Learning Objectives Essays (Examples)

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Learning and Development Solutions What Factors Would

Words: 1809 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 72399275

Learning and Development Solutions What Factors Would You Take Into Consideration

Environment

The environment is one of the factors that enhance the learning process and offering solutions among learners. The environment refers to any physical and psychological presence, which constitutes a surrounding during the time of learning. In every learning endeavor, it is often important to consider the effects that the environment has on the learning that is taking place, the achievement of the learning objectives, and the nature of the solutions derived from the learning process. The environment influences the learner at the process of learning and deriving solutions to problems at hand. The influence of the environment could be either positive or negative. This factor should be considered since it is intrinsic at the point of learning. The environment also includes the physical and natural existence at the process of learning. As such, the learning environment should be…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Armstrong, S., & Fukami, C. V, 2009, The SAGE handbook of management learning, education and development. London, SAGE.

Park, C. C, 2007, Asian-American education: acculturation, literacy development, and learning. Charlotte, N.C., IAP.
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Learning Journals in Higher and

Words: 1173 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 94239104

One result is that in spite of being told how to record a journal in the context of an independent format, most students used a format preferred by the teacher which demonstrates a possible "lack of proficiency with reflective writing" (2002, p. 343), meaning that almost all of the students were not at all familiar with reflective writing techniques and decided to adhere to a format more in line with what the teacher expected or preferred. Another result is that 55% of the submitted journals appear to have become more critical and self-reflective toward the end of the course, an indication that these students had actually become more proficient as reflective writers as a result of keeping a record of their thoughts and achievements.

As to strengths and weaknesses related to the article, it is clear that Langer is a master of academic extrapolation, due to his ability to write…… [Read More]

REFERENCES

Langer, a.M. (2002). Reflecting on practice: using learning journals in higher and continuing education. Teaching in Higher Education, 7(3), 337-352.

Petersen, M.N. (2005). Non-traditional students in higher education. Journal of the American

Educational Board, 4(2), 223-227.

Wilson, J.P. (2004). The application of learning journals in a science classroom environment.
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Learning Clinical Interview Revision How

Words: 1793 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 59252012



If teachers fail to design connected scaffolds than the class will develop only limited capabilities. He explains that this can be done by choosing only those scaffolding tools which have similar structures, assignment objectives, and interactive styles (Tabak, 2004). Hence when considering the scaffolds for developing skills of weak students, I will make sure that the scaffolds are complementing not only the main learning objective but also one another.

eferences

Biehler, S.M. (2010). Psychology Applied to Teaching: 12th edition. Wadsworth Publishing.

Bilal, D. (2002). Perspectives on children's navigation of the World Wide Web: Does the type of search task make a difference? Online Information eview, 26(2), 108-127.

Cho, K. & Jonassen, DH (2002). The effects of argumentation scaffolds on argumentation and problem solving. Educational Technological esearch and Development, 50(3), 5-22.

Hogan, K., & Pressley, M. (1997). Scaffolding student learning: Instructional approaches & issues. Cambridge, M.A.: Brookline Books, Inc.

Jones, P.…… [Read More]

References

Biehler, S.M. (2010). Psychology Applied to Teaching: 12th edition. Wadsworth Publishing.

Bilal, D. (2002). Perspectives on children's navigation of the World Wide Web: Does the type of search task make a difference? Online Information Review, 26(2), 108-127.

Cho, K. & Jonassen, DH (2002). The effects of argumentation scaffolds on argumentation and problem solving. Educational Technological Research and Development, 50(3), 5-22.

Hogan, K., & Pressley, M. (1997). Scaffolding student learning: Instructional approaches & issues. Cambridge, M.A.: Brookline Books, Inc.
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Learning Philosophy

Words: 1012 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 76602403

Teaching Philosophy

PESONAL OBJECTIVES FO TEACHING

My personal objectives for teaching are to inspire students to continue to pursue learning. I do not believe that my goal as a teacher of nursing is to simply impart insight related to whatever module or learning objectives that I have at that particular moment in time in which I am working with students. Instead, my true aim is to impart such insight so well and in such an accessible, interactive way that it actually fosters a passion for learning about nursing in general for my students. I want them to learn from me, but I also want them to see that what I am teaching them is only part of a larger, evolving truth related to this profession. I desire for them to understand that they too, can conduct research and attain a status within this profession in which they can learn more…… [Read More]

References

De Jesus, Olga. (2012). Differentiated instruction: can differentiated instruction provide success for all learners? National Teacher Education Journal. 5(3) 5-11.

Helding, L. (2009). Howard Gardner's theory of multiple intelligences. Journal of Singing. 66(2), 193-199.

Mattila, L-R, Rekola, L., Koponen, L., Eriksson, E. (2013). Journal club interventions in promoting evidence-based nursing: Perceptions of nursing students. Nurse Education in Practice. 13, 423-428.

Moreno-Fergusson, M.E., Alvarado-Garcia, A.M. (2009). Application of Callista Roy's adaptation model in Latin America: A review of the literature. Aquichan. 9(1), 62-72.
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Learning Centered Classroom Conducive to Collaborative Learning

Words: 580 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 84540540

learning centered classroom conducive to collaborative learning and student involvement.

EXAMPLE: I believe that student participation is essential, particularly in a classroom of adult learners who have personal and professional experiences they can relate to the lesson at hand. I try to scaffold upon learners' existing knowledge to make lessons seem relevant to students. Compelling discussion requires a dialogue between teachers and students. Students must be treated with respect and be encouraged to act as full participants in the learning process. For example, one of my students was a nursing assistant who had valuable input regarding the changes in technology that had occurred in the medical field.

Performs Student Assessment of Learning Objectives

(B):Definition: Performs student assessment of learning objectives based on course curriculum and exit competencies.

EXAMPLE: Students are made aware of the grading criteria at the beginning of the course and before every assignment.

They are also made…… [Read More]

Resources

(F):Definition: Has knowledge of and utilizes available academic resources and directs each student in ways that foster a successful learning experience; integrates career-focused education into course.

EXAMPLE: I direct students to additional resources (including credible websites) where they can locate additional course- related information. I
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Objectives for a Proposed Nursing Research Project

Words: 715 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 99192787

Nursing Practicum: Learning Objectives and Timeline

As a future primary care provider seeking NP board certification, one of my primary areas of focus will be how to enhance my patients' understanding of preventative medicine. This directly relates to DNP Essential VII: of "Clinical Prevention and Population Health for Improving the Nation's Health" (The Essentials, 20016, p.15). The United States has seen a dramatic rise in chronic illnesses rooted in poor lifestyle choices such as diabetes and heart disease. Through my practicum experience, my first learning objective is the ability to more effectively engage with patients and express the need to achieve health-related goals in layperson's terms. I also seek to work with patients to create a plan for healthy living that they view as reasonable and achievable, given that patients are often intimidated by the need for lifestyle changes.

This also related to my Evidence-Based Practice (EBP) Project which specifically…… [Read More]

References

The essentials of doctoral education for advanced nursing practice. (2006). AACN. Retrieved

from: http://www.aacn.nche.edu/publications/position/DNPEssentials.pdf

High blood pressure educational materials for patients. (2015). CDC. Retrieved from:

 https://www.cdc.gov/bloodpressure/materials_for_patients.htm
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Learning Needs

Words: 1846 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 45296580

Lsa

Cunningham, D. & Kelly, D. (2005). he evaluation of multiprofessional learning needs assessment tool. Education for Primary Care 2005, 16. 547-55.

his article argued for the need to evaluate the evaluation methods for needs assessment within a healthcare environment. he research for this article was compiled in Scotland where the researchers sought to find ways that health care teams can become more efficient by determining a tool to evaluate what needs to be altered or included within healthcare teams.

he article designed a tool called "QUES" that helped determine the best ways in which teams work. his qualitative evaluation helped determine how these healthcare teams may benefit from this or any other similar assessment tool. he research ultimately concluded that this type of assessment tool can be used by healthcare staffs to identify their non-clinical learning needs. his information is important because it highlights the need for self-improvement through…… [Read More]

This research is useful because it offers another example of a tool that has been tested in an real world situation. The article suggested that a needs assessment tool using interviews and observation provides the necessary structure to cover the many open ended problems and questions encountered by the nurse on a daily basis. The ideas are explained from several different perspectives including the nurse educator, the staff nurse and the nurse manager offer a useful explanation for how needs must be tailored to a specific cause or purpose.

Poulton, B., Lyons, A. & O'Callaghan, A. (2008). A comparative study of self-perceived public health competencies: practice teachers and qualifying SCPHNs. Community Practitioner, Sep 2008, 81, 9.

This article is a look at the technological aspects of needs assessment within the nursing profession. The article is premised upon the idea that computer skills are recognized as essential for success in the nursing education and in general nursing practice. This research reported on the perspectives of nursing students and how they view their own computer skills. This inquiry aimed to learn about self-identifying learning needs assessment and relating it to the technological skills assumed to be necessary for professional success. This article is beneficial because it suggested that many students need help with basic computer skills within the nursing educational realms. As a result the research predicted that this problem will continue for years unless it is properly addressed within the learning cycle. To help remedy this problem, the research suggested that a computer graded assessment tool would be an effective tool to address the problems highlighted throughout the article.
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Cooperative Learning Iterations Across Reforms

Words: 1949 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 38328456

Learning Environments

Educators as far back as Aristotle have attempted to determine the most optimal approach to teaching and learning. Any theory of learning must take a constellation of factors into consideration. Evidence-based research on the different components of learning theory, effective instruction, and learning environments abound, yet the one commonality is that individual differences are pivotal to the success of any approach. Additionally, even if perfect learning environments could be created, learning must be applicable to the world outside of the classroom. Indeed, that it its ultimate purpose. In this paper, this author will explore the characteristics of the backwards mapping, or designing for understanding, Common Core State Standards, both of which are integrative frameworks that promote efficient learning and effective teaching.

Learning Theory and Its Importance

A primary consideration of learning theorists is how to effectively address individual differences. Consider that from the 18th century and earlier, learning…… [Read More]

References

Bandura, A. (2001). Social cognitive theory: An agentic perspective. Annuals Rev. Psychology, 51(2), 1-26. Retrieved from http://moodle2.cs.huji.ac.il/nu14/pluginfile.php/179670/mod_resource/content/1/Bandura_2001.pdf

Brown, D. (2014). Opening classroom doors to collaborative learning. The Education Digest, 79(7), 19-22. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com/docview/1506936575?accountid=12085

Fine, L., & Myers, J.W. (2004). Understanding students with Asperger's syndrome. Phi Delta Kappa Fastbacks, (520), 3-39. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com/docview/203654515?accountid=12085

Griswold, D.E., Barnhill, G.P., Brenda, S.M., Hagiwara, T., & Simpson, R.L. (2002). Asperger syndrome and academic achievement. Focus on Autism and Other Developmental Disabilities, 17(2), 94. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com/docview/205061045?accountid=12085
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Learning Tasks There Is a

Words: 1950 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 93500046

This study investigates how ESL students' perception affects the teacher-student interaction in the writing conferences. The multiple-case study explores: ESL students' expectations of the writing conference and factors contributing to the expectations, participation patterns of ESL students in the conferences, and ESL students' perception of the effectiveness of teacher-student conferences. A questionnaire, distributed to 110 (65 NS and 45 ESL) students enrolled in the first-year composition classes, examines students' previous writing experience and expectations of the writing conferences. Pre-conference interviews with 19 focus students (8 NS and 11 ESL) were conducted to verify the survey results. Students' participation patterns were investigated via the video-recorded writing conferences of the 19 focus students. Students' perceptions of the conference were investigated through the post conference interviews with the 19 focus students and follow-up interviews with six Chinese students.

esults of the research that Liu (2009) conducted determined that ESL students and NS students…… [Read More]

References

Beare, K. (n.d.). ESL Writing Workshop 2. Retrieved from http://esl.about.com/od/writinglessonplan/a/l_wwshop2.htm

Bitchener, J., & Knoch, U. (2009). The value of a focused approach to written corrective feedback. ELT Journal: English Language Teachers Journal, 63(3), 204-211. doi:10.1093/elt/ccn043.

Liu, Y.. ESL students in the college writing conferences: Perception and participation. Ph.D. dissertation, The University of Arizona, United States -- Arizona. Retrieved September 06, 2010, from Dissertations & Theses: Full Text.(Publication No. AAT 3359771).

Matthews-Aydinli, J. (2008). OVERLOOKED AND UNDERSTUDIED? A SURVEY OF CURRENT TRENDS IN RESEARCH ON ADULT ENGLISH LANGUAGE LEARNERS. Adult Education Quarterly, 58(3), 198. Retrieved from MasterFILE Premier database.
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Learning Model Morris Goes to School by

Words: 1085 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 52255253

Learning Model

"Morris goes to School" by B. Wiseman.

Heading:

Your name, whole group, 5th grade, all, 09/03/2012.

Objectives for Lesson

The students will engage in reading and writing activities with reflection and understanding.

The students will be motivated to connect the story to their own particular cultural/ethnic / routine experiences

The students will be encouraged to generate situations and to apply to new circumstances using the story as their base

The students will be encouraged to imagine a recipient of their story and to direct the writing of their story to this recipient.

CSO's or SOLs (WV New Generation Content Standards and Objectives)

Student will:

Engage in reading of the text with understanding and motivation

Apply the story to their own circumstance be able to find launch pads from the story with which they can craft their own informative and meaningful tale.

Participate in collaborative conversation with partners and…… [Read More]

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Learning Assessments the Various Methods

Words: 670 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 50901998

e. In instances where the students have already demonstrated a diversity of learning styles (DeCastro-Ambrosetti & Cho, 2005). The use of authentic assessments includes greater student directive-ness and increased empowerment and self-guidance and -reliance in the learning process.

Self-assessment is seen by many to be the culmination of the individualization of learning assessment, but when this occurs solely for the purposes of accountability, learning is far from guaranteed (Gaytan & McEwen, 2007). This is partially due to the difference students and instructors, at least in the study conducted by Gaytan and McEwen (2007), perceive in the purpose of self-assessment tests; students viewed them primarily as a way to receive feedback as to their progress and achievement, while instructors saw them more as a way to make sure students understood the material (Gaytan and McEwen, 2007). Both views underline the usefulness of self-assessments, but perhaps they can be best applied by…… [Read More]

References

Commons, P. "The contribution of inspection, self-assessment, investors in people...: an initial exploration." Journal of further & higher education, vol. 27, issue 1 (Feb 2003), pp. 27-47

DeCastro-Ambrosetti, D. & Cho, G. "Synergism in learning: A critical reflection of authentic assessment." High school journal, vol. 89, issue 1(Oct/Nov 2005), pp. 57-62

Feinstein, S. "Performance assessment in Juvenile Correction education programs." Journal of correctional education, vol. 53. Issue 1 (Mar 2002), pp. 9-12

Gaytan, J. & McEwen, B. "Effective online instructional and assessment strategies." American journal of distance education. Vol. 21 issue 3 (Sep 2007), pp. 117-32
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Learning Needs Assessment and Analysis the University

Words: 1825 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 12900591

Learning Needs Assessment and Analysis

The University of San Diego Counseling Center (USDCC) has been established to provide enrolled students with access to quality counseling and healthcare services. Employing a diverse selection of the university's most accomplished psychiatrists, psychologists, medical doctors, registered nurses, and other healthcare professionals, the USDCC operates a high-volume Critical Intensive Care Unit with the assistance of a 50-member nursing staff. Although the USDCC has built a reputation for delivering competent and qualified critical care services across a number of years, the organization's management structure has become concerned that educational priorities have not been updated to reflect modern advancements in the field. To that end, the USDCC recently elected to conduct a comprehensive Learning Needs Assessment and Analysis to identify the paramount educational needs in place, and the institutional forces working to facilitate or impede the implementation of these needs. Empirical research on the efficacy of various…… [Read More]

References

Lewin, K. (1939). Field theory and experiment in social psychology: Concepts and methods.

Journal of Sociology, 44, 868-896. Retrieved from http://www.jstor.org/discover/10.2307/2769418?uid=3739552&uid=2129&uid=2&uid=7

0&uid=4&uid=3739256&sid=21101323864143

Morrison, G.R., Ross, S.M., Kalman, H.K., & Kemp, J.E. (2011). Designing effective instruction (6th ed). Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
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Learning in Recent Years Is

Words: 629 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 69090854



(3) According to the Multiple Intelligences Survey, I have quite a bit of intrapersonal and interpersonal intellegence and a moderate amount of musical and kinesthetic intelligence. This makes sense because I enjoy analyzing people and situations; and, I decided to leave my old job because I was bored sitting still behind a desk and not talking to anyone for most of the day.

As I was enjoying the surveys so much, also I took Kolb's Learning Styles Inventory and discovered that my learning style consists of doing and feeling or what Kolb would abbreviate as "CE/AE." When these findings are placed on the two-by-two grid by Kolb, my learning style is accommodating. An accommodating learning style is often times referred to as a "hands-on" style and one that relies upon intuition over logic. In fact, these findings also did not surprise me because I have to do something at least…… [Read More]

References

Codde, PhD, J.R. (2006). Using Learning Contracts in the College Classroom. Michigan State University.
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Learning Power Myth of Educational and Empowerment

Words: 1337 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 74983835

Learning Power-Myth of Educational Empowerment

Education and empowerment

Education is important and essential for everyone be it formal, informal or even public education. It therefore means that everyone is entitled to education. Education is an entry point to many opportunities and it forms an integral part in the preparation for as well as the legitimization of forms of social life in particular. Education is not only purposed to "achievement" that is measured through standardized tests and assessments.

There are other important purposes of education one of them being empowerment. Empowerment is a process through which an individual's assumptions are challenged about how things can be done and are done. Empowerment challenges ones basic assumption on power, achievement, helping and succeeding in life. At the centre of the empowerment concept is the idea of power. For empowerment to take place there are two things to be considered; first requires that power…… [Read More]

References

Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development, (1996). Finding Common Ground in an Era of Fragile Support. Retrieved February 27, 2013 from  http://www.ascd.org/publications/newsletters/policy-priorities/dec96/num07/toc.aspx 

The Odysseus Group.(2003). Dumping us Down-Reviews. Retrieved February 27, 2013 from http://www.johntaylorgatto.com/bookstore/dumbdnlapp.htm
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Learning and Teaching Principles of

Words: 505 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 44750523

(American Lirary Association, 2006)

II. Skills that Students will Possess upon Graduation from High School

The work entitled: "Information Literacy Curriculum" states that upon graduation from high school the student will posses the following skills:

(1) Information literacy -- aility to identify, locate, access, retrieve, evaluate and use information from a variety of formats;

(2) Information management -- aility to use electronic lirary catalogs, microformats, periodical dataases, CD-ROM interfaces, school area network programs, INTERNET, and print materials;

(3) Research Strategies -- aility to use print and electronic lirary sources effectively;

(4) Classification and Grouping of Information -- aility to use word processing, manipulation of dataase files to download, copy, and print information, and note-taking skills;

(5) Organization of Information - aility to correctly cite sources and create note cards and iliography; and (6) Effective Use of Media Equipment -- aility to operate OPAC, LAN, Microfilm / Microfiche, VCR and Videotapes,…… [Read More]

bibliography; and (6) Effective Use of Media Equipment -- ability to operate OPAC, LAN, Microfilm / Microfiche, VCR and Videotapes, Audio Cassette Player and tapes, CD-ROM station, Copy Machine and Printer to retrieve, copy, or print materials.

References

Information Literacy Curriculum (nd) Clarkstown Central School District West Nyack, NY. Online available at: http://www.ccsd.edu/bardonia/CCSDLibraryCurriculum/hrdcpy/Final%20Draft1.pdf

Information Power: Building Partnerships for Learning - Learning and Teaching Principles of School Library Media Programs (2006) American Association of Libraries. Online available at: http://www.ala.org/ala/mgrps/divs/aasl/aaslproftools/informationpower/iplearningteaching.cfm
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Learning Journal for Organizational Behavior

Words: 2302 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 24870783

Given the capriciousness of the human condition with respect to continuing redefinitions of personal and professional success, human resource managers are faced with some difficult choices in formulating recommendations for best practices. Therefore, the learning journal would undergo a series of draft versions that would be used to solicit feedback from experts in the field who could point out flaws and areas that required additional research or support to be valid and trustworthy. The solicitation of feedback process would follow the guidance provided by Neuman (2003) who recommends having a manuscript reviewed by knowledgeable individuals who possess the requisite credentials to provide informed feedback. This feedback would be carefully reviewed and the collaborative process would result in changes and additions where they were deemed necessary and appropriate.

4)

Outcomes and New Learning

Some of the overriding themes that emerged from the learning episodes outlined above was that the more researchers…… [Read More]

References

American Psychological Association. (2002). Publication manual of the American Psychological

Association (5th ed.). Washington, DC: Author.

Cheverton, J. 2007. 'Holding our own: Value and performance in nonprofit organizations.'

Australian Journal of Social Issues, vol. 42, no. 3, pp. 427-428.
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Learning Platforms

Words: 1218 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 19243259

Learning Platforms -- K-12 and Beyond

A Comparison of Learning Platforms that Focus on the K-12 and Higher Education Learning Environments

Many of the educational initiatives in recent years have focused on improving the delivery of services by incorporating learning platforms that focus on the K-12 and higher education learning environments, such as WebCT or Blackboard. To determine how these learning platforms are being used today and for what learners, this paper will provide an overview of the features of learning management systems (LMS) that have assumed increasing importance for a wide range of corporate and government-sponsored learning environments. A comparison and evaluation of these platforms and their applicability to the different learning environments is followed by a summary of the research in the conclusion.

eview and Discussion

Background and Overview. In their book, Handbook of Distance Education Technology, Anderson and Moore (2003) suggest that it just makes good sense…… [Read More]

References

Anderson, W.G., & Moore, M.G. (2003). Handbook of distance education. Mahwah, NJ:

Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Carlivati, P.A. (2002). E-learning evolves. ABA Banking Journal, 94(6), 49.

Granger, D., & Bowman, M. (2003). Constructing knowledge at a distance: The learner in context. In W.G. Anderson & M.G. Moore (Eds.). Handbook of distance education.
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Learning Disabled During the Course of a

Words: 1262 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 24918403

Learning Disabled

During the course of a child's school years they will learn to define themselves as a person and shape their personality, sense of self-concept and perception of their potential for achievement for life (Persaud, 2000). Thus the early educational years may be considered one of the most impacting and important with regard to emotional, social and cognitive development for students of all disabilities. Labeling is a common by-product of educational institutions, one that has been hotly debated with regard to its benefits and consequences by educators and administrators over time. There are proponents of labeling and those that suggest that labeling may be damaging to students in some manner.

Students who are labeled at the elementary and middle school level as learning disabled may face greater difficulties achieving their true potential in part due to a decreased sense of self-esteem, self-concept and personal achievement (Persaud, 2000). The intent…… [Read More]

References

Beilke, J.R. & Yssel, N. (Sept., 1999). "The chilly climate for students with disabilites in higher education." College Student Journal, Retrieved October 19, 2004 from LookSmart. Available: http://www.findarticles.com/p/articles.mi_m0FCR/is_3_33/ai_62839444/pg_3

Clark, M. (1997). "Teacher response to learning disability: A test of attributional principles." The Journals of Learning Disabilities, 30 (1), 69-79. Retrieved Oct 4, 2004 from LDOnline. Available:

 http://www.ldonline.org/ld_indepth/self_esteem/teacherresponse.html .

Clark, M. And Artiles, A. (2000). "A cross-national study of teachers' attributional patterns." The Journal of Special Education, 32(2), 77-99.
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Learning Motivation Learning and Motivation

Words: 3469 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 89082575

') (Tingstrom et al., 226) in correspondence with the example provided by the researchers responsible for this evaluation, it may be deduced that such method of positive reinforcement implementation is best suited to a younger educational context such as grammar school. It may only be considered appropriate to attach the positive consequences of individual efforts with the capabilities of an entire class in settings where future prospects such as class rank and college admissions have not yet entered into the discourse over performance motivators.

Tingstrom et al. also identify the independent group-oriented contingencies, which "involve consequences, and criteria for all group members, but access to reinforcement for each group member is based on each member's performance (e.g., 'whoever makes a 90% or higher on the end chapter math test will be able to pick a prize from the treasure chest.' (Tingstrom et al., 226) in many ways, this has proved…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Bunderson, C.V. (1990). Computers in Educational Assessment: An Opportunity to Restructure Educational Practice. Educational Resource and Information Center.

Eisner, E. (1997). The Promise and Perils of Alternative Forms of Data Representation. Educational Researcher, Vol. 26, No. 6, p. 4-10.

Emerson, J. (1989). Review: Dead PoetsSociety. Jeems Cinepad. Online at http://cinepad.com/reviews/deadpoets.htm.

Florio-Ruane, Suzanne; Marianne George & Taffy E. Rapheal. (2004). Book Club Plus: Organizing Your Literacy Curriculum to Bring Students to High Levels of Literacy. Australian Journal of Language and Literacy, Vol. 27.
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Learning and Cognition Definition of Learning Merriam-Webster

Words: 1020 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 81943194

Learning and Cognition

Definition of Learning

Merriam-Webster defines learning as "knowledge or skill acquired by instruction or study; modification of a behavioral tendency by experience (as exposure to conditioning)" (Merriam-Webster, 2011). Other experts defines learning as a process, one that leads to behavioral change or potential behavior change that is relatively permanent. That is, as people learn, his or her learning alters the way one perceives the environment, the way he or she interprets incoming stimuli, and therefore, the way one interacts or behaves (Introduction to Learning Theory, 2004). According to Cherry (2011), learning is a permanent change in behavior that is the result of experience. The common characteristic that all these definitions share is their identification of a behavioral component as part of the process of learning. In other words, for learning to occur, a change in behavior takes place.

The ole of Behavior

For the early part of…… [Read More]

References

Bietz, K. (2011). The relationship between learning and cognition. Bright Hub. Retrieved June 26, 2011 from  http://www.brighthub.com/education/early-childhood/articles/101060.aspx 

Cherry, K. (2011). Learning Study Guide. About.com Psychology. Retrieved June 26, 2011 from http://psychology.about.com/od/psychologystudyguides/a/learning_sg.htm

Introduction to Learning Theory and Behavioral Psychology. (2004). Retrieved June 26, 2011 from http://allpsych.com/psychology101/learning.html

Merriam-Webster. (2011). Learning. Retrieved June 26, 2011 from http://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/learning?show=0&t=1309112968
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Learning Problems vs Language Problems

Words: 1303 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 93484975

Learning Problems vs Language Problems

The objective of this study is to examine how learning problems and language problems are related. Specifically considered will be the fact that when students who are learning English as their second language and who are experiencing academic or behavioral difficulties that the teacher and the school's problem-solving teams must examine whether these problems are related to learning a new language or whether the problems may be due to cognitive delays or developmental delay or disability.

The work of Fisher ( nd) entitled "Assessing English Language Learners for a Learning Disability or Language Issue" states that English language learners all "with learning disabilities...too often...fall through the cracks." (p.13) The reason stated for this is that these learners are often considered to be "slow English learners, or they may be in a school district that does not have enough resources to test them in their L1…… [Read More]

References

Recommended Practices for Assessment, Diagnosis, and Documentation of Learning Disabilities (2014) Learning Disabilities Association of Ontario. Retrieved from: http://www.ldao.ca/documents/Assessment%20Protocols_Sept%2003.pdf

Special Education and English Language Learners: Guidance for LEA Staff

An Overview of the ELL/SPED Programs and the Identification Process

(Webinar #1) (nd) Missouri Department of Elementary and Secondary Education. Retrieved from: http://dese.mo.gov/sites/default/files/webinar/documents/ELL-QandA-12-09-13.pdf
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Learning Log Reflections Culture Can Refer to

Words: 1190 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 19296382

Learning Log: Reflections

Culture

Culture can refer to many different aspects of human life that affect personal and professional relationships. We usually think of culture in terms of nationality: the Japanese culture, for example, is said to emphasize personal relationships and interconnectedness more than individualistic American culture. Cultures are often classified as more 'high context' or more 'low context' in orientation. In 'high context' cultures, inside knowledge, the relative position of someone on a leadership hierarchy and an awareness of the 'double meaning' of certain gestures is more important, than in a low context culture in which 'what you say is what you mean,' such as in the U.S.

Learning about different cultural perspectives and worldviews has made me more mindful about contextualizing my own. I have also noticed that even within nations, culture may vary -- a company located in an urban environment, versus one located in a rural…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Kubler-Ross, Elisabeth & David Kessler. 2010. Denial, anger, bargaining, depression and acceptance. Grief.com. Accessed at http://grief.com/the-five-stages-of-grief / [December 27, 2010]

McNamara, Carter. 1999. Basic context for organizational change. Management help.

Accessed at http://managementhelp.org/mgmnt/orgchnge.htm#anchor493930 [December 27, 2010]

McNamara, Carter. 2000. Organizational culture. Management help. Accessed at http://www.managementhelp.org/org_thry/culture/culture.htm[December 27, 2010]
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Learning and Self-Esteem the Main Purpose of

Words: 602 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 68497660

Learning and Self-Esteem

The main purpose of Alfie Kohn's article "The Truth about Self-Esteem" is to provide a critique of existing literature and prevailing beliefs about the importance of self-esteem on children's learning. The author points out key problems with the debate between pro-self-esteem educators and the more traditional, "old school" view that self-esteem is irrelevant. Kohn asserts that neither position is totally satisfactory and offers some ideas for more constructive approaches to the subject. The literature review, which is arranged and presented more like an essay than a proper literature review, deals with the limitations of scientific research, with the problem of focusing on self-esteem as opposed to selflessness, and with the problems with Old School education as well. After presenting a review of the literature concurrent with his personal stance on the issues, Kohn concludes that more fruitful research should be conducted if the goal is to improve…… [Read More]

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Learning Teams What Effective Strategies

Words: 906 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 43420856



A group with many extroverts may cause the introverts to withdraw despite the fact the introverts have needed skills and input for the group. Being more self-aware about the different group types can help the group overcome such obstacles ("Information about personality types," 2006, BSM Consulting).

hat are types of conflict management tools?

First of all, when discussing a dispute, choose a neutral, private environment. Allow everyone to express their point-of-view, as they see it. Clarify before discussing the issue at stake. Agree on what the difference is. Explore potential alternatives and compromises. Focus on similarities as well as differences. Make issues, not personality the focus. Have a clear idea of what concrete, definable, and achievable outcomes should result from the discussion. Put in controls to implement those decisions (Heathfield 2008).

Having a mediator can make conflict resolution easier. Also, having certain standard operating procedures to deal with a conflict,…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Chapman, Allan. (2008). "Tuckman: Forming-storming-norming-performing."

Businessballs. Retrieved 28 Apr 2008 at  http://www.businessballs.com/tuckmanformingstormingnormingperforming.htm 

Chapman, Allan. (2008). "Motivational theory." Businessballs. Retrieved 28 Apr 2008 at  http://www.businessballs.com/motivation.htm 

Heathfield, Susan. (2008). "Personal courage and conflict resolution at work." About.com. Retrieved 28 Apr 2008 at http://humanresources.about.com/cs/conflictresolves/a/conflictcourage_2.htm
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Program Objective Different Than Learning

Words: 335 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 72097979

Program planners can select among these objectives carefully to find their learning objectives. In addition to selecting well, program planners can be sure that the learning objectives are stated clearly, making sure they "say what you want them to say." In addition, Caffarella writes that in order to state these objectives clearly, they should follow a formula: the who or the learner plus the how or the action verb plus the what or the content.

Thus, learning objectives can turn into program objectives when they are chosen carefully and stated clearly. By doing this, the participants can focus their learning to achieving these goals, and can clearly report whether or not they have met them. By studying these reports, the results are measurable, and reflect, in large on the program. Thus, the program planners can determine whether program objectives have been met.… [Read More]

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Differentiated Learning & Assessment -- PLC Presentation

Words: 1743 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 47845156

Differentiated Learning & Assessment -- PLC Presentation

Differentiated instruction and assessment recognizes that the individual needs, strengths and weaknesses of students must drive learning (Wormeli, 2007). Changing the outcomes of traditional lesson plans to account for differentiated learning is a fundamental part of ensuring student success. Each student's readiness, interest and learning profile is at the core of this approach. Students are diverse; therefore, instructional and assessment practices should be as well, to improve student outcomes in all content areas.

Many teachers design lessons that have a set of specific learning objectives and standardized assessments for students. However, today's learning models ask teachers to adopt multiple objectives and use different levels of assessment for more individualized learning (Dobbertin, 2012). Differentiation of process, then, refers to the way in which a student accesses material (i.e., one student may explore a learning center, while another may conduct an online search for information).…… [Read More]

References

Dobbertin, C. (2012). Just How I Need to Learn It. Educational Leadership, 69(5), 66-70

Forsten, Char, Grant, J., & Hollas, B. (2003). Differentiating Textbooks: Strategies to Improve Student Comprehension & Motivation. New Hampshire: Crystal Springs Books.

Heacox, Diane. (2002). Differentiating Instruction in the Regular Classroom: How to Reach and Teach All Learners, Grades 3-12. Minnesota: Free Spirit Publishing.

Painter, D.D. (2009). Providing Differentiated Learning Experiences Through Multigenre Projects. Intervention in School & Clinic, 44(5), 288-293.
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Managing a Multimedia Learning Environment

Words: 3283 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 59280858

learning and teaching has drastically changed all over the world, in general, and in America, in particular. This is because of the sudden increase of information technology. Of late, both the teachers and learners, all over the world, have come to the realization that the old technologies cannot compete with the latest technological developments when it comes down to the practice of teaching and the process of learning. Therefore, the old technologies are being quickly replaced by the new multimedia technologies. It is important to note here that multimedia and its ever-increasing technological products have become very popular tools of both teaching and learning. This is because it allows the learners to pace their training in line with their capacity to learn; it allows the learners to gain control over the process of learning; and it allows the learning process to be individualized. The transformation of the methodology and approach…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Sorel Reisman. Multimedia Computing: Preparing for the 21st Century. Harrisburg:IDEA Group Publishing. 1994.

Shousan Wang. Multimedia and Some of Its Technical Issues. International Journal of Instructional Media. Volume: 27. Issue: 3. 2000.

Patricia Deubel. An Investigation of Behaviorist and Cognitive Approaches to Instructional Multimedia Design. Journal of Educational Multimedia and Hypermedia. Volume: 12. Issue: 1. 2003.
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Technology to Enhance Learning Distance and Online Applications

Words: 2163 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 65833335

Order Number - A2053702
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Topic:Technology to Enhance Learning: Distance & Online Applications
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Application: Online Course Design Online education offers convenient and effective means by which nurses, nursing students, and other populations can gain valuable learning experiences. In this Application, you will design an online learning environment on a nursing-education topic of interest to you. If you would like to put your course online, you are invited to try Moodle, a free course management web application, but this is not a requirement of the assignment.To begin, review Chapter 6, EuroDesigning the Online Learning Environment," in Developing Online Learning Environments in Nursing Education (OEuro(TM)Neil, Fisher, &…… [Read More]

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Educational Technologies and Online Learning

Words: 1513 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 60612633

There are varying educational backgrounds and levels in distance education and the delivery method must be in a way that is interactive using visuals, charts, graphs and other stimulating realia.

Conclusion

In conclusion, the Dick & Carey Model of Instructional Design and the Jerrold Kemp Model of Instructional design are both excellent models for developing both traditional and distance learning materials. However, the differences among the types of ISD Comparison 6 learners must be clearly identified and defined in order for either of these models to be successful. With technology changing the face of education, instructional design models will also need to change in order to best educate and meet the needs of the different types of learners.

eferences

Dick, Walter, & Carey, Lou. (1985) The Systematic Design of Instruction (2nd ed.) Glenview, IL: Scott, Foresman and Company.

Kemp, Jerrold E. (1977). Instructional Design. (2nd Ed.) Belmont, CA: Fearon Publishers,…… [Read More]

References

Dick, Walter, & Carey, Lou. (1985) The Systematic Design of Instruction (2nd ed.) Glenview, IL: Scott, Foresman and Company.

Kemp, Jerrold E. (1977). Instructional Design. (2nd Ed.) Belmont, CA: Fearon Publishers, Inc.

Brown, Frederick G. (1981). Measuring Classroom Achievement. New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston.

Dalton, William. Assessing Student Learning: It can be more than a survey. Retrieved May 25, 2006 at http://fie.engrng.pitt.edu/fie95/2c1/2c14/2c14.htm
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Adult Learning Ranking of Relevance

Words: 870 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 62751960

As such, I then find myself truly understanding the concept as opposed to forgetting or misunderstanding the information if I don't have a relationship or something to hook the concept onto. The other factor that is especially relevant to me is that I truly need to feel like I have some control over the learning which is why I enjoy taking online courses which allow me to choose when to study and how to study. Lastly, I am much harder on myself as an adult learner than I was as an adolescent. When I was younger, I did not bother to even look at a teacher's painstaking commentary in my essays whereas now I cannot wait to obtain feedback and I feel an immense amount of passion toward pleasing the instructor, putting forth my best effort, and obtaining the best grade possible.

2. According to the Whole-Part-Whole learning theory, learners…… [Read More]

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Technology in Learning of Elementary

Words: 10688 Length: 39 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 41639691



For the purposes of this review, Web-based instruction is considered to be any educational or training program distributed over the Internet or an intranet and conveyed through a browser, such as Internet Explorer or Netscape Navigator. Java applet-based instruction is a special form of Web-based instruction.

Although there is very little research on comparing the effectiveness of Java applet-based instruction to the traditional face-to-face offering. However Web-based instruction has received enough attention that many studies are now available in the research literature.

Comparing the learning effects of Web-based learning with traditional face-to-face teaching and learning is emphasized in the research on the Internet as a medium in higher education. However, these research studies always produce conflicting results. esearchers found significant differences, positive or negative, in using different Internet-based approaches to facilitate teaching and learning.

This literature review explores three dominant themes: impact on student performance, student attitude, and student satisfaction.…… [Read More]

References

Rajshree Agarwal, a Edward Day. (1998). The impact of the Internet on economic education. Journal of Economic Education, 29(2), 99. Retrieved November 14, 2008, from ABI/INFORM Global database. (Document ID: 28501331).

Al-Jarf, a. & Sado, R. (2002). Effect of online learning on struggling ESL college writers. San Antonio, TX: National Educational Computing Conference Proceedings. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED 475-920).

Anthony Basile, Jill M. D'Aquila. (2002). An experimental analysis of computer-mediated instruction and student attitudes in a principles of financial accounting course. Journal of Education for Business, 77(3), 137-143. Retrieved November 17, 2008, from ABI/INFORM Global database. (Document ID: 115217377).

Carey, J. (2001). Effective student outcomes: A comparison of online and face-to-face delivery modes. Retrieved November 14, 2008, at http://www.ed.psu.edu/acsde/deos/deosnews/deosnews11_9.asp
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Adult Learning Andragogy Adult Learning as a

Words: 2887 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 17218108

Adult Learning: Andragogy

Adult learning as a concept was first introduced in Europe in the 50s (QOTFC, 2007). ut it was in the 70s when American practitioner and theorist of adult education Malcolm Knowles formulated the theory and model he called andragogy. He defined andragogy as "the art and science of helping adults learn (Zmeryov, 1998 & Fidishun, 2000 as qtd in QOTFC)." It consists of assumptions on how adults learn, with emphasis on the value of the process. Andragogy approaches are problem-based and collaborative as compared with the didactic approach in younger learners. It likewise emphasizes the equality between the teacher and the learner (QOTFC).

Adult Learning Principles

Knowles developed these principles from observed characteristics of adult learners. They have special needs and requirements different from those of younger learners (Lieb, 1991). Adults are internally motivated and self-directed. They bring life experiences and knowledge into their learning experiences. They…… [Read More]

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Chen, I. (2008). Constructivism. College of Education: University of Houston. Retrieved on June 6, 2011 from http://viking.coe.uh.edu/~ichn/ebook/et-it/constr.htm

Corley M.A. (2008). Experiential learning theory. California Adult Literacy Professional

Development Project. CALPRO: California Department of Education. Retrieved on June 13, 2011 from  http://www.calpro-online.org/documents/AdultLearningTheoriesFinal.pdf 

Kolb, D.A. et al. (1999). Experiential learning theory. "Perspectives on Cognitive
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Individual Learning Plans in Community

Words: 4463 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 74917892



V. Government System RARPA

The government introduced the RARPA Program which is abbreviated for the:: "Recording and Recognition of Progress and Achievement Summary of the Evaluation Report" in relation to the Pilot Projects April 2003 to March 2004 Learning and Skills Development Agency National Institute of Adult Continuing Education 2004 August. Since 2002 the Learning and Skills Council (LSC) has focused its efforts on establishing an appropriate method of recognizing and recording the progress and achievement of learners that is non-accredited in nature. Development of a model called the 'Staged Process." The RARPA consists of the application "of an explicit and common staged process to the recognition and recording of progress and achievement, together with the validation of this process through a range of judgments about its consistent and effective application." The background of the project is stated to be that LSDA and NIACE were involved in preparation of work…… [Read More]

Works Cited:

McCallum, Myra K. (1999) "Strategies and Activities to Stimulate Adequate ESOL Instruction in Content Area Courses and Increase Honest Effort and Motivation Among ESOL Students Dekalb County School System, Decatur, GA 1999 November U.S. Department of Education: #FL026093.

Your Guide 2 Skills For Life Policy and Strategy (2005) Skills and Education Network March Online available at: http://senet.lsc.gov.uk/guide2/skill sforlife/G2skillsforlifeG028.pdf

English for Speakers of Other Languages (ESOL) Case Studies of Provision, Learner's Needs and Resources, National Research and Development Centre for Adult Literacy and Numeracy Online at www.nrcd.org.uk ISBN 0 95456492 Kings College London, University of Leeds, Institute of Education, University of London and Lancaster University.

Fogel, H. & Ehri, L.C. (2000). Teaching elementary students who speak Black English Vernacular to write in Standard English: effects of dialect transformation practice. Contemporary Educational Psychology, vol. 25.
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Elder Learning Service by Taking Part in

Words: 2815 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 85691491

Elder Learning Service

By taking part in "Elder Learning Service," one can learn much from the experience. In fact, this is becoming a growing phenomenon both academically and within the community itself. All the research points to the positive impact of how much it empowers individuals into becoming better citizens by becoming self-aware of those that are in need. A service learning service was designed for high school students entitled, "Carrying on the Legacy of San Juan's Elders." Many conclusions arose as well as project outcomes for one to consider for any future project.

Service Learning: High School Students Engaged in their Community

The district in which I teach allowed me to do a service learning project with my high school students upon asking permission from the principal of the school. These were my goals when working with each of them. 1) Promote student and elderly intergenerational communication; 2) Improve…… [Read More]

References

Brown, L.H., & Roodin, P.A. (2001). Service-learning in gerontology: An out-of-classroom experience. Educational Gerontology, 27(1), 89-103.

Furco, A., & Root, S. (2010). Research demonstrates the value of service learning. Phi Delta

Kappan, 91(5), 16-20.

Getahun, Linde J. (2006) Reflections on service learning with the aged. Academic Exchange
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Adult Learning Styles in the

Words: 7981 Length: 25 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 98200563

For countries such as the U.S. And France, these needs can be reasonably expected to relate to the respective national cultures involved. For instance, in their book, Education in France, Corbett and Moon (1996) report, "An education system needs to justify itself constantly by reference to the values which underpin a nation's culture. In a democracy it is expected to transmit a range of intellectual, aesthetic and moral values which permeate the curriculum and approaches to teaching and learning" (p. 323).

Just as the United States has been confronted with a number of challenges in recent decades in identifying the best approach to providing educational services for an increasingly multicultural society, France has experienced its fair share of obstacles in this regard as well. According to Corbett and Moon, "In societies forced to come to terms with change, values are always challenged. French society, like others, had to adapt to…… [Read More]

References

Atkinson, R.D. (2006, May-June). Building a more-humane economy. The Futurist, 40(3), 44.

Blanchard, E. & Frasson, C. (2005). Making intelligent tutoring systems culturally aware: The use of Hofstede's cultural dimensions. Montreal, Quebec Canada: Computer Science Department, HERON Laboratory.

Bryant, S.M., Kahle, J.B. & Schafer, B.A. (2005). Distance education: A review of the contemporary literature. Issues in Accounting Education, 20(3), 255.

Calder, J. (1993). Disaffection and diversity: Overcoming barriers for adult learners. London: Falmer Press.
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Traditional Learning Theories Behavioral Constructivism and Cognitive

Words: 885 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 19191460

learning theories, and apply them to the adult learning environment. Specifically behavioral, constructivist, and cognitive learning theories are examined.

Behavioral Learning Theories

This approach to learning suggests that learning is the result of external stimulus and response to stimulus, thus the learner's environment is the primary factor influencing learning (Hergenhahn & Olson, 1997). The focus of the behavioral learning model is changes in behavior facilitated by stimuli provided by the learner's environment; not stimuli produced by the learner. einforcement of stimuli in the environment are thought to effect change and therefore become critical to the learning process in this learning theory model. The learner's responses to stimuli can be strengthened depending on how one is conditioned to respond; meaning, in the behavioral model, positive reinforcement can serve to enforce positive learning.

Also important to the behavioral model is repetition and generalization of important learning concepts (Hartley, 1998). These serve to…… [Read More]

References:

Bruner, J.S. (1966). Toward a theory of instruction. Harvard University Press. Cambridge.

Bruner, J.S. (1996). The culture of education. Harvard University Press. Cambridge.

Hartley, J. (1998). Learning and studying. A research perspective. London: Routledge.

Huang, Hisu-Mei. (2002). Toward constructivism for adult learners in online learning environments. British Journal of Educational Technology. Vol 33, No. 1, 27-37.
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Static Learning in the 21st

Words: 12488 Length: 45 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 64826198

Millions of dollars are spent on test-prep manuals, books, computer programs and worksheets (Gluckman, 2002). Static/captive learning can help teachers around the nation prepare their students for standardized testing.

Significance of the Study to Leadership

A principal is the leader of the campus. The challenge for the principal is to know his or her district's mandated curriculum and make sure teachers are able to deliver it (Shipman & Murphy, 2001). As the key decision-maker for the use of time and space, principals must be aware of how the use of time and space affects instruction. Principals need to know how best to use assessment data based on relevant content standards with teachers, school communities. Improved student learning is always the focus of assessment.

ecause of high stakes testing, teachers are always assessing to monitor student progress and plan the scope and sequence of instruction. Principals can work to structure school…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Anglin, Gary J., Vaez, Hossein, and Cunningham, Kathryn L. (nd) Visual Representations and Learning: The Role of Static and Animated Graphics. Visualization and Learning. Online available at:  http://www.aect.org/edtech/33.pdf 

Arnold, T.C., & Dwyer, F.M. (1975). Realism in visualized instruction. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 40, 369 -- 370.

de Melo, H.T. (1981). Visual self-paced instruction and visual testing in biological science at the secondary level (Doctoral dissertation, Pennsylvania State University, 1980). Dissertation Abstracts International, 41, 4954A.

Dwyer, F.M. (1969). The effect of varying the amount of realistic detail in visual illustrations designed to complement programmed instruction. Programmed Learning and Educational Technology, 6, 147 -- 153.
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Lesson Objectives

Words: 580 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 92128492

lesson objective based on the CTE standard 8.0 Ethics and Legal Responsibilities selected. Discuss how your objective provides a more focused examination of the standard. Do you believe lesson objectives should be broadly defined to allow teachers to cover more content, or should they be focused on very specific student outcomes? Discuss reasons for your position on this.

Your response should be directly related to the prompt and contribute to the discussion with detail and evidence of higher-order thinking.

Lesson Objectives: The student will demonstrate an understanding of appropriate hand, oral, and respiratory hygiene; safe injections; and the methods of safely cleaning surfaces in a dental office, as recommended by the regulatory body of the CDC

Ideally, I believe that lesson objectives should be very focused in nature. By making guidelines overly broad, the most critical aspects of the lesson may easily be forgotten. I also believe that for a…… [Read More]

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How to Assess the Learning Through Physical Activities

Words: 379 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 33329998

Student Learning Through Physical Activities

Interval training/workout

Learning objectives assessment methods

In order to understand how the lesson will impact the lives of the students, it is significant to first define the expected outcomes from the students then later measure if the implemented service or lesson was effective (University of Oregon, 2010). Since my lesson was to involve physical activities and instructions, I divided the objectives into two categories; language objectives and active participation objectives. This break down would help me be exhaustive and thorough as possible.

By the end of the lesson, the students would be in a position to clearly explain the meaning of interval workout. The students would also be able to practically show and participate in the various challenges that would exemplify what interval workout means. For the exceptional students in the physical activities, they would try to make the time lapse for the low intensity…… [Read More]

References

University of Oregon, (2010). Students Learning Outcomes: To Transform and Advance Student Learning. http://sa-assessment.uoregon.edu/ResourcesandTraining/WritingStudentLearningOutcomes.aspx
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Developmental Learning and Technology

Words: 9878 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 80375610

Elementary Special Education Teachers Place Value in the use of Technology Resources for Students?

Alix Desulme

Technology is an integral part of society. Students learn through use of technology like personal computers, tablets, and e-books (Garland & Tadeja, 2013). Computers can provide access to videos, documents, and other forms of data that students have the choice of absorbing via visual or auditory methods. Tablets provide the same access but with a light-weight, touch responsive interface. Technology investment within schools not only enables varied learning opportunities for students, but it also helps students discover or improve their own ability to research and analyze information, collaborate and communicate, and solve problems (Lim, Zhao, Tondeur, Chai, & Tsai, 2013). Comment by Steve Moskowitz: Yes, this is the reason

Technology helps provide other benefits. Integrating technology in schools, especially in other areas like special education enable staff to develop new ways of teaching and…… [Read More]

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Motivational Reward System Pro's Con's the Learning

Words: 2551 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 84897524

On the one hand, it can increase the uncertainty he accumulated during the time in which he was subject to abusive treatment. On the other hand, he can limit the level of trust he offers to any superior with authority. Therefore, the punishment-based system of motivation can cause serious long-term effects.

Another reason for which punishment-based motivation systems is not useful for the construction of a stable and reliable motivation is the fact that it is not built or it does not appeal to a system of values based on mutual respect. More precisely, the element of fear present in the relationship between the professor and the student is not able to have a consistent contribution to the establishment of a respectful relationship and once the fear is gone, an offensive attitude replaces any submissive behavior from the part of the student. Moreover, he comes to reject any future authority.…… [Read More]

References

Cameron, J., Pierce, W. (2002). Rewards and Intrinsic Motivation: Resolving the Controversy. Westport: Bergin & Garvey.

Chan, E. (Maech 2004) Student Motivation/Teacher Motivation. Motivation for Mandatory Courses. Vol. 7, No. 3. Faculty of Human and Social Development, University of Victoria, Canada.

Cook, J. (October-November 2003) Motivational Strategies: The Outcome Starts Here Motivating through Extrinsic and Intrinsic Rewards. American Music Teacher. Vol. 53, issue 2..

Hurlbert, W. (2006). Employee motivation: Build trust and respect. Big Business World. 2006. Retrieved 14 January 2008, at http://blogbusinessworld.blogspot.com/2006/07/employee-motivation-build-trust-and.html
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Difference Between Goals and Objectives Essay

Words: 772 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: Array

The terms “goals” and “objectives” are used interchangeably but in fact, they do connote different things. Particularly in the context of teaching and learning, it is important to differentiate between goals and objectives. Goals refer to broad end results, whereas objectives tend to be more specific (Norman, 2017). Thus, a learner may have a goal of improving patient care, with the learning objectives being to reduce medical errors by fifty percent. Another key difference between goals and objectives is that the latter can and should be framed in measurable or quantitative ways. Goals do not need to be measurable and can in fact be personal or even emotional in nature, whereas objectives do need to be concrete. For example, a goal might be to master the new informatics system, and the specific learning objectives would be to input three hundred new data points into a particular information management system.
Using…… [Read More]

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Learning Organization Consolidate Research Definitions Organization Learning

Words: 1402 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 2157851

learning organization. *Consolidate research definitions organization learning. *Explain organization a learning organization (teaching federal government hospital). *Discuss advantages disadvantages organizational learning.

The learning organization

The modern day business climate is more challenging and dynamic and it forces the economic agents to seek alternative sources of strategic advantages. One example in this sense is represented by the enhancement of the emphasis placed on supporting learning and the continuous development of the organization of learning. While this concept is gaining more and more interest within the economic agents, it is also highly applicable within public entities, such as hospitals.

This project then starts at the premises that the concept of the learning organization is highly applicable in the context of the teaching federal government hospital. The purpose of this paper is that of supporting a higher understanding of the learning organization, in order to lead to a superior application within the real…… [Read More]

References:

Appelbaum, S.H., 2000, The competitive advantage of organizational learning, Journal of Workplace Learning, Vol. 12, No. 2

Dowshen, S., 2010, Questions and answers, Kids' Health, http://kidshealth.org/parent/question/parenting/hospitals.html last accessed on August 6, 2012

John, D., 2002, Organizational learning and effectiveness, Routledge

Karash, R., Why a learning organization?  http://world.std.com/~lo/WhyLO.html  last accessed on August 6, 2012
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Learning Organizations Leadership and Learning

Words: 4434 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 79874533



2. True learning organizations allocate the time and resources that are required to develop a competitive advantage based on the lifelong learning and training opportunities that are provided to everyone in the organization.

3. A learning organization not only develops the opportunities for learning but it also provides a corporate culture that encourage all of its members to become self-actualized, thereby contributing to the advancement of the larger society in which the organization competes. .

4. The leadership of true learning organizations ensure that the corporate vision is communicated to all members and provides a framework in which their feedback is welcomed and acted upon, as well as ensuring that an environment exists in which there "are no bad questions" concerning the direction in which the enterprise is headed.

5. Learning organizations make it possible to consolidate work and learning as well as encouraging all members of the enterprise to…… [Read More]

References

Albert, M. 1998 "Shaping a Learning Organization through the Linkage of Action Research

Interventions." Organization Development Journal, vol. 16, no. 3, pp. 29-31.

Avolio, B.J., & Bass, B.M. 2002 Developing potential across a full range of leadership:

Cases on transactional and transformational leadership. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence
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Learning Style Knowledge of Learning

Words: 1471 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 98112955

Naturally, visual learners do not enjoy reading books as auditory learners would, as written information is mostly processed in the mind's ears rather than by visualizing the text. Finally, a Kinesthetic or Tactile learner will predominantly learn information through touch and movement. In other words, kinesthetic learners would enjoy hands on laboratory session more than a routine class lecture. They also like to simulate events to understand them better. [Marcia L. Conner, pg 47]

Advantages of Knowing the Learning Style

Now that we have seen the domination of different modalities resulting in different learning styles among students, it is pertinent to understand the implications of such differences in context of their academic performance. Several studies have attested to that fact that only 20% of students learn through their auditory modality while 80% are either visual or kinesthetic. [Donna Walker, pg 16] However, in stark contrast, most of higher education is…… [Read More]

Bibliography

1) Marcia L. Conner, (2004) 'Learn More Now: 10 Simple steps to Learning Better, Smarter and Faster',

2) Richard M. Felder, (2005), 'Understanding Student Differences', Journal of Engineering education, 94(1) 57-72, available online at,  http://www4.ncsu.edu/unity/lockers/users/f/felder/public/Papers/Understanding_Differences.pdf 

3) Donna Walker Tileston, (2005) 10 Best Teaching Practices: How Brain research, Learning Styles and Standards Define Teaching Competences', Published by Corwin Press.

4) Steve Garnett, (2005), 'Using Brainpower in the Classroom: Five steps to accelerate Learning', Published by Routledge
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Learning Motivation and Long-Term Retention

Words: 2367 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 42018912



In conjunction with these perspectives on how to create a highly effective online learning platform that aligns to the specific needs of students, there is a corresponding area of research that concentrates on teaching resiliency in the teaching process. The work of Dr. Carol Dweck of Stanford University underscores the need for leading students to continually challenge themselves to grow and have a very strong growth mindset vs. A limited on. She draws on an empirically-derived research study that shows the greater the growth mindset of even the most talented and gifted mindset, the greater the long-term performance gains they make in life (Dweck, 2006). Her book, Mindset, challenges both students and teachers to create a culture of continual focus on excellence and continual striving to improve, never taking a closed or limited mindset to improvement. It is an inspirational book and shows that there is hope for continual improvement…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Ahlfeldt, S., Mehta, S., & Sellnow, T. (2005). Measurement and analysis of student engagement in university classes where varying levels of PBL methods of instruction are in use. Higher Education Research & Development, 24(1), 5-20.

Basile, a. & D'Aquila, J.M. (2002). An experimental analysis of computer-mediated instruction and student attitudes in a Principles of Financial Accounting course. Journal of Education for Business, 77(3), 137.

Beard, L.A. (2002). Students perceptions of online vs. campus instruction. Education, 122(4), 658.

Dutton, j. d.; Dutton, m.; Perry, j. (2002). How do Online Students Differ from Lecture Students? JALN. Vol. 6, no. 1, July.
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Learning How the Previous Experiences Interests and

Words: 787 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 76285259

Learning

How the Previous Experiences, Interests and Thought Processes of Students Influence the Learning of Current Content Area Concepts

The objective of this study is to examine how the previous experiences, interests, and thought processes of students can influence the learning of current content area concepts. This work will examine the link between past experiences of students, student interests and present learning and address key principles of brain-based learning including the importance of meaningful learning, knowledge background. This work will examine how consideration of past experiences, learning and student interest should be an important part of lesson planning for the teacher. Specific examples will be included.

Prior knowledge includes the learner's attitudes and experiences. Attitudes include the learner's beliefs about themselves as learners and the learners' awareness of their own individual strengths and interests. Experiences include normal activities that are relative to learning and the events in the lives of…… [Read More]

References

Critical Issue: Building on Prior Knowledge and Meaningful Student Contexts/Cultures (nd) NCREL. Retrieved from: http://www.ncrel.org/sdrs/areas/issues/students/learning/lr100.htm

Haverila, M. (nd) The Influence of Experience, Ability and Interest on e-Learning Effectiveness. EURODL. Retrieved from:  http://www.eurodl.org/?article=359 

Learning Reconsidered: A Campus-Wide Focus on the Student Experience. (2004) The National Association of Student Personnel Administrators, The American College Personnel Association. Jan 2004. Retrieved from: http://www.myacpa.org/pub/documents/learningreconsidered.pdf

Prior Knowledge (nd) The Strategic Teaching and Reading Project Guidebook (Kujawa & Huske, 1995). Cited in: North Central Regional Educational Laboratory. Retrieved from: http://www.ncrel.org/sdrs/areas/issues/students/learning/lr1pk.htm
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Learning Organization the Skokie Library

Words: 3245 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 93474499



Most significantly, too, the library runs a free service and a book mobile to reach those who are unable for various reasons (such as being handicapped, ill, or elderly) to use the library. The book mobile has its own selection of books, toys, and a teacher who is available to instruct those who desire instruction and those who need help with their homework.

The library's vision statement is that it seeks to help people pursue lifelong leaning and discovery, as well as enjoyment of popular culture and the arts. It also seeks to help residents become well informed, to engage each other in dialogue and respectful discourse, and to actively participate in the life of the community. All of this makes it an organization that disseminates learning in the fullest sense of the word.

In a practical way -- and as per its mission statement -- it does this by…… [Read More]

References

Brown, J.S. & Duguid, P. (1991). Organizational learning and communities-of-practice: Towards a unified view of working, learning and innovation. Organization Science. 2(1): 40-57.

Cohen, W.M. & Levinthal, D.A. (2000). Absorptive Capacity: A new perspective on learning and innovation. In R. Cross and S. Israelit (eds) Strategic learning in the knowledge economy. (pp. 39-68) Boston: Butterworth Heinemann.

Comley, L., Arandez, L., Holden, S & Kuriata, E. (2000). Are TAFE organisations learning organisations? Do they 'walk the talk'? The Centre for Curriculum Innovation and Development. Melbourne: Victoria University

Cross, R. And Israelit, S. (2000) Strategic learning in the knowledge economy. Boston: Heinemann.
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Learn How the Law Works by Memorizing

Words: 2253 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 43280079

learn how the law works by memorizing a set of rules or theorems. A misconception lies in the commonly asked question, "What is the law?" -- since it presupposes that it's all laid out somewhere on great stone tablets. The truth is that the answer often is, "It depends." As you'll soon discover the legal system basically is a method of applying abstract rules or social policy to concrete situations. To comprehend its workings, you have to get involved in the process -- it's a little like learning to swim in that you've got to jump in and splash around a bit. It's not an unpleasant sensation, but it may seem little strange until you get used to it and learn to keep your head above water. You'll discover it's a bit like peeling an onion in that as you strip away one layer of complexity you find another one…… [Read More]

References

Carter, L.H. (1979) Reason in Law.

New York: Little Brown & Co.

Dershowitz, A.M. (2002) Shouting Fire: Civil Liberties in a Turbulent Age.

New York: Little Brown & Co.
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Learning and Development

Words: 3387 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 4344802

Business

Leadership Learning & Development

The reorganization of a business can take many forms. One of the most crucial areas for reorganization when expanding a business, buying a new business, or even restructuring because of bankruptcy, is to focus the new management team and to incorporate viable solutions for leadership learning & development protection. This report aims to draw up a management development program, devise a program that ensures that the learning needs of the organization are met in a sound and reliable strategic plan and illustrate how a well formatted strategic plan can tie in the objectives associated with learning and development planning.

In addition, the report must also justify the management development program including the strengths and weaknesses of this type of program. By explaining the importance of learning and development in the strategic direction of an organization, the management team is more likely to successfully evaluate what…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Ciulla, Joanne B. (1998). Ethics, the Heart of Leadership. Westport, CT: Praeger Publishing.

Daft, Richard L. (1997). Management (4th ed.). New York, NY: The Dryden Press.

Dew, John R. (1997). Empowerment and Democracy in the Workplace: Applying Adult Education Theory and Practice for Cultivating Empowerment. Westport, CT: Quorum Books.

Durgee, Jeffrey F., Gina Colarelli O'Connor, and Robert W. Veryzer. (1996) Translating Values Into Product Wants. Journal of Advertising Research. Vol. 36.
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Learning Educational Psychology Multiple Choice

Words: 3789 Length: 13 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 64594759



A behavior resulting from injury or disease behavior resulting from experience behavior resulting from disease or drugs biologically determined behavior

Evidence that learning has occurred is seen in published research studies changes in thinking changes in behavior emotional stability

Change in performance is preceded by bad reviews scientific research the behavior of others change in disposition

If-then statements may also be referred to as principles generalization hypothesis laws

Statements which summarize relationships are restricted to the physical sciences known as hypothesis known as generalization never used in the social sciences

Rules which govern the gathering of information are known as rigid and dogmatic scientific method being flexible

APA rules for research studies

Informed consent is given by the researcher judicial review the American Psychological Association the research subject

Laws are to beliefs as truth is to untruth accuracy is to inaccuracy convictions are to facts are to convictions

Trace conditioning…… [Read More]

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Learning Assessment and Accountability

Words: 344 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 30801922

Responsibly," by Richard J. Shavel and Leta Huang, I find that I very much agree with the theme of this article. The primary point that the authors are conveying is that testing has become not so much about reflecting an accurate picture of what students are learning and retaining, but more about the test itself -- testing for testing's sake. As the authors put it, "From high-stakes testing in K-12 education...we know full well that what you test is what you get because teachers will teach to the test." (p. 11) The problem, as the authors see it, is that everyone has lost sight of what the goals and objectives of testing are -- or should be. Teachers will absolutely teach to a test because it is in results that funding lies.

The authors of this article propose a rather ingenious solution. The framework they offer would have schools look…… [Read More]

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Learning Culture and Memory

Words: 2090 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 91902626

Memory
A learning culture is an organizational practice, system and values that encourage and support individuals and organizations to increase performance levels, competence and knowledge. It promotes continuous support and improvement for an achievement of goals. Adjustment of current strategies can be done by adjusting to a trend, business model, capital model, launch strategy and making a great plan.
There are several ethical principles and professional standards of learning and cognition in the workplace. Some of them are; encouraging contact between faculty and student, developing cooperation between students, encouraging active learning and respecting adverse talents and learning techniques. Some implications that should be considered when working with others are; demonstrating respect at work, providing feedback with an impact, showing appreciation and overcoming fear of conflict.
WEEK 3 DISCUSSION
Memory Suppression in Alzheimer’s disease
Alzheimer’s diseases is chronic degenerative disease of the neurons. It causes about 60-70% of dementia cases. The…… [Read More]

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Objectives of the Marketing Plan

Words: 3183 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 98329528

Marketing

Muffin Tops Limited Company Principles Of Marketing

Increasing the awareness of consumers to the product provided by the company will be one of its key objectives. Situational analysis of the market where the organization is shows that the company has the weakness of low awareness of consumers to its products. Low consumer awareness to the product translates to decreased organizational visibility alongside the consumers utilizing its services. Therefore, increasing consumer awareness to the products of the company will improve the performance of the company in the modern competitive marketplace significantly.

Secondly, the company strives to increase the brand of the products provided to its consumers in the marketplace. Situational analysis of the organization reveals that the company faces the challenge of weak brand name. Weak brand name threatens the realization of organizational performance, competencies, and sustainability in the marketplace full of well-developed companies that provide similar products as Muffin…… [Read More]

References

Cafferky, M.E., & Wentworth, J. (2010). Breakeven analysis: The definitive guide to cost- volume-profit analysis. New York: Business Expert Press.

Hague, P. (2004). Market Research in Practice: A Guide to the Basics. London: Kogan Page.

Luther, W.M. (2001). The marketing plan: How to prepare and implement it. New York: AMACOM

Luther, W.M. (2011). The Marketing Plan: How to Prepare and Implement it. New York: AMACOM Div American Mgmt Assn
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Learning to Use Technology in Class

Words: 2212 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 97136931

Planning Process

Explain in detail how you will address each of the needs identified in part 2 include changes necessary for environment, engagement, application, and tools. Make sure to include a list of technology resources currently available and those that must be purchased.

State Goals and Objectives with Local Strategies and Measures

Environment The changes necessary for the environment involve going from one based on the physical environment to one that is predicated on a cloud-based environment. In this regard, the change is mostly one of architecture. Virtually all applications and requisite software the students and instructors will use will be accessed through the cloud.

Engagement The means of engagement will be the Bring Your Own Device phenomenon, in which students utilize their own mobile devices for the purpose of working in the classroom. Those without such devices will be provided the most accessible ones (a smart phone) via the…… [Read More]

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Learning to Read

Words: 1221 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 31401527

Early Childhood

In "Emergent Literacy," uth Wilson claims that formal reading instruction "especially if introduced too early…can actually interfere with emergent literacy," (p. 1). The author bases her claim on personal observation with her own children, as well as on empirical evidence related to early childhood literacy education. Using a combination of anecdotal and empirical evidence strengthens the author's stance, and offers a rich opportunity for personal reflection. Wilson does not disparage structured or formal literacy training in early childhood. Instead, she calls for a more organic approach that stresses parental engagement.

Wilson cites evidence from a number of sources showing that literacy emerges in many different settings, and is not dependent on print. Folk practices, including playing with sounds and simply engaging children with words, can be as effective if not more, in helping immerse the child in a literate universe. Finally, Wilson emphasizes the importance of the home…… [Read More]

Reference

Wilson, R.A. (n.d.). Emergent literacy. Early Childhood News. Retrieved online:  http://www.earlychildhoodnews.com/earlychildhood/article_view.aspx?ArticleID=212
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Promoting ESL in Work-Based Learning

Words: 8696 Length: 25 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 24782649

Learning that is imparted through an educational institution or training company within the workplace setting in known as Work-based learning (WL). WL is administered by an external teacher in professional capacity and supervised by an employee of the company where WL is imparted. An exhaustive literature review indicates that it was only after Moser report's shocking revelations, regarding lack of literacy, language, and numeracy skills in one out every five adults in ritain that U.K took expedited policy actions to introduce WL. WL is relevant for all adult and young learners and more pertinent for instruction of English as a second language (ESL). Since medium of interaction and business transactions in U.K is English, instruction of ESL is essential for empowering vast percentage of population that does not have requisite skills to compete in labor market due to lack of language skills. Increased use of computers and multimedia in teaching…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Anderson, RC & Freebody, P 1981. 'Vocabulary knowledge'. In J.T. Guthrie (Ed.),

Beck, IL, McKeown, MG & Kucan, L 2002. 'Bringing words to life: Robust vocabulary instruction'. New York: Guilford.

Becker, HJ 2000. 'Pedagogical motivations for student computer use that lead to student engagement'. Educational Technology, Vol. 40, no. 5, pp. 5-17. Viewed on 6 Mar 2013, [http://www.crito.uci.edu/tlc/findings/spec_rpt_pedagogical/ped_mot_pdf.pdf]

Brown, HD 2001. 'Teaching by principles: An interactive approach to language pedagogy'. (2nd ed.). White Plains, NY: Longman.
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Becoming a Learning Organization

Words: 1777 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 91984707

Learning Organization is defined as an organization with an ingrained philosophy for anticipating, reacting and responding to change, complexity and uncertainty. It is an organization where you cannot not learned because learning is interwoven into the fabric of the day-to-day business. The concept of the Learning Organization is increasingly relevant given the increasing difficulty and uncertainty of the global business environment. Unfortunately, the Learning Organization has been a long time in coming, and by most accounts it has not yet arrived. The concept of a learning organization is a paradigm shift from the way business has traditionally been done.

One of the characteristics of a learning organization is that it moves beyond simple employee training to more of an environment that stresses problem solving, innovation, and learning. Organizations that embody the traits of such an environment consist of five areas, or disciplines, that make a learning organization what it is.…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Beller, J. (n.d). The Importance of Shifting to Learning Organizations. Retrieved January 20,2005, from the World Wide Web site: http://216.109.117.135/search/cache?p=%22five+disciplines+of+a+learning+organization%22& ei=UTF-8& fl=0& u=www.justinbeller.com/samples/the_importance_of_shifting_to_learning_organizations.pdf& w=%22five+disciplines+of+a+learning+organization%22& d=BCBF846FF1& icp=1& .international=us

Larsen, K. (1996). Learning Organizations. Retrieved January 21,2005, from the World Wide Web site: http://home.nycap.rr.com/klarsen/learnorg/index.html#tea

Nathans, H. (2000). Double Loop Learning (C. Argyris). Retrieved January 20,2005, from Hannah Nathans and Enneagram Web site:http://216.239.57.104/search?q=cache:vD2jeJuRGosJ:www.iac.wur.nl/iaclo/htmlarea/docs/msp/DoubleLoopLearning.doc+%22concept+of+double-loop+learning+%22& hl=en

Santos, A. (n.d). Peter M. Senge, "The Leader's New Work: Building Learning Organizations," in Sloan Management Review (Fall 1990), pp. 7-23. Retrieved January 21,2005, from Aldo Santos Web site: http://home.nycap.rr.com/klarsen/learnorg/senge2.html