Collocations In Sentences From Arabic Into English Research Paper

Length: 20 pages Sources: 3 Subject: Communication - Language Type: Research Paper Paper: #94409167 Related Topics: Sentencing, Miscarriage, English Second Language, Golf
Excerpt from Research Paper :

¶ … translating of Collocations in sentences from Arabic into English vice versa

What are Collocations?

Complexity in Translating sentences

The Social Issues

Religious Cultures

The Cultural of Material

Translation, Culture and Language

Problems Translating Collocations

The Strategy of Borrowing

Literal translation Strategy

Substitution Strategy

Lexical Creation Strategy

The Strategy of Omission

The Addition Strategy

Translation is considered to be some kind type of activity, which "unavoidably has something to do with at least two cultural traditions and two languages" (Munday, 2006). Nevertheless, the key argument of scholars who interrogated the likelihood of translation (Newmark, 1987)has been when it comes to the collocations that language and culture are essentially connected and thus cultural diversity makes translation much more impossible. " Given that no two languages are looked at as being identical either in meanings provided or in sentences and phrases, then there can be no absolute correspondence between languages" (Munday, 2006). Moreover, January (2006) has added that variations between languages in terms of the linguistic forms and cultural patterns may vary in scope depending on the cultural and linguistic gap between the two languages concerned such as Arabic and English

What are Collocations?

Collocations are what show a key part of the lexicon of language that is natural. This expression of language sometimes are seen as very interesting and also a vital marvel in language, whose importance is maybe farther-reaching than formerly thought. New studies on translation have established that collocations are very significant lexical components of texts and therefore in translation.

Most people rather they know it or not are using collocations on a daily basis spontaneously in their writing or speeches, either from reading, experience, dictionaries, or heeding to native speakers, lectures, or conversations; indeed, collocations are a particularly hard area for language Arabic learners and, naturally, of course for translators (Newmark, 1987). Collocation takes place when two or more words come together, creating a lexical unit for example to have a lunch, or extremely happy.

Also, collocations normally play a significant role when it comes to language: they are recognized as being the mechanism that gives textuality or cohesion to the text. Furthermore, collocations are a vital organizing standard in the terminology of any kind of language. The significance of collocations in the language is established (Newmark, 1987): "Collocations are recognized as being important mixture of words that provide the language with natural sounding writing and speech."

Collocations also have a lot of key functions in language, as stated by Newmark (1987); one purpose is that collocations aid people in writing and talk about any topic and talk efficiently, which means that by going through the process of having a creative collocation (to recognize which adjectives are being used with which nouns and the other way around), a person is able to develops their understanding of linguistic rules in addition to improving one's linguistic skills and ability.

Another purpose, which is the most significant one, is that "language that is considered to be very rich and not mention easy to speak." (Newmark, 1987). This is just saying that collocations make the text have a meaning that is more precise.

There are a lot of experts that are providing different definitions, when it comes to collocations. Munday, (2006) describes collocation as "the procedure in which words are discovered together in a way that is convenient." He maintains that collocations exist together usually and naturally. For Newmark (1987), a collocation does not just made up of two words; rather, it can gather beyond two words or it can, additionally, have choices that are restricted. The verb walk, as said by January (2006), can collocate with a bunch of other words; nonetheless it enters the limited range when "symbolizing being definite" or "winning the fight."

Complexity in Translating sentences

Many are unaware that culture plays a very key role in the course of collocations. Only by having a foundation that is solid of the culture of the target language, the translator is able to catch the understood meaning. It, as a result, entails improving cross-cultural consciousness and needs open -- minded accepting of the culture of the second language from diverse characteristics. Cultural roots, on the other hand, play a major part in the translation procedure. Words which already have different connotations in one language do not necessarily have the same emotive connections in another. Various languages at times are able to reflect various connotations and associations of feeling for the reason that the differences in cultural roots. With that being said, the Islamic faith has affected the Arabic linguistic and not to mention their culture. The difference among the TL and the SL, in addition to the difference in their cultures make the development of translating...


Among the difficult factors involved in translation is the religion, social background and others. Therefore, the greater the gap between the target-language and the source-language, the more problematic the transfer of message from the English to Arabic will be or vice versa. In the light of the above truths it is supposed that the capable translator must have a good knowledge in regards to the religious ideas for instance Christianity, Islamic, and many others. Furthermore; the wide-ranging differences among the Arabic social culture and the English social culture have a dominant influence on the expressions used in both languages. By method of design, consider the following issues:

The Social Issues

The social factors of the English and Arabic cultures have their influence on the Arabic and English. They have an obvious impact on their outlook of social experiences that involve all aspect of life: feelings, emotions, customs, morals, beliefs, relational associations and family life, marriage, friendship, and economics, etc.

To get a better understanding this key fact of translating exactly, think through the following Arabic examples

Arabic Expression

English accurate Meaning

English Equivalent Connotation

Your hand is in water that is cold

Have no worries / Be certain

This set phrase is initiated to an individual who appears to be very concerned about handling a problem that is important. On the other hand, it designates that the problem will be solved and the speaker will find a way to take care of it. Also, this expression reflects Arabs' viewpoint of water as they see hot water is branded by "being worried," while cold water is categorized by something that is considered to be cool.

Talkers of English will not comprehend the fluent meaning, if any of the succeeding Arabic figure of speech is interpreted into English:

Arabic Expression

English literal Connotation

English Equal Connotation

-His back is braced.

-Removed from a tree.

-He is being backed up.

-He does not have any relatives.

The first above phrase demonstrates that, Arabs favor big family with numerous brothers and sons since they believe that it provides social status and a lot of influences in their community. As a result; the Arab has a good feeling about being a member of a big family. Although the second, is utilized in a conflicting situation where all the family associates of someone are dead. As a result, the individual needs help and sympathy from others around him particularly when his family has no longer been a source of assistance and help.

Figure of speech are usually impossible to be translated the right way in order for the reason that their connotations are not built up from the significances of their parts. In its place, they have a meaning that is unique which has nothing to do with the parts mean. Therefore, when it is mentioned: "? ." Meaning his back is being upheld; it is really not saying much of anything in regards to his supporting or back. But when it is mentioning that someone is detached from a tree, it is not mentioning to anything in regards to be cutting off or a tree. Some more social expressions that are abnormal to Arab social culture are stated below:

Arabic Expression

English accurate Meaning

Arabic & English Equivalent Importance

If the judge is happy!

Stay away please. Utilized to move aside an intruder, or when you don't want to delay or to even get involved.

Circlet of Garland

Sign of splendor. The Garland (plant) crown used in Medieval time to rejoice a champion after coming from a war that was victorious?

The star has been born

When a person no longer has a good standing?

Shapes and colors.

A lot of kinds.

Have a merciful heart to people honorable person who

Please, give me help I am not begging?

Culture is normally looked at as being all of human assumptions attitudes, values and beliefs, so, it appears that human cultures are basically all alike when it come to providing answers to the universal difficulties of human existence, however the answers are all not the same, and each…

Sources Used in Documents:


January, B.A. (2006). Hindrances in Arabic-English Intercultural Translation. Cultural Aspects, 27(15), 34-67.

Munday, J. (2006). Introducing Translation Studies: Theories and Appli. New York: Routledge.

Newmark, P. (1987). A Textbook of Translation (Skills). New York City: Prentice Hall Longman.

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