiple competitors, Vietnam really only has one. With only one major competitor, and an underdeveloped market for modern grocery distribution, Vietnam represents an opportunity to gain early mover advantage in a promising market. The familiarity with Southeast Asia will help the company to work quickly to establish itself in the Vietnamese market. Furthermore, it is easier on the logistics than either of Indonesia or Philippines, the two other major opportunities in Southeast Asia. Those are archipelagos, whereas Vietnam presents an easy market logistically, close to suppliers, and can be served with only a couple of warehouses.…
S. system of communication was responsible for far too many problems, including the presidential conception of the value of the leader, Nhu Ding Diem. Key factors in this war were the misuse of technology in the south and intelligent use of simple technology by the north. The Battle of Diem Bin Phu was a classic miscalculation when the French thought that artillery could not be brought against them through the jungle. The North Vietnamese did just that, manually hauling big guns on jungle trails and over mountains, then followed with ammunition on bicycles. In addition they hid the guns in tunnels and set off charges in the jungle to confuse the French as to the sources of shelling.
After the French left, the U.S. set up Nhu Ding Diem as president of South Vietnam. Between him and his brother, they alienated more than half the population in short order with…
Works Cited www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=109396003
Best, Antony, Jussi M. Hanhim ki, Joseph a. Maiolo, and Kirsten E. Schulze. International History of the Twentieth Century. London: Routledge, 2004. Questia. 8 Oct. 2006 http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=109396005 .
Bull, Stephen. Encyclopedia of Military Technology and Innovation. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 2004. Questia. 8 Oct. 2006 http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=106977476 .
Tonkin Gulf Crisis
The Debate over the Tonkin Gulf Crisis
The Tonkin Gulf Crisis 1964 ranks with the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor and the assassination of President John F. Kennedy as events that David Kaiser of the U.S. Naval War College refers to as "controversies in American political history that dwarf all others (Ford, 1997)."
There is evidence that President Lyndon Johnson deliberately lied about the incidents leading to the Vietnam War to ensure that plans for war were supported. However, many opponents of this claim say that this is not so. According to Sedgwick Tourison in the book Secret Army, Secret War and Dr. Edwin Moise's Tonkin Gulf and the Escalation of the Vietnam War, evidence that Johnson's administration was deceitful is becoming clearer than it was (Ford, 1997).
Today, Tonkin Gulf researchers are still examining the evidence to determine whether or not Johnson's administration intentionally instigated the…
Austin, Anthony. (1971). The President's War. Lippincott.
Cohen, Jeff. Solomon, Norman. (July 27, 1994). 30-Year Anniversary: Tonkin Gulf Lie Launched Vietnam War. Media Beat. Retrieved from the Internet at http://www.fair.org/media-beat/940727.html .
Department of State Bulletin. (August 24, 1964) The Tonkin Gulf Incident: President Johnson's Message to Congress. Retrieved from the Internet at http://pages.xtn.net/~wingman/docs/tonkin.htm.
Ford, Ronnie. (August, 1997). New Light On Gulf Of Tonkin. Vietnam Magazine, pp. 165-172.
Japan had taken control of Vietnam during the Second World War. They had come in, in 1940, as a strategy to prevent China from ferrying weapons through the country. However, there was resistance to this through the efforts of Ho Chi Minh, who would later lead the independent country. He was a communist, and this would help him in accessing aid from the communist China when fighting against the French in the southern part of this country. The south was under the French rule, and thus, not part of the growing communism movement. Concerned over the threat of communist domination of the great part of Asia, the United States decided to back the French, so that they could set up a friendly government. However, they were defeated in the ensuing war, though they did not leave, but signed a peace agreement. Through the U.S. efforts, elections were halted…
Davis, Mr. American Involvement in Vietnam. http://www.schoolhistory.co.uk/gcselinks/britishworld/vietnam/vietnamusinvolvement.pdf Web. 12, November. 2015.
Leffler, P. M.Containment http://press.princeton.edu/chapters/pons/s2_9143.pdf Web. 12, November. 2015.
Brno. The Vietnam War, Public Opinion and American Culture. 2008. https://is.muni.cz/th/96666/pedf_m/Vietnam_War.pdf Web. 12, November. 2015.
Herring, Georgie C. America's Longest War, the United States and Vietnam 1950-1975. Second Edition. New York: Newbery Award Records, 1986.
The following a marketing plan for entering the Vietnamese market. There will be several issues covered, including the market and product analysis, external analysis, an internal analysis, and an action plan. Then there will be conclusions. The Vietnamese market is a terrible one to enter, in short. There has to be a better market. While the market is large in population, and its wealth is growing, the average Vietnamese cannot afford to pay tuition for Western-quality higher education. The actual size of the market, which would consist only of wealthy Vietnamese students who cannot get into Western schools, is quite small. The report will outline the size of this market, and how best this market can be reached.
The product we are selling is higher education. The business school proposes to enter the Vietnamese market with numerous courses of study. There are two products -- a baccalaureate…
Develop and present an outline marketing plan with justifications
Purpose of the assessment
The aim of the assignment is to demonstrate your understanding of how a global corporation strategically manages its marketing operations across global markets and cultures.
Context: You work in a marketing consultancy. It is your job to prepare a report to the Dean of the Business School on your outline plan for entry into Vietnam with programmes of study.
Your Specific Instructions:
Your Report should identify as a minimum the following:
You are to produce an outline marketing plan for entry into either country. See assessment requirements below for some ideas of indicative content.
Ensure your country/segment is different from the other members of your group no collusion or plagiarism.
Approach/steps to follow:
This business report should have a minimum of 6 sections and be logical, well-researched using Harvard Referencing. It should be written…
A majority of the American wars have had obvious starting points like the capture of Fort Sumter in 1861, the battles of Lexington and Concord in 1775, the attack on Pearl Harbor in 1941, and the invasion of North Korea into South Korea in June 1950. However, for the war in Vietnam, there is no fixed beginning. The United States got into that war incrementally via a series of steps that took place between 1950 and 1965 (Asselin 337). The Vietnam war is considered to be America's longest war and it took place for 25 years (1950-1975). This was a proxy war because the opposing powers were using third parties to fight on their behalf.
As has been pointed out the United States joined the war incrementally and it all begun in May 1950 when President Harry Truman sanctioned a modest program of military and economic aid to…
The U.S. supported the Thieu regime in an election so fraudulent all opponents withdrew.
The war officially ended in 1973; Nixon resigned in 1974 so did no t preside over the rout of the South Vietnamese in 1975 when the North took over the entire country.
Results for America:
One and a half million counted dead in Indochina, 58,000 of whom were Americans. Millions maimed. Over 500,000 refugees.
Between 1965 and 1971, the U.S. spent $120 billion dollars on the war directly, but other costs raised the tally to a pricey $400 billion.
Emotionally, the U.S. military was exhausted and depleted, no longer the superpower it was assumed; likewise, the American people were depleted and exhausted, although much of it was in relation to their leadership; seriously wounded the U.S. psyche.
Anti-colonial sentiment in America was at a crucial crossroads in the United States governmental policy at this…
However, protecting democracy came with the positive outcome of suppressing the communist bloc that would come to define American politics until 1989 and the end of the Cold War. While the spread and protection of democracy was encouraged and a true conviction, the added bonus of the threat to communism spurred the American military to capture the minds of as many American leaders as possible (Eisenhower included).
1: Commitment to France, where troubles in the Indochina region were threatening social stability at home. Marshall plan connections to Europe, and a sincere desire to maintain allied with the French (responsibility, guilt for waiting on intervening in the European conflicts, general interest in this democratic former power) encouraged the United States to empower the French as much as possible in their pursuit.
After WWII, France tried to re-establish control over Vietnam. In January 1946, Britain agreed to remove her troops, and later that year, China left in exchange for a promise she would give up her rights to territory in China. Emperor Bao Dai went into exile in Hong Kong in March, 1946. After signing an accord recognizing Vietnamese national unity within the French Union, he was allowed to return in June, 1948; the French
Gender, in some ways may determine the difference of the narrative arc in these two memoirs. A male, Tang fought for the cause militarily, while Elliot married an American and traced her associations with the war through her family roots, rather than through her own political involvement alone. Tang shows the war in all of its brutality largely from his own perspective and the perspective of other fighters, while Elliot offers a filtered and more political perspective, as seen through the eyes of several generations of her own family, male and female. She thus gives a balanced and more ideologically uncertain view of the war, never coming to a conclusion whether it was right or wrong. Although disgusted with the aftermath, Tang concludes his memoir, certain that the war was necessary.
Because Elliot involves her family's collective struggles in her memoir more than Tang's partisan narrative, a more balanced and…
Elliot, Duong Van Mai. The Sacred Willow: Four Generations in the Life of a Vietnamese Family. London, Oxford University Press, 2000.
Tang, Truong Nhu. A Vietcong Memoir. New York: Vintage, 1986.
Employment Law in Vietnam
Summary of Minimum Statutory Entitlements
Form of Contract
Data Privacy Legislation
The Mandatory Social Security Fund
Summary of Visa Requirements www.mayerbrownjsm.com
This booklet provides general advice only and should not be treated as a substitute for legal advice. While care has been taken to ensure that details are correct, no responsibility can be taken for losses arising from the reliance upon its contents. Should you have any speci? c questions please contact Dao Nguyen on +84 8 822-8860 or email at dao.- -- .
© 2008. Mayer Brown LLP, Mayer Brown International LLP, and/or JSM.
Mayer Brown is a global legal services organisation comprising
legal practices that are separate entities ("Mayer Brown Practices").
The Mayer Brown Practices are: Mayer Brown LLP, a limited liability partnership established in the United States; Mayer Brown International
LLP, a limited liability…
Decolonialization in Vietnam After 1945
Beginning with the reestablishment of French colonial rule after World War , Vietnam's history after 1945 is the story of how the traditionally colonial power structure was subsumed by the worldwide ideological conflict created by the Cold War. Vietnam transitioned from French colonial control through a series of violent conflicts which began as an internal conflict between colonizers and colonized but ultimately transformed into one of the more important proxy wars fought between the United States and Soviet Union. The years between 1945 and the country's eventual unification as the Socialist Republic of Vietnam in 1976 saw the brutal clash of two global historical orders and the succession of Cold War superpowers over the fading colonial characters of France and Britain.
The groundwork for the transition from colonial rule to Cold War battleground was laid by the British capture of Vietnam following the World War…
In July, 1945, the Allied Joints Chiefs of Staff decided to divide Vietnam along the sixteenth parallel, giving control of the northern portion over to China while delegating control over the southern half to "Britain's over-stretch South East Asian Command" (Springhall 2005, 116-117). Roughly two months later, on September 13, Major General Douglas D. Gracey led his command into Saigon as the first allied commander since the fall of Japanese control, and thus the British set the stage for the violence to come.
By 1948, the group of countries supporting the two sides in the conflict had widened to include the United States as Britain took a less prominent role. At the time, in an essay considering whether a UN Good Offices Commission on Indochina might be worth establishing in light of similar commission on Indonesia, John Embree pointed out that although the conflict in Vietnam was "a war in which France is the prime mover, but which was initially aided by British military force and which can continue only by the use of military equipment made in U.S.A." Embree sees a missed opportunity when "the possibility for a relatively easy solution" providing for Vietnam's transition from colony to sovereignty "was lost when France, after signing an agreement with Ho Chi Minh in 1946, proceeded to set up a puppet government in South Vietnam and quarreled with Vietminh over the collection of customs in the north" (Embree 1948, 128-129). Even in 1948, Embree already sees "that the old fashioned colonialism for which the French are fighting in Indochina is a lost cause" and proposes that the only solution for a lasting peace in Vietnam is a United Nations commission.
When proposing a reasonable selection of which nations were best suited for a place at the table, he suggests somewhat conspicuously that "of the Occidental countries the United States and the Soviet Union are probably ruled out because of the issue of communism included in negotiations with Ho Chi Minh." Embree also promotes excluding
1. Explain why the Vietnam conflict was an episode of the cold war.
The United States became involved in the Vietnam conflict due to fears that communism was going to spread throughout Asia, potentially upsetting the global balance of power. When Ho Chi Minh showed an interest in developing a communist form of government for the nation newly liberated from France, the United States became involved as one of the earliest but most significant episodes in the Cold War. Losing in both Korea and Vietnam caused the United States to become even more vigilant and paranoid throughout the Cold War.
2. Then discuss the chronology of United States involvement in Vietnam from 1955 to 1975.
American involvement in Vietnam represented a long and unnecessarily drawn-out conflict that lasted roughly from 1955 to 1975. In 1955, Vietnam had already been divided into north and south, with Eisenhower warning about a potential…
His early thesis is that the U.S. was engaged in interventions long before the Cold ar "broke out" - and those interventions (including those borne of Manifest Destiny) were based not so much on greed or empire building but on the ideology that all nations should be allowed to enjoy individual liberty, economics based on an open and free market, and social progress. And after II, the interventions by both superpowers "were not [necessarily based on] exploitation or subjection, but control and improvement" (estad, p. 5).
There are flaws in the book, albeit estad has written a book that is far more expansive and inclusive than the other two, so he should be given respect - more than just the benefit of the doubt. In fact, estad's book contains ten maps, ten good photographs and five poster reproductions of propaganda materials used during the Cold ar. One of the few…
Gaddis, John Lewis. Strategies of Containment: A Critical Appraisal of Postwar
American National Security Policy. New York: Oxford University Press, 1982.
Suri, Jeremi. Power and Protest: Global Revolution and the Rise of Detente. Cambridge:
Harvard University Press, 2003.
U.S. WA IN VIETNAM UNJUSTIFIED
US IN VIETNAM WA UNJUSTIFIED
intervention in Vietnam was utterly unjustifiable and uncalled for action. It all began when an otherwise peaceful country resorted in civil war that was orchestrated by the spread of communism. Vietnam, which was a colony of French, had fallen into the offensive communist movement led by Ho Chi Minh and his communist rebels. This event occurred immediately after World War II in 1945. The Northern Vietnam had readily embraced communism, but greater resistance was from the South. In 1949, the Chinese communist forces successful triumphed in the war thus converting China into a communist state. America, under President Truman, and its western allies became wary of the advances of communism in Asia. They feared that this movement may gradually spread into south East Asia into countries such as Vietnam and Cambodia. Already the Northern part of Vietnam had fallen victim.…
Davis, L.E., & Shapiro, J. (2003). The U.S. Army and the new national security strategy. Santa Monica, CA: RAND
Gettleman, M.E. (1995). Vietnam and America. The most comprehensive documented history of the Vietnam War.
Hagopian, P. (2011). The Vietnam War in American Memory: Veterans, Memorials, and the Politics of Healing. New York, NY: Univ of Massachusetts Press.
Walzer, Michael. (2006). Just And Unjust Wars: A Moral Argument With Historical Illustrations. Texas, TX: Basic Books.
Stresses associated with migration itself, discrimination against racial minorities in this country, poverty, unemployment, and crowded living conditions heighten the chance that a husband will become abusive" (p. 1402). From the Vietnamese-American perspective, these issues are even more pronounced and they are discussed further below.
a. Male dominance. One of the most powerful forces affecting Vietnamese families at home and abroad today is Confucian ideology, an ideology that is predicated on the dominance of men over women (Kibria, 1993). According to Lowe and her colleagues (2003), some gender socialization influences on Vietnamese men are similar to those that are typically experienced by men in other Asian cultures. "Similarities in gender role socialization that Vietnamese men share with other Asian men arising from shared influences of Confucian, Taoist, and Buddhist philosophies include messages about appropriate family roles, emotional expressiveness, and the role of assertive behavior" (Lowe et al., p. 246). For…
Anderson, M.J. (1993). A license to abuse: The impact of conditional status on female immigrants. Yale Law Journal, 102(6), 1401.
Daniel, A.M., & Yi, J.K. (2001). Substance use among Vietnamese American college students. College Student Journal, 35(1), 13.
Do, H.D. (1999). The Vietnamese Americans. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press.
Doan, J.H.D., Huer, M.B., & Saenz, T.I. (2001). Understanding the Vietnamese American community: Implications for training educational personnel providing services to children with disabilities. Communication Disorders Quarterly, 23(1), 27.
United States military has helped in the attempt to establish self-sufficient countries. Its primary mission in this regard has been to defend the inhabitants of particular countries, such as Vietnam in the 1960s, and more recently Afghanistan. Conflicts between countries have usually focused on resources and politics.mmHowever, perceived disparities between the allocation of resources and political power has often inspitred insurgents. Examples of such occastions are the Vietnam War and the current war in Afghanistan. On both occasions U.S. forces have confronted insurgents. Counterinsurgency remains the number one priority in Afghanistan and in order to accomplish this mission, it is vitally important to maintain sight of lessons learned from the past, and particularly during the Vietnam War.
Similarities exist between various insurgencies. Certain facets of the Vietnam War are remarkably similar to the ongoing war in Afghanistan. For example, the counterinsurgency strategy in both conflicts demanded that military and political…
Hammond, William M. "The Tet Offensive and the News Media." Army History 70 (Winter 2009): 6 -- 16.
Heinl, Robert D. Jr. "The Collapse of the Armed Forces." Armed Forces Journal (June 1971): 30 -- 38.
Lomperis, Timothy J. "Giap's Dream, Westmoreland's Nightmare." Parameters (June 1988): 18-32.
Pike, Douglas, "Conduct of the Vietnam War: Strategic Factors, 1965 -- 1968." The Second Indochina War: Proceedings of a Symposium Held at Airlie, Virginia, 7 -- 9 November 1984. Edited by John Schlight, 99 -- 119. Washington, DC: U.S. Army Center of Military History, 1986.
They could not admit such a great loss, and so they concocted lies, false assessments, and poor recommendations just to cover themselves and their reputations. These essays are so disturbing because they show the culpability of the American people. They make the reader wonder what falsehoods are underway in military actions today, and if in another thirty years, the same kinds of revelations will continue the lies, deception, and false assessments that made up the Vietnam War.
Both authors indicate how essential the Tet Offensive was and how it crippled the military and gave the North Vietnamese a clear advantage in strategy and intimidation. It also caused Westmorland to bring in more troops, which started more protests back home and in other parts of the world. McMahon continues, "The resulting back channel memoranda between Westmoreland and Wheeler demonstrated that the military understood that its position in Vietnam was untenable" (McMahon…
McMahon, Robert J Major Problems in the History of the Vietnam War: Documents and Essays. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2003.
During their inspection, they recovered over forty pounds of documents and maps, including maps that showed the locations of U.S. billets in Saigon, indicating heavy surveillance by the Vietcong. They encountered few Vietcong throughout the operation, and only small numbers of soldiers were killed. Ultimately, the tunnel rats who scoured these tunnels helped form a band of tunnel rats that were used throughout the country to infiltrate and destroy Vietcong tunnels throughout the war.
There were some Vietcong left inside the tunnels, and those that did not give up were shot on sight. There are some accounts that there were people in the hospital too, including nurses, when the tunnels were destroyed, but that has not been verified. Before entering the tunnels, the tunnel rats would spray them with machine gun fire, and usually the Vietcong left to guard them were killed in the barrage.
B-52 bombers and other aircraft…
Falk, Richard A., Gabriel Kolko, and Robert Jay Lifton, eds. Crimes of war: A legal, political-documentary, and psychological inquiry into the responsibility of leaders, citizens, and soldiers for criminal acts in wars. 1st ed. New York: Random House, 1971.
Hunt, Richard A. Pacification: The American struggle for Vietnam's hearts and minds. Boulder, CO: Westview Press, 1995.
Karnow, Stanley. 1997. Vietnam: A history. New York: Penguin Books.
Stanton, Shelby L. The rise and fall of an American Army: U.S. ground forces in Vietnam, 1965-1973. Novato, CA: Presidio, 1995.
Johnson now had the justification he had been waiting for and disregarded Captain Herrick's second communication. He structured the bombing of four North Vietnamese torpedo boat bases and an oil storage warehouse that had been considered three months beforehand (Gulf of Tonkin, n.d.).
President Johnson then went on television and told the American people that recurring actions of aggression against the military of the United States must be met not only with attentive resistance, but with an affirmative response. The Congress accepted Johnson's choices to bomb North Vietnam and passed what has become recognized as the Gulf of Tonkin resolution. It passed in the Senate by 88 votes to 2 and in the House of Representatives by 416 to 0. This declaration sanctioned the President to take all essential actions against Vietnam and the NLF. Johnson's conviction that the intimidation raid on North Vietnam in August, 1964, would influence Ho…
"Gulf of Tonkin." n.d., viewed 29 November 2010,
"Gulf of Tonkin Incident." 2010, viewed 29 November 2010,
Also, certain light electronic products such as fans and lighting fixtures typically set off for export were diverted to the domestic market, which underwent a construction boom because of the economic stimulus package.
One engine for growth during the crisis was Vietnam's construction sector. Vietnam's government enacted a program of stimulus spending which emphasized public works and building projects. (the Economist, 2009, Sep 24). Vietnam's stimulus spending went a long way with regard to construction because of the cheap labor available in Vietnam. The stimulus program was successful because it provided valuable infrastructure while alleviating unemployment.
Vietnam's greatest liability in the eyes of investors, its lack of full integration with the global economy, served as its greatest protection against the effects of the global financial crisis. (the Economist, 2008, Jun. 19). With an aggressive economic stimulus program and a healthy consumer base, Vietnam was able to keep…
Economist Intelligence Unit (2010). Vietnam Country Forecast. The Economist. Retrieved from http://www.viet-studies.info/kinhte/EIU-VN-Country-Forecast-2010-02.pdf
Nguyen, T.C. (2009). -- Opportunities and Challenges for Vietnam in the Global Financial Crisis. Retrieved from http://www.eastwestcenter.org/fileadmin/resources/seminars/Urbanization_Seminar/HCMC_Workshop/Papers_and_Presentations/FinancialCrisisPaper_NguyenThiCanh.pdf
Konishi, a. (2008).The Global Financial Crisis: Viet Nam's prospects in 2009 and Beyond [PowerPoint Slides] Retrieved from http://www.adb.org/Documents/Events/2008/AmCham-Economic-Prospect/AmCham.pdf
The Economist (2009, Sep 24). V not yet for victory an impressive recovery may create problems of its own. The Economist. Retrieved from http://www.economist.com/node/14506580
Education and training required
i. NCO training is sometimes a specialized course, but many ascend to the rank by excelling in basic and specialist training as well as in field combat as non-officers.
d. Skills demanded by the position
ii. Tactical abilities iii. Combat valor
IV. Variables of the Career
a. Combat implications of non-commissioned officer role
i. Non-commissioned officers differ from commissioned officers in that they are more often in combat situations
b. Field leadership expectations
i. NCOs must command under the duress of combat, requiring genuine dedication from troops to exact fast and intelligent decisions.
c. Strategic leadership expectations
i. NCOs will often play a key part in devising strategic and practical maneuvers for use in combat
a. Overview of non-commissioned officer
i. The NCO is a key part of the history and present for the U.S. military, operating as a key link in…
Army NCO. (2009). The Year of the Non-Commissioned Officer. United States Army. Online at http://www.army.mil/yearofthenco/home.html
Corporate Conjecture (CC). (2003). What is a Non-Commissioned Officer? WiseGeek. Online at http://www.wisegeek.com/what-is-a-non-commissioned-officer.htm
Elder, D. (2006). The Center for the Advanced Studies of the NCO. NCO History. Online at http://www.ncohistory.com/
Headquarters Department of the Army (HDA). (2002). The Army Noncommissioned Officer Guide. United States Army.
For instance, McDonald's has a solid partnership with Starbucks that came as a natural solution to the increased consumption of coffee in its restaurants. Starbucks happens to be the world's leading specialty coffee retailer with a worldwide presence that matches that of the fast food producer.
Other factors affecting decision
Vietnam is an Asian country with strong oriental cooking habits, which might not be very compatible with McDonald's typical menu of cheeseburgers and fries with a Coke on the side. Furthermore, the local food seems to be relatively healthy, which again is not something that cam be said by McDonald's food.
In 1990s, the company tried to enter this market, but didn't due to the lack of suitable business partners. A few years later, KFC and Lotteria entered the market and consolidated their position. Therefore, at this point the restaurant chain would need a couple of strong breakthrough strategies…
IMF -- International Monetary Fund, accessed June 09, World Economic Outlook - Vietnam.
Ministry of Foreign Affairs, accessed June 09, http://www.mofa.gov.vn/en/cs_doingoai/
Ministry of Planning and Investment: http://fia.mpi.gov.vn/
Thuy, L.T. 2005. Technological Spillovers from Foreign Direct Investment: the Case of Vietnam. University of Tokyo, www.e.u-tokyo.ac.jp
Similar ambitions of Mao and Stalin to establish pro-communist Korean state, which was divided into two spheres of influences Soviet, with communist regime of Kim Il Sung and pro-American nationalist authoritarian regime of Syngman hee. But according to authors Offner and Gaddis we can say that the role played by North Korean authorities was the main in this conflict. The war started North Korean in 1950 was over three years later, yet no result was achieved. This conflict revealed bankruptcy of United Nations to solve major conflicts and in many respects defined the course of history for 40 more years. These authors which are called "revisionist" and whose ideas are widely criticized today make a clear point that neither USA nor its allies in Europe (mainly France and Great Britain) were ready for a chain reaction of nationalism spread in the third world after the end of WWII, which sympathized…
LaFeber, Walter America, Russia, and the Cold War McGraw-Hill Humanities, 2006
Merrill, Dennis Major Problems in American Foreign Relations: Since 1914 Houghton Mifflin Company, 2005
U.S. Foreign Policy
The reforms he underwent in communist Russia slowly offered the American Administration the hope that communication and cooperation would be possible and that an end to the communist regime was in sight. Thus, perestroika and glasnost became the tools with which the Russian leader also earned Reagan's trust. (Hyland, 1990) the Reykjavik summit, although ended with no important outcome, represented the first proof of the reevaluation of the relation between the two superpowers. It all culminated however, in the Malta summit, when the two leaders ush and Gorbachev declared the Cold War over.
Overall, it can be said that the Vietnam War was indeed an important moment in history because it offered the conditions for the U.S. To realize the change in the international political environment and the need for diplomatic cooperation more than military confrontation. From this point on, subsequent administrations worked, more or less, to reaching a peaceful…
Hyland, Wiliam G. The Cold War is over. New York: Random House, 1990.
Kissinger, Henry. Diplomacy. London: Simon & Schuster, 1994.
Tower, John J."Foreign policy for the seventies." The Vietnam legacy: the war, American society and the future of American Foreign Policy Ed. Anthony Lake. New York: New York University Press, 1976.
Rothney, John Alexander, and Carter Vaughn Findley. Twentieth-century world. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company, 1986.
American verses Vietnam culture. It include History,( events impacted culture); Political (system governs culture); Economy (current economical system, producing distributing goods services; receives, profit transaction, (Capitalism, Socialism Mixed Economy).
Vietnamese culture largely differs from North American culture: firstly because of the influences that each of the countries have had over the years and secondly because of the form of government administering each state. oth the U.S. And Vietnam were at a certain point colonies and while the 1775-1783 Independence War made it possible for colonists to achieve autonomy, it was not until 1954 that the Vietnamese managed to remove French leadership.
The Independence War was the principal factor in installing a democratic system and the First Indochina War had Vietnam divided into two parts: one led by communist forces under the leadership of Ho Chi Minh, and the other under the ruling of emperor ao Dai. Although democracy dominated the…
Dinh Te, Huynh, "Family Relationships," Retrieved October 1, 2011, from the Vietspring Website: http://www.vietspring.org/values/family.html
"Vietnam," Retrieved October 1, 2011, from the CIA Website: https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/vm.html
"United States," Retrieved October 1, 2011, from the CIA Website: https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/us.html
Yalta Convention marked the beginning of the Cold ar. Franklin Roosevelt inston Churchill, and Joseph Stalin met at the former palace of Czar Nicholas between February 4th and 11th, 1945. Before the end of orld ar II, the three world leaders had carved up the world. Germany and Poland were divided. The U.S. agreed to withdraw troops within two years, and Stalin agreed to hold free elections. Russia got land in Outer Mongolia and agreed to enter the Asian ar. Korea was split at the 38th Parallel.
Three months later, victory is declared in Europe and three months after that, Japan surrendered. Stalin declared war on Japan two days after the first nuclear bomb was dropped on Hiroshima and seven days before VJ Day. The Allies split Indochina into two zones, north and south of the 16th Parallel with the Chinese occupying the north and the British controlling the south.…
When Harry Truman became president, he and Stalin exchanged hostile words. Truman spoke of Communism being the greatest danger in the free world while Stalin declared that Communism and Capitalism were incompatible. In 1949, Mao Zedong proclaimed the People's Republic of China.
Southeast Asia was as a major interest to the United States and they supported the French Colonialist government against the Communist North under Ho Chi Minh, and the British in Malaysia. Americans feared Communist expansion. Politicians used that fear to their advantage. Senator Joseph McCarthy announced that 57 Communists (or 205 or 81) worked in the State Department. That fear grew in 950 when Stalin and Mao, the Soviet Union and Peoples' Republic of China, signed a 30-year alliance.
By mid-1954, the French knew they had lost their hold on Indochina, and supported the Geneva Accord agreement to settle the Indochina War. Vietnam was to become an independent nation. Elections were to be held under international supervision. Until then, Vietnam would be split. Although the North was pressured by China and the Soviet Union to concede, the U.S. was firmly committed to a policy of sabotaging the Geneva Accords and trying to make South Vietnam an independent country. Foreign policy in Southeast Asia went from military training to direct intervention. American Involvement in Southeast Asia would be a tragic decision that would ultimately cost innumerable lives.
The Northerners are better prepared, better led, and more respected, and deserve a chance to govern their country with any political system they see fit. The war in Vietnam to them is about decolonization, and the removal of Japanese, French, and American forces from Vietnamese shores. The choice of communism is in order to receive military support from other communist countries, but the expansion of communism in Vietnam is not dangerous to American strategic interests, in my humble opinion.
The use of the draft in this war has forced many young American boys to leave for war when they are needed in the States. The draft is a tool that should only be used in a last resort situation, when the homeland is under threat from external forces. It should not be used to fight wars of choice, or wars of simple strategy, like the Vietnam War is for America.…
Mao Tse-tung became both the political and spiritual leader of China, and the Cult of Mao developed as he led the Chinese people first in the Chinese Revolution and then in building a new and different China after 1949. The Chinese have a history of mythologizing their heroes and of making them into near-gods, and Mao benefited from this tendency and used of it to solidify his position and to develop his power.
Mao's thought developed during the early years of the decade prior to 1920, a period of great turmoil, with growing conflict between traditional Chinese thought and new ideas from the est. Mao became an active local leader in the May Fourth Movement of 1919, and he retained his revolutionary fervor. However, he also became convinced that what was needed was more than mass enthusiasm, that what was also required was an organization of dedicated revolutionaries. The Russian…
Bianco, Lucien. Origins of the Chinese Revolution, 1915-1949. Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1971.
William Lindesay, Marching with Mao. London: Hodder & Stoughton, 1993.
Meisner, Maurice. Mao's China. New York: The Free Press, 1977.
Townsend, James R. And Brantly Womack. Politics in China. Boston: Little, Brown and Company, 1986.
A further crucial aspect is the way in which the media covered the war. Media coverage was extensive and brought the horror and the reality of war into the ordinary American home as never before. Another aspect was the emergence of the " new left" element in the country which was critical not only of the war but of the way that the society was being run and administered in general. The site provides some insightful background on this aspect. "The Vietnam War was unprecedented for the intensity of media coverage -- it has been called the first television war -- as well as for the stridency of opposition to the war by the so-called "New Left." (Vietnam War)
As mentioned, stress and trauma and its after-effects were largely ignored in veterans who returned home after the war. However, more recently this condition has become known as Posttraumatic Stress Disorder.…
Vietnam War. Aug 1, 2006. http://www.vietnam-war.info/history/
Karl Marlantes' Matterhorn
Karl Marlantes' novel of the Vietnam War, Matterhorn, seems to want to offer the reader an immersive approach towards the experience of Vietnam. If we can say of earlier Vietnam narratives -- whether in film, such as Oliver Stone's Platoon or Stanley Kubrick's Full Metal Jacket, or in fiction, such as Tim O'Brien's novels Going After Cacciato and The Things They Carried or Gustav Hasford's The Short-Timers (a cult classic of Vietnam fiction and the basis for Kubrick's film) -- that they have a sort of expressionistic technique, seeking to capture the experience of the war in a series of vignettes, we can see the originality of Marlantes' approach in greater relief to what has come before: his approach is not so much expressionistic as it is encyclopedic, an attempt to catalogue (in fiction) every single aspect of the one small event, the movement of a Marine…
hile the religion's founders apparently attempted to devise a new and more effective ideology meant to connect people with the divine, some individuals interpret this as being proof that the Vietnamese culture lost significant ground as elements from both the est and the East pervaded it and encouraged more than two million Vietnamese to join a religion that had nothing to do with their background and with their culture as a whole (Vadas).
Cao Daism is a relatively modern religion and the fact that it incorporates elements borrowed from a series of other, older, religious ideologies is visible through behavior displayed by its followers and through the architecture present in its temples. Both the religion's principles and its temples put across vibrant messages and encourage individuals to open their minds with the purpose of being able to comprehend the complexity of life. The religious ideology largely promotes the idea that…
Barker, Jack, Newspaper article from the Independent (London, England), July 7, 2007
Dodd, Jan, Lewis, Mark, and Emmons, Ron, "The Rough Guide to Vietnam 4," (Rough Guides, 2003)
Gary, Wendell, "Save Me in the Night," (AuthorHouse, 27.09.2011)
Gobron, Gabriel, "History and Philosophy of Caodaism," (Wildside Press LLC, 2008)
Crown Cork & Seal
Crown Cork and Seal
What do you think of Connelly's industrial strategy, financial policy & performance?
Connelly's strategy was ahead of its time. This is because he saw the changes that were occurring early and made adjustments to the business model of the firm. From the 1960s to the 1980s, this helped Crown Cork & Seal to adjust with demand from customers. His financial policy was designed to reduce costs by: closing facilities that were unprofitable and going into products that had a lower cost structure. This enabled the firm to increase its bottom line results and improve shareholder value. These factors, enhanced performance by focusing on markets which are contributing to larger percentage of the worldwide market share. ("Crown Cork & Seal," 1997)
What do you think of Avery's industrial strategy, financial policy & performance?
Avery's focus was on increasing the company's competitive position through…
Crown Cork & Seal. (1997). Harvard School of Business.
Lessons Learned by American Experience of the Vietnam War: Diplomatic Negotiations, Presidential Leadership, and Cultural/Social Context
The objective of this study is to examine the lessons learned by the American Experience of the Vietnam War in terms of diplomatic negotiations, presidential leadership, and the cultural and social context of the war. The work of Mariney (1989) writes that the U.S. civilian and military leadership failed "to heed the lessons of the past during the Vietnam war." (p.1) Not only was the enemy underestimated but as well, America underestimated the war's nature. The historical context was not given due consideration according to Mariney (1989) and specifically in terms of how the Chinese, Japanese, and the French have "over the centuries, attempted to exert control over Indochina unsuccessfully." (p.1)
Vietnamese Strong National Identity
The result of this experience was the forging of a strong national identity in Vietnam, both North and South…
Lewis, AM (1996) Re-examining Our Perceptions on Vietnam. CIA Historical Review Program 2 Jul 1996. Retrieved from: https://www.cia.gov/library/center-for-the-study-of-intelligence/kent-csi/vol17no4/html/v17i4a01p_0001.htm
Mariney, C (1989) Vietnam: Lessons Learned. Global Security Org. Retrieved from: http://www.globalsecurity.org/military/library/report/1989/MC.htm
Winterstein, S. (2000) Teaching the Vietnam War: A Conference Report. Foreign Policy Research Institute. July. Retrieved from: http://www.fpri.org/footnotes/064.200007.winterstein.teachingvietnam.html
randing Affects the uying Decision
"How Does randing Affect Consumer Purchasing?." Using this research question, analyze the strengths and weaknesses of each research method (qualitative and quantitative) within the scope of the proposed dissertation topic. Identify which method you will select (or state whether you will use a mixed methodology) and explain the reasons for your choice.
DA Qs 1 Answer
The marketing guru Philip Kotler perceives branding as a "name, term, design, symbol, or any other feature that identifies one seller's good or service as distinct from those of other sellers." It has also been adopted by the American Marketing Association. Michael Dunn, President and CEO, of Prophet, a strategic professional services firm in San Francisco, states that branding is just a defensive tool against market competition; but acts as "insulation against deteriorating economic conditions."
The essence of a brand is the base upon which the prosperity of the…
Dash, M. a. (2010). Marketing Research An Applied Orientation.
Ormrod., P.D. (2010). Practical Research: Planning and Design, Eighth Edition. Pearson Prentice Hall.
Scroggins Westey A.'*, R.E. (2010). Research Challenges in Cross-cultural International Business: The Issue of Cross Cultural Construct Equivalency. Advances in Management .
SONIA WESCHE*, N.T. (2010). Challenges and Opportunities in Cross Cultural Geographic Inquiry. Journal of Geography in Higher Education, 59-75.
Vietnam in the 20th Century
In the year 2012, the country of Vietnam is a united nation which has a Communist government and a people who are predominantly poor. Before this time, Vietnam went through centuries of turmoil up until the war between Vietnam and the United States wherein North and South Vietnam became a single country. hat began the process of dividing Vietnam and isolating its people was the colonization of Vietnam by the French government. According to historian Peter Stearns (2008): "History must serve, however imperfectly, as our laboratory, and data from the past must serve as our most vital evidence in the unavoidable quest to figure out why our complex species behaves as it does in societal settings." In a study of the country of Vietnam, it is important to understand the nation's history and events which may have impacted that country's current psychological and sociological makeup.…
Meyers, William P. (2011). "Vietnam and the West Until 1954." The U.S. War Against Asia. III
Stearns, Peter N. (2008). "Why Study History?" American Historical Association.
umor of War
Vietnam war is one of the most talked about conflicts events in American history. Not only because of the 11-year long conflict that existed between the two countries but mainly because of the bitterness and casualties that it left behind. It is still not easy for many war veterans to talk about the most horrible experience of their lives. While it is true that most war veterans think they were lucky to serve their country but they also admit that they wee not prepared for what they experienced and saw during the war. It has been one of the most terrible examples of war crimes and today most war veterans associate war with bitterness and disillusionment instead of patriotism or service. One such story of disillusionment appeared in Philip Caputo's A umor of War, which a war memoir that depicts Caputo's experience during Vietnam conflict. The most…
Philip Caputo A Rumor of War Owlet; Reprint edition (November 1996)
John Attarian, Rethinking the Vietnam war. Vol. 15, The World & I, 07-01-2000, pp 288.
Stanley Karnow, Vietnam: A History (New York: Viking Press, 1983), 396.
Both World War I and II were world events that left territories, countries, nations, and individuals exhausted from the effort and from loss. These wars proved ultimately ironic when the term "the war to end all wars" proved tragically inaccurate with the outbreak of World War II. In addition to the devastation, however, were significant changes, developments and effects on the world and its paradigms. Decolonization, for example proved to be one of the most important effects. Whereas colonization was a mainly European paradigm as means of transport and new discoveries enabled increasing voyages across the world, the World Wars created the ability of territories to become autonomous, searching for their own identity rather than identities that were associated with those of their colonizers. For Italy, World War II also held its own specific events and paradigm shifts as the country became a territory affected by war and…
Cold War and Film
Generally speaking, the Cold War has been depicted as an era of spy games and paranoia in popular films from the 1960s to the present day, but the reality of the era was much more complex. The Cold War was a period of military and political tension from 1947 to 1991, or from the end of WW2 to the collapse of the Soviet Union, in which the "politics of war" masked the business and social agendas of multinationals and ideologues. The era was marked by myriad issues: East-West mistrust, proxy wars, espionage, the threat of nuclear war, domestic and foreign propaganda, the rise of the military-industrial complex and multinational corporations, assassinations, detente, de-colonization, new nationalism, neo-colonialism, the vying for control of resources, alliances (NATO, Warsaw Pact), and an inculcation of the "deep state." [footnoteRef:1] It can be divided into five basic periods: 1947-53, 1953-62, 1962-79, 1979-85,…
Dominik, Andrew, dir. Killing Them Softly. NY: Weinstein Company, 2012. Film.
Eliot, T.S. "Burnt Norton." The Four Quartets. Web. 10 May 2015.
Frankenheimer, John, dir. Seven Days in May DVD Commentary. LA: Warner Home
Vietnamese Entrepreneurship (1975-013)
Microbusinesses form a large share of the economy of Vietnam. Owned by self-employed entrepreneurs, they create employment and provide income for millions. Although the density of vendors, boutiques, and other small shops in any Vietnamese city or town is impressive, such activities were banned by authorities until the end of the 1980s.
Communist rulers have long believed that private businesses had no place in the socialist economy. This policy had been implemented in North Vietnam after French colonialism came to an end in 1954. Following the fall of South Vietnam and the reunification of the country in 1975 and 1976, it was also applied to the South. It proved to be a significant failure. In 1979, the government began to realize that its policies were leading the nation toward complete collapse. (Freeman, 1996) A short war with China, ignited by Vietnam's liberation of Cambodia, resulted in economic…
2.2 Entrepreneurship in developing countries
2.2.1 Entrepreneurial challenges in developing countries
"Entrepreneurship in emerging markets is distinctive from that practiced in more developed countries." (Lingelbach, Vina, and Asel, 2005) These scholars found that the opportunities in emerging markets are often outweighed by the "economic, political [,] and regulatory uncertainty." Managing that uncertainty requires a different entrepreneurial and managerial attitude. Dealing with such concerns forces entrepreneurs in developing countries to spend time
It can be argued that the Americans won and lost the Korean War. When the war broke out in 1950, the U.S. entered the war to curb the spread of communism in Asia. North Korean Army had attacked the South to an extent of taking over Seoul from the South. The U.S.-led army was able to protect South Korea and drive North Korean army to the North. This meant that the U.S. was able to prevent the spread of communism to the South. General Douglas MacArthur had succeeded in pushing the Korean army out of Seoul and to the other side of the 38th Parallel[footnoteRef:1]. [1: James Callanan, Covert Action in the Cold War U.S. Policy, Intelligence, and CIA Operations (London: I.. Tauris, 2010)]
However, when the American troops crossed the border and reached the border between North Korea and China, China was provoked that their…
Callanan, James. Covert Action in the Cold War U.S. Policy, Intelligence, and CIA Operations. London: I.B. Tauris, 2010.
Kaiser, David E. American Tragedy: Kennedy, Johnson, and the Origins of the Vietnam War. Cambridge, Mass: Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, 2000.
Mayer, Jane. The Dark Side: The Inside Story of How the War on Terror Turned into a War on American Ideals. 2008.
How was the war similar or different to previous U.S. attempts at "containment"?
What were the key mistakes the U.S. made, in your view?
What where the key turning points of U.S. involvement?
Why did the U.S. lose the war?
How was the war similar or different to previous U.S. attempts at "containment"?
The policy or strategy if the U.S. of 'containment' originated during the formative years of te cold war and it aimed to defeat the Soviet Union by means of stopping it expanding its influence and the territories under its communist control. This was the primary reason for the conflict and the strain in relations between the two superpowers. This policy of containment by the U.S. found some success during the Korean War and the Cuban Missile Crisis. However, critics claim that the Vietnam War was a failure and not a true reflection of the policy…
Ferguson, Niall. Colossus. New York: Penguin Books, 2005. Print.
Hunt, Michael H. Lyndon Johnson's War. New York: Hill and Wang, 1996. Print.
LaFeber, Walter. America, Russia, And The Cold War, 1945-2006. Boston: McGraw-Hill, 2008. Print.
Overholt, William H. Asia, America, And The Transformation Of Geopolitics. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2008. Print.
Public Infrastructure and the Status of World Health for Hiv / Aids Treatment
The HIV / AIDS epidemic began as a regional problem but gradually became a global public health issue by the closing decade of the 20th century (Powers, 2016). The same forces that have driven globalization are believed to account for this growth in HIV / AIDS cases, and researchers have since termed the epidemic as "a disease of the global system" (Powers, 2016, p. 239). This paper reviews the relevant peer-reviewed literature as well as nongovernmental organizational resources to evaluate the adequacy of the public infrastructure developed in response to this global problem and a discussion concerning the most important needs in shaping and sustaining the infrastructure for dealing with this public health problem. Finally, a series of recommended changes are followed by a summary of the research and important findings concerning the HIV / AIDS global…
More often than not, the plan of containment has been used to describe U.S. foreign policy. It is equally frequently traced back to the achievements of President Truman with regard to the formation of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO).
In 1950, there was a shift in foreign U.S. policy after President Truman moved from passive to active containment by signing the top-secret policy plan NSC-68. It took a much more drastic approach towards the spread of Communism, which according to the new twist, claimed that Russia was en route for the domination of the world. It should be noted however that the doctrine had some major weaknesses and was repeatedly subject to contradictory interpretations. This may have led several other presidents and policy makers to toy with it at will. It could also very well explain some of the many long involvements of the U.S. In diverse wars and…
7 Michael O'Malley, "The Vietnam War and the Tragedy of Containment."