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The reaction on the part of the community of language researchers has ranged between the grudging acceptance that some multiple word collocation do exist in the lexicon, and the lexicon re-conceptualized as incorporating elements from all levels of linguistic structure. "According to this second view idiomatic expressions represent one end of a continuum which places highly analyzable and semantically decomposable utterances at one end, and highly specified, semantically opaque idioms at the other" (Sanford, 2008).
Current literature says that idioms make up a very large and heterogeneous class of semi-fixed multiword expressions. Traditionally, in order to classify an expression as idiomatic it had to be non-compositional in nature. "If an expression is thought to be non-compositional, it is believed that its meaning cannot be inferred by simply adding up the semantics of its constituents. As a result, the meaning of idioms appears to be quite arbitrary" (Boers, 2007). It is…
"101 English Language Idioms." (n.d.). 6 October 2009,
Abel, Beate. (2003). "English idioms in the first language and second language lexicon: a dual representation approach." Second Language Research. 19(4), 329-358
Abu-Ssaydeh, Abdul-Fattah. (2004). "Translation of English idioms into Arabic." Babel. 50(2),
), there is far more to their use than simple memorization. Instead, as English moves into a lingua franca situation in global economics and politics, students of English need to understand idioms in order to respond and understand context as well as fact. Not doing so reduces ESL speakers to a reduced form of English and a larger scenario of uncomfortability within community, school, and therefore, culture (O'Keeffe, McCarthy and Carter, 90-8).
Lesson Ideas- Teaching idioms can be difficult and challenging simply because they must be memorized within a new cultural setting. Depending on the level of the student, it may be necessary to provide more or less explanation about the why. In other cases, simple memorization is really the only way to increase the use; making it a game; showing how used in prose, and practicing in writing and speaking will often help. However, it is wise to limit…
Bogards and Laufer-Dvorkin. Vocabulary in a Second Language. Philadelphia, PA: John Benjamins, 2004.
Cacciari and Levorato. "How Children Understand Idioms in Discourse." Journal of Child Language 16.1 (1989): 387-405.
Evans and Pourcel. New Directions in Cognitive Linguistics. Philadelphia, PA: John Benjamin, 2009.
Francis, E. A Year in the Life of an ESL Student. Victoria, BC: Trafford Publications, 2008.
In literature, authors have a plethora of literary devices which they can use to interest the reader and make their words more powerful. These tools provide the author with the ability to convey far more than they might have been able to without it. Unfortunately, this abundance of potential literary tools available can, in less skilled hands, make comprehensibility of written language very difficult. One of the most frequent offenses in literature is an author's confusion between figurative and literal language. In order to prevent such errors, it is best to become better acquainted with the terms of literary usage and then they can be used in their proper context.
An idiom is an expression has a meaning separate from the definitions of the actual words that are used. Idioms are cultural expressions which will usually not translate outside of their cultural context (Bradshaw 2012). Some idioms are…
Bradshaw, Robert (2012). "Figures of Speech."
Sullivan, Frank. (1947). "The Cliche Expert Testifies." The Roosevelt Era. Boni and Gaer: New
Using humans as guinea pigs in a study of what happens to the body when syphilis is left untreated borders on the viciousness of some of Nazi Germany's "human experiments" on innocent Jews.
Meanwhile, Satel goes on to point out that notwithstanding the DNA evidence of biological similarities, there are dramatic differences in how medicine views ethnic differences, and there lies the controversy which is one of the main themes of her article.
To wit, Canadian Eskimos have a "variant form of a liver enzyme" that causes the Eskimo to be vulnerable to tuberculosis bacteria; and African-American woman have a higher incidence of breast cancer prior to reaching 35 years of age than Caucasian women do. Yes, we're almost all the same but our bodies react very differently to disease. The other themes that come through Satel's research: worries about categorizing people based on ancestry notwithstanding, identifying a person's ethnicity…
Banton, Michael. (1995). Rational Choice Theories (Theories of Ethnicity). American
Behavioral Scientist, 38(3), 478-498.
Banton, Michael. (2000). The Idiom of Ethnicity (Debate). Journal of Ethnic and Migration
Studies, 26(3), 535-543.
Americans hate paying taxes. Idioms that for example place death and taxes in the same category prove this. There are some very specific reasons why Americans do not enjoy paying taxes, and these are examined below. Apart from the mere principle behind this sentiment, are also some concrete and even valid motivations for attempting to evade the obligation to pay taxes. These include reasons relating to government corruption and the tendency of the very rich to evade their own tax paying responsibilities. Furthermore it appears, according to some, that the economy does not benefit from current tax legislation, and that this is mainly a result of the corruption mentioned above.
The Necessity of Taxes
Doubtlessly, taxes are necessary. The Government needs funding in order to provide its people with the highest quality of goods and services. Recreation and roads for example are maintained by means of taxes. Taxes, while applied…
Johnston, David Cay. Perfectly Legal Penguin Group, 2003
Schnepper, Jeff A. "The next tax bill - consumption taxes." USA. Sept, 1993
Wagner, Richard E. "Transfer taxes sap vitality from America's economy - estate taxes and transfer of property rules." Insight on the News, Spt 27, 1993
Language acquisition is an aspect that comes about every day yet it is a mystic achievement of childhood. An important element learned is that language is acquired by means of knowledge and cognition of the semantic, syntactic, phonological, pragmatic and morphemic aspects of written as well as oral language. For instance, the children will respond to the languages that they hear in their environment. Children do in fact react to being in settings where oral and written language are employed and therefore gain ways on understanding how to use them as time progresses. How children come to learn how to speak and have language proficiencies is outlined through the collaboration of nature and nurture. I have learned that child development comes with maturation, in addition to, the various stages of development. I have also learned and come to the understanding that infants and toddlers have readiness, potential and inquisitiveness. They…
Adams, M. J., Foorman, B., Lundberg, I., Beeler, T. (2015). Phonemic Activities for the Preschool or Elementary Classroom. Reading Rockets. Retrieved 3 July 2016 from: http://www.readingrockets.org/article/phonemic-activities-preschool-or-elementary-classroom
Autism Speaks. (2013). Seven Ways to Help Your Nonverbal Child Speak. Retrieved 3 July 2016 from: https://www.autismspeaks.org/blog/2013/03/19/seven-ways-help-your-nonverbal-child-speak
Chard, D. J., & Dickson, S. V. (1999). Phonological awareness instructional and assessment guidelines. Intervention in school and clinic, 34(5), 261-270.
Kang, C., Riazuddin, S., Mundorff, J., Sommer, M., Koch, M. A., Paulus, W., ... & Davis, S. (2010). Genetic susceptibility to persistent stuttering. N Engl J Med, 2010(362), 2226-2227.
Debates can be formulated for and against with evidence presented that supports one side or the other. First written down, these arguments can then be presented in written and oral forms, thereby reinforcing English usage in two forms: written and oral (Walvoord, 1982). Further strategies for converting the teaching into a relevant exercise are by having students summarize and critique articles and drafts (Walvoord, 1982), and by using dyadic writing (both English and student's language side-by-side on the same page) as a useful study for both teaching and research of English (Aghbar and Alam, 1992). This can be done in various venues: visual aids, such as TV programs movies, documentaries; written texts such as books, or audio material.
Both the Interchange tudent's Book 2 (Richards, Hull, & Proctor, 2008) and Grammar Dimensions: Teacher's Edition (adlier et al., 2000), for instance, masters all three of these perquisites by employing a simplistic,…
Aghbar, Ali-Asghar, and Mohammed Alam. "Teaching the Writing Process through Full Dyadic Writing." The 26th Annual Meeting of the Teachers of English to Speakers of Other Languages. March 3, 1992. Vancouver, 1992.
Connors, Robert J. "The Rise and Fall of the Modes of Discourse." College
Composition and Communication 32.4 (Dec. 1981): 444-455.
Dellinger, Dixie Gibbs. Out of the Heart How to Design Writing Assignments for High
Marianne Hirsch and Leo Spitzer, in their "The Witness in the Archive: Holocaust/Memory Studies "u argue that Hannah Arendt's Eichmann in Jerusalem and Claude Lanzmann's Shoah added a new idiom to the discourse on the Holocaust, which is witness testimony. Please discuss this new idiom. Your answer should take into account the three important aspects of memory and transmission that Hirsch and Spitzer highlighted following Shoshana Felmana's views. Finally, your answer should also discuss the mode of truth/truthfulness that the new conception of witnessing engenders.
In Hirsch and Spitzer's article (2009) the endeavor to understand the utility of witness testimony as it contributes to the archive of memory, specifically of the Holocaust. They find witness testimony to be both quite useful, but at the same time problematic or at least not wholly unreliable. The authors contend that there is a place for witness testimony in memory studies…
Hirsch, M., & Spitzer, L. (2009). The witness in the archive: Holocaust Studies/Memory Studies. Memory Studies, 2(2), 151 -- 170.
In this rgard, Atchinson and Lewis (2003) report that, "Electronic forms of news dissemination include multimedia 'webcasts', e-zines, news alert services, news tickers, e-journals and (we)blogs, newsgroups, personalized news trackers and email. Stylistic conventions are emerging for these various forms, but common trends can be discerned." "Compression is carried even further online, driven by the tiny window on the vast information landscape. Paragraphs often consist of a single idea in a single sentence. Salient ideas may be expressed by bulleted lists of noun phrases rather than in clauses. Tables, charts and graphs are common."
Nevertheless, some observers suggest that in spite of the dynamic nature of the online environment today, some formal rules should still be followed to ensure that everyone agrees on the shared meaning of words and idiomatic phrases. In this regard, Stockwell and Minkova (2001) report that, "American phoneticians and lexicographers in general use a slightly different…
Aitchison, Jean and Diana M. Lewis, New Media Language (London: Routledge, 2003).
Babowice, J. Hope, "What 'Fly' Means to You May Not Be Mom's Definition" (Arlington Heights, IL: Daily Herald, 2007, October 31), 1
How many words are there in the English language?" (2008). AskOxford.com. [Online]. Available: http://www.askoxford.com/asktheexperts/faq/aboutenglish/numberwords .
Katamba, Francis. English Words (London: Routledge, 1994).
Teaching English to Young Learners
Whether it teaching young children who are born and whose parents are native to the United States or another English-speaking country or whether it be a situation where either the parents and/or the child are not born in the United States, teaching English to younger learners can be a challenge and it needs to be done in certain ways to be as effective and efficient as it can and should be. This report will cover the subject of using context to teach unknown or unfamiliar words. Specifically, there will be a focus on the teachings and assertions of Nation when it comes that subject. The deliverable for this report will be the planning of a day where the desired concepts from Nation and other sources will be used to construct the general framework and habits that will be used to teach students unknown words as…
An Early Start: Young Learners & Modern Languages in Europe & Beyond. (2015).
Poliglotti. Retrieved 2 April 2015, from http://www.poliglotti4.eu/docs/Research/An_
Byram, M., Gribkova, B., & Starkey, H. (2002). Developing the intercultural dimension in language teaching. Strasbourg: Council of Europe.
translating of Collocations in sentences from Arabic into English vice versa
What are Collocations?
Complexity in Translating sentences
The Social Issues
The Cultural of Material
Translation, Culture and Language
Problems Translating Collocations
The Strategy of Borrowing
Literal translation Strategy
Lexical Creation Strategy
The Strategy of Omission
The Addition Strategy
Translation is considered to be some kind type of activity, which "unavoidably has something to do with at least two cultural traditions and two languages" (Munday, 2006). Nevertheless, the key argument of scholars who interrogated the likelihood of translation (Newmark, 1987)has been when it comes to the collocations that language and culture are essentially connected and thus cultural diversity makes translation much more impossible. " Given that no two languages are looked at as being identical either in meanings provided or in sentences and phrases, then there can be no absolute correspondence between languages" (Munday, 2006). Moreover,…
January, B.A. (2006). Hindrances in Arabic-English Intercultural Translation. Cultural Aspects, 27(15), 34-67.
Munday, J. (2006). Introducing Translation Studies: Theories and Appli. New York: Routledge.
Newmark, P. (1987). A Textbook of Translation (Skills). New York City: Prentice Hall Longman.
Higher Order Thinking
My interest is in the issue that subject matter instruction in History and English ought not to strive for breadth, but for depth. For processing what text I read critically and with insight, I have to regard it in general, and try to grasp what idea its writer is attempting to convey.
My main concern is literacy instruction's overall objective. The literacy instruction area deals with students' ability to process any content they read at the assessment, synthesis, scrutiny, and interpretation level, which forms the last strand in the tapestry of reading (Tankersley para1). As an instructor, I need to exhibit understanding by means of explicating a text's standpoint or aim, ascertaining the critical elements and theme, communicating my views on any given element of the text, or examining a particular character's personal traits and accounting for his/her behavior. I should also have the ability of developing…
Collins, Robyn. "Skills for the 21st Century: Teaching Higher-order Thinking." 2014. Web. 11 Dec. 2015.
Kwaku, Adu-Gyamfi et al. "Instructional Strategy Lessons for Educators Secondary Education (ISLES-S)." 2014. Web. 11 Dec. 2015.
Tankersley, Karen. "Literacy Strategies for Grades 4-12: Chapter 5. Higher-Order Thinking." Higher-Order Thinking. Web. 11 Dec. 2015.
"Teaching Higher-Level Thinking: Chapter Five." Web. 11 Dec. 2015.
I often run over my words and they start coming out so fast they seem to not be waiting for the thought behind them and I can get lost in my speech. I will often write the direction "pause" into a lecture in order to remind me to do so and slow down. So I am often not sure if it is my delivery that is boring the audience or the content.
Chapter 8: Friendship (250-252)
In times of need and in times or happiness, one is able to share these experiences with a friend. I know when I am feeling especially stressed out or feel that things are not going well I can usually count on my friends to bring me out of it, either directly by encouraging me to press on, or indirectly by taking my mind off the situation at hand. Sometimes there is no way t…
Ultimately, Osborn succeeds in using idiom of the period that is immediately accessible through various venues of popular culture (she describes Crockett as seeming to "be half varmint") and weaves the language of the legend into the story. This differs significantly from Fritz' work in that the story of Pocahontas involves primarily third person language and modern idiom with none of the tall-tale style phrasing. Overall, this story differs significantly from that of Fritz' work in that it challenges the reader to simultaneously deal with the fact and the legend - something that might be confusing for younger readers, but remains quite effective.
Finally, there is Julius Lester's John Henry. John Henry was a purportedly actual (his reality has been up for debate) rail-road worker who was certainly larger in physical stature and stronger than most people, but he certainly could not have accomplished what legend would credit him with.…
Fritz, Jean. The Double Life of Pocahontas. New York: Putnam Juvenile, 2002.
Lester, Julius. John Henry. New York: Puffin, 1999.
Osborn, Mary Pope. American Tall Tales. New York: Knopf Books for Young Readers, 1991.
AUTHOR ____ REVIEWER
SUBMITTED TO REVIEWER ____DATE RETURNED
FINAL CRITIGUE GRID
Quality of the writing (See Writing Rubric)
Nothing special but solid nonetheless. Appropriate.
Thorough, and all appropriate.
Formatting (APA 6th Edition)
Physiology & Pathophysiology
Synthesis of the research
The review of literature is thorough.
There should be more written about future research possibilities.
SUPPORTING REVIEW COMMENTS
The goals of peer review are 1) to help improve your classmate's paper by pointing out strengths and weaknesses that may not be apparent to the author, and 2) to help improve editing skills.
Read the paper(s) assigned to you twice, once to get an overview of the paper, and a second time to provide constructive criticism for the author to use when revising his/her paper. Answer the questions below.
1. Did the writer cite sources adequately and appropriately? Note any…
PTSD in the Middle East
Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) is one of the most common mental health or psychological disorders facing people in the Middle East region. This condition emerges from episodes of social upheaval, combat, and violence that have become common in the Middle East over the past few years. Some of the major areas in the Middle East that have been characterized by increased conflicts in recent years include Palestine, Iraq, and Lebanon. Given increased conflicts and combat in the Middle East, PTSD and other trauma-related mental health conditions are expected to become public health crisis in the Arab world (Suto, 2016). Therefore, public health professionals in the Middle East face the need to develop appropriate measures for diagnosis and treatment of PTSD and other trauma-related disorders. However, the treatment of this condition and other traumatic mental health disorders is significantly affected by culture. This paper examines how…
As Jeffrey Stout has it, following James' "Will-to-Believe," "We need not agree on all matters of moral importance to agree on many, and where our judgments happen to coincide we need not reach them for the same reasons." (Fackre, 2003)
Fackre states that there are five pluralist views as follows:
View 1: Common Core. At the center of all the great religions of humankind is found a common core of divine (however conceived) doing, disclosing and delivering. Each faith approaches it through its own heroes, expresses it in its own language, celebrates it in its own rituals, formulates it in its own rules of behavior, and passes it on in its own communal forms. While the rhetoric of each religion may claim that its way, truth and life are for all, these absolutist professions are, in fact, "love talk," the metaphors of commitment, not the metaphysics of reality. Jesus is,…
Marmion, Declan (2005) Rahner and His Critics: Revisiting the Dialogue. Australian EJournal of Theology. February 2005, Issue 4. Online available at: http://dlibrary.acu.edu.au/research/theology/ejournal/aejt_4/marmion.htm
Thiselton, Anthony C. (2007) the Hermenutics of Doctrine. Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing 2007.
Th, Anthony C. (2007) the Hermenutics of Doctrine. Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing 2007
S. Management and Training Team -- put through cross-cultural training, understanding Hindu and Indian history and society, social classes, some idioms, history of relationship with the West; Phase 2- Cross-cultural training of Indian team; American idioms, speech patterns, encourage viewing of American movies, sit-coms, reading of American popular magazines and newspapers, teach popular culture; Phase 3 -- Implementation of new system, continual training and monitoring, transition of some management roles to natives, continue classes in speech and loss of accent; Phase 4 -- Use center as springboard and example for new centers in other countries or additional centers in India; change out U.S. management team so more employees become cross-culturally aware. Promote from within, provide stateside opportunities for bright Indian employees (ai, 2007).
Figure 1 -- Four Stage Training and Implementation Plan:
What is, however, most important to remember when dealing with issues of international labor, foreign workers and investment,…
Davies, P. (2008). What's This India Business? Offshoring, Outsourcing and the Global Services Revolution. Nicholas Brealey Publications.
Rai, U. And V. Khosla. (2007). Offshoring Secrets: Building and Running a Successful India Operation. Happy About Publishers.
Reddy, S. et.al., (2008), International Trade and Labor Standards: A Proposal for Linkage. Columbia University Press.
Indian Team identified; begin language and cultural training, then move towards product development and ongoing training issues.
In the story, he claims that a big title wave hinder him from doing what he wanted to do. However, when he accomplished his goal, he claimed the title wave was not there at all. The reader could take as the water/title wave to be a metaphor to represent the obstacles he had to go through in order to become a good storyteller again.
Part fantasy, part allegory and always clever and engaging, the story told of Haroun's adventures speaks to the power of story in our lives and in the world. The constant word play and twists of language are funny, though at times I felt they became just "too much." While we are being entertained by maniac bus drivers, strange genies and odd fish, Haroun and his father both are coming to terms with the things in the world that truly matter. This is one of those rare…
There were some interesting results in the answers obtained. First, all six participants were between the ages of 15 and 18 and 100% of them had started studying the English language in grade 5 at home in Iraq. Another observation is that 80% of the Iraqi students reported that they were a full grade level below in Australia; the remaining 20% were two grade levels behind his or her current educational pace in Iraq. This interesting fact demonstrates that the Iraqi school system is behind the Australian school system and the Iraqi learners will need further 2nd language training.
The fourth question delves into the educational background of the Iraqi students parents. A Muslim belief dictates many of the findings because Iraqi females often are not schooled and in some cases are illiterate. Sixty percent of the males have college level education, 40% of the males have a military or…
Polygenism, which posits that humans stem from a diversity of races and, therefore, have distinctions, is the converse of monogenism that posits that all of humanity is from one undifferentiated origin.
Whilst it is true that we each have our distinct cultural background and that these cultural backgrounds can be, occasionally, hugely different in values, practices, ways of thinking, opening, beliefs and so forth, monogenism, such as Christianity, nonetheless believes that we descend from one single set of parents i.e. Adam and Eve and have all been created by God. Banton sees 'race as descent' as the differences between races that could have likely occurred through moral (i.e. social / cultural) or physical (i.e. genetic or behavioral) causes. These differences exist. Monogenists believe that men came from the same source and had acquired these differences later due to environmental and correlated changes, whilst polygenists believe that men were different to…
Banton, M. The Idiom of Race in Black, Les & John Solomos, 2009. Theories of Race and Racism, 2nd ed. New York: Routledge.
Jackson, J., Race, Racism, and Science: Social Impact and Interaction, Rutgers University Press, 2005
Goedel, Escher, Bach: An Eternal Golden Braid, Douglas Hofstadter unleashes a multifaceted theory of mind and consciousness. One of the central motifs or metaphors the author uses in Goedel, Escher, Bach is music. The Bach component of the book begins in depth starting on page 607, when the author presents the question, "ho Composes Computer Music?" The author claims, "There are various levels of autonomy which a program may seem to have in the act of composition," (Hofstadter 607). However, the computer-generated compositions follow predictable algorithms. The songs, riffs, and sounds computers generate are qualitatively different from those that are created by human beings.
Computers and brains are different, Hofstadter points out, in that computers cannot experience self-consciousness. Self-consciousness remains one of the core barriers to artificial intelligence. Given there is no "who" in a computer, a computer program cannot create music any more than it can write novels. A…
Cohen, Tal. Goedel, Escher, Bach: An Eternal Golden Braid. 30 May 1997. Retrieved online: http://tal.forum2.org/geb
Hofstadter, Douglas. Goedel, Escher, Bach: An Eternal Golden Braid. 1999.
Blacks in Blues Music
Biographer Lawrence Jackson wrote that author Ralph Ellison was exposed to the blues and classical music from an early age, eventually playing the trumpet and pursuing a degree in music at Tuskegee (McLaren Pp). hen he moved to New York to pursue his writing career, Ellison was exposed to the musical developments in jazz and often attended the Apollo Theater, the Savoy Ballroom, and Cafe Society Downtown, and although he admired such figures as pianist Teddy ilson, Count Basie and Duke Ellington, he did not particularly admired Dizzy Gillespie's Bebop, considering its use of Afro-Cuban influences as a "strategic mistake" (McLaren Pp). Ellison, writes Jackson, was more concerned with the "homegrown idiom" (McLaren Pp). That homegrown idiom that Ellison referred to was the blues, a music born in the fields of the South by black workers who used their African musical heritage to give birth to…
McLaren, Joseph. "Ralph Ellison: Emergence of Genius."
Research in African Literatures; 12/22/2004; Pp.
Southern, Eileen. The Music of Black Americans. W.W. Norton & Company.
1983; pp. 330, 331, 332, 333, 334, 336, 338.
Creation Myth Analysis
Case Study of the History of iblical Creation Narratives
What Is Myth?
What Is History?
Is Genesis 1:1-2:4 Myth?
Is Genesis 1:1-2:4 History?
Is Genesis 1:1-2:4 oth Myth and History?
An Analysis of the iblical Creation Narrative of Genesis 1:1-25 and Egypt's Possible Influence on the Historical Record
God created the world in just six days, and rested on the seventh, but scholars have not rested at all over the millennia in their investigation of its account in the historical record, particularly Genesis 1:1-25. Given its importance to humankind, it is little wonder that so much attention has been devoted to how the universe was created and what place humanity has in this immense cosmos. Indeed, the creation of the universe and the origin of mankind are the subject of numerous myths around the world, with many sharing some distinct commonalities. According to S.G.F.…
Aldred, Cyril. The Egyptians. London: Thames & Hudson, 1961.
Andrews, E.A.. What Is History? Five Lectures on the Modern Science of History. New York:
Macmillan Co., 1905.
Austin, Michael. "Saul and the Social Contract: Constructions of 1 Samuel 8-11 in Cowley's 'Davideis' and Defoe's 'Jure Divino,' Papers on Language & Literature 32, 4 (1996),
Chapter 1 of Venuti's he ranslator's Invisibility is about why the goal of translation is to be "invisible." he translated text should be as close to the original as possible. In Chapter 1, the author explains the term invisibility and why it applies to the translator's work. he goal is to be faithful to the original author. here should be no evidence that the translator has taken liberties to put something in his or her own words because it sounds good. As Venuti puts it, there should be "the absence of any linguistic or stylistic peculiarities" that would prevent a faithful rendition of the original (1). he translator's role is to transform a text from one language to another without losing anything or adding anything. he translator must therefore grasp exactly what the original author was trying to say, and render that fluently into a modern and easily accessible…
Translation means being knowledgeable of and sensitive to differences in culture and historical context that impacts the meaning of words, idioms, and entire texts. For example, to translate Homer, or the Bible, the translator must know about ancient Greek or ancient Middle Eastern history. The translator must be able to understand which words were used colloquially and which are to be taken literally. The problem with mis-translation is easily understood in light of the many different translations of Biblical texts. Translation problems can even be the source of major misunderstandings, and cross-cultural communication problems. This is why businesses need to hire translators that are familiar with more than just grammatically perfect language, but also translators that are able to translate values, norms, concepts, and beliefs. The translator needs to read between the lines, so to speak.
In this sense, translators have a great deal of power and responsibility. How the original text is translated can have a huge impact on readers. Translation can have a major impact on how readable the text is, too, which is why there is also an economic imperative to hire good translator. The author concludes that while a good translator is "invisible," a good translator is also sensitive to the cultural, social, historical, and other contexts that affected the original. The translator is also sensitive to the needs of his or her own audience.
Venuti, Lawrence. The Translator's Invisibility. London & New York: Routledge, 1995.
Growth of a Child from Infancy to Adolescence
When a child is born, it is virtually helpless and unable to complete any form of operational tasks. Though a superior being above many creatures, the infant will be able to grow from infancy to adulthood in areas of physical, intellectual, language, emotional, and social development. Every stage of the child's life provides milestones in which will display their growth to full development. Tools may be used to assist them to reach their full potential. Among these tools, the most significant is the knowledge and nurturing of a parent and influential adults. Within this instructional guide, babysitting staff and parents will be able to better understand which milestones will happen at what ages, examples of what they may observe in the child to prove growth, and how to assist their child to thrive.
An adult will see a great amount…
American Medical Association. (2001). For parents -- teenage growth and development: 11-14
years. Retrieved February 16, 2011 from http://www.pamf.org/teen/parents/health/growth-11-14.html
Cleveland Clinic. (2006, December 5). Social development during the teen years. Retrieved February 16, 2011 from http://www.revolutionhealth.com/healthy-living/parenting/teens-preteens/school-friends/social-development
Colson, E.R. (2006, May). Intellectual development: Preschool and school-aged children: Merck manual home edition. Retrieved February 16, 2011 from http://www.merckmanuals.com/home/sec23/ch268/ch268c.html
Age of Extremes
The ise of the evolutionary Arts
The chapter under review is set in the context of the troubled times that Eric Hobsbawm describes in his book "The Age of Extremities" -- a time which saw two world wars, the greatest economic depressions in world history and the communist revolution in ussia and elsewhere. There was an environment of revolution in Europe and elsewhere -- in India for example where the fight for independence from British rule was at its height during the later part of this period. Therefore according to Eric Hobsbawm, the time period from 1914 to 1945 was one where the socio-political scenario had a deep impact on the arts and culture and their expression.
The ise of the evolutionary Arts
During the period from 1914 to 1945, Eric Hobsbawm notes that in the established world of arts and culture the only two innovations that…
Hobsbawm, E. (1994). The age of extremes. New York: Pantheon Books.
If anything, the urge to document their performance as fully as possible -- extended long shots and all -- runs the risk of swamping the narrative, but for Kelly, perhaps, the balletic dream was the narrative, or at least, the point of constructing the story in the first place.
Extended detours into pure ballet notwithstanding, the "stage-oriented" economy of Singin' in the Rain does not permit it to linger on the outright repetition of any shot or sequence. However, allied techniques allow it to achieve a certain degree of formal and sentimental unity. In terms of large-scale structure, the decision to bookend the film's action between two theatrical premieres is extraordinary. Unlike a more explicitly flashback-driven story like Sunset Boulevard (a near-contemporaneous but darker meditation on Hollywood's transition to sound), the trajectory here is less circular than spiral in form: The gala debut of the film-within-a-film that closes Singin' in…
The divisions ere as such:
1. The highest class amongst the slave as of the slave minister; he as responsible for most of the slave transactions or trades and as also alloed to have posts on the government offices locally and on the provincial level.
2. This as folloed by the class of temple slaves; this class of slaves as normally employed in the religious organizations usually as janitors and caretakers of priestesses in the organization.
3. The third class of slaves included a range of jobs for slaves i.e. slaves ho ere appointed as land/property etc. managers ere included in this class as ell as those slaves ho ere employed as merchants or hired to help around the pastures and agricultural grounds. A majority of this class included the ordinary household slaves.
4. The last class amongst the slaves also included a range of occupations of the slaves extending…
works cited at the end.
If I were to conclude the significance of Paul's letter to Philemon and his approach to demand Onesimus' hospitality and kinship status, I can say that it was clearly his approach towards his demands that has made the letter such a major topic of discussion with regards to slavery. If Paul had taken an aggressive approach and straight away demanded the release and freedom of Onesimus, the letter would not been preserved in the history books for the generations to follow; that is a surety. I say this because it was Paul's approach and choice of language structure that caused for a large amount of debate to follow. It has been this debate, whether it has been on slavery or the various interpretations of his language structure, that has allows this letter and the relevant history to live on through the centuries. Of course, it is important to understand Philemon's role here as well, because it was his choice to treat the letter with a certain amount of respect and dignity that contributed to the letter's longevity as well. If Philemon had chosen to disregard Paul's requests and thrown away the letter as one that was not worthy of consideration, nobody would've even had the chance to debate the letter's significance in history. This again takes me back to the language structure adopted by Paul as he was able to soften his approach of the numerous demands as well that helped Philemon play his part of respecting what was demanded. Interestingly enough, Onesimus did go on to take on the duties as a bishop! To think that this line of action came about with only a choice of softening one's demands is extra-ordinary and the credit goes solely to Paul!
JM.G. Barclay, Colossians and Philemon, Sheffield Academic Press, 1997
Bartchy, S.S. (1973). First-Century Slavery and the Interpretation of 1 Corinthians 7:21 (SBLDS 11; Atlanta: Scholars Press) 175.
Apparent health can be generally positive or negative; in spite of how it links with the real health; it may be significant to comprehend its function in certain kinds of psychopathology. Negatively apparent health has been anticipated to symbolize a cognitive risk factor for panic disorder (PD), detached from elevated anxiety feeling. As a result, PD may be more likely to take place on a background of negative perceptions of one's health. A negatively perceived health may also have predictive implications for PD patients, bearing in mind that negatively perceived health has been found to be a considerable predictor of mortality in general and that individuals with panic-like anxiety indications, panic attacks, and PD have elevated mortality rates, mostly due to cardiovascular and cerebrovascular illnesses (Starcevick, Berle, Fenech, Milicevic, Lamplugh and Hannan, 2009).
Studies have suggested that panic attacks (PA) are widespread and connected with an augmented occurrence of…
Carrera, M.; Herran, a.; Ramirez, M.L.; Ayestaran, a.; Sierra-Biddle, D.; Hoyuela, F.;
Rodriguez-Cabo, B.; Vazquez-Barquero, J.L..(2006). Personality traits in early phases of panic disorder: implications on the presence of agoraphobia, clinical severity and short-
term outcome. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, 114(6), p.417-425.
Craske, Michelle G., Kircanski, Katharina, Phil., C., Epstein, Alyssa, Wittchen, Hans-Ulrich,
Disorder does not descend from Heaven,
It is the spawn of a woman. 10
Contemporaneous with relocating the capital from Edo to Tokyo was the drawing up of the 'Memorandum on Reform of the Imperial Palace' in which Article 1 states that the emperor would 'deign to hear about all political matters' in the front throne room adding that 'women are to be prohibited from entering the front throne room' 11.
Yoshii Tomozane, enior ecretary for Court Affairs peremptorily dismissed all court ladies, after which a rare few were reselected for appointment. In his dairy, he noted: 'this morning, the court ladies were dismissed in their entirety… the power of women already lasting for centuries has been erased in a single day. My delight knows no bounds." 12.
In this way the power of the 'hens' was removed from the 'Enlightened regime' of Meiji rule and suppressed throughout the country.…
Adler, Philip. World Civilizations. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth / Thomson, 2008
De Vos, George & Wagatsuma, Hiroshi, "Value Attitudes Towards Role Behavior of Women in Two Japanese Villages," American Anthropologist, 63, (1961).
Hastings, S.A. "Gender and Sexuality in Modern Japan" a Companion to Japanese History, Blackwell Pub., 2007
Hendry, Joy, Understanding Japanese Society. London: Routledge, 1991.
The adoption of national legislation (NCLB), as well as many other education based and popular pressures to utilize the miracle of American ingenuity, i.e. technology in the classroom to help students better achieve learning goals very handily falls in the laps of school administrators. This group of individuals, with their already lengthy list of responsibilities has no choice, regardless of fears and inhibitions but to adequately support this goal by learning about what technologies are best, most economical and most importantly most supportive of student learning. The school administrator is the seat of most school reform as they are responsible for populating committees that search for and advocate technology use and make recommendations to school boards as well as in many cases the ones who ask for the funding to buy technology and also and almost more importantly help to implement technology in the real classrooms. For this reason…
Gibson, a. & Weir, S. (2010) Technology and the Classroom [online]. Idiom, 46, 1, 39. Retrieved November 18, 2010 from: http://search.informit.com.au/documentSummary;dn=313649786803301;res=IELHSS
Gold, M. & Lowe, C. (2009). The Integration of Assistive Technology into Standard Classroom Practices: A Guide for K-12 General Educators. In I. Gibson et al. (Eds.), Proceedings of Society for Information Technology & Teacher Education International Conference 2009 (pp. 3964-3968). Chesapeake, VA: AACE.
Bracey, G.W. (2006). The 16th Bracey report on the condition of public education: Phi Delta Kappan, 88(2), 151.
Hagel, C. (2006, March). Can America deal with the 21st century? 'USA Today (Society for the Advancement of Education), 134, 10.
(Polybius 6.42). He contrasted this with the Greeks, who placed their camps according to the advantages and disadvantages conferred by the terrain. (Polybius 6.42). In this way, the Roman soldiers could rely on military protocol and camp life being the same even no matter where they were and who was commanding.
Another outcome of Rome's system of military organization was the remarkable discipline of the Roman army. Only property-owners were allowed to serve in the Roman military, which meant that all Roman soldiers had extra incentive to obey commands, to never retreat and to never desert, for fear of squandering their property and reputation back home.
Roman military units were designed in a Gestalt style which reduced the effect of externalities such as inadequate troop strength, partial routs, or bad commanders. Polybius described the virtues of the Roman Maniple:
"The order of a Roman force in battle makes it very…
Lazenby, J. 1996. "Was Maharbal Right?" In T. Cornell et al. (eds.), the Second Punic War: a Reappraisal. London. 39-48.
Salmon, E.T. 1960. "The Strategy of the Second Punic War," Greece and Rome 7: 131-142.
Donaldson, G.H. 1962. "Modern Idiom in an Ancient Context. Another look at the Strategy of the Second Punic War," Greece and Rome 9: 134-141.
Eckstein, a.M. 2006. Mediterranean Anarchy, Interstate War, and the Rise of Rome. Berkeley,
Students then move to advisory to discuss what they learned from the principal, then begins first period science class.
Science is tutorial based, but often broken up into groups of four for lab and experimentation work. Math lab includes a number of different activities that change out regularly.
Following math, the students meet for Art class, which varies daily in activities, social and spatial development.
Lunch and a brief recess follows.
First class after lunch focuses on learning tools combined with independent reading; teacher uses only worksheets as student activity after reading; question worksheet designed to uncover comprehension and vocabulary development
Next class is social studies, work in pairs, teacher uses a number of different strategies and course outlines for variety.
Final period of the day focuses on English, or ESL for international students.
Reviewing a typical day for Ahmad, however, shows some serious disconnects in terms of his continual…
What do Tom and Mary have in common?
Outside of the purview of this essay, but nevertheless vital to the arguments presented when dealing with multicultural education, one must understand that there is a rather hierarchical taxonomy regarding the topic: Conservative multiculturalism, which assumes that unsuccessful minorities come from culturally deprived backgrounds and require ethnicity "stripping" for economic success of the child; Liberal multiculturalism which formats the sameness of all groups and requires manifesting language, but remaining culturally aware of the base culture; Pluralistic multiculturalism that shares features with the liberal view but focuses more on learning about differences and integration of race into simply being part of the individual; Left-Essentialist multicultural that holds that the conservative element uses language and other educational means as a way to control a minority and that essential traits may be romanticized for effect; and Critical multiculturalism that takes race, class, gender and even sexuality and transcends to a larger, more complex, social struggle. See: Kincheloe, J. And S. Steinberg. (1997). Changing Multiculturalism. Open University Press; and D. Campbell (2008). Choosing Democracy, a practical guide to Multicultural education. Allyn/Bacon.
ith the Copperheads putting across messages relating to how Republicans could directly threaten the lower classes by generating an influx of black laborers from the South, simple workers were influenced in rebelling against their government and against everyone they considered to be responsible for their disadvantaged status.
eber stresses the significance of the army in reducing the influence that the Copperheads had in the North. In spite of the fact that the soldiers themselves were not very passionate about going to war, they did not support Peace Democrats because the faction was against the Union's principles. The military was apparently largely responsible for the fact that the masses did not appreciate Copperheads.
The Copperhead were ardent racists and this also reduced their influence in the North, as in spite of the fact that they were determined to have the public's interest directed at preventing black individuals from becoming equals, they…
Weber, Jennifer L. "Copperheads: the rise and fall of Lincoln's opponents in the North." (Oxford University Press, 2006)
Weber, Jennifer L. "Copperheads: the rise and fall of Lincoln's opponents in the North." (Oxford University Press, 2006) p. 1.
Weber, Jennifer L. "Copperheads: the rise and fall of Lincoln's opponents in the North." (Oxford University Press, 2006) p. 3.
Idem. P. 18.
By capturing the these seemingly simple values in the life of a "typical" American small town, ilder was telling a profound story that exploded the accepted norms of drama and in one explosion catapulted the American play from the nineteenth century to the twentieth via the chautauqua esque visage. This is why it is a mistake to typecast ilder as a traditionalist. Rather he was a modernist that translated Asian and European ideas into the American idiom via drama (ibid, xv).
ilder's experience of this style of drama came about as he was influenced by the economy of the storytelling of Noh drama. This drama style boldly compressed a huge time span into a short period of time with a minimum of scenery (ibid, xvi). This gives it an appeal that is beyond just the American experience. The popularity of the play around the world attests to the play having…
Wilder, Thornton. The Collected Short Plays of Thornton Wilder Volume II. II. New
York, NY: Theater Communications Group, 1998.
Wilder, Thornton. Our Town. New York, NY: Harper Collins Publishers Inc., 2003
She notes that "the laughter from the women in the group led to a pretty obvious bleeding of mascara" (2006). During this uproar, a male voice from the audience piped up and said he didn't find any of it funny. A few more men murmured sounds of agreement. The man said these women were nothing more than a couple of drunks. He ended with the comment, "I don't get the joke" (2006). Umberto Eco has a theory on comedy and cathartic pleasure, "the rule has to be completely understood and, according to Eco, 'inviolable'" (2006).
For women to be able to express themselves freely without worrying if men get the joke or not is important and about time. Sex has always been a part of a discursive notion of 'fun', one with rigidly drawn boundaries which position readers in specific ways. "Men were in on the joke; women could play…
Arthurs, Jane. (1999). Women's bodies (Sexual politics). Continuum International
Berman, Garry. (1999). Best of the Britcoms: From Faulty Towers to Absolutely
Fabulous. Taylor Trade Publishing.
The novel opens seven years after Gabo's mother, Ximena, was murdered by coyotes -- or paid traffickers -- during an attempt to cross the border. Her mutilated body was found, her organs gone -- sold most likely. Because of the fear surrounding this border town and the lure of the other side, all of the characters become consumed with finding afa. These people are neglected and abused. Like other fiction works on this topic (such as Cisneros's The House on Mango Street), The Guardians (2008) is rich in symbolism and flavored with Mexican aphorisms. The novel also shows the reader how complex and perilous border life is when you're living in between the United States and Mexico.
The book is important when attempting to understand the challenge of the border town life and it is, at the same time, a testament to faith, family bonds, cultural pride, and the human…
Giroux, Henry A. (2001). Theory and resistance in education (Critical studies in education and culture series). Praeger; Rev Exp edition.
San Juan (2002) states that the racism of sex in the U.S. is another element of the unequal political and economic relations that exist between the races in the American democracy. Women of color may even be conceived as constituting "a different kind of racial formation" (2002), although the violence inflicted against them as well as with familial servitude and social inferiority, testifies more sharply to the sedimented structures of class and national oppression embedded in both state and civil society (2002).
San Juan (2002) goes on to explore the articulations between sexuality and nationalism. "What demands scrutiny is more precisely how the categories of patriarchy and ethnonationalism contour the parameters of discourse about citizen identities" (2002). How the idea of nation is sexualized and how sex is nationalized, according to San Juan (2002), are topics that may give clues as to how racial conflicts are circumscribed within the force field of national self-identification.
Sexuality, San Juan (2002) suggests, unlike racial judgment is not a pure self-evident category. He states that it manifests its semantic and ethical potency in the field of racial and gendered politics. In the layering and sedimentation of beliefs about sexual liberty and national belonging in the United States, one will see ambiguities and disjunctions analogous to those between sexuality and freedom as well as the persistence of racist ideology.
JG's fashion style is characterized as a mix of the following genres: commercial, trend-based, art focus / cultural / theme-based, couture high fashion and mid-market. In essence, JG's fashion style encompasses from low to high fashion markets, historical to contemporary arts and cultures.
IV. Target Market
JG's target markets for fashion advertising are Australian mid-range boutiques and high fashion brands. These boutiques and brands are known for having edgy and unique fashion images. Brands fitting this profile include the following, to name a few: Ellery, Lover, omance was Born, Bec and Bridge, Sass & Bide, Karen Walker, Lonely Hearts, Camilla and Mac, Zimmerman.
Within the fashion editorial sector, JG targets magazines that offer exclusive international fashion and showcase the work of leading Australian photographers and up-and-coming fashion design talent. The demographic foci of these magazines are people who have a passion for fashion, art, graphics, photography, illustration and street culture.…
"Designer fashion in the Australian market." (November 2008). New Zealand Trade and Enterprise.
Weller, S. (October 2007). "Beyond 'Global Production Networks': Australian Fashion Week's Trans-sectoral Synergies." Centre for Strategic Economic Studies, Victoria University.
Further sub-categorization allows for greater comparison and contrasting of different categories and can make the data sets more meaningful. Not all of these codes will be decided beforehand -- in fact, it can be more enriching for the final analysis to break down the data afterwards, to ensure that the lived experience of the subjects affects the coding process.
Coding is often thought of in terms of word-based strategies of the subjects, and these can yield important assumptions about the ways individuals perceive their places in the world. Frequency of use of particular words, metaphors, analogies, and the use of local or regional phrases endemic to the area can all be flagged through coding and used to draw meaningful connections between apparently dissimilar sates of being (Gibbs 2010). By highlighting key words in transcripts, the researcher can physically have his or her eye drawn to meaningful bits of data. One…
Gibbs, Graham. (2010, February 19). How and what to code. Online QDA. University of Huddersfield. Retrieved August 9, 2010 at http://onlineqda.hud.ac.uk/Intro_QDA/how_what_to_code.php
For the companies, these interviews are a cost-effective method of primary screening, and can allow for interviewees from different geographic regions. These interviews, however, eliminate some of the non-verbal cues that come from in-person interviews.
There are also lunch and dinner interviews. This type involves a more casual setting, which can reduce the stress associated with an interview and give a better impression of the candidate's actual behaviors as opposed to ones that have been cultivated specifically for the interview situation. hile such interviews can be effective, they are also more cost and time-consuming, plus they tend to be less consistent across candidates, placing some at inherent disadvantage to others.
Lastly, there is the standard job interview. This interview is predictable, and there has a high degree of uniformity of results. The disadvantage of the bread-and-butter interview is that many candidates are so well-prepared for such interviews that it is…
Hofstede, G, Pedersen, P., and Hofstede, G. (2002). Exploring culture: Excercises, stories and synthetic cultures. Yarmouth, ME: Intercultural Press.
No author. (2010). Generic format of a formal proposal. Dartmouth College. Retrieved February 13, 2010 from http://www.dartmouth.edu/~osp/resources/manual/pre-award/format.html
Some Chinese researchers assert that Chinese flutes may have evolved from of Indian provenance.
In fact, the kind of side-blon, or transverse, flutes musicians play in Southeast Asia have also been discovered in Africa, India, Saudi Arabia, and Central Asia, as ell as throughout the Europe of the Roman Empire. This suggests that rather than originating in China or even in India, the transverse flute might have been adopted through the trade route of the Silk Road to Asia. In addition to these transverse flutes, Southeast Asians possessed the kind of long vertical flutes; similar to those found in Central Asia and Middle East.
A considerable amount of similarities exist beteen the vertical flutes of Southeast Asia and flutes from Muslim countries. This type of flute possibly came from Persians during the ninth century; during the religious migration to SEA. Likeise, the nose-blon flute culture, common to a number of…
Purple highlight means reference from his thesis, chapters 1-5
Blue highlight means reference from his raw research that was sent (17 files)
Yellow highlight means that writer could not find reference; one of the 17 files received
Gray highlight means writer found this source
He describes how he dines with the members of Antipas' court, "thus maintaining the table-fellowship connection of Mark and Daniel," (Freyne 98). Therefore, the account of government practices which can be validated by other reliable sources show the New Testament as presenting clear and reliable sources for the historical validity of the figure of Jesus. Thus, modern researchers have found great truths and reliable correlations between the figure of Jesus and the occurrences of government within the ancient world.
The Biblical cannon also present more specified elements of correlation, such as Jesus' relationship with John the Baptist. John was a reliable historical figure, whose existence has long been assumed as historically accurate and backed up with sources verifying his locations and actions during and before the time of Jesus. In fact, the beginning of Jesus' ministry was heavily defined by his relationship with John the Baptist. Very little was recorded…
Blackburn, Barry L. "The Miracles of Jesus." Studying the Historical Jesus: Evaluations of the State of Current Research. Eds. Chilton, Bruce & Evans, Craig A. Brill Press. 1998.
Charlesworth, James H. The Historical Jesus: An Essential Guide. Abingdon Press. 2008.
Freyne, Sean. "The Geography, Politics, and Economics of Galilee and the Quest for the Historical Jesus." Studying the Historical Jesus: Evaluations of the State of Current Research. Eds. Chilton, Bruce & Evans, Craig A. Brill Press. 1998.
Josephus, Flavius. Antiquities of the Jews Book XVII. Christian Classics Ethereal Library. 2009. Retrieved 11 Dec 2009 from http://www.ccel.org/j/josephus/works/ant-18.htm
There has, in fact, been a great deal of resistance noted in the use of Portuguese as the sole official language throughout much of Brazil; the huge prevalence of indigenous languages still spoken in many regions of the country is one testament to that fact. In addition, there has been a strong reactionary element against perceived outside influences in the linguistic development of the country. Nheemgatu lies right at the crossroads of these issues, and so has occupied a special place in the public consciousness and in the scholarship regarding language development in Brazil specifically, and with colonization generally (Massini-Cagliari 2004). Examinations of the controversy of Nheengatu as it has played out socially and politically in Brazil reveals that the fervor is just as strong in the desire to hold onto the language as a native remnant as it is to abandon the language as a relic of colonization (Massini-Cagliari…
Dienst, Stefan. "Portuguese Influence n Kulina." In Aspects of Language Contact: New Theoretical, Methodological and Empirical Findings with Special Focus on Romancisation Processes. Edited by Stolz, Thomas; Bakker, Dik; Salas Palomo, Rosa. New York: Mouton de Gruyter, 2008.
Massini-Cagliari, Gladis. "Language policy in Brazil: monolingualism and linguistic prejudice." Language Policy 3(1), March 204, pp. 3-23.
Rohter, Larry. "Language Born of Colonialism Thrives Again in Amazon." New York Times. August 28, 2005. ProQuest. October 15, 2009.
What is a dead language? (2009).Wise Geek. October 15, 2009. http://www.wisegeek.com/what-is-a-dead-language.htm
Today sometimes also referred to as 'urban' music, R&B was originally a euphemistic way of referring to the boogie woogie blues-based music of African-Americans in the 40s and 50s. In some circles, these would be referred to as 'race records.' When white musicians like Elvis Presley began recording these songs, the term Rock and Roll was coined. This transition would not render the R&B genre moot, but would instead apply it to most music made by African-Americans. Over the years, this would come to serve as a Billboard Chart classification for forms such as Soul, Funk, Disco and many modes of Hip Hop.
Quite in fact, today, R&B may be said to be the dominant form in popular music once again, with its permeation of the variant of popular forms impacting the sound of music today in the same way that rock would for decades. Particularly in the type of…
Some artists, such as Aaron Douglas, captured the feeling of Africa in their work because they wanted to show their ancestry through art. Others, like Archibald J. Motley Jr., obtained their inspiration from the surroundings in which they lived in; where jazz was at the forefront and African-Americans were just trying to get by day-to-day like any other Anglo-American. Additionally, some Black American artists felt more comfortable in Europe than they did in America. These artists tended to paint landscapes of different European countries. Most of the latter, however, were ostracized for this because many black politicians felt they should represent more of their African culture in their work (Campbell 1994, Powell and Bailey).
Whatever the case, most African-American artists during this period of time had a similarity that tied them together. Black art was often very colorful and vivacious; having an almost rhythmic feel to it. This was appropriate…
Allego, D. "Margaret Walker: Biographical Note." Modern American Poetry. 1997. Cited in:
Beaulieu, E. Writing African-American Women: An Encyclopedia of Literature by and About
Women of Color. Greenwood Press, 2006.
esides these two cavern systems, there is another system of caves located in Mexico known as the Cave of Crystals which lies far beneath the Chihuahuan Desert and currently produces large amounts of lead and silver. This cavern system is also made up of limestone; however, the crystals found in this system are unlike any found in the world, for they were formed by the action of super-heated magma which allowed some of the crystals to grow to enormous sizes, some being almost thirty-seven feet long (Palmer, 251). Unfortunately, like other cavern systems located outside of the U.S., on-going efforts are currently being made to preserve this system and others from individuals who only wish to profit from the selling of crystals on the black market.
In conclusion, it should be noted that there are other cavern systems scattered around the world, especially in Europe, which are not limestone-based; rather,…
"Carlsbad Caverns National Park." 2007. Internet. Accessed July 22, 2009 from http://www.carlsbad.caverns.national-park.com/info.htm#geo .
"Crystal Cave, Put-in-Bay, Ohio." 2009. Internet. Accessed July 22, 2009 from http://www.mineraltown.com/Reports/celestite/giant_celestite_crystals.php?idiom a=2.
Gilbreath, Alice. Nature's Underground Palaces: Caves and Caverns. New York: David
McKay Company, 2000.
An artist writing is not new; in act, it is a way by which many artists demonstrate their arguments and they also reveal how an artist thinks about many things, his art included. Naturally, because of Matisse's fame, there would be much written about him and from the writings of his peer, we can see more of what was going on at the height of Matisse's career from those who experienced it. The result of such study is "striking" (5) as Benjamin puts it because it "shows that we cannot, from a similarity of professed theories, infer a similarity in styles of painting"(5). e must instead focus on what the artist produced and weight it against his thoughts.
Matisse studied at the Academy Carriere, who was "interested in the question of art education" (70). His schools floundered a bit in that they were closed and suffered from mixed reviews. hen…
Benjamin, Roger. "Matisse's Notes of a Painter."
Bois, Yve-Alain. "1906."
Thus, Shakespeare's poems have shown that they deal with timeless topics, topics that have proved their worth over time, such as love, passion, and writing. Throughout time, however, Shakespeare's reputation of a writer did, indeed, change. hile he was known as a businessman and patron of the arts during his life, it is suspected that he was not celebrated for his masterful writing until after his death ("Shakespeare Biography"). Today, however, Shakespeare is recognized as the premiere master of creativity and language who wrote in English. Indeed, Pressley and the Shakespeare Resource Center argue that "illiam Shakespeare's legacy is a body of work that will never again be equaled in estern civilization," suggesting that his works "still reach across the centuries as powerfully as ever." Indeed, Shakespeare is not only remembered for the plays and poetry that have changed the scope of English literature, but he is today remembered as…
Pressley, J.M. And the Shakespeare Resource Center. "Shakespeare's Biography."
Shakespeare Resource Center. 18 February 2009.
"Shakespeare Biography." Absolute Shakespeare. 2005. 26 April 2009.
Ray also believed that Hollywood presented a world that was completely foreign and at odds with the reality of life in India. hy, then, had so many previous Indian filmmakers attempted to copy the Hollywood style? The result could only be failure. It was for this reason that Ray decided to turn his back on the Hollywood aesthetic altogether - and the result was Pather Panchali. Rather than the stylistic gloss that Hollywood coats its product with, Ray allowed a significant degree of "dirt" in to his film as a way of arguing with the dominant aesthetic.
In doing so, Ray purposefully chose a "rambling" novel to adapt for his first film. "The script," he later explained, "had to retain some of the rambling quality of the novel because that in itself contained a clue to the feel of authenticity: life in a poor Bengali village does ramble" (Ray 33).…
Ray, Satyajit Ray. 1976. Our Films, Their Films. Calcutta: Orient Longman Limited.
The geniuses strained the boundaries of the characteristic styles more evidently and more quickly than those of their contemporaries to bring about such seismic changes.
Baroque: Style." The Essentials of Music. 23 Apr 2008. http://www.essentialsofmusic.com/
Classical: Style." The Essentials of Music. 23 Apr 2008. http://www.essentialsofmusic.com/
Baroque: Musical Context." The Essentials of Music. 23 Apr 2008. http://www.essentialsofmusic.com/
Classical: Musical Context." The Essentials of Music. 23 Apr 2008. http://www.essentialsofmusic.com/
Ludwig van Beethoven." The Columbia Encyclopedia. 2007. 23 Apr 2008. http://plus.aol.com/aol/reference/Beethove/Ludwig_van_Beethoven?flv=1&ncid=fLHHQXUNeT0000000474&icid=rbox_ref_center.M
Posner, Howard. "hat is basso continuo?" Early Music FAQ. 1994. 23 Apr 2008. http://www.medieval.org/emfaq/misc/continuo.html
Sadie, Stanley. "Baroque." The Grove Concise Dictionary of Music. New York: .. Excerpted at Classical Music Pages Homepage. Created by Matt Boynick. 1 Feb 1996. Revised 10 Oct 2000. 23 Apr 2008. http://w3.rz-berlin.mpg.de/cmp/g_epoch_baroque.html
Sadie, Stanley. "Classical." The Grove Concise Dictionary of Music. New York: .. Norton, 1994. Excerpted at Classical Music Pages Homepage. Created by Matt…
Baroque: Style." The Essentials of Music. 23 Apr 2008. http://www.essentialsofmusic.com/
Classical: Style." The Essentials of Music. 23 Apr 2008. http://www.essentialsofmusic.com/
Baroque: Musical Context." The Essentials of Music. 23 Apr 2008. http://www.essentialsofmusic.com/
Classical: Musical Context." The Essentials of Music. 23 Apr 2008. http://www.essentialsofmusic.com/
These assessment techniques may include open-ended or closed survey questions, interviews, structured observations by the teacher in the learning environment, and performance-based assignments like writing portfolios or role-plays ("Document ELL Progress," 2008, ELL ebsite).
hat are the benefits of using alternative assessments for ELL students? For native English speakers?
For ELL students, particularly those whose written proficiency has not yet matched their oral proficiency, alternative assessment techniques give the student additional ways to show the teacher what they know, and also to gain more social confidence in the English language. However, all students have unique learning styles and can benefit from the creativity and enthusiasm these assessment methods generate. Additionally, these techniques can also bring the different intelligences of some neglected talents to light, such as performing. They encourage students to use the concepts that are being taught in class, and help the teacher establish a more on-on-one relationship with…
Academic & social English for ELL students: Assessing both with the Stanford English
Language Proficiency Test." (2003, Sept). Harcourt Assessment, Inc. Retrieved 27 Mar 2008 at http://harcourtassessment.com/NR/rdonlyres/A718E0AF-3C91-4F9B-B54C-4669F7A5A0C5/0/AcademicSocialSELP_Rev1_Final.pdf
Document ELL Progress." ELL Website. Job Corps. Retrieved 27 Mar 2008 at http://jccdrc.jobcorps.gov/ELL/progress
Thus, it would seem his work could not be considered spiritual, and yet, there is something moving and thought provoking about many of his works. The busts in his nuclear series, which often show the grisly results of a nuclear holocaust cause the reader to look inside themselves and confront their own ideas about mortality and spirituality, and there is something very moving about these works, but they are very disturbing, as well.
Arneson's work might not be considered spiritual, and yet, there is something very touching and special about some of his works. His works make viewers think about history, about their own lives, and even the politics of the world around them. That makes them look inside themselves, too, just as Arneson did when he created his self-portraits. This ability to create whimsical and yet touching works is something Arneson mastered completely, and that helps give his work…
Editors. "Robert Arneson's Eggheads." University of California at Davis. 2008. 18 March 2008. http://eggheads.ucdavis.edu/
Editors. "The Art of Robert Arneson." Verisimilitudo.com.1992. 18 March 2008. http://www.verisimilitudo.com/arneson/
Lauria, Jo and Adkins, Gretchen. Color and Fire: Defining Moments in Studio Ceramics, 1950-2000. Los Angeles: LACMA; Rizzoli International Publications, 2000.
Natsoulas, John. "Robert Arneson." John Natsoulas Gallery. 2007. 18 March 2008. http://www.natsoulas.com/html/artists/robertArneson/robertArneson.html
The children in Nicaragua did not simply construct a set of signs denoting objects in their environment and rudimentary verbs. ISN is a real language with structure, grammar, and syntax. Since its development in the 1980s, ISN has become complex enough to evolve its own set of slang and idioms. ISN is also classified as the world's newest language.
Moreover, language appears to evolve in and out of social settings. ISN is the product not of one master child who imposed his or her own sign language on peers. Rather, ISN is the product of the collective group of children whose individual input becomes integrated into the language. New signs are incorporated gradually as they become agreed-upon symbols. ISN also has unique linguistic features that may help linguists understand prototypical languages in early human development; variations among different world dialects; or the neurological and sociological components of language generation.
Educators and other professionals in related fields have responded to the increasing prevalence of the condition by developing and implementing appropriate strategies and interventions even without sufficient understanding of the disorder. Teachers, counselors, school psychologists and others who render related services are encouraged to be familiar with the DSMIV-TR. They are also advised to acquire a working knowledge of the school-related characteristics of students with as so that they can deal with these students' learning needs. These children or learners exhibit typical social, behavioral or emotional, intellectual or cognitive, academic, sensory and motor characteristics. Many teachers remain incognizant of the special academic needs of as learners because these learners give the false impression that they comprehend the lesson. Their repetitive learning style and high-level of comprehension cover the deficits, which will otherwise reveal the disorder (Myles and Simpson).
These interventions and strategies are social and behavioral supports, academic planning and…
Atwood, T. (2006). Asperger's Syndrome. 12 pages. Tizard Learning Disability Review: Pavilion Publishing (Brighton) Ltd.
Bower, B. (2006). Outside Looking in: Researchers Open New Windows on Asperger's Syndrome and Related Disorders. 6 pages. Science News: Science Service, Inc.
Frey, R. (2003). Asperger's Syndrome. 2 pages. Gale Encyclopedia of Mental Disorders: Gale Group
Huffman, G.B. (2001). Autism: Detection, Evaluation and Interventions. 2 pages. American Family Physician: American Academy of Family Physicians
Esposito finds that the premodernist revival movements of the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries contributed to the pattern of Islamic politics that developed and left a legacy for the twentieth century. These movements were motivated primarily in response to internal decay rather than external, colonial threat (Esposito 40-41).
At the same time, many areas of the Islamic world experienced the impact of the economic and military challenge of an emerging and modernizing est beginning in the eighteenth century. Declining Muslim fortunes also reversed the relationship of the Islamic world to the est, from that of an expanding offensive movement to a defensive posture. Muslim responses to these changes ranged from rejection to adaptation, from Islamic withdrawal to acculturation and reform. Some responded by secular reform, and by the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, Islamic modernist movements had also developed in an attempt to bridge the gap between tradition and modernity…
Ahmed, Leila. Women and Gender in Islam: Historical Roots of a Modern Debate. New Haven: Yale University, 1992.
Islamic Liberalism. Chicago: Chicago University Press, 1988.
Eickelman, Dale F. The Middle East: An Anthropological Approach. Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey: Prentice-Hall, 1989.
He advocates a greater openness and acceptance of other determinations and views about art. For example, the way the art of "disgust" and harsh realism have entered into the mainstream of art should be seen in the context of this reappraisal and reassessment of 'beauty'.
Central to this important debate is the fundamental realization that the meaning and even existence of art is at issue as never before. This is referred to by Danto as a form of "conceptual erasure" which is related to the present state of pluralism in art. y pluralism, Danto means that there are many and not one single view of what art is or should be. He refers to pop art in this regard and extends his argument to the way in which modern forms of art have become conceptual and do not even need to produce an object or work of art.
Danto, Arthur C. 2002. "The Abuse of Beauty." Daedalus 131, no. 4-35+. http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5000663170 ; (Accessed November 11, 2007).
Danto Arthur C. 1964. "The Artworld," Journal of Philosophy, 61, no. 19: 571-584;
Puolakka Kalle. Interrupting Danto's Farewell Party Arrangements: Comments for Grigoriev. http://www.contempaesthetics.org/newvolume/pages/article.php?articleID=392 : (Accessed November 11, 2007).
Danto Arthur C. 1964. "The Artworld," Journal of Philosophy, 61, no. 19: 571-584; (Accessed November 11, 2007).
First of all, through Luther's essential contribution in translating the ible into German, gives the word of God to ordinary Germans. However, even more than this, he empowers them to express themselves as well. According to Heine, this is the moment of rejuvenation for German language, which is literally not only the rebirth of the language itself, but of the language as a means of expression, as a means of freedom of speech. Finally, this is the freedom of speech in the ancient biblical sense of the word, the word as more than a simple means of expression, the word as the ultimate conscience of the German people. This is why Luther's literary role is also essential in creating the German national identity and of sustaining it throughout the centuries to follow.
y giving it the gluing substance it needed, Luther is able to present Germany to Europe as a…
1. Heine, Heinrich. The Prose of Heinrich Heine. Harvard University. 1887.
2. From. http://www.geocities.com/av1611kingjames/.Last retrieved on October 23, 2007
Heine, Heinrich. The Prose of Heinrich Heine. Harvard University. 1887. P.162.
Heine, Heinrich. The Prose of Heinrich Heine. Harvard University. 1887. P.163
Distinctly from John Updike's teenage character Sammy in his short story "A&P," who realizes he has just become an adult; Connie as suddenly realizes she feels like a kid again. Now she wishes the family she usually hates having around could protect her. The actions of the fearsome Arnold, are foreshadowed early on, when he warns Connie, the night before, after first noticing her outside a drive-in restaurant: "Gonna get you, baby" (paragraph 7). From then on, Arnold's quest to "get" Connie feels, to Connie and the reader, in its dangerous intensity, much like the predatory evilness of malevolent fairy tale characters, e.g., the Big Bad olf, or the evil stepmothers (and/or stepsisters) that fix on Snow hite, Sleeping Beauty, Cinderella, and other innocent young female characters as prey. And Connie at the end of "here Are You Going, here Have You Been" wishes, like Little Red Riding Hood, Snow…
Kafka, Franz. "The Metamorphosis." E-text. 28 May 2007 http://www.mala.bc.ca/Johnstoi/stories/kafka-E.htm
Oates, Joyce Carol. "Where Are You Going, Where Have You Been?" Celestial Time
Piece: A Joyce Carol Oates Home Page. 28 May 2007 http://jco.usfca.edu / works / wgoing/text.html>
Updike, John. "A&P." Tigertown.com. 28 May 2007 http://www.tigertown.com/whatnot/updike/html
If anything, the more languages in which a book is published the better. This way there can be as much cross fertilization of ideas and solutions to pressing needs.
Achebe, Chinua. Things Fall Apart. New York: Penguin, 2006.
____African Trilolgy. London: Picador, 2000
Ashcroft, Bill; Griffiths, Gareth and Tiffin, Helen (eds.). The Post Colonial Studies eader, London: outledge, (1995)
Bassnett-McGuire, Susan. Translation Studies. London: outledge, 1991.
Chevrier, Jacques. "Writing African books in the French Language L'Afrique littcraire et artistique 50 (1979): 49.
Janmohamed, a. Janmohamed, a. "Sophisticated Primitivism: The Syncretism of Oral and Literate Modes in Achebe, Chinua Things Fall Apart.." Ariel: A eview of International English Literature 15 (1984): 19-39.
Gikandi, Simon. "The Epistemology of Translation: Ngugi, Matigari, and the Politics of Language." esearch in African Literatures 22.4 (1991): 161-67.
Gyasi, Kwaku. Writing as Translation: African Literature and the Challenges of Translation.: esearch in African Literatures a.2. (1999).,…
Achebe, Chinua. Things Fall Apart. New York: Penguin, 2006.
____African Trilolgy. London: Picador, 2000
Ashcroft, Bill; Griffiths, Gareth and Tiffin, Helen (eds.). The Post Colonial Studies Reader, London: Routledge, (1995)
Bassnett-McGuire, Susan. Translation Studies. London: Routledge, 1991.