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What it meant fo white men, as well as fo women, blacks, and Indians
Jacksonian Democacy became pevalent duing the 1830's and helped to shape the theoy of majoity ule in Ameica. Accoding to the essay, entitled "The Oigins of Jacksonian Democacy" the main staples of Jacksonian democacy involved the concept of public inteest and popety owneship as the foundation of citizenship. Unde the Jacksonian Democacy, only popety ownes had an inteest in potecting the ights of othe popety ownes. (The Oigins of Jacksonian Democacy) The Jacksonian democacy had diffeent amifications fo the vaious people goups in Ameica.(The Oigins of Jacksonian Democacy)
Fo White men the Jacksonian democacy meant that they could possess full citizenship in Ameica. Indeed, White Ameican benefited fom the Jacksonian democacy. Fo instance, the essay explains that duing the Jackson ea White men wee ganted univesal suffage and also had the powe of upwad…… [Read More]
Also in many ways, this time period put them on a pedestal in that they were not expected to participate in dirty work like politics or business but they were to remain home, clean and unruined. Still they were not considered equal to the white man, as "women's work" did not require the sweat of men's work.
The Blacks of this time were not treated much better although black males suffered discrimination when it came to competing for work and housing simply because they did not have the rights of the majority. Instead, even the freed men suffered the stigma of slavery. The white majority was concerned that without "slavery" their jobs would be at risk of being lost to the Black men. It was fear that motivated the whites to act as they did. Still this divide defined segregation, as we know it today because the Blacks were expected…… [Read More]
.." And with that that party "controls the spoils of office" by appointing people friendly to the president's election to positions of influence and by keeping the party's masses happy by giving them what they asked for.
In defining HO and HY, and UNDER HAT CONDITIONS the CHANGE CAME on the national political scene that vaulted Andrew Jackson (a roughneck frontier and war hero with little sophistication vis-a-vis national politics and diplomatic elitism) - i.e., Jacksonian Democracy - into the hite House, University of Chicago social science professor Marvin Meyers writes in American Quarterly (Meyers 1953) that there are three distinct phases to examine. Put in the context of published volumes that would cover these three phases, Meyers lays it out: one, "the revolt of the urban masses against a business aristocracy"; two, "simple farming folk rise against the chicanery of capitalist slickers"; and three, "...tense with the struggle of…… [Read More]
During antebellum America, the Jacksonian Democrats were created. This was a group that viewed themselves as protectors of the common people. A powerful executive whose goal was to destroy aristocracy in America, Andrew Jackson, ruled the Jacksonian Democrats. (Schlesinger)
Strangely, this group was not made up of the common people. The Jacksonian Democrats were a wealthy group that supported equality between white men, enacted radical economic policies, and disregarded any capabilities of the federal government. Many say that the group was not the introducers of democracy in America but rather users of the system for their own benefit.
During the early 1800's, the United States was growing at a rapid pace. A market revolution took place as cash-crop agriculture and capitalist manufacturing replaced the artisan economy. However, this prosperity created a split between the industrializing, urban north, agrarian, rural South, and the expanding West.
The Jacksonians passed the…… [Read More]
What he found, in contrast to Europe, was that the American social ethic was not based on aristocracy, and in fact Americans seemed to have a deep-seated fear and loathing of European titles (at least the middle and common classes). Instead, Americanism was based on a system in which hard work and money-making (e.g. aggressive capitalism) was the dominant ethic of the time. In this period of radical change and development, he perceived that the common (free) person never deferred to elites and where one was rewarded for being a greedy individualist. He writes: "Among a democratic people, where there is no hereditary wealth, every man works to earn a living… Labor is held in honor; the prejudice is not against but in its favor" (Ibid., 398).
What is also interesting is that, at times, no matter how unbiased a historical or sociological account portends, what is excluded is often…… [Read More]
Jacksonian Democracy and the "Common Man"
Jacksonian politics of the first half of the nineteenth century became a battle for the common man. For the first time in American history voting rights extended to most all white males; rather than relegated to wealthy aristocrats. Political philosophy, and principles, gave way to prudent manipulation of public opinion. Jackson's heavy-handed use of mass opinion symbolized the new era of political combat, and was to forever change American perceptions concerning the social contract.
Jacksonian philosophy sought to pit the newly franchised masses against the economic might of the North. Politics now threatened to shake the establishment to its core. This is seen in Jackson's frontal assault upon northeastern industry and the central banking system. Graebner and Richards in The American Record best sum up Jacksonian democracy, "Jackson's first target was the entrenched office holders in the federal government" (218). Public opinion now dictated…… [Read More]
Otter -- Crockett -- cook
s William Otter's a History of My Own Time a rags-to-riches success story? To what extent does it conform to the themes associated with the Cult of the Self-Made Man and to what extent does it deviate?
William Otter's autobiographical work A History of My Own Time (1835) is truly what one would call a "rags-to-riches" tale, yet it can also be viewed as being quite the opposite. Otter started out in several professions -- a shoemaker with John Paxton in New York City, the venetian blind-making business with William Howard, a carpenter with Gausman, and finally, the bricklaying and plastering business with Kenweth King. Following these flings as an apprentice, Otter then decided to attend school with a "liberal attention to classic lore," but Otter's involvement with heavy drinking at the taverns and his association with many of New York's toughest street gangs severely…… [Read More]
Union at Risk, historian Richard Ellis confronts the most singularly formative event of Andrew Jackson's two presidential terms: The Nullification Crisis of 1832 and 1833. In response to tariffs enacted by the Congress in Washington in the late 1820s, the State of South Carolina declared their legal independence from national laws. Avoiding the tariffs, South Carolina poses a real threat to the Jackson administration with serious national repercussions; responsively, Jackson issued a Proclamation asserting the foremost power of the Federal government.
Because legal action means little to a state already refusing Washington's insistence, Jackson found executive support in the Force Act, allowing national laws to be enforced on a state-wide basis with troops. The assuagement of the crisis by Henry Clay brought solvent end to this doctrinal crisis between states' rights and national policy. Richard Ellis argues that this decisive moment in 19th century politics not only connected to other…… [Read More]
The FDIC is one of oosevelt's most notable legacies. However, New deal economics have largely fallen by the wayside. The neo-liberal market economy that prevailed in the latter decades of the 20th century counteracts the inherent socialism of the New Deal.
A series of public works programs like the Civil Works Administration (CWA), the Public Works Association (PWA), the Works Progress Administration (WPA), and the Civilian Conservation Corps (CCC) helped stimulate the American economy in the wake of the Depression. Public works projects resulted in improved transportation infrastructures, which would become increasingly important during the age of the automobile.
The New Deal also resulted in improved labor laws under the Fair Labor Standards Act of 1938 and therefore offered tacit support for labor unions. One of the most lasting legacies of the New Deal was the Social Security Act, encouraging investments in pensions which would also stimulate the economy. Although…… [Read More]
How industrialization and other social changes transformed the face of 19th century America
The late 19th century in America was characterized by seismic political shifts in the ways in which Americans conducted their economic lives. In addition to the changes the Civil ar wrought in America, there was also an increasing divide between the needs of urban and rural Americans. The U.S. was becoming more ethnically diverse due to the rise of immigration and newly freed African-Americans were attempting to find their political voice. The increasingly dominant urban culture of the North along with the interjection of new political parties and cultures was profoundly threatening for many Americans and raised charges that America was becoming more "European." This concept meant very different things to people, depending on their perspective. For rural farmers it meant the dismaying rise of big business and banks which had become the power elites…… [Read More]
Toulmin's Model of Argument Analysis
Connection of Wilsonian and Hamiltonian Traditions
Hamiltonians is the first U.S. secretary of Treasury who believes that the central purpose of American foreign policy is to promote foreign trade as well as securing a stable national market economy. On the other hand, Wilsonians doctrine states that the promotion of international law involves using the World Court and United Nations for the promotion of permanent international peace. Kettl, (2015) points out that the Wilsonian and Hamiltonian traditions frame the classical approach of American public administration, which practitioners develop towards the end of the 20th century. Kettl, (2015) connects the Wilsonian and Hamiltonian traditions by combining the strong administration with classical approach. Hamiltonian tradition focuses on executive leadership principles using the top-down authority to enhance control and efficiency. However, Wilsonian tradition argues that managers can apply their functions within the scope of American constitutions to enhance efficiency.…… [Read More]
" For most this is generally seen as a reference to the Federal Judiciary. One thinks of the arren Court, and the great number of decisions concerning civil rights, voting rights, etc. It is often not realized, however, to what an extent state judges play ar ole in shaping these issues. In many state court systems, the state system was actually more liberal than the Federal:
First and foremost, state constitutions may be used not only to broaden rights but also to restrict them. They are far easier to amend than the U.S. Constitution. Therefore, forces within a state dissatisfied with liberal court interpretations of the fundamental state law may, without nearly the same effort required on the federal level, undo those rulings....In Florida... voters adopted an amendment to the state constitutional search and seizure provision, requiring the provision to be "be construed in conformity with the 4th Amendment to…… [Read More]
What were the challenges of starting a new government?
Although in the United States today the American Revolution is considered a noble effort, in the view of Great Britain at the time of the revolt it was seen as treason or the greatest crime possible against a legitimate government. Beginning a new government in an era where the divine right of kings and heredity was the primary source of legitimacy for most monarchs was an undeniable challenge for the colonists. This was particularly the case in the colonies given the fact that the American Revolution had focused upon separating the new nation from what they called a tyrannical sovereign in the Declaration of Independence.
On one hand, the new nation was supposed to be founded upon independence and freedom, as proudly proclaimed in the Declaration. But creating a functioning government under these terms proved challenging. The Articles of Confederation, the…… [Read More]
This could also be dangerous, as it could mean that people with better political connections, but little real knowledge could be making life-altering decisions about the drugs Americans use, the food they consume, and detailed foreign policy decisions that require sensitive knowledge about small nations abroad. Still, at minimum, bureaucrats must understand that they are, in fact, policymakers, and develop a system of ethics to deal with the demands their duties require, even if they do bring specialized knowledge to their work. This idea of the essential nature of ethics is, granted, not new or radical, but it is a paradigmatic deviation from the morally neutral model of bureaucratic conduct favored before. (7).
Although systems of ethics are often viewed in a derisive fashion as mere formalities it is important that bureaucratic ethics have teeth and muscle behind them, to foster a sense of public trust. The hostile attitude of…… [Read More]
uh.edu). He also made the electing process more democratic by having conventions where he had representatives from every state nominate a presidential candidate to represent their individual parties. This would provide a more accurate representation of who the people themselves saw as President.
Jackson also had great influence on the economic situation of that era. In order for Americans to start to buy more American goods, Jackson wanted to pass a tariff on all English goods. Although this meant that America would get more of their things sold and purchased, it also meant that Americans had to pay more for necessary goods that came from abroad (McGraw-Hill, p.338). This angered the South who owned property and were most affected by the rise in these tariffs. This was the beginning of the Nullification Act. This act was made as a compromise to steadily reduce the tariff placed throughout the years, but…… [Read More]
As is often the case, these good times could not last forever. Just like our modern day governmental debt being financed by foreign investment, Andrew Jackson and the nation faced reality when in 1837 foreign investors came to banks to collect. The speculative bubble of 1837 burst in what historians accurately termed the Panic of 1837. English and other European bankers called in the many outstanding loans the states had out as well as many private investors. Paying back these loans instantly crushed the nation's gold supplies which created a ripple affect where many local and state banks could not pay their debts, investors or the governmental reserves. These events lead to many forced bank failures and a national recession ensued.
The Missouri Compromise
In hindsight, we as a nation know now that the southern states who were in favor of slavery were prepared to defend their right to own…… [Read More]
demise of traditional hierarchical distinctions in the fifty years after the American evolution. It is easy to see how America changed from a hierarchical society to an egalitarian world that supported social equality. America was setting the stage for the world with her new democracy, and she wanted to be a role model in modernization and equality.
When the first colonists stepped on the shores of Virginia and Massachusetts, they were looking for a better way of life that allowed them religious freedom and the ability to earn their living by their own hands. They had left England to escape religious persecution, but also to create viable townships that could create a profit for themselves and the people who funded them back in Europe. Thus, they carried heavy burdens -- they had to create towns from scratch, make a living, and create a profit so they could survive and thrive.…… [Read More]
omen, Men and Environment
hile we might like to believe that we are each the masters of our own fate, in fact the environment plays an important role in shaping who we become. Guthrie makes this point in The Big Sky, for Boone, Summers and Teal Eye are all more the product of their environment than they are the creators of the world around them. Guthrie suggests that this being-shaped-by rather than shaping-of the environment is especially strong in the est, but he also at least suggests that the environment is a potent force in shaping the lives of people everywhere.
It has become fashionable in recent years to scoff at the myth of the est and to replace this myth with history. This is in large measure what Guthrie has set out to do. He is intent on telling a real story about a real place, and in particular…… [Read More]
1820-1850 is seen as a period of major change in American History. We often call this period the Age of ackson, since Adrew ackson had a profound influence on this entire period. Describe what ackson stood for and what his policies on the spoils system, nullification, The Bank of the U.S., Indian Removal, land sale, and the opening of the West. Also discuss the great strides in transportation in this era. Then I want you to give an assessment as to whether you feel that the changes were due to the actions of ackson or would they have occurred at this time regardless of who sat in the White House? Be very specific.
The Age of ackson
Andrew ackson's election for U.S. presidency in 1828 made it possible for the masses to acknowledge that change was going to happen. In addition to the fact that the new president had innovative…… [Read More]
First, evil in Sleepy Hollow is more equating with a satirical view that, in this case, evil is a more benign humor, bumbling, caustic in disrupting the town, and, as it was in Ancient Greek and oman drama, simply more of an irritant than planned destruction. Focusing again on the time period, our first introduction to this theme is one of Dutch New York against Urban New England. The Dutch community is sylvan, nostalgically conceived, changeless, and an Eden for its inhabitants. Ichabod arrives as a Yankee whose spoiling of this Eden simply cannot be tolerated -- and even more, by marrying the daughter of a wealthy and high-ranking community member, becoming part of Eden himself. This simply could not happen to a community that is so "European in nature."
Sleepy Hollow, as a town is clearly Dutch, with Dutch values, culture, and mores, or for riving, "population, manners, and…… [Read More]
In oodson v. North Carolina, the Court held that an offense may not carry a mandatory capital punishment sentence, concluding that it violated both the Eighth and Fourteenth Amendments because it precluded consideration of factors such as the defendant's character and life experiences in coming to a punishment decision (Larson 2003). This decision was affirmed in Roberts v. Louisiana when the Court held that even where a state narrowly defines an offense for which capital punishment be given, a mandatory imposition of the death penalty is unconstitutional (Larson 2003).
In Zant v. Stephens, a petitioner again alleged that an aggravating circumstance listed in the Georgia capital sentencing statue was invalid, and although the Court rejected the claim, it addressed the constitutionality of aggravating circumstances (Larson 2003). The Court held that an aggravating circumstance must "genuinely narrow the class of persons eligible for the death penalty and must reasonably justify the…… [Read More]
Last of the Mohicians
James Fennimore Cooper's The Last of The Mohicans was published in 1826, part of a pentology, but the best known work for contemporary readers. The story takes place in 1757 during the French and Indian War, when France and Great Britain were at odds for dominance of the North American Colonies. During this war, the French made treaties and allied themselves with many Native American tribes to up the balance between the far more numerous British and colonialists. It was written in a popular genre of the time in which historical accuracy came second and numerous inaccuracies in terms of Native culture were simply overlooked, or became part of White popular culture (Peck). Ironically, there is a famous American author who took great pains to deride the material, Mark Twain. Twain found the novel lacking in variety with excessive verbiage, and even suggested that before praising…… [Read More]
American Enduring Vision
American History 1820-1840 Enduring Vision
How did the changes experienced by Americans after 1820 incorporate elements of the 'Enduring Vision' to preserve a common national identity?
During this early period of American identity formation between 1820-1830, one of the most profound developments was the removal of Indian peoples from their native territories. Increasingly, the common American, the common American White man sought political enfranchisement and territory to farm on his own. These two desires, of political power and land, conjoined to make Indian removal politically popular and expedient for those in authority.
During this time, the ideal of the genteel American farmer in government began to recede. The Jeffersonian ideal was replaced by what became the Jacksonian ideal of the common man voicing his will in politics. Andrew Jackson was elected President in 1828 on a promise of full enfranchisement for all men, without former…… [Read More]
During the nineteenth century, many accomplishments in women's rights occurred. As a result of these early efforts, women today enjoy many privileges. They are able to vote and become candidates for political elections, as well as own property and enjoy leadership positions.
During the early nineteenth century, the women's rights movement came into effect. omen like Elizabeth Cady Stanton and Susan B. Anthony created many organizations for equality and independence. However, even with these activist groups, victory would not be fast or easy.
Changing social conditions for women during the early nineteenth century, combined with the idea of equality, led to the birth of the woman suffrage movement. For example, women started to receive more education and to take part in reform movements, which involved them in politics. As a result, women started to ask why they were not also allowed to vote.
The Start of the Revolution…… [Read More]
Democratic and Republican parties have been able to maintain their strength and their membership numbers since the Civil War for both structural and ideological reasons. The ideological reasons are the most obvious to an observer and to many members of the parties; indeed it is because of the ideological positions of the two parties that people align themselves by party. The ideologies of each party are complex; a better way of describing them might be that they are intricate combinations of different ideas and ideologies. The Republican Party has consistently championed economic systems that do not favor efficient distributions of wealth and has tended toward a low degree of government intervention and regulation in economic issues and a high degree of intervention and regular in social affairs (such as abortion and civil rights). The parties endure because these ideologies (which are tied to ongoing concerns and beliefs) endure.
Single-member district…… [Read More]
Similarly, George Caleb Bingham depicts visually how merican political campaigns shifted their focus from appealing mainly to an elite body of male voters toward pandering to the public. Bingham portrays a group of voters clamoring to be heard, marking changes in the ways merican citizens viewed their role in the political process.
Using lofty language, Daniel Webster writes a Second Reply to Robert Y. Hayne regarding the debate over states' rights vs. federal authority. The debate continues until this day, and has always been a unique feature of merican politics. In fact, the Webster passage foreshadows the arguments that preceded the Civil War over whether states had the right to perpetuate the institution of slavery or whether the federal government had the ethical obligation to override state sovereignty. Webster's argument is clear and focused, urging a cohesive union…… [Read More]