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We have over 91 essays for "Human Genome Project"

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Ability to Study of Human Genome Is

Words: 745 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 20734993

ability to study of Human Genome is an important scientific discovery that posed major threats to the great ideals of human dignity, privacy and confidentially of one's medical history when it first made headlines in 1998. To fully exploit the scope of this discovery, Human Genome Project was launched that again had few supporters and numerous opponents. The general public, not aware of the deeper scientific reasons behind launching of this project, staunchly opposed it and yet there were some big names in the field who not only backed the program but also tried to raise awareness regarding its numerous benefits. One such person is James D. Watson, whose impressive credentials and long list of services in the field put him in an enviable position to carry put the task. His essay "The Human Genome Project: A Personal View" was one of the first few steps he took to gain…… [Read More]

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Genome Project on Drug Design

Words: 1163 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 47141523



IV. TESTING ON HUMANS

The only thing that is lacking at this point according to all reports is for testing on humans to be completed. The Time Asia articles states: "The last step for the ace-2 inhibitor, as for any drug, is human clinical trials. ecause the U.S. Food and Drug Administration requires such rigorous testing, this is by far the most expensive part of drug development. So for human trials in some cases, Millennium has formed partnerships with large pharmaceutical companies that have the necessary resources and will share in any eventual profits." (2001)

SUMMARY & CONCLUSION

According to the work entitled: "rave New Pharmacy" published in Time Asia (2001) "When the human genome was sequenced...scientists finally gained access to the full text of God's reference manual; the 3 billion biochemical 'letters' that spell out our tens of thousands of genes. These genes, strung out along the 46 chromosomes…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Drug Design in the Fast Lane: Speeding Drug Design (nd)

 http://translate.google.com/translate?hl=en&sl=zh-CN&u=http://www.roboo.com/anna/zyhy9.htm&sa=X&oi=translate&resnum=2&ct=result&prev=/search%3Fq%3DACE-2%2Binhibitor%2Band%2Bgenetic%2Bcompatibility%2Bwith%2Bdrugs%26hl%3Den%26lr%3D .

Elmer-Dewitt, Phillip (2001) The Future of Drugs. Time Asia 22 January 2001 Vol. 57, No. 3 Online available at  http://www.time.com/time/asia/magazine/2001/0122/cover1.html .

Lemonick, Michael, D. (2001) Brave New Pharmacy - Time Asia 22 Jan 2001 Vol. 157. No. 3 Online available at  http://www.time.com/time/asia/magazine/2001/0122/drug.impact.html
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Genome Sequencing and Comparative Genomics

Words: 2012 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 94040147

Genomes and Comparative Genomics

Over the last decade we have achieved rapid strides in the field of genetic engineering. The study of molecular biology has been fairly advanced mainly aided by the unprecedented growth in information technology. Today bio-informatics has opened new vitas for us and we are already progressing in investigating and in the comparative study of genomes. This has shed new light up on our knowledge of the evolutionary process and the important concepts such as protein folding and selective expression, which have so far eluded our understanding, are beginning to unfold. Let us have a brief overlook of the subject.

The Role of DNA

One of the greatest achievements of the twentieth century has been the unraveling of the mysteries behind the DNA and the mechanism of protein synthesis. Genes are the fundamental units of biological inheritance and are made up of Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA). Genes are…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Mullis, KB (1990), Scientific American, April 1990, 56

Hecht, J., 19 May 2003, Chimps are human, gene study implies, New Scientist

Cohlan, A., 30 May 2002, "Just 2,5% of DNA turns mice into men," New Scientist

TK Attwood & DJ Parry Smith, "Introduction to bio Informatics," Published by ADDison Wesley Longman Ltd., 1999
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Genome Human Cloning Human Cloning

Words: 3339 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 19327581

(iii) in the United States, Brazil, Germany and France, humans have been receiving their own stem cells to re-grow heart muscle in the unforeseen incident of heart attack or injury. This was found to be successful in majority of the cases. (iv) in one more incident, the vision of 23 patients was restored after limbal adult stem cell transplants. This line of therapeutic care has assisted a lot of people who have been suffering from blindness for years together that includes the sufferers of mustard gas attacks in Iraqi. (Life Issues Institute, 2006) v) Crohn's disease patients have in fact been treated with stem cells evolved from their own blood. (vi) Among the 90% of the 19 patients having several autoimmune disorders like systemic lupus has been on the path to recovery following treatment with their own blood stem cells. (vii) a research of Parkinson's disease displayed an average improvement…… [Read More]

References

AAAS Center for Science, Technology and Congress. (2007) "AAAS Policy Brief: Human

Cloning" Retrieved 28 March, 2008 at  http://www.aaas.org/spp/cstc/briefs/cloning/ 

Barnes, Deborah. (n. d.) "Research in the News: Creating a cloned sheep named Dolly"

Retrieved 28 March, 2008 at http://science-education.nih.gov/home2.nsf/Educational+ResourcesTopicsGenetics/BC5086E34E4DBA0085256CCD006F01CB
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Human Resource Regulations Specifically it

Words: 1037 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Thesis Paper #: 68579862



Another landmark case involved global giant British Petroleum (BP) in the largest fine in OSHA history. The case involved the explosion at a BP refinery in Texas that killed 15 people and injured 170 others. An OSHA press release notes, "This citation and penalty - nearly double the next largest fine in OSHA history - sends a strong message to all employers about the need to protect workers and to make health and safety a core value,' Solicitor of Labor Howard M. adzely stated" (Groover, 2005). The implications for human resource implementation are again clear. Without the proper training, the individuals in the plant did not operate some of the processing equipment effectively, and pressure built up in the unit that exploded. Part of the settlement required BP to "hire an expert to assess and report on communication within and between management, supervisors, and authorized employee representatives and non-management employees…… [Read More]

References

Editors. (2008). Breaking news: GINA becomes law May 2008. Retrieved from the Human Genome Project Web site:  http://www.ornl.gov/sci/techresources /Human_Genome/elsi/legislat.shtml" target="_blank" REL="NOFOLLOW">
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Stem Cell Genome Reparations

Words: 2991 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 18920097

Human Genome, Stem Cells, & Reparations

Stems Cells are the source of all body tissues. Growth and development of the human body arises from the stem cell and is maintained by it. Although all cells can divide or copy themselves, stem cells are unique because they can replicate and create all other types of cells. This ability of the stem cell to develop into any of the 220 cell types that make up the human body makes it a powerful tool for biological research and medicine. Scientists believe that stem cell research has the potential of leading to previously incurable diseases.

How are Stem Cells Formed?

When a sperm cell fertilizes an egg, a zygote (fertilized egg) is formed. The zygote divides itself almost immediately to form stem cells. These unspecialized stem cells have the ability to replicate (to form other stem cells) and to make all other specialized cells…… [Read More]

James Harper. "About Reparations." [available online] at  http://www.blackvoices.com/feature/reparations/trial/ 

Peter Viles. "Suit Seeks Billions in Slave Reparations." [Available online] at  http://www.cnn.com/2002/LAW/03/26/slavery.reparations/index.html 

Research Issues
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Project Management Sustainability and Whole Lifecycle Thinking

Words: 1303 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 38760015

Project Management, Sustainability and Whole Lifecycle Thinking

Module 5 Case -- the esearch Essay

For nearly the entirety of human civilization, thinkers, philosophers, and indeed most human beings, have struggled to determine the most elusive aspects of identity. Balancing the essence of human nature against the effects of environmental influence eventually formed the foundation of the ongoing debate concerning nature vs. nurture. With the advent of remarkable technology capable of mapping the human genome, most people in today's modern world believe that their genetic makeup holds the key to their future health, personality traits, intelligence quotient, and even their fears. The unique confluence of factors that combine to form the personality traits, behavioral patterns, and ethical boundaries exhibited by every human being has spawned two distinctly divergent theories, with the majority of people advocating the influence of genetics over external environment. Proponents of the "nature" point-of-view assert a person's physical…… [Read More]

References

Collins, W.A., Maccoby, E.E., Steinberg, L., Hetherington, E.M., & Bornstein, M.H. (2000).

Contemporary research on parenting: The case for nature and nurture. American Psychologist, 55(2), 218-231. Retrieved from  http://digilib.bc.edu/reserves/py518/lent/py51802.pdf 

Kelland, K. (2012, July 31). Does nature or nurture make a top sprinter?. Reuters.

Retrieved  http://www.reuters.com/article/2012/07/31/oly-athl-m100m-package-genes -
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Genomic Medicine

Words: 741 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 65995336

Human Genome Project

Launched in 1990 as a collaborative initiative between the National Institutes of Health and the U.S. Department of Energy, the Human Genome Project completed its goal ahead of time despite the enormous challenges that were involved (Greene, 2006). The goals of the Human Genome Project included developing comprehensive genetic and physical maps of the human genome in order to determine the complete nucleotide sequence of the three billion base pairs that make up the human DNA and to identify the estimated 100,000 genes that are contained within the human genome (Greene, 2006). To determine the importance and implications of the HGP, this paper reviews the relevant literature, followed by a summary of the research and salient findings concerning this initiative in the conclusion.

eview and Discussion

1)

How will research in the Human Genome Project further medical research? What disorders are most likely to benefit from the…… [Read More]

References

Burnes, D.P. & Antle, B.J. (2008, August). Mothers raising children with sickle cell disease at the intersection of race, gender, and illness stigma. Health and Social Work, 33(3), 211-

Greene, L.A. (2006, January). Human Genome Project information. Environmental Health

Perspectives, 109(1), 19.

Human Genome Project. (2015). National Portfolio Online Reporting Tools. Retrieved from  http://report.nih.gov/NIHfactsheets/ViewFactSheet.aspx?csid=45&key=H#H .
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Discovery of the Structure of

Words: 1672 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 81223929

However, the use of this technology has also introduced a whole host of ethical and health issues. This is important, because how these issue are wrestled with in the future, will determine the way this technology will be applied to daily life.

A bibliography that includes all references cited in the report and a 1-2 sentence summary of what information was gained from each reference.

20 Questions on Genetically Modified Foods. (2010). HO. Retrieved from: http://www.who.int/foodsafety/publications/biotech/20questions/en/

This source identified specific ethical and health issues that are affecting the use of genetic engineering. It was useful in recognizing specific factors and issues that could be affecting the way genetic engineering is impacting daily life.

The Search for the Structure of DNA. (2010). Online Ethics. Retrieved from: http://www.onlineethics.org/Education/precollege/scienceclass/sectone/cs4.aspx

This source was useful in providing background as to when DNA was discovered and what compounds were looked at before its discovery.

Ejelonu, A.…… [Read More]

Works Cited

20 Questions on Genetically Modified Foods. (2010). WHO. Retrieved from:  http://www.who.int/foodsafety/publications/biotech/20questions/en/ 

The Search for the Structure of DNA. (2010). Online Ethics. Retrieved from:  http://www.onlineethics.org/Education/precollege/scienceclass/sectone/cs4.aspx 

What is DNA. (2010). NIH. Retrieved from:  http://ghr.nlm.nih.gov/handbook/basics/dna 

Ejelonu, A. (2002). What is the Human Genome Project. Serendip. Retrieved from:  http://serendip.brynmawr.edu/biology/b103/f01/web1/ejelonu.html
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Hospital Ethics to Do or

Words: 5897 Length: 20 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 97807504



The clinical trial team includes doctors, nurses, social workers, data entry technicians and other health care professionals (NWHRC 2005). They review a participant's health history and current medical intakes before the trial begins. They impart adequate information and instructions about the clinical trial, monitor each participant in the conduct of the trial and may contact the participant after the conduct of the trial.

Clinical trials or researches may also be open-label, placebo-controlled, double-blinded or randomized. They consist of four phases. Phase I establishes the maximum safe dosage; Phase II, its effectiveness; Phase III, its use on a broad population; and Phase IV, post-FDA insights on the effects of its long-term use (NWHRC).

From 1999 to 2000 alone, the Food and Drug Administration approved 73 new medications (NWHRC 2005). These included drugs for HIV, cancer, heart attack and Alzheimer's disease. As of 2000, Medicare covers many of the costs involved in…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Billings, P.R. (2002). Should reproductive cloning be made available to people who want their own biologic chidren - pro and con. 2 pages. International Medical News Group: Gale Group

Deneen, S. (2001). Designer people. 9 pages. E: the Environmental Magazine: Earth Action Network, Inc.

Frankel, S., et al. (2000). The limits to demand for health care. 10 pages. British Medical Journal: British Medical Association

Hollander, D. (2005). Abortion support slipping. 2 pages. Perspectives on Sexual and Reproductive Health: the Allen Guttmacher Institute
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Gene Tech Biological Basis Personalized Genomics and

Words: 1095 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 5682887

Gene Tech

Biological Basis

Personalized genomics and personalized medicine refers to a collection of technologies and techniques designed to custom design pharmaceutical treatments according to the patient's genome sequence. The starting point for personalized medicine, which has also been called "stratified medicine" or "precision medicine" is the completion of the Human Genome Project (NHMC, 2014). The Human Genome Project has permitted unprecedented access to genetic information and the implications the information has on human health factors.

A genome is the entire collection of genes, about 23,000 different ones, embedded in each cell of the body (The Jackson Laboratory, 2014). According to Snyder, Du & Gerstein (2010), determining a genome sequence involves "identifying single-nucleotide polymorphisms [SNPs] and structural variations [SVs], assembling new sequences, and phasing haplotypes," (p. 423). Although only two percent of the human genome is actually comprised of genes themselves, the human genome "influences how we look, our genetic…… [Read More]

References

The Jackson Laboratory (2014). Personalized medicine and genomics. Retrieved online:  http://www.jax.org/ct/genomics.html 

"Personalized Medicine," (n.d.). U.S. News and World Report. Retrieved online: http://health.usnews.com/health-conditions/cancer/personalized-medicine/overview

National Health and Medical Research Council (NHMRC, 2014). Personalized medicine and genetics. Australian Government. Retrieved online: https://www.nhmrc.gov.au/your-health/genetics-and-human-health/genetic-testing-and-applications/personalised-medicine

Snyder, M., Du, Jiang & Gerstein, M. (2010). Personal genome sequencing: current approaches and challenges. Genes and Development 2010(24), 423-431.
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Technology Has Revolutionized Society Communication Transportation Commerce

Words: 1736 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 84215378

technology has revolutionized society: communication, transportation, commerce, and especially medicine. . Ironically, for centuries and still in Oriental Medicine, healthcare was and is tailored to the individual. Even the Greek Physician Hippocrates wrote that he prescribed sweet elixirs to some and astringents to others depending on their individual condition (Pray, 2008). 21st century medicine, though, is more about an individual person's genetic code, and is made possible by advances in genetic technology and engineering. This is partially due to the Human Genome Project, a massive program completed in 2003 that focused on the identification of the individual genes that make up human DNA with the overall hope that it would initiate genomic medicine -- healthcare delivered based on the individual's medical history and genetic profile (About the Human Genome Project, 2011). Traditionally, medicine diagnoses human illnesses based on quantitative and qualitative signs and symptoms. With the advent of genetic technology,…… [Read More]

References

About the Human Genome Project. (2011, September 19). Human Genome Management Information Systems. Retrieved from:  http://www.ornl.gov/sci/techresources  / Human_Genome/project/about.shtml

Gattaca. (1997, March). Retrieved from International Movie Database:  http://www.imdb.com/title/tt0119177/ 

Personalized Medicine - An Overview. (2011, January 11). Retrieved from: U.S. News Health report: http://health.usnews.com/health-conditions/cancer/personalized-medicine

Public Law 110-223. (2008). The Genetic Information Nondiscrimination Act of 2008. Retrieved from:  http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/PLAW-110publ233/content-detail.html
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Create a Budget Qualification Personnel

Words: 772 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Business Proposal Paper #: 4602466

Medical Research Funding - Government vs. Private

Most research funding comes from two major sources: corporations and government. Some small amounts of scientific research are carried out by charitable foundations, especially in relation to developing cures for chronic diseases.

Government funding for medical research amounts to approximately 36% in the U.S. he government funding proportion in certain industries is higher, and it dominates research in social science and humanities. Similarly, with some exceptions government provides the bulk of the funds for basic scientific research. In commercial research and development, all but the most research-oriented corporations focus more heavily on near-term commercialization possibilities rather than ideas or technologies.

Government-funded research can either be carried out by the government itself, or through grants to academic and other researchers otside the government. Critics of basic research are concerned that research funding for the sake of knowledge itself does not contribute to a great…… [Read More]

The various members of HHMI that are filling key staff positions include: Robert Tjian (President), Craig Alexander (Vice President / General Council), and Sean Carroll (Vice President for Science Education). Robert Tjian has formal training as a biochemist and has been the President of HHMI since 2009. He received a Bachelor Degree from Berkeley and a PHD from Harvard University. The greatest contribution that Tjian has made to medical research is through his groundbreaking work, regarding how genes are turned on and off. Craig Alexander has acted as legal counsel for HHMI since 1994 and has been the Vice President since 2006. He has a Law Degree from the Georgetown University Law Center. Sean Carroll is in charge of Science Education for HHMI. He has been working as an HHMI investigator at the University of Wisconsin Madison, where he is a world famous biologist.

Partnerships and cooperating agencies include: 18 Nobel Prize winners, the National Academy of Sciences, and 335 HHMI investigators around the world. The various board members include: James Baker, Garnett Keith, Fred Lummis and Paul Nurse. All of the different individuals made annual contributions to the foundation.

HHMI Personnel Budget
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Personalized Medicine the Rapidly Increasing Demand of

Words: 1108 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 36679412

Personalized Medicine

The rapidly increasing demand of healthcare needs and preventions methods along with newer forms of diseases being discovered each day, extensive investments have been made in researching the field of medicine to revolutionize the future of medicine. Medical practitioners are looking up to a promising future proposed by the studies being carried out in the fields of genetics. This has open doors for a new and one of its kind form of medicine, namely 'Personalized Medicine.' As the name suggests, this type of medicine is patient specific and involves carrying out diagnosis and treatment plans that is customised to suit individual needs.

With the increase in demands of health care needs and with the discoveries of newer and more mysterious diseases, researches are being carried out at rapid rate to discover newer methods of health care needs. These health care services includes a wide variety of medication practices…… [Read More]

References

Gilbert, S. (2011). Medicine That's a Little Too Personalized. The Hastings Center Report, 41(4), 49. Retrieved February 3, 2012, from Questia database:  http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5051546477 

Meadows, M. (2005, November/December). Genomics and Personalized Medicine. FDA Consumer, 39,. Retrieved February 3, 2012, from Questia database:  http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5017147700 

Woodcock, J. (2005, November/December). Pharmacogenomics: On the Road to "Personalized Medicine." FDA Consumer, 39,. Retrieved February 3, 2012, from Questia database:  http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5017127506 

Yurkiewicz, S. (2010). The Prospects for Personalized Medicine. The Hastings Center Report, 40(5), 14+. Retrieved February 3, 2012, from Questia database:  http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5045643374
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Living Things Are Characterized by the Following

Words: 4492 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 61564004

living things are characterized by the following seven characteristics namely mobility, respiration, excretion, sensitivity or response to external stimulus, growth, feeding, and reproduction. Though there may be variations between animal and plant kingdom (ex, plants take in carbon dioxide and prepare their own food), these characteristics are commonly observed among all living things.

iology is a very broad field that encompasses the study of characteristics of living things. It includes botany, zoology and all other sub-disciplines that range from microbiology to evolution and ecology.

Evolution is the branch of biology that deals with the study of natural development of living organisms and the changes in them over time. Evolution refers to the heritable changes that occur in a population over a period of time. All the diversity that is observed currently in plant and animal kingdom can be ascribed to evolution over a long period of time.

Atoms are the…… [Read More]

Bibliography

1) Mark Rothery, "Cells," Accessed on Sep 20th 2005, Available from http://www.mrothery.co.uk/cells/cellnotes.htm
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Physical Life Science Genes Are

Words: 698 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 53783681

During the gene decoding process the double stranded DNA splits up to reveal a single strand from which the base sequence of the gene is copied onto a single stranded nucleic acid known as the messenger ribonucleic acid or mRNA. This implies that we have an exact copy of the gene base in the mRNA except that Urasil (U) replaces the T. base and deoxyribose is replaced by ribose. Translation on the other hand is the actual process of protein synthesis from the mRNA strands. Ribosomes work with the mRNA for protein synthesis within the cells. [the State University of New York]

4) Mutation, Gene Migration, Genetic Drift, Non-random Mating and Natural Selection are the five processes that can affect the frequency of genes in a population. [CMGS]

5) Kindom Protista is considered to be the ancestor of all eukaryotic kingdoms and includes algae, plant like, animal like and fungus…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Cherie Dimaline, "Inheriting Sickness When Finding Your Roots is a Matter of Life or Death" Accessed on 15th December 2004, http://www.metisnation.org/metisVOYAGEUR/MVcurrent/disease.html

Dr. Joseph F. Smith, "Genetic Counseling," Accessed on 15th December 2004,  http://www.chclibrary.org/micromed/00049280.html 

IBAC, "The Basics of Life," Accessed on 15th December 2004, http://www.ibac.org.nz/booklet/basics.html

CMGS, "Disturbance of Gene Frequencies in a Population," Accessed on 15th December 2004  http://www.ich.ucl.ac.uk/cmgs/genefreq.htm
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Racial Categories

Words: 2065 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 77554257

Fiction of ace

ace

ace: The cultural power of the fiction of race

A recent PBS documentary was titled ace: The power of an illusion. This underlines what constitutes race -- race is a fiction, created by the faulty observational perceptions of human beings, and the history of human culture. ace is not a scientific reality. Because we can see color (and hair texture, facial shapes, and other characteristics) we perceive something we call race. But our scientific knowledge tells us that race does not exist. This is not to deny that race is a very powerful fiction that has influenced human history. The idea of racial categories proved to be deadly and destructive to the lives and the cultures of indigenous peoples. It was used to validate slavery, genocide, colonialism, and exploitation. But race is not 'real,' any more than the idea of 'carrying the white man's burden' was…… [Read More]

References

Duster, Troy. (2005). Race and reification in science. Science, 307 (5712). 1050-1051.

Retrieved:

 http://www.sciencemag.org/content/307/5712/1050.full?ijkey=CrQywbf6JKCIs&keytype=ref&siteid=sci 

Garcia, Richard. (2003). The misuse of race in medical diagnosis. The Chronicle of Higher
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Ethics the Employee Is Faced With Ethical

Words: 2667 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 85270894

Ethics

The employee is faced with ethical requirements throughout their workday that must be met with knowledge and a trained attitude. Workplace ethics is one of the most crucial elements whether the person involved in an ethical dilemma is a high-level manager or an entry-level employee. An ethical stance is important because it is what guides the interactions that the employees will have with each other, their management, and the customers that patronize their products. It is also important that the business leaders follow an internal and external ethical stance so that the culture generated within the company is one that promotes positive ethical practices. This paper begins by talking about the way that the business leaders view the external world of ethics through accounting practices and how they deal with other companies. The discussion then moves inside the company and how the management treats its employees. Employee to employee…… [Read More]

References

Brandt-Rauf, S.I., Brabdt-Rauf, E., Gershon, R., Li, Y., & Brandt-Rauf, P.W. (2011). Genes, jobs, and justice: Occupational medicine physicians and the ethical, legal, and social issues of genetic testing in the workplace. Ethics & Medicine, 27(1), 51-55.

Dinkins, C.S. (2011). Ethics: Beyond patient care practicing empathy in the workplace. Online Journal of Issues in Nursing, 16(2), 1-8.

Embse, T.J.V.D., Desai, M.S., & Ofori-Brobbey, K. (2010). A new perspective on ethics safeguards: Where is the clout? SAM Advanced Management Journal, 75(3), 4-13.

Klimek, J., & Wenell, K. (2011). Ethics in accounting: An indispensable course? Academy of Educational Leadership Journal, 15(4), 107-113.
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Gene Technology

Words: 976 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 72972058

Genetically Modified Foods: ational for Topic Selection

Genetically modified foods are frequently in the mainstream media, making them a highly relevant topic of discussion in the areas of genetic science and gene technologies. As with most technologies and techniques related to genetic science, genetically modified foods are controversial and thus politically charged issues. It is important to be armed with facts before forming an opinion about whether or not genetically modified foods are acceptable, feasible, or ethical.

Biological Basis

Genetically modified foods refers to organic foodstuffs -- plants and animals -- "whose genetic material (DNA) has been modified in a way that does not occur naturally," (World Health Organization, 2013). However, genetically modified organisms (GMOs) can also include medicines and vaccines (United States Department of Energy: Office of Science, 2013). The primary process used to modify the genes of organisms is called recombitant DNA technology; as the term suggests, recombitant…… [Read More]

References

Damery, P., D'Adamo, N., Graham, M., Hoffman, M. & Riedl, J. (n.d.). The debate on labeling genetically modified food. Retrieved online: http://www.public.iastate.edu/~ethics/LabelGMFood.pdf

"Genetically modified crops gaining ground in China: Report," (2013). The Times of India. 7 March, 2013. Retrieved online:  http://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/home/environment/developmental-issues/Genetically-modified-crops-gaining-ground-in-China-Report/articleshow/18847379.cms 

Hiatt, S. & Park, S. (2012). Influence and regulatory approval of genetically modified organisms. Academy of Management Journal. Nov 26, 2012.

United States Department of Energy: Office of Science (2013). Human genome project. Retrieved online:  http://www.ornl.gov/sci/techresources /Human_Genome/elsi/gmfood.shtml
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Individual Differences in Mental Abilities Cognition

Words: 2720 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 38941016

Nature of Cognition

Ever since Simon and inet developed the first intelligence test in 1905, the field of psychology has maintained a strong interest in the nature of intelligence. How do we think? Why are some people better problem solvers than others? What is cognition, the ability to think about our environment? Why are some people consistently more able to use their brains to think, to remember, and to problem-solve than others?

The first IQ tests were devised to determine which children were mentally retarded. These children were pulled away from mainstream education. However, the tests did an effective job of predicting school success for all students, and their use was broadened (Sternberg, 1999). Multiple tests were developed to measure cognition, which might be defined as the ability to think abstractly. Markman (2001) described it in this way:

Cognition depends on the ability to imagine or represent objects and events…… [Read More]

Bibliography

American Academy of Pediatrics. August, 2000. "Fetal Alcohol Syndrome and Alcohol-Related Neurodevelopmental Disorders." Pediatrics.

Baker, O. Oct. 1999. "Faulty control gene underlies retardation (Rett Syndrome)." Science News.

Bower, B. Nov 20, 1999. "DNA furnishes tips to mental retardation." Science News.

Eliez, Stephan. Feb, 2000. "Genetics of Childhood Disorders: XI. Fragile X Syndrome." Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry.
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Genomics and Implications for the Future the

Words: 1778 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 19542026

Genomics and Implications for the Future

The Human Genome Project has completed its monumental mapping of the genetic sequence in human DNA, and the field of genomics is taking advantage of these initiatives and innovations in technology to pursue scientific inquiries that could not have been imagined just a few years ago. More importantly, perhaps, new applications are being discovered based on the growing body of scientific evidence being developed by this emerging science. To determine what genomics is and how it is being used today and may be used in the future, this paper provides an overview of the biochemistry involved in the study of genomics, followed by an analysis of current and future trends in this field. A summary of the research will be provided in the conclusion.

Review and Discussion

Background and Overview.

Today, genetic-engineering techniques are increasingly being applied to a growing number of life forms,…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Dooley, Erin E. (2004). "Y. F. Leung's Functional Genomics." Environmental Health

Perspectives 112(16):934.

Genome news. (2003, September). Body Bulletin 4(9):6.

Goodman, Alan H., Deborah Heath and M. Susan Lindee. (2003). Genetic Nature/Culture:
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City of Hope Team Develops

Words: 1464 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 71921646

The development of a bio-economy capable of supplying the world's energy demand is where the synthetic biologists wish to take this the next step. Additionally, biologists are able to develop a sort of biological acolyte from the principles of synthetic biology, involving synthesizing DNA in combination with the raw building blocks of genetics. A new platform for different biological life form is essentially, what these biologists have discovered.

According to commission chairwoman, and the president of the University of Pennsylvania, Amy Gutmann, "Here's something significant in science, but there's no cause for fear and dread about what is going to happen immediately next." The commission report recommended greater ethical constraint and greater collaboration. Amy Gutmann, further states that ethics training be mandatory for all researchers in the field.

Opponents of the report include Brent Erickson, an executive in the biotech industry. According to the New York Times, Mr. Erickson called…… [Read More]

Indeed, a handful of companies have brought to market new drugs to treat specific diseases including osteoporosis. However, some say this "genome bubble" (Pollack, 2010) has burst and that a lack of pharmaceuticals targeted toward genome modification have not turned out at a high rate. Increases in spending on the genome project exceeded 40 billion in 2009 with no major uptick in the number of available drugs to the population. Additionally, the Food & Drug Administration (FDA) has increased the testing requirements on the drugs in the pipeline development phase.

Industry executives note that although there is considerable risk and high costs, the project will pay of as a function of time. Assuming they are not out to just keep their job, the idea is as the development stage in its entirety, from drug discovery to marketing to consumers, can approach two decades. Executives at a number of top biotech firms have praised the genome project and its power as an enabler of drug research and drug development.

The article is accurate as it is inclusive of key executives holding top positions within the top biopharmaceutical companies in the world. Additionally, input from regulators is also provided. The human genome project and this subsequent research will undoubtedly affect our lives. Disease and ailments will be understood at the genetic level where new medication can address genetic deficiencies that enable these conditions. The relevance of this article to biology is as essential as Gregor Mendel's work on plant genetics.
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Pharmacogenomics the Opportunity for Health

Words: 2167 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Research Proposal Paper #: 67630090

" (Burczynski & Dorner, 187)

Another avenue of screening employs developing microscopic patterning technology called DNA microarray technologies in order to view certain characteristics of an individual's genetic makeup and health scenario. As Rushmore & Kong (2002) report, "advances in DNA microarray technologies and mammalian genome sequencing will soon allow quantitative assessment of expression profiles of all genes in the selected tissues." (Rushmore & Kong, 481)

This is particularly important because it represents opportunities in an area where most pharmacogenomics professionals contend the field must be expanded. At present, the largest focus in terms of application has been identifying single polymorphous cells for evaluation with respect to certain drug response likelihoods and tendencies. Naturally, the human genome is an incredibly complex chemical equation rendered by a set of permutations that is, for all intents and purposes, infinite. Therefore, the degree to which pharmacogenomics actually succeeds at improving treatment outcomes will…… [Read More]

Works Cited:

Bates, D.; Phillips, K.; Alldredge, B.; Issa, a. & Huskamp, H. (2005). Can Pharmacogenomics Improve Drug Safety? NLM Gateway. Online at http://gateway.nlm.nih.gov/MeetingAbstracts/ma?f=103623628.html

Burczynski, M.E. & Dorner, a.J. (2006). Transcriptional profiling of peripheral blood cells in clinical pharmacogenomic studies. Pharmacogenomics, 7(2), 187-202.

Evans, W.E. & McLeod, H.L. (2003). Pharmacogenomics -- Drug Disposition, Drug Targets, and Side Effects. Drug Therapy, 348, 538-549.

Evans, W.E. & Relling, M.V. (1999). Pharmacogenomics: Translating Functional Genomics Into Rational Therapeutics. Science, 286(5439), 487-491.
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Nature Verses Nurture One of

Words: 1792 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 88332443

(We've never had it so good - and it's all thanks to science) Thus the question of genes is an effect on certain humans and their behavior; in short their physical and behavioral traits. That does not change the view of society on what a well nurtured human is.

Conclusion:

Thus we still expect "other people" in society to be upright, polite, incorruptible, generous, are honest, hard working, well-informed, broadminded, who are conscious about society, sensitive to environment, non-violent and self-restraint. In short, those are the objectives of good nurturing, but does it happen all the time? Even in the Old Testament we had the tale of Cane and Abel. Society involves both nature and nurture.

eferences

Bad Gene Ups Prostate Cancer isk in Black Men. 9 July, 2003. etrieved at http://www.hon.ch/News/HSN/513973.html. Accessed on 10 August, 2005

Did the march of progress bring Aids to Africa? Sydney Morning Herald. 15…… [Read More]

References

Bad Gene Ups Prostate Cancer Risk in Black Men. 9 July, 2003. Retrieved at  http://www.hon.ch/News/HSN/513973.html . Accessed on 10 August, 2005

Did the march of progress bring Aids to Africa? Sydney Morning Herald. 15 September 2000.

Retrieved at  http://www.uow.edu.au/arts/sts/bmartin/dissent/documents/AIDS/rs/SMH.html . Accessed on 10 August, 2005

Lemonick, Michael. D. Gene Mapper. December 17, 2000. Retrieved at  http://www.time.com/time/poy2000/mag/venter.html . Accessed on 10 August, 2005
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Schizophrenia and Genetics These Three Genes Offer Some Clue

Words: 2024 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 84771633

Candidate Genes for Schizophrenia

Their Impact on Neuro-development

Search Improvement over Published Methodology

rief Introduction -- Schizophrenia is a mental disorder, which is characterized by delusions, lack of drive and interest, changed or unusual emotional reactions and generally disorganized behavior (Kirov et al. 2012). Some signs may begin from childhood but main features become apparent in the late teens and early adulthood. Outcomes and treatment are varied but relapses are frequent. Remissions are also often only partial along with significantly reduced social and occupation involvement. Persons with this disorder are among the most vulnerable, ostracized, and thus disadvantaged in society. A recent meta-analysis reported that about 15.2 out of every 100,000 persons are afflicted with it (Kirov et al.).

Genetic epidemiological studies theorize that varied susceptibility to schizophrenia appears to be strongly genetic (Kirov et al. 2012). These studies have identified many potentials links between genes and chromosomal abnormalities. Increasing…… [Read More]

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Brian, I. P. et al. 2005. 'Techniques for the identification of genes involved in psychiatric

disorders', Vol. 39, Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry

Hamshere, M. L. et al. 2012. 'Genome-wide significant association in schizophrenia to ITIH3/4,

CACNA1C and SDCCAG8 and extensive replication of associations reported by Schizophrenia PGC', Molecular Psychiatry, [Online] Available at  http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22614287
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Most Significant Advancement's

Words: 989 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 25812474

Medical Advancements in Medicine and Health

Write a three-page paper on what you believe is the most significant medical advancement (s) in medicine and health and support your argument.

Genetic engineering is one of the most significant medical advancements of the century and will have a major impact on medicine, health, politics and church and state relationships.

Genetic engineering. A controversial issue or a blessing in disguise? The Human Genome Project (HGP), sponsored in the United tates has created the field of genomics --understanding genetic material on a large scale.

But what actually is genetic engineering? Genetic engineering in theory, allows cells to grow in a petri dish, with the end result of creating the type of genetic alteration you want. Imagine the medical ramifications of being able to genetically create the characteristics we want in a species. Think of the benefits to mankind and the enhancements that would be…… [Read More]

Sources of Information:

Publications www.ornl.gov/hgmis/publicat/genechoice/index.html" Your Genes, Your Choices --a downloadable booklet describing the Human Genome Project, the science behind it, and the ethical, legal, and social issues raised by the project

Books www.ornl.gov/hgmis/publicat/hgn/v9n1/15cshl.html" Toward the 21st Century: Incorporating Genetics into Primary Health Care

Newsletters

Human Genome News --the newsletter of the HGP sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy Biological and Environmental Research Program
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Behavioral Genetics

Words: 2171 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 5154959

Adolescent Behavioral Traits

Behavioral Genetics

The 'era of the genome' officially began on April 12, 2003 when the entire human DNA sequence had been declared completed (Gannet, 2008). Although there was considerable resistance to the project from the beginning, the subsequent boom in medical and genetic advances are hard to ignore. For example, BAE and colleagues (2013) recently published a genome-wide association study that searched for and found specific DNA sequences significantly associated with agreeableness and long life spans. This study would not have been possible in the pre-genome era.

Despite these remarkable advances, however, genetic research has been going on for decades in the behavioral sciences, thereby laying a foundation upon which more recent genome era discoveries can be based. To better understand this foundation, a selection of studies examining the gene-by-environment influences on child and adolescent behavior will be reviewed and discussed in this essay.

Genetic Determination of…… [Read More]

References

Bae, H.T., Sebastiani, P., Sun, J.X., Andersen, S.L., Daw, E.W., Terracciano, A. et al. (2013). Genome-wide association study of personality traits in the long life family study. Frontiers in Genetics, 4(65), 1-9. Doi: 10.3389/fgene.2013.00065.

Feinberg, M.E. & Hetherington, E.M. (2000). Sibling differentiation in adolescence: Implications for behavioral genetic theory. Child Development, 71(6), 1512-1524.

Gannet, L. (2008). The human genome project. In E.N. Zalta (ed.) Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (Fall 2010 Edition). Retrieved from:  http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/human-genome/ .

Heylens, G., De Cuypere, G., Zucker, K.J., Schelfaut, C., Elaut, E., Bossche, H.V. et al. (2012). Gender identity disorder in twins: A review of the case report literature. Journal of Sexual Medicine, 9(3), 751-757.
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Detection and Intervention in Childhood Mental Health

Words: 10566 Length: 30 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 97642961

detection and intervention in childhood mental health help prevent mental health problems in adult life?

Disregarding the mental well-being requirements of children is an intolerable violation of our basic undertaking to protect their well-being. Unfavorable mental disposition amidst our children is a less acknowledged difficulty that influences their literary, societal, and emotional enhancement. Mental well-being is a wide attribute to be analyzed. The mental well-being requirements of children and youth demand introspection. There is prevalent refuting that mental well-being is comprehensive of the influence on the children -- amidst all age distinct ions, variety of cultural sections, and all income sections. Such miscomprehensions are recurring, and involvement and care are unlikely to be found. Many people have the belief that children having mental well-being difficulties are just under the impact of a particular passing cloud. (Promoting Access for Children to Mental Health Screens and Assessments in Medicaid and the Children's…… [Read More]

References

AAMR. "Mental retardation: Definition, classification, and systems of supports," 9th edition (1992).

Caplan G. "Principles of Preventive Psychiatry," Basic Books, New York, 1964

Children's Mental Health: Current Challenges and a Future Direction Traditional Mental Health Services for Children: Current Arrangements and Challenges." Retrieved at  http://www.healthinschools.org/mhs3.asp . Accessed on 12/08/2003

Children, Youth and Mental Disorders." The Primer May, 2003
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Biological and Psychological Systems

Words: 1790 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 76279439

standing and intense debate as to whether human personality is determined or influenced biologically or psychologically. Those in the pro-biological (or pro-nature) side contend that a person's genes have a stronger or final say about a person's acts and destiny, while those in the psychological (or pro-nurture) side say it is the way the person is/was raised as a child and his peer interaction that determine the personality system that will evolve. Does the human personality derive from nature or from nurture? Is his learning achievement, social or moral formation, habits and viewpoints ingrained in his genes or established by the way he is brought up?

The pro-nature side holds that learning or knowledge acquisition, in particular, is in itself a kind of genetic information that is pre-determined by natural selection (Csongradi 2004). Some of the knowledge a person gains may come from interactions or functionally, but what is genetically…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Csongradi, Carolyn. Nature vs. Nurture: a New Look at an Old Debate. The National Health Museum, Classroom of the 21st Century, 2004. http://www.accessexcellence.org/21st/SER/BE/whata.html

Davies, Kevin. Nature vs. Nurture Revisited. Cracking Down the Code of Life, 2001.  http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/nova/benome/debate.html 

Fishbein, Diana H. Biological Perspectives in Criminology. Criminology Theory, University of Baltimore, 2001.  http://www.criminology.fsu.edu/crimtheory/fishbein90.htm 

Ledoux, Joseph E. Pendulum Still Swings with Plenty of Momentum. The Chronicle of Higher Education, 1998. http://home.att.net/~xchar/tna
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Companion Diagnostics Translational Medicines

Words: 4711 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 9971327

Translational medicine is a new discipline, which covers studies on basic science, on human investigations, non-human investigations, and translational research (Mankoff et al. 2004). asic science studies address the biological effects of medicines on human beings. Studies on humans discover the biology of disease and serve as foundation for developing therapies. Non-human or non-clinical studies advance therapies for clinical use or use in human disease. And translational research refers to appropriate product development for clinical use. Translational research looks into the identity, purity and potency of a drug product during early clinical trial (Mankoff et al.). Translating the knowledge derived from basic sciences into clinical research and treatments is the task of translational medicine (Nagappa 2006). There is a groaning need for this type of research on account of voluminous information in the information age. Using this information is the challenge encountered by scientists and healthcare providers everywhere in the…… [Read More]

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Hersh, William. A Stimulus to Define Informatics and Health Information Technology.

Vol 9 BMC Medical Informatics and Decision Making: BioMed Central Ltd., 2009.

Retrieved on November 24, 2010 from  http://www.biomedcentral.com/1472-6947/24 

Mankoff, Stacey P. et al. Lost in Translation: Obstacles to Translational Medicine Vol 2
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The Biomedical Debate According to

Words: 1445 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 51543077

ith the emergence of new technologies and procedures
has occurred the emergence of new experts. According to Rose, "around these
experts of the soma cluster a whole variety of new pastoral experts-genetic
counselors are perhaps the best exemplars-whose role is to advise and guide
to care and support, individuals and families as they negotiate their way
through the personal, medical and ethical dilemmas that they face. And,
perhaps, most remarkable has been the rise of a novel expertise of
'bioethics.'" (Rose, 6)
This is the subject which commands perhaps the greatest importance in
Rose's text, striking relevance into every other aspect of the debate by
suggesting that this essentially subjective lens has come to dominate a
field traditionally ruled by empiricism. To this point, optimization has
been distinctly impacted by this false or self-proclaimed sense of somatic
expertise.
Indeed, in his dealing throughout the text with this issue of
optimization,…… [Read More]

Works Cited:

Rose, N.S. (2006). The Politics of Life Itself. Princeton University
Press.
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Start Off With an Introductory

Words: 4948 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 54115181

Ian Wimut and Keith Campell could effectively clone two sheeps named Megan and Morag in July 1995 from the differentiated emryo cells. (History of Cloning)

Dolly originated on July 5, 1996 as the first organism ever to e cloned from adult cells. Following the announcements for creation of Dolly y Ian Wilmut, an extensive deate on human cloning ethics emerged and that led President Clinton to propose for a five-year moratorium on federal as well as privately invested human cloning research on March 4, 1997. Richard Seed, a Havard graduate could announce on Decemer 5, 1997 aout his ojective of cloning a human eing prior to an of the process y enactment of the federal laws. Following the successful cloning of Dolly, Ian Wilmut and Keith Campell generated Polly, after cloning of a Poll Dorset lam from skill cells grown on a la and with its alteration genetically to incorporate…… [Read More]

bibliography_pages/cloning.html. Accessed on 11 March, 2005

Cloning Fact Sheet" Human Genome Project Information. Retrieved at  http://www.ornl.gov/sci/techresources /Human_Genome/elsi/cloning.shtml" target="_blank" REL="NOFOLLOW">
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Patho-Physiological Condition of Schizophrenia Searching

Words: 2888 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Thesis Paper #: 41269278

Kringlen also published more extensive case records for his monozygotic twins than any other researcher had done (pp. 7-8)."

The information gained by these studies was significant. One, in particular, conducted by William Pollin and his colleagues set out to disprove the biological or genetic factors, and to establish the basis for.".. psychodynamic, interpersonal phenomena that might have some significant etiologic role with respect to schizophrenia (Torrey, p. 9)." What Pollin and his colleagues found, instead, was that there were significant physiological conditions in the twins examined who had schizophrenia (p. 9).

The most significant findings were a history of lower birth weight and more obstetric complications in the affected twins in discordant pairs, and more neurological abnormalities in the affected twins (Pollin & Stabenau, 1968; Mosher et al., 1971). The findings, said these researchers, suggested that "the intrauterine experience of one twin, relative to the co-twin, tends to be…… [Read More]

References

 http://www.questiaschool.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=109107379 

Csernansky, J.G. (Ed.). (2002). Schizophrenia: A New Guide for Clinicians. New York: Marcel Dekker. Retrieved December 22, 2008, from Questia database:  http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=109107379   http://www.questiaschool.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=113408413 

Harrop, C., & Trower, P. (2003). Why Does Schizophrenia Develop at Late Adolescence? A Cognitive-Developmental Approach to Psychosis. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley. Retrieved December 22, 2008, from Questia database:  http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=113408491   http://www.questiaschool.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=111909680 

Heinrichs, R.W. (2001). In Search of Madness: Schizophrenia and Neuroscience. New York: Oxford University Press. Retrieved December 22, 2008, from Questia database:  http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=111909680   http://www.questiaschool.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=85769272
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Predictive Forensic and Carrier Genetic

Words: 1365 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 5849911

(Human Genome Project, DNA Forensics, 2006) Examples of genetic testing use of DNA in forensic identification are: (1) identification of potential suspects from DNA left at crime scene; (2) exoneration of those wrongly accused of crimes; (3) identification of crime and catastrophe victims; (4) establishment of paternity and other family relationship; (5) identification of endangered and protected species in aiding wildlife officials and in prosecution of poachers; (6) detection of bacteria and other organisms that may be pollutants of air, water, soil and food; (7) matching of organ donors with recipients in transplant programs; (8) determination of pedigree for seed or livestock breeds; and (9) authentication of consumables such as caviar and wine. (U.S. Department of Justice, 2003; DNA Forensics, 2006) DNA typing is accomplished through obtaining DNA samples through designing "small pieces of DNA probes that will each seek out and bind to a complementary DNA sequence in the…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Advancing Justice Through DNA Technology (2003) Using DNA to Solve Crimes. U.S. Department of Justice. Executive Summary. Online available at  http://www.usdoj.gov/ag/dnapolicybook_exsum.htm 

DNA Forensics (2006) Human Genome Project. U.S. Department of Energy Office of Science, Office of Biological and Environmental Research. Online available at  http://www.ornl.gov/sci/techresources /Human_Genome/elsi/forensics.shtml" target="_blank" REL="NOFOLLOW">
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Natural Science Concepts Part 1-Scientific

Words: 1019 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 87085570

u

PART 2-Historical Event

A specific historical event which has added to our understanding of certain aspects of the natural world is represented by the Chernobyl disaster. Which occurred in 1986. "The accident caused the largest uncontrolled radioactive release into the environment ever recorded for any civilian operation, and large quantities of radioactive substances were released into the air for about 10 days." (www.world-nuclear.org) in the period in which the accident took place, many countries were undergoing development processes. The international trend included an increased trust in the use of science and technology. Locally, while the importance of the central was understood, the same thing could not be stated about the risks it involved. It is believed that the accident was caused due to the lack of proper preparation of the workers.

The consequences of the explosion included the death of thirty workers and the contamination with thyroid cancer of…… [Read More]

Bibliography:

About the Human Genome Project in genomics.energy.ov, Retrieved March24, 201 from  http://www.ornl.gov/sci/techresources /Human_Genome/project/about.shtml" target="_blank" REL="NOFOLLOW">
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Raising IQ Scores Education

Words: 1459 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 41640985

raising IQ scores/Education. Question: Should the IQ cutoff for mental retardation be raised to 80? Six sources. APA.

Should the IQ Cutoff for Mental Retardation be raised to 80?

The debate regarding IQ tests continues to rage into the new millennium. Every decade has a myriad of new studies supporting or contradicting the last accepted theories and studies. There are new studies which indicate that the IQ scores in the United States has risen by 3 points per decade, "indicating that intelligence is not stable but is flexible with regards to environmental influences." However, after vast research, no one knows just exactly what is causing the rise in IQ scores. Moreover, there is an ongoing debate in regards to raising the IQ cutoff scores for the mental retardation assessment. The American Association of Mental Retardation's definition of mental retardation is "a disability characterized by significant limitations both in intellectual functioning…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Davis, Sharon. "The Human Genome Project: Examining The Arc's Concerns Regarding the Project's Ethical, Legal, and Social Implications." November 12, 1997.  http://www.ornl.gov/hgmis/resource/arc.html .(accessed 11-24-2002).

Definition of Mental Retardation." American Association of Mental Retardation: 2002

Policy Forum. July 29, 2002.  http://www.aamr.org/Policies/faq_mental_retardation.shtml .(accessed 11-24-2002).

MacMillan, Donald L.; Forness, Steven R. "The Role of IQ in Special Education
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Genetics Largely the Result of the Completion

Words: 441 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Annotated Bibliography Paper #: 88853592

genetics, largely the result of the completion of the Human Genome Project, has helped change the face of modern medicine. Genetic testing of an individual can not only help identify current diseases and disorders, but also help suggest treatment modalities and identify potential future illnesses. For example, patients with a family history of breast cancer can be tested for the breast-cancer gene, and, if positive, decide whether to pursue preventative therapies, such as pre-cancerous mastectomies. However, it is critical for healthcare workers to understand all of the ramifications of genetic testing so that they can answer patient questions about those tests. For example, if a genetic test can identify a disorder, but there is no preventative care or treatment for that disorder, will that knowledge help or harm the individual?

Summaries

Lea, DH (2009). Basic genetics and genomics: A primer for nurses. The Online

Journal of Issues in Nursing, 14(2).…… [Read More]

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Epilepsy Medically Speaking the Disease

Words: 1503 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 53275703



In the world of medicine today, there is still much about the inner workings of the human brain that are relatively unknown. Yet advancements in brain scanning and other techniques are giving researchers greater insight on how epilepsy works and why the brain responds as it does to the seizures. Obviously, with advances in genetic testing and the existence of the Human Genome Project, epilepsy could one day be cured and thus help millions of sufferers to live a "normal" and non-disabling lifestyle.

Annotated ibliography

Chadwick, David. Living with Epilepsy. London: Optima Publishing, 1987. (An excellent book which explains in-depth how a person can cope and live with epilepsy. It also provides information on support groups for those afflicted with the disease).

Preston, Robb. Epilepsy: Causes and Treatments. Miami, FL: Symposia Specialists, Inc., 1980. (Another excellent book that discusses all the major aspects of epilepsy. It also provides much information…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Chadwick, David. Living with Epilepsy. London: Optima Publishing, 1987. (An excellent book which explains in-depth how a person can cope and live with epilepsy. It also provides information on support groups for those afflicted with the disease).

Preston, Robb. Epilepsy: Causes and Treatments. Miami, FL: Symposia Specialists, Inc., 1980. (Another excellent book that discusses all the major aspects of epilepsy. It also provides much information on what a person should do when someone is experiencing an epileptic seizure).

The Spirit Catches You and You Fall Down." Book Review. Internet. 2003. Accessed September 19, 2005.  http://www.spiritcatchesyou.com/bookdescription.htm .(A very thorough review of Anne Fadiman's book which describes Lia Lee's battle with epilepsy, both medically and culturally).
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Criminal Justice Theory

Words: 2525 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 51732386

Criminal Justice Theory and the Los Angeles County Probation Department

Criminal and antisocial behaviors have been studied in the field of criminology for many years. Criminologists are very interested to learn what types of things cause specific criminal and antisocial behaviors. hile criminal behavior and antisocial behavior are not always related, they often have close ties. Criminologists and other researchers are looking to find commonalities between certain genetic makeups and deviant behavior. They believe that many people are genetically predisposed to be violent, and if these people can be located they can be treated.

That does not mean that criminologists are in favor of testing everyone's genetic makeup on the planet to see if any of them show violent tendencies. hat they are interested in doing, however, is studying criminals who already have a history of violent and deviant behavior to see what other traits they have, and what their…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Anderson, R.H. (2000, January 13). Unit 5: deviance, conformity and social control. University of Colorado at Denver. Retrieved September 2, 2005, from http://psychology. about.com/gi/dynamic/offsite.htm?site=http%3A%2F%2Fthunder1.cudenver.edu%2F%2Fsociology%2Fintrosoc%2Ftopics%2FUnitNotes%2Fweek05.html

Brand, C. Cycad Web Works. (2003, February). Can crime be traced to such often-mooted personality features as extraversion and lack-of-conscientiousness? Are genetic factors involved-in whatever interaction with the environment? And can any therapeutic or preventive steps by recommended? Retrieved August 29, 2005, from http://www.cycad.com/cgi-bin/Brand/quotes/q16.html

Brunet, J.R. (2002, November 15). Discouragement of Crime Through Civil Remedies: An Application of a Reformulated Routine Activities Theory. In Western Criminology Review 4 (1) Retrieved September 5, 2005, from http://wcr.sonoma.edu/v4n1/brunet. html

Casey, D. Human Genome Project. (1997, June). Introduction. Retrieved September 1, 2005, from  http://www.ornl.gov/TechResources/Human_Genome/publicat  / primer/prim1.html
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JD Watson

Words: 1917 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 69450001

James Dewey atson

The Discovery of DNA was one of the most important discoveries in the history of Humanity, and it was accomplished by James atson and Francis Crick. Their discovery of the structure of DNA allowed scientists to begin to understand the mechanism behind inheritance. hile many scientists over the years had studied heredity, beginning with Gregor Mendel, no one had been able to discover the exact mechanism for how heredity actually works. It was not until the technology of the time advance to a point where scientists could determine the structure of molecules that the discovery of the structure of genetic material could be determined. After much research, and some failures, two scientists, working together, finally determined the molecular structure of the genetic molecule, allowing for the study of the exact mechanism to begin. James atson was one of the scientists responsible for the discovery of the DNA…… [Read More]

Works Cited

"Biography James Watson." Nobelprize.org. Nobel Prize Organization. 1964. Web. 14 April 2011.

 http://nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/medicine/laureates/1962/watson-bio.html 

"James D. Watson, Chancellor Emeritus" Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory. Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory. Web. 15 April 2011.

 http://www.cshl.edu/gradschool/Non-Research-Faculty/james-d-watson
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Knowledge Worker Is Someone Employed More Because

Words: 1586 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 17269027

Knowledge worker is someone employed more because of their specific informational expertise or mastery of a subject or process instead of their ability to perform manual or physical labor. These individuals will tend to advance the information available about their subject because they are able to devote their time and energy to focused analysis, or even redesign and development of a process. They are somewhat like the pure researchers of the past -- they work to solve particular problems, influence organizational decisions, and set priorities and strategies through their own intellectual curiosity. Most experts say that the real differentiation of knowledge working is that it is "non-routine" problem solving based on higher level thinking (Reinhardt, et.al., 2011).

The idea of acquiring and disseminating knowledge is certainly not new, nor is the philosophical paradigm of how humans acquire and process that same knowledge. To understand the modern version of knowledge working,…… [Read More]

WORKS CITED

Audi, R., ed. (1999). The Cambridge Dictionary of Philosophy. Cambridge: Cambridge

Barbrook, R. (2006). The Class of the New. London: Open Mute Publications. Retrieved From:  http://www.theclassofthenew.net/ 

Bogdanowicz, M. And Bailey, E. (2002). The value of knowledge and the values of the new knowledge worker: Generation X in the new Economy. Journal of European

Industrial Training. Retrieved from:  http://www.emeraldinsight.com/journals.htm?articleid=837082
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Code Switching Although it Sounds

Words: 3873 Length: 14 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 348387

344).

In his seminal work, Second-Language Acquisition in Childhood, McLaughlin (1985) reports that early research into language acquisition by preschool children suggested that interference between languages is not as inevitable or universal as was once believed. "Contrastive analysis, in its traditional form, was not able to account for the vast majority of errors that second-language learners made; in fact, learners from quite different language backgrounds appeared to make the same types of mistakes in the target language," he adds (McLaughlin, 1985, p. 14).

Since these early studies into language acquisition, other studies have shown that transfer from the first language does take place in the speech of children from certain first-language backgrounds and at certain times during the learning process. Therefore, McLaughlin cautions that, "It is an exaggeration to say that transfer from the first language is minimal and unimportant. The acquisition of phonological, syntactic, and morphological structures in a…… [Read More]

References

Bakker, P. (1997). A language of our own: The genesis of Michif, the mixed Cree-French

language of the Canadian Maetis. New York: Oxford University Press.

Bialystok, E., & Hakuta, E. (1994). In other words: The science and psychology of second-

language acquisition. New York: Basic Books.
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PCR-DNA Experiment Abstract- Science and

Words: 758 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Lab Report Paper #: 98985497

The experiment was designed to first extract DNA, take it through the steps of amplification and detachment, and then prepare it for analysis. The question was what type of bacteria was being sequenced. The steps used were: 1) Extraction of genomic DNA, 2) Amplification of genetic region, 3) Verification, 4) Clean PC Products, 5) Quantify DNA concentration, 6) Cycle the sequence, and, 7) Precipitate cycle-sequenced products for analysis. In this case, a virtual laboratory was used, with the user being guided to the appropriate tools and equipment (Virtual Bacterial Identification).

esults

Accession

Description

Max score

Total score

Query coverage

E value

Max ident gi|39295|Z11684.1

.henselae 16S rNA gene

0.0

gi|6626180|AF214556.1

Bartonella henselae 16S ribosomal NA, partial sequence

0.0

99%

Discussion- The BLAST search displays the matching sequences in the database in descending order of the degree of the match. Most of the top scorers are either Bartonella henselae or ochalimaea…… [Read More]

REFERENCES

Nobel, I. "Secret of Life Discovery Turns 50." 27 Feburary 2007. BBC News. August 2010 .

"Virtual Bacterial Identification." January 2010. The Virtual Bacterial ID Lab. August 2010 .

Walker and Jones. Genes and DNA. Kingfisher, OK: Kingfisher Press, 2003.

APPENDIX A -- Genetic Map of
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How Medical Care Decisions Are Made

Words: 1072 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 32642911

medical care sector, the decisions of what services should be produced, how they should be produced, how they should be distributed, and how to allow for growth and innovation must be made.

What combination of non-medical and medical goods and services should be produced in the macro-economy? In terms of guns or butter, the optimal balance of the production of non-medical and medical goods and services in the macro-economy would also include adequate provisions for defense. In sum, to the extent that this combination favored non-medical and medical goods and services in the macro-economy would be the extent to which defense spending would be diminished in the production-possibility frontier (Bandyopadhyay & Sandler, 2014).

What particular medical goods and services should be produced in the health economy? There is a growing recognition that preventive health care services are far more cost effective than reactive approaches that only intervene when people develop…… [Read More]

References

Bandyopadhyay, S. & Sandler, T. (2014). The effects of terrorism on trade: A factor supply approach. Review - Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis, 96(3), 229-233.

Brown, C.E. & Ecoff, L. (2011, Winter). A systematic approach to the inclusion of evidence in healthcare design. Health Environments Research & Design Journal, 4(2), 7-10.

Chronology of events. (2015). National Institutes of Health. Retrieved from http://www.nih. gov/about/almanac/historical/chronology_of_events.htm.

Heller, B.R. & Nichols, M.A. (2001, March/April). Workforce development in nursing: Priming the pipeline. Nursing and Health Care Perspectives, 22(2), 70-73.
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Nature and Nurture the Relatively

Words: 1287 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Thesis Paper #: 38447121



That is simply because individual in the same family are much more likely than unrelated individuals to share similar foundational experiences by virtue of their exposure to similar parenting and resources in their immediate environment throughout their early lives (Gerrig & Zimbardo, 2007; utter, 2006). Just as hesus monkeys tend to adopt maternal behaviors and elements of personalities of their mothers irrespective of their genetic inclinations, so do human infants and growing children and adolescents internalize and adopt various aspects of the behaviors and reactions exhibited by their parents and other significant adult behavioral role models in their lives (Gerrig & Zimbardo, 2007).

Twin Studies

The quality of resources available to siblings (such as food, medicine, educational opportunities, etc.) is generally very similar within biological families (Gerrig & Zimbardo, 2007; utter, 2006). To the extent these factors contribute to the development of behavior, it is extremely difficult if not impossible…… [Read More]

References

Gerrig, R., and Zimbardo, P. (2007). Psychology and Life. Prentice Hall.

Rutter, M. (2006). Genes and Behavior: Nature - Nurture Interplay Explained. Wiley-

Blackwell.

Steen, R.G. (1996). DNA and Destiny: Nature & Nurture in Human Behavior. De Capo.
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Social Psychology - Prejudice Prejudice

Words: 2192 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Research Proposal Paper #: 15631281

Early trauma that causes anger often corresponds to higher levels of aggression later in life, especially where the traumas are suppressed and internalized instead of being expressed at the time of their origin and at the source.

Furthermore, since many dysfunctional families forbid the expression of anger by children (particularly anger toward parents), individuals who experience significant levels of early trauma that produces repressed anger are often considerably more aggressive throughout life subsequently than individuals who were fortunate not to experience as much early trauma (Gerrig & Zimbardo 2005). Aggression is a known factor in criminal conduct as well as other forms of non-criminal negative social behavior such as those associated with overt prejudice and other types of social intolerance toward others (Macionis 2003).

Aggression and Prejudice:

One of the primary ways that aggression-prone individuals express their repressed rage is in their treatment of other less powerful individuals (Gerrig &…… [Read More]

References

Friedman, a. (2005) a History of American Law. New York: Touchstone.

Gerrig, R.J., Zimbardo, R.G. (2005)

Psychology and Life 18th Ed.

Hoboken, NJ: Prentice Hall.
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Self-Control Theory of Criminal Behavior

Words: 1436 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 20404070



Whereas it remains true that African-Americans and other racial minorities continue to be overrepresented in the American prison population, both common sense and the general consensus of the criminal justice community and sociological experts suggest that this hardly a direct function of race. ather, it merely reflects the unfortunate correlation between poverty, comparative lack of educational and employment opportunities in the American urban centers where many minorities reside, as well as of the social values that tend to prevail in many of those impoverished communities (Schmalleger 1997).

First, the quality of public school facilities and programs is directly related to the economic realities of their surrounding areas; second, within many segments of minority urban social culture, education is not valued the way it is in middle class and upper class communities and students who make the effort to apply themselves academically are more likely to be targeted for ridicule by…… [Read More]

References

Gerrig, R., Zimbardo, P. (2005) Psychology and Life 17th ed.

Boston: Allyn & Bacon

Innes, B. (2007) Serial Killers: The Stories of History's Most Evil Murderers. London: Quercas

Macionis, J.J. (2002) Sociology. New Jersey: Prentice Hall
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Jeffery Dahmer

Words: 2674 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 25529772

Dahmer Forensic Analysis

Jeffrey Lionel Dahmer

Crime Scene and Discovery

Never before has egregious police incompetence hindered the apprehension of a serial killer as in the case of Jeffrey Dahmer. When police were called to investigate an alleged domestic disturbance between Konerak Sinthasomophone and Jeffrey Dahmer on May 27, 1991. Although two women came to the aide of Sinthasomophone and urged police to look further into the alleged dispute, the police ignored their pleas and Dahmer was able to convince them that Sinthasomophone was his 19-year-old lover; if police had bothered to check Sinthasomophone's identification they would have seen that he was in fact only 14 years old (ardsley, n.d.). Having convinced the police that Sinthasomophone and he were in the midst of a lovers' quarrel, Sinthasomophone was released into Dahmer's custody and by the end of the night, Sinthasomophone would become Dahmer's 13th victim (ardsley, n.d.). Dahmer would proceed…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Bardsley, M. (n.d.). Jeffrey Dahmer. Retrieved June 25, 2012, from TruTV:  http://www.trutv.com/library/crime/serial_killers/notorious/dahmer/index.html 

Benedict, J. (2004). No Bone Unturned: Inside the World of a Top Forensic Scientist and His Work on America's Most Notorious Crimes and Disasters. New York: Harper Collins .

Copeland, L. (2002, May 31). Skeleton Keys: Smithsonian Anthropologists Unlock Secrets in Bones of Ancestors and Crime Victims. Retrieved June 25, 2012, from Washington Post:  http://911research.wtc7.net/cache/planes/evidence/washingtonpost_skeletonkeys.html 

Crime and Investigation Network. (n.d.). Jeffrey Dahmer. Retrieved June 25, 2012, from  http://www.crimeandinvestigation.co.uk/crime-files/jeffrey-dahmer/crime.html
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Personality Permanent It Has Been a Long

Words: 969 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 5870792

Personality: Permanent?

It has been a long controversy about how nature and nurture imply to personality traits and human behavior. Nature means that genetic factor and the system of organs control the personality, while nurture means the personality is a result of conditioned circumstances where a person is brought up. It includes the personality of other people, like family, includes the teaching, and lessons a child gains during his/her mental development process.

Recent studies find more in human biological system that genes are related to people's behavior. McInerney (2001) shows, many researchers believe that genetics factors determine how someone will act and think in his or her life. Animal and human are born with specific character linked with the genetic information in the genes. It shapes each individual trait exclusively including the performance in social, interaction, intelligence, and adaptability to the surrounding community.

ehavior may change, he states, as a…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Azar, B. 1997. Nature, Nurture: Not Mutually Exclusive. APA Monitor. American Psychological Association.  http://www.snc.edu/psych/korshavn/natnur02.htm  (March28, 2002).

Cosgrove, C. May 30, 2000. Researchers Seek Explanations, Coping Strategies For Bad Childhood Behavior. CNN.com.  http://www.cnn.com/2000/HEALTH/children/05/30/born.bad.wmd/ (March28, 2002).

Fujita, F. May 1, 1996. The Nature/Nurture Controversy. Sci.Psychology.Personality FAQ.  http://www.iusb.edu/~ffujita/Documents/nn.html  (March28, 2002).

Gendlin, E.T. A Theory of Personality Change. Chapter Four in Personality Change,
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Treatment History of Cystic Fibrosis

Words: 1699 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 91316181

Treatment History Of Cystic Fibrosis

The field of pediatric nursing is a particularly large one in which its members may find themselves having to counsel both young patients and their families suffering from a myriad of diseases. Cystic fibrosis (CF), in particular, is a debilitating disease that strikes many young people. In the first years following its discovery, many children could not expect to make it to their teen years. Today, with advances in the management and care of this disease, patients are living into their 40s. It is even possible that there will one day be a cure.

This paper will look at CF from a historical perspective. The timeline of its discovery and research will be briefly presented, as will a few of the significant "milestones" in the history of the treatment of CF and what these mean for people battling this disease.

References to cystic fibrosis were…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Author not available. (1994). Genetic Therapy Possible Cure for Several Diseases. Morning Edition (NPR).

Baroni, M.A., Anderson, Y.E., and Mischler, E. (1997). Cystic fibrosis newborn screening: Impact of early screening results on parenting stress. Pediatric Nursing. 23, 143(9).

Hopkin, Karen. (1998). Understanding Cystic Fibrosis. Jackson, MS: University Press of Mississippi.

Orenstein, David M. (1997). Cystic Fibrosis: A Guide for Patient and Family. 2nd ed., Philadelphia, PA: Lippincott-Raven.
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Genetic Screening

Words: 2160 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 55745991

Genetic screening is one of the most controversial topics in the scientific arena today. The advent of the Human Genome Project, which maps the complete human genetic code, has brought this issue to the forefront. This paper will discuss the basic science that underlies genetic screening, applications of genetic screening, and investigate some of the common misconceptions and ethical questions about its use.

Genetic screening itself is simply "the systematic search within a population for persons possessing particular genotypes, which are either associated with disease, predisposing to disease, or leading to disease in descendants" (Miller). In simpler terms, genetic screening involves testing and determining whether "an individual's genetic material to predict present or future disability or disease either for oneself or one's offspring" (McCarrick). Essentially, genetic screening is conducted for several basic reasons, including the care of the ill and the prevention of disease, providing reproductive information, determining the incidence…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Alberts, Bruce. 2002. Molecular biology of the cell, 4th ed. New York: Garland Science.

Genetic Science Learning Center. 2004. Genetic Disorder Corner. University of Utah. 07 May 2004. http://gslc.genetics.utah.edu/units/disorders/

McCarrick, Pat Milmoe. 1993.Genetic Testing and Genetic Screening. Scope Note 22. National Reference Center for Bioethics Literature, Georgetown University, 1993. Kennedy Institute of Ethics Journal (KIEJ), Reprinted September 1993, 17 p. (Last updated February 2002). 07 May 2004.  http://www.georgetown.edu/research/nrcbl/scopenotes/sn22.html 

Miller, Kelly. 1999. Genetic Screening. Phil McClean, Professor, Ph.D. Colorado State University, PLSC 431/631 - Intermediate Genetics. 07 May 2004. http://www.ndsu.nodak.edu/instruct/mcclean/plsc431/students99/miller.htm. The mundane by excellent cinematography and an effective cast.
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Benefits and Risks of Genetically Engineered Foods or Organisms

Words: 2177 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 61352608

GENETICALLY ENGINEERED FOOD OR ORGANISMS: SCIENCE'S ANSWER TO WORLD HUNGER

The introduction and use of genetically modified or engineered foods or organisms have attracted attention, mostly alarmed in recent years (WHO 2014). These foods are manufactured from organisms by artificially altering or engineering their DNA for nutrition purposes. This is done by infusing an edible plant gene into the organisms for immediate and ultimate purposes. One is to optimize production and increase the resistance to plant disease while tolerating the harmful effects of herbicides. Another is to extract them from genetically modified or GM microorganisms or animals for future use. Still another object or prospect is to alter the nutrients themselves in foods in order to control or prevent allergies they cause (WHO).

The target of the United Nations Organization's Millennium Development goals is to cut down the proportion of hunger this year into half (World Hunger Education Service, 2015).…… [Read More]

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Chatsko, M. (2013). Regulatory similarities between GMO foods and pharmaceuticals.

The Motley Fool: Interactive Data Managed Solutions. Retrieved on April 25, 2015

from  http://www.fool.com/investing/general/2013/11/23/regulatory-similarities-betweengmo-foods-and-phar.aspx 

CHGE (2012). Genetically Modified Foods. Center for Health and the Global Environment:
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Important Factors in Treating Huntington's Disease Patients

Words: 6558 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 22789764

Huntington's disease (HD) was the first autonomic dominant disorder for which genetic prediction became possible" (Harper, et al., 2000, Journal of Medical Genetics, p. 567). HD is a disease that occurs due to an inherited disorder leading to the death of brain cells. A diagnosis of HD is accomplished through genetic testing which can be implemented at any age regardless of whether the symptoms manifest or not. Although, the specific symptoms vary between people, nevertheless, symptoms can start with people between 35 and 45 years of age and can also start in some individuals at even anearlier age. The disease may affect successive generations if health interventions are not implemented (Mandel, 2016).

Additionally, "the cause of HD is due to a dominant mutation of autosomal form of the gene called Huntington. This shows that a child born by an affected person has a 50% chance of developing or inheriting the…… [Read More]

References

Causes and risk factors. (2016). Health Communities. Retrieved from http://www. healthcommunities.com/huntingtons-disease/cause.shtml.

Denbo, S. M. (2013, January 1). Balancing the rights of children, parents and the state: The legal, ethical and psychological implications of genetic testing in children. Southern Journal of Business and Ethics, 5, 188-190.

Domaradzki, J. (2015, January 1). Lay constructions of genetic risk. A case-study of the Polish Society of Huntington's Disease. Polish Sociological Review, 189, 107-111.

Draper, B. (2004). Dealing with dementia: A Guide to Alzheimer's Disease and other dementias. Crows Nest, NSW: Allen & Unwin.
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Genetic Influences on Behavior While

Words: 425 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 26711372

However, while it is tempting to claim genetic influences as superior to environmental ones, there is still a great debate over whether and individual can overcome their genetics setbacks or be enhanced by their genetic superiority. The former is often achievable as in the case of the addict who has recovered from their addiction, the latter brings us to the morally trepidatious ground of eugenics where by genetic engineering can enhance the good traits and limit the bad traits. The problem there is who decides which traits to keep or loose? Usually decisions left up to a higher authority.

eferences

Gesell, A., Thompson, H., & Strunk, C. (1938). The Psychology of Early Growth: Including Norms of Infant Behavior and a Method of Genetic Analysis. New York: Macmillan.

Jang, K.L. (2005). The Behavioral Genetics of Psychopathology: A Clinical Guide. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Johnson, A. (2003, February). The Genetic Key…… [Read More]

References

Gesell, A., Thompson, H., & Strunk, C. (1938). The Psychology of Early Growth: Including Norms of Infant Behavior and a Method of Genetic Analysis. New York: Macmillan.

Jang, K.L. (2005). The Behavioral Genetics of Psychopathology: A Clinical Guide. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Johnson, A. (2003, February). The Genetic Key to Public Health: Strides in Genetics Research Are Making a Difference in Public Health. State Legislatures, 29, 28.

Parens, E. (2004). Genetic Differences and Human Identities: On Why Talking about Behavioral Genetics Is Important and Difficult. The Hastings Center Report, 34(1), 1-9.
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Semantics A Tool for Shaping

Words: 3085 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Thesis Paper #: 89126084

They're discussing them, talking to people from around the glove where the events unfolded, and then creating chat forums to engage in intellectual debate and sharing of ideas. They are talking about what the news media is reporting, whether or not it is slanted toward a political ideology, and assessing the information. Everyone, it seems, has faster access to broader sources of news and ideas, and they are using that information to form ideas and conclusions about political leaders and how those leaders respond to local, national, and world situations, people, and events.

How the Public Interprets Political Semantics and Use the Internet to Impact Policy and Government

One of the most significant examples of how the internet has facilitated the public's access to information, and how people world-wide have analyzed political semantics and used the information to shape policy and government is the second term of America's former President…… [Read More]

Reference List

Fisher, F., Miller, G., and Sidney, M. (2007). Handbook of Public Policy Analysis:

Theory, Politics, and Method,

Feldman, O. And Landtsheer, C. (Eds) (1998). Politically Speaking: A Worldwide

Examination of Language Used in the Public Sphere, Praeger Publishers,
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Nursing in 2021 Over the Next Decade

Words: 673 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 15991064

Nursing in 2021

Over the next decade, and for years to come afterwards, the expected growth in the older adult population will have a significant impact on the healthcare system. The baby boom generation, individuals born between 1946 and 1964, began turning 65 in 2011. By 2020 the number of Americans age 65 and older is expected to rise to 54 million. Furthermore, as a result of better nutrition, safety and health care the number of individuals who reach the age of 85 or older will grow even more dramatically ("The Impact of Aging Population on the Health Workforce in the United States," 2006).

This will precipitate a greater demand for health care in general and will also affect the nature of the skills and services the health care workforce must be equipped to provide, and the settings in which this care is provided. As a person ages, their immune…… [Read More]

References

ACNP. (2010). Numbers of nurse practitioners in U.S. American college of nurse practitioners. Retrieved February 1, 2012, from http://www.acnpweb.org/i4a/pages/index.cfm?pageid=3353

"The impact of aging population on the health workforce in the United States: summary of key findings." (2006, March) Center for health workforce studies, School of Public Health, University of Albany. Retrieved January 31, 2012, from  http://www.albany.edu/news/pdf_files/impact_of_aging_excerpt.pdf 

Cronenwett, L.R. (Ed.). (2011). The future of nursing education. In The Future of Nursing: Leading Change, Advancing Health. Institute of Medicine. Retrieved February 1, 2012, from http://www.iom.edu/~/media/Files/Activity%20Files/Workforce/Nursing/Future%20of%20Nursing%20Education.pdf