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This idea of guidance is important; children need the framework and support to expand their ZPD. Since the ZPD defines the skills and abilities that children are in the process of developing, there is also a range of development that we might call a "stretch goal"(Mooney).
For Vygotsky, supplying the child with a combination of theoretical and empirical learning methods is a more robust way to ensure cognition. This leads to something he called "leading activity," which, especially in middle childhood (e.g. elementary school), becomes an important formative step in the development of self-consciousness and a way to define the student's role within the world. Sell- reflection is one major accomplishment during this period, the transition from using social and cultural norms as values for evaluating the external world (peers, etc.) and then also mastering these concepts for inward, or self-reflection. As this process evolves, the child in the middle…
Boakes, R. (1984). From Darwin to Behaviorism. Cambridge: Cabridge University Press.
Bronfenbrenner, U. (1979). The Ecology of Human Development. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Cremin, L. (1961). The Transformation of the School. New York: Vantage.
Durlach, P. (1989). Learning and Performance in Pavlovian Conditioning. In e. Klein, Contemporary Learning Theories (pp. 19-54). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.
It documented the preceding era's educational beliefs and styles in the field of mathematics and the results from implementing those beliefs on a wide scale.
The study sought to organize three themes including; "broad sociopolitical forces, particularly highly publicized educational policy statements; trends in mathematics research and theories of learning and instruction" (Mathematics, 2004, pg. 16). These themes, in particular, were focused on the effect (or lack thereof) they had on the field of mathematics. What the review seemed to find was that there were a number of areas of improvement that could take place in the field. One such area was that "too much instruction, particularly under the influence of behaviorism, had come to mean that students simply memorized what the teacher directed them to learn" (Mathematics, pg. 17).
Since the course allowed us to discover the differences in learning styles and theories it is interesting that one of…
Becker, K.; (2007) Digital game-based learning once removed: Teaching teachers, British Journal of Educational Technology, Vol. 38, No. 3, pp. 478-488
Espin, C.A.; Cevasco, J.; van den Broek, P.; Baker, S.; Gersten, R.; (2007) History as narrative: The nature and quality of historical understanding for students with LD, Journal of Learning Disabilities, Vol. 40, No. 2, pp. 174-82
Mathematics education in the United States: Past to present (2004) Journal of Learning Disabilities, Vol. 37, No. 1, pp. 16-31
Spada, N.; (2005) Conditions and challenges in developing school-based SLA research programs, the Modern Language Journal, Vol. 89, No. 3, pp. 328-338
(Wheeler; ichey; Tokkman; Sablynski, 2006)
In order to accomplish an outstanding job of supervising external relationship, companies must be ready for undertaking an outstanding job of carrying out internal relationships. This endeavor initiates with the recruitment, selection and retaining the appropriate staff. Whereas companies try hard to stand up to the knowledge, skills and aptitude -- KSAs of the prospective workforce to the urgencies of the job, majority of them does not have the time or the wherewithal to execute detailed recruitment and selection systems. This is particularly the case in which comparatively increased turnover levels authorize that hiring and selection processes be speedy and feasible. In order to live up to this challenge, managers sometimes concentrate on a collection of simply expressive personal attributes such as experience, length of service, age or education that can be evaluated during interview or going through the details of a job application. (Hartline;…
Benavides, Lily. (2006, Oct) "Retention Metrics: The Next Step in Employee Retention & Engagement." Retrieved 23 October, 2007 at http://www.nchra.org/staticcontent/download/CH_1012_SolanoYolo.pdf
Gass, David. (2007) "The Importance of Employee Retention."
Retrieved 23 October, 2007 at http://www.articlenorth.com/Article/the-Importance-of-Employee-Orientation/19328
Harrelson, Gary L. (2002, Oct-Dec) "Commentary" Journal of Athletic Training, vol. 37, no.
The role of language was less visible in Skinner, other than as one, among many reinforcement tools. Vygotsky stressed language acquisition as a vital, constant, but again, not always predictable and sequential part of different individual's learning, and that the word could be a microcosm of a human consciousness, if the right words could render a concept uniquely comprehensible to individuals in a particular learning environment. Thus in Skinner's rubric of learning, the learner was the passive instrument of the teacher, while in Vygotsky the learner was more individually empowered, but more socially located and dependant creature. However, unlike Skinner, who saw the ability of an individual to learn as limitless provided there was proper environmental shaping on the part of the conditioning teacher, Vygotsky believed saw learning as limited unless a student had proper social contacts. He believed in the need for learning to take place in developmental stages,…
It focuses on internal thoughts, expectations, and feeback loops. We develop our own unique "style" of learning through practice, but also a predisposition toward, reading it aloud; playing wih toys and manipultors. This combines with styles like aural, visual, and kinesthetic to form a basis for individual learning theory.
Summary 4 -- Observational Theory -- Learning through imitation - It is very easy to see how observational learning is important in early childhood education -- we learn to immitate adults and therefore become somewhat acculturated as well. However, observational learning cannot replace cognitive thinking about certain skills and actions (surgery, translating, piloting a complex machine, etc.). Instead, it becomes somewhat like behavior modification in that it becomes habitual -- almost reflexive and inate to the learner.
Summary 5- Does culture shape learning? -- One of the seminal activities that separates humans from other species is our ability to use cognition…
learning theories you selected.
I chose social constructivism and critical pedagogy.
I have always been fascinated by social constructivism for it enables me to see that much of what I take for granted has, in reality, been shaped by a constantly evolving and developing process of cultural interpretation. As Berger and Luckmann (1996) have explained in their 'Social construction of reality', we are shaped by our cultural perspectives and internalizations but then, in turn, certain individuals act in certain ways that may be different to the cultural norms of the time, and, by doing so, they slightly change cultural perspective. In a dialectic twist, the evolved culture continues on its way shaping interpretations, perspective, and behavior of all those born into that specific culture, ethnicity, and race.
As compared to nursing, I have noticed that many fads that were once common, no longer exist. This not only refers to different…
Bjorklund (2006). No man's land: gender bias and social constructivism in the diagnosis of borderline personality disorder Issues in Mental Health Nursing, 27, 3-23
Berger, P. & Luckmann, T. (1966), The Social Construction of Reality: A Treatise in the Sociology of Knowledge, Garden City, NY: Anchor Books.
Street, F. (1992) Nursing: a critical ethnography of clinical nursing practice SUNY Press: NY
Learning Theories: Implications for the Nurse Educator
There are two specific learning theories that have to be addressed here. These are social cognitive and constructivist. By discussing both of these through the lens of the nurse educator, one is better able to understand how these theories work within that context and how they can affect not only what the nurse educator chooses to teach but what and how those who need nursing education actually learn. Social cognitive theory is focused on the observation of others (Bandura, 1985; Berg & Miller, 1992). In other words, it is believed that human beings cannot learn everything from their own experiences, and that part of helping the human race to continue is learning how to adapt from seeing what others are doing (Pajares, et al., 2009). While that might seem to be common sense, it is a very important theory of learning that has…
Bandura, A. (1985). Social foundations of thought and action. NJ: Prentice-Hall.
Berg, I.K. & Miller, S.D. (1992). Working with the problem drinker: A Solution-focused approach. NY: Norton.
Pajares, F., Prestin, A., Chen, J., Nabi, LR. (2009). Social cognitive theory and media effects. In Nabi, Robin L.; Oliver, Mary Beth, The SAGE Handbook of Media Processes and Effects. LA: Sage.
Atkinson R.K., Derry S.J., Renkl A., & Wortham D.W. (2000). Learning from examples: Instructional principles from the worked examples research. Review of Educational Research, 70: 181 -- 214.
Learning Theories and Models
One of the earliest types of learning theory is that of behaviorist theory, made famous by theorists such as B.F. Skinner. Although Skinner formalized the principles of behaviorism down to a science, at its core behaviorism is based upon simple 'carrot and stick' theory learning, namely that students are punished when they are incorrect and rewarded when they produce the desired response -- or in the workplace where workers are docked pay when they are late and rewarded with a bonus if they sell more widgets.
Cognitive theories of learning, as the name suggests, are based in the belief that "knowledge is actively constructed by learners and that any account of knowledge makes essential references to cognitive structures" (Behaviorism, 2011, Teaching guide for graduate instructors). Skinner used schedules of reinforcement in the form of operant conditioning to train animals to run mazes and push buttons by…
Behaviorism. (2011). Teaching guide for graduate instructors. UC Berkeley. Retrieved from:
Constructivism as a paradigm for teaching and learning. (2013). Concept to Classroom.
Retrieved from: http://www.thirteen.org/edonline/concept2class/constructivism/
There are advantages and disadvantages to the theory of constructivism. On the positive side, it means that children are ferocious learners because they have the innate neural tools in place to properly absorb and classify information. Piaget would argue that children need only be given the stimuli -- environment, information or other factors -- at the appropriate time when a child's brain is ready to absorb information.
Piaget suggested that learning takes place in stages. During one period, for example, a child might be fascinated by volumes, numbers and the relationship between them. The child may then want to focus on understanding everything that there is to do with size, volume, counting and other mathematical and geometric concepts. Once that child's framework has been 'filled,' his curiosity is sated and he/she moves to another framework waiting to be filled.
The disadvantage of using Piaget's theory is that it makes it…
Bandura, a. (1988). Organizational Application of Social Cognitive Theory. Australian Journal of Management, 275-302.
Hetherington, E. & . (1999). Child Psychology: A Contemporary Viewpoint. New York: McGraw-Hill.
Pirsig, R. (1974). Zen and the Art of Motorcycle Maintenance. New York: William Morrow.
Skinner, B. (1938). The Behavior of Organisms: An Experimental Analysis. New York: D. Appleton-Century.
Learning Theories of ELLs and School Culture
Situated cognition theory;
Situated cognition theory states that the knowledge that people possess is embedded in their activities, culture and context within which it is learned. This type of learning is also commonly referred to as "situated learning." A lot of learning practice methods assume the acquisition of knowledge from the situation of learning an applied theory. Critics point out that such an assumption inhibits the effectiveness of the teaching practice. Inferences from recent research indicate that knowledge is situated as is partly a product of the activity, context and culture in which it is hatched and applied. Researchers have cast light on how this perspective of knowledge influences an understanding of the learning process. They point out that conventional schooling often ignores the critical role of the school of culture in the overall learning that goes on at school. These researchers have…
A., C. (1988). Cognitive Apprenticeship and Instructional Technology. Technica Report.
Brown, J. S. (1989). Situated Cognition and The Culture of Learning. Educational Researcher.
J.G., G. (1998). Cognitive Apprenticeship and Instructional Technology. Technical Report.
Krashen. (1994). Krashen and the Natural Approach. Retrieved from ESL Proffessional Development: http://esl-proffessional-development-wikispaces.com/krashen+and+the+Natural+Approach
The Importance of Diet and Exercise among African Immigrant Ages 25 to 50 Years Old Living in Grande Prairie Alberta Canada.
Obesity is a serious health concern in world today. The health effect of obesity is that it predisposes one to health complications such as diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, and hypertension. Such health complications that are often associated with a state of overweight makes it a concern to health care providers and the public. The state of obesity has been prevalent among immigrant communities who come from developing countries and Africa in particular. The prevalence of obesity in this population has been attributed to factors such as exposure to foods with high calories and presence of technology that lessens the amount of manual labor required (Gele & Mbalilaki, 2013). One study found out that obesity has the effect of increased mortality rate in any population due to its ability to cause…
Anis A., Zhang W., Bansback N., Guh D., Amarsi Z & Birmingham C. 2010. Obesity and overweight in Canada: an updated cost-of-illness study. Obes Rev. 11(1):31-
McDonough C, Dunkley AJ, Aujla N, Morris D, Davies MJ & Khunti K. 2013. The association between body mass index and health-related quality of life: influence of ethnicity on this relationship. Diabetes Obes Metab. 15(4):342-8.
Gele A. & Mbeleke A. (2013). Overweight and Obesity among African Immigrants. Biomed Central, 6(1): 419-523
Twells LK, Gregory DM, Reddigan J, Midodzi WK. 2014. Current and predicted prevalence of obesity in Canada: a trend analysis. CMAJ Open.3; 2(1):E18-26.
The key assumptions underlying strain, control, and learning theories of criminal behavior are similar, which is why they are sometimes integrated or at least interrelated in criminological discourse. Strain theories evolved from Durkheim’s theory of anomie: the individual’s disregard for social norms arising from the breakdown of social cohesion (Crossman, 2019). A breakdown of social cohesion can result from the ineffectiveness or the perceived illegitimacy of social institutions. Thomas Merton proposed that anomie can be exacerbated when individuals experience strain—or psychological distress—resulting from unmet needs, especially when those needs are unmet due to sociological problems such as inequality, injustice, or disparity.
Control theories posit a set of internal and external controls on individual or even collective behavior. Social institutions are assumed to serve as mechanisms of social control, also influencing individual behaviors via a series of real or perceived constraints. Like strain theories, control theories assume that social cohesion is…
Thus instrumental condition would rely on the notion that a person generates a response rather than an environmental stimulus. I have found that both people and stimulus may elicit certain behaviors both in and outside of the classroom.
Instrumental conditioning is modeled after animal experiments which showed that the individual's environment can reinforce response controls, thus the best responses occur when reinforcement of a particular behavior is given. This I have learned to be the case in the classroom most assuredly, where students are more likely to exhibit positive behaviors more frequently when they are reinforced immediately for demonstrating positive behaviors. Generally the patterns that emerge from such conditioning are self-directed, meaning that I have found that most students engage in behaviors and continue to engage in behaviors which they find result in a positive response regardless of the environment they are placed in.
With regard to controlling adverse behavior,…
Chang, Min-Yu S. (1998). "Learning Theory and Advertising." CIA Advertising. 23,
October 2004, Available: http://www.ciadvertising.org/studies/student/98_spring/theory/learning.html
Klein, S.B. (2002). "Principles and Applications of Appetitive Conditioning." Mississippi
State University. McGraw Hill. Education. 22, October, 2004, Available:
Dominant Learning Theories
Excellence in the field of pedagogy depends on an understanding of the major learning theories and models along with an ability to use them when appropriate. Even if one doesn't agree with these major learning theories, it's still important to be aware of them as a professional. A strong comprehension of the major learning theories can also help to guide one's actions and choices as an educator, scholar or general pedagogue.
Behaviorism, for example, is a major learning theory which asserts that the bulk of learning that occurs in human beings is done through conditioning. This is important as it puts a lot of focus on the power of the environment and how the environment can shape a person's behaviors through the stimuli acquired. Behaviorism is a school of learning which pays very little attention to mental states, finding things like moods and emotions to be too…
Cherry, K. (2014). What Is Behaviorism? Retrieved from about.com: http://psychology.about.com/od/behavioralpsychology/f/behaviorism.htm
Euromedinfo.eu. (2013). Behavioral, cognitive, humanist approaches. Retrieved from euromedinfo.eu: http://www.euromedinfo.eu/behavioral-cognitive-humanist-approaches.html/
Fritscher, L. (2014). Cognitive Theory. Retrieved from about.com: http://phobias.about.com/od/glossary/g/cognitivethedef.htm
learning theories, and apply them to the adult learning environment. Specifically behavioral, constructivist, and cognitive learning theories are examined.
Behavioral Learning Theories
This approach to learning suggests that learning is the result of external stimulus and response to stimulus, thus the learner's environment is the primary factor influencing learning (Hergenhahn & Olson, 1997). The focus of the behavioral learning model is changes in behavior facilitated by stimuli provided by the learner's environment; not stimuli produced by the learner. einforcement of stimuli in the environment are thought to effect change and therefore become critical to the learning process in this learning theory model. The learner's responses to stimuli can be strengthened depending on how one is conditioned to respond; meaning, in the behavioral model, positive reinforcement can serve to enforce positive learning.
Also important to the behavioral model is repetition and generalization of important learning concepts (Hartley, 1998). These serve to…
Bruner, J.S. (1966). Toward a theory of instruction. Harvard University Press. Cambridge.
Bruner, J.S. (1996). The culture of education. Harvard University Press. Cambridge.
Hartley, J. (1998). Learning and studying. A research perspective. London: Routledge.
Huang, Hisu-Mei. (2002). Toward constructivism for adult learners in online learning environments. British Journal of Educational Technology. Vol 33, No. 1, 27-37.
Integrating Learing Theories
Integrating Learning Theories
In adult education, there are number of theories utilized to influence the tools educators are using to connect with students. To fully understand them requires looking at the different ones. This will be accomplished by focusing on simulating the ideal teaching philosophy, current research in adult theory, comparing / contrasting them and analyzing those which integrate with our personal teaching philosophy. Together, these elements will highlight the best techniques for reaching out to adult learners.
Simulate the ideal teaching philosophy
The ideal teaching philosophy is one that connects to individuals using their unique learning styles and has a way of reinforcing them. This involves having a combination of active classroom discussion, group work and hands on training. During this process, they will utilize technology to enhance their understanding of key concepts and focus on meeting important objectives in the course. When this happens, the…
Davis, D. (2011). The Adult Learner's Companion. Boston, MA: Wadsworth.
Jacobs, F. (2010). The Adult Learner's Guide. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.
Robert, P. (2013). Adult Education. New York, NY: Routledge.
Ross, J. (2011). Research on Adult Learners. Peer Review, 31 (1), 53- 61.
Adult Learning Theory: Applications to Non-Traditional College Students" presents a number of important factors that are intrinsic to the propagation of adult education. The authors take a decidedly comprehensive approach to characterizing key distinctions between adult learners and those who are non-adults. As such, the pair make a number of astute observations that directly affect the way that the curriculum and program content should be facilitated for these learners, in order to maximize the didactic process. A thorough review of this article reveals that by choosing to emphasize various aspects of the adult learning experience, the curriculum can be significantly tailored in order to curb the rate of attrition and help adult learners thrive.
The first several pages of this article are concerned with identifying and discussing the ramifications of attributes that are intrinsic to adult learners. Oftentimes, these learners are distinct from others in the fact that the former…
Kenner, C., Weinerman, J. (2011). "Adult learning theory: applications to non-traditional college students." Journal of College Reading and Learning. 41(2) 87-96.
An article in the Journal of Sex Research brings attention to operant conditioning by juxtaposing - comparing and contrasting - it with the social learning theory that Julian P. Rotter developed. Social learning in fact embraces aspects of operant conditioning (which is also known as "radical behaviorism"), and Rotter assumed that "behavior is goal directed and emphasized expectations of reward and perceived values of rewards." Those rewards are the basis for a person to model his or her behavior after the behavior of others. "Rewards for desired behavior are presumed to reinforce that behavior," (Hogben, et al., 1998) Rotter asserted, and that part of his model matches up pretty closely with operant conditioning.
OPERANT THEORY IS the MOST PRACTICAL, APPLICABLE in EXPLAINING DEVIANT BEHAVIOR: In this scholarly article, the authors are alluding to behaviors related to sexual dynamics, in this case spousal abuse. For example, the reward that a deviant…
Hogben, Matthew; & Dyme, Donn. (1998). Using Social Learning Theory to Explain
Individual Differences in Human Sexuality. The Journal of Sex Research 35(1), 58-72.
Rehfeldt, Ruth Anne; & Hayes, Linda J. (1998). The Operant-Respondent Distinction
Revisited: Toward an Understanding of Stimulus Equivalence. Psychological Record, 48(2),
Social Learning Theory and Parenting Skills
The most applicable and relevant philosophy in parenting particularly of the preschool years children is the social learning theory that was proposed and developed by Albert Bandura. The social learning theory is widely seen as the bridge between the cognitive learning and behaviorism, and it is this combination of two theories or approaches to learning that makes it most applicable for my parenting approach. This approach concentrates on attention, motivation as well as memory. This theory indicates that people learn through seeing the behaviors of others, their attitudes and the result of their behaviors. In this sphere, learning is continuous and involves the reciprocation of the behavior of the individual, the environmental influences, the cognitive influences that models the individual (Albert Bendura, 1971:Pp3). In a nut shell, the individual is aware of the relationship between his behavior and the consequences, and he learns these…
Albert Bendura, (1971). Social Learning Theory. Stanford University. Retrieved March 28, 2015 from http://www.jku.at/org/content/e54521/e54528/e54529/e178059/Bandura_SocialLearningTheory_ger.pdf
Johansson T., at.al (2012). Preschool teachers view on learning in preschool in Sweden and Denmark. European Early Childhood Education Research. Retrieved March 28, 2015 from Journalhttp://edu.au.dk/fileadmin/edu/Forskningsprojekter/Science-didaktik/Preschool_teachers_view_on_childrens_learning.pdf
Serve (2014). Preschool: Thinking and learning. Retrieved March 28, 2015 from http://center.serve.org/ss/preactive.php
Due primarily to the growing trend of globalization, education has now become paramount to the overall success of society. International competition for both jobs and prominent positions poses both threats and benefits. For one, international competition encourages innovations which ultimately increases the overall quality of life for society. Innovations such as the internet have given rise to many unique and attractive markets. However, in order to take full advantage of the opportunities globalization and business presents, society must properly educate itself. Through education, civilization can fill the needed jobs required to utilize growing fields of innovation. The underlying principles within education have now been altered. New techniques are required to retain more information. Alternatively methods must be simple enough that students can utilize it in an effective manner within their respective careers. Many theories have been developed in regards to learning theories. These theories primarily consist of behavior, cognitive,…
For learning to effectively take place, a number of concepts must be brought together and these include but are not in any way limited to environmental, emotional as well as cognitive influences. One of the most prominent learning theories is the social learning theory whose fronting was most prominently done by Albert andura amongst others.
The Social Learning Theory
The social learning theory is founded on the view that most learning is undertaken within the social context. However, according to Ronald L. Akers, the social learning theory must not only be taken to be a theory of peer influence.
With that in mind, the key concepts in this case include; modeling, imitation as well as observational learning. The social learning theory has four basic principles with the first principle stating that most of the learning is informed by an observation of behavior. Here, the reasoning is that the…
Akers, Ronald. Social Learning and Social Structures: A General Theory of Crime and Deviance. Transaction Publishers, 2009
Griffin, Ricky Organizational Behavior: Managing People and Organizations. Cengage Learning, 2009
Sarafino, Edward. Self-Management: Using Behavioral and Cognitive Principles to Manage Your Life. John Wiley and Sons, 2010
Ronald Akers, Social Learning and Social Structures: A General Theory of Crime and Deviance (Transaction Publishers, 2009), 25.
Color coding words and researching notes.
Using highlighters, circle words and underlining (Fleming, 2010).
If one focuses more on illustrative or graphical knowledge than on the expressions of what is being taught, they put themselves at a distinctive weakness since verbal and written knowledge is still the chief favored option for delivery of knowledge. One should apply their note taking and try to find occasions to make clear information to others by way of using words. A visual learner learns best when knowledge is given to them visually and in a printed language arrangement. In a classroom location, they profit from teachers who employ the blackboard or overhead projector in order to register the vital parts of a lecture, or who supply them with an outline in order to follow along with throughout the lecture. They profit from knowledge attained from textbooks and class…
"DVC Online," 2000, viewed 23 October2010,
Fleming, Grace. 2010, "Learning Styles," viewed 22 October 2010,
"Visual Thinking and Learning," 2010, viewed 23 October
Learning and Cognition
Definition of Learning
Merriam-Webster defines learning as "knowledge or skill acquired by instruction or study; modification of a behavioral tendency by experience (as exposure to conditioning)" (Merriam-Webster, 2011). Other experts defines learning as a process, one that leads to behavioral change or potential behavior change that is relatively permanent. That is, as people learn, his or her learning alters the way one perceives the environment, the way he or she interprets incoming stimuli, and therefore, the way one interacts or behaves (Introduction to Learning Theory, 2004). According to Cherry (2011), learning is a permanent change in behavior that is the result of experience. The common characteristic that all these definitions share is their identification of a behavioral component as part of the process of learning. In other words, for learning to occur, a change in behavior takes place.
The ole of Behavior
For the early part of…
Bietz, K. (2011). The relationship between learning and cognition. Bright Hub. Retrieved June 26, 2011 from http://www.brighthub.com/education/early-childhood/articles/101060.aspx
Cherry, K. (2011). Learning Study Guide. About.com Psychology. Retrieved June 26, 2011 from http://psychology.about.com/od/psychologystudyguides/a/learning_sg.htm
Introduction to Learning Theory and Behavioral Psychology. (2004). Retrieved June 26, 2011 from http://allpsych.com/psychology101/learning.html
Merriam-Webster. (2011). Learning. Retrieved June 26, 2011 from http://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/learning?show=0&t=1309112968
There are some indications that observational learning might be genetic; animals teaching their young to hunt and the discovery of mirror neurons -- brain cells that fire when emotions/behaviors are observed in others -- both point to a biological basis for this type of learning. This learning is far more likely to occur if observed behaviors are met with rewards, however. Observational learning is also at the heart of the controversy concerning violence in the media, which some believe leads to more violent behavior in real life as individuals observe and learn from "fake" violent depictions.
There is growing evidence that violent media does in fact lead to increased real-world violence, both with "copy-cat" crimes and simply with violence generally. Exposure to violence lowers inhibitions against violence and possibly alters perceptions about the meanings and intentions behind others' behaviors, as well, causing nonviolent acts to be perceived as…
Psychology in Group Work
There are many theories that describe the process of human development. Most of us have identified with the learning theory. The learning theory has been given credit because it makes sense. In this article, we shall discuss one theory, which the author developed in an educational setting. The focus is on Bandura who is the key theorist in his learning theory (Agnew, 2007). Behaviors are taken into focus in Bandura's learning theory. The theory is significantly useful offering techniques of teaching and modifying of behavior. In the following sections, examples are going to be provided. This study will begin with clarification of the basic concept of the specified theory. This will be followed with a discussion of the theory's practical use: both classroom and clinical application (Bandura, 2006).
The learning theory of Bandura
The learning theory of Bandura provides that we learn from one…
Agnew, R. (1985). A revised strained theory of delinquency. Social Forces 64 (1): 151-167. doi:
Bandura, A. (2006). Social foundations of thought and action: A social cognitive theory.
Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall
learning can be categorized into three distinct groups: behaviorism, cognitivism, and constructivism. Behaviorism refers to the student's interaction with the environment and focuses on the external aspects of learning and on that which encourages learning such as positive reinforcement on the one hand and punishment on the toehr. Cogntivism, on the other hand, focuses on attitudes, motivation, and ideas and refers to the brain's interaction with the academic environment and with subject taught. Finally, constructivism represents and describes the situation where the learner actively builds new ideas or constructs learning situations.
Other approaches include humanism (where the focus is placed on respecting and motivating the individual student as encouragement to learning) and social / situational (namely those situational / social constructs interact in shaping a student's motivation and classroom attitude.
Behaviorism believes that external actions and manner dominate if not replace cognition. adical behaviorists believe that mind / cognition…
Brown, B. & Ryoo, K (2008). Teaching Science as a Language: A "Content-First" Approach to Science Teaching. Journal of Research in Science Teaching 45 (5): 529 -- 553.
Charles, C. (2005). Building classroom discipline. USA: Pearson Pub.
Baron, R.A., Byrne, D., & Branscombe, N.R. (2006). Social Psychology (11th Ed.). Pearson Education, Inc.
Benson, N.C. (1998). Introducing Psychology. U.K: Totem Books.
In conjunction with these perspectives on how to create a highly effective online learning platform that aligns to the specific needs of students, there is a corresponding area of research that concentrates on teaching resiliency in the teaching process. The work of Dr. Carol Dweck of Stanford University underscores the need for leading students to continually challenge themselves to grow and have a very strong growth mindset vs. A limited on. She draws on an empirically-derived research study that shows the greater the growth mindset of even the most talented and gifted mindset, the greater the long-term performance gains they make in life (Dweck, 2006). Her book, Mindset, challenges both students and teachers to create a culture of continual focus on excellence and continual striving to improve, never taking a closed or limited mindset to improvement. It is an inspirational book and shows that there is hope for continual improvement…
Ahlfeldt, S., Mehta, S., & Sellnow, T. (2005). Measurement and analysis of student engagement in university classes where varying levels of PBL methods of instruction are in use. Higher Education Research & Development, 24(1), 5-20.
Basile, a. & D'Aquila, J.M. (2002). An experimental analysis of computer-mediated instruction and student attitudes in a Principles of Financial Accounting course. Journal of Education for Business, 77(3), 137.
Beard, L.A. (2002). Students perceptions of online vs. campus instruction. Education, 122(4), 658.
Dutton, j. d.; Dutton, m.; Perry, j. (2002). How do Online Students Differ from Lecture Students? JALN. Vol. 6, no. 1, July.
It is fairly clear that there was learning going on when the children observed aggressive behavior, but leaping immediately to the conclusion that what was learned was aggression, and not the specific behaviors exhibited by the adult models and repeated by the children, seems at least a little presumptive. If it can be assumed that the children in the experiment had never witnessed the specific behaviors of the models prior to the experiment (which would have been necessary to establish for the experiment itself to be valid), then the behavior might have been simply frightening to them, and acting out the behaviors might have been a method of familiarizing themselves with the behavior so as to understand it and make it less frightening. Though the end result would be the same desensitization to aggression, the possibility of this mechanism is important.
This possibility, and the construction and results of the…
Isom, M. (1998). "Albert Bandura: The social learning theory." Florida State University. Accessed 29 August 2009. http://www.criminology.fsu.edu/crimtheory/bandura.htm
Van Wagner, K. (2009). "Social learning theory." Accessed 29 August 2009. http://psychology.about.com/od/developmentalpsychology/a/sociallearning.htm
A behavior resulting from injury or disease behavior resulting from experience behavior resulting from disease or drugs biologically determined behavior
Evidence that learning has occurred is seen in published research studies changes in thinking changes in behavior emotional stability
Change in performance is preceded by bad reviews scientific research the behavior of others change in disposition
If-then statements may also be referred to as principles generalization hypothesis laws
Statements which summarize relationships are restricted to the physical sciences known as hypothesis known as generalization never used in the social sciences
Rules which govern the gathering of information are known as rigid and dogmatic scientific method being flexible
APA rules for research studies
Informed consent is given by the researcher judicial review the American Psychological Association the research subject
Laws are to beliefs as truth is to untruth accuracy is to inaccuracy convictions are to facts are to convictions
Skinner's radical behaviorism has been used to provide explanations for a number of behavioral phenomenon including criminal behavior (Skinner, 1966). For instance, the crime of burglary offers an example of how antisocial behaviors are learned through reinforcement. Members of society that commonly engage in theft or burglary learn their trade via the reinforcing aspects of stealing. The need to steal may be initially activated by means of some form of need or desire to have material gain; however, for many individuals who habitually engage in thievery repeated stealing is positively reinforced by the tangible acquisition of goods provided by these activities. For many of these individuals this behavior is reinforced by the notion that it is easier to steal from others then to apply oneself, work hard, and take the chance on getting the lees than desired rewards. However, many habitual criminals actually put in as much effort into…
Andrews, D.A. & Hoge, R.D. (1999). The psychology of criminal conduct and principles of effective prevention and rehabilitation. Forum on Corrections Research. Special Edition. 12 -- 14. Retrieved on April 1, 2013 from http://www.csc-scc.gc.ca/text/pblct/forum/special/espe_b-eng.shtml
Bandura, A. (1977). Social leaning theory. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.
Raine, A. (2002). The biological basis of crime. In J.Q Wilson & J. Petrsilia (Eds.) Crime:Public policies for crime control. Oakland: ICS Press.
Skinner, B.F. (1966). The phylogeny and ontogeny of behavior. Science, 153, 1204 -- 1213.
theories emphasize mainly on student activity as opposed to teachers teaching. The argument is that a student's experiences coupled with study are areas where learning begins. This is closely associated with the change in psychological theories with regard to learning from behaviorism to constructivism. I use active teaching as opposed to passive teaching. Passive learning takes place when the student only takes in whatever the tutor avails. This form of learning is considered less effective compared to active learning, in which the student seeks out whatever he or she needs to understand. Thus, passive learning seems to promote surface learning instead of deep learning. Since deep learning entails the search for meaning in whatever is learnt, it is insightful (oberts, 2001).
I rely mostly on constructivism in my teaching. In constructivism, learners are considered sense-makers since they not only record the given information but also interpret it. This understanding of…
Roberts A. (2001). ABC of Learning. Retrieved 26 August 2015 from http://studymore.org.uk/glolea.htm
Smith, M.K. (2003). Learning Theory. The Informal Encyclopedia of Education. Retrieved 26 August 2015 from http://www.infed.org/biblio/b-learn.htm
UNESCO (n.d). Most influential theories of learning. Retrieved 26 August 2015 from http://www.unesco.org/new/en/education/themes/strengthening-education-systems/quality-framework/technical-notes/influential-theories-of-learning/
NDT Resource center. (n.d.). Teaching with the Constructivist Learning Theory. Retrieved 26 August 2015 from https://www.nde-ed.org/TeachingResources/ClassroomTips/Constructivist%20_Learning.htm
Community Colleges in America
In 1983 and 1984, a dozen major reports on the United States' schools were published. All stressed the need for "excellence" in education. These reports are the subject of: Excellence in Education: Perspectives on Policy and Practice. The reports pertaining to higher education were published by The BusinessHigher Education Forum, and saw higher education as "unable to train skilled managers and technicians that they believed industry needed." (Altbach 32) These reports essentially claim that student achievement has declined at technical schools because schools "do not demand enough of their students, do not apply stiff criteria for promotion, do not test students enough, and particularly in high school, provide students with too many choices about what subjects they study." (Altbach 32) These reports are somewhat dated in that they compare American students with Japanese students and focus on technical proficiency vs. The intuitive grasp of problems and…
Altbach, Philip G., Gail P. Kelly, and Lois Weis, eds. Excellence in Education: Perspectives on Policy and Practice. Buffalo, NY: Prometheus Books, 1985.
Baker, George A., Judy Dudziak, and Peggy Tyler, eds. A Handbook on the Community College in America: Its History, Mission, and Management. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1994.
Diaz, David P., and Ryan B. Cartnal. "Students' Learning Styles in Two Classes Online Distance Learning and Equivalent On-Campus." College Teaching 47.4 (1999): 130-135.
Miller, Richard I., Charles Finley, and Candace Shedd Vancko. Evaluating, Improving, and Judging Faculty Performance in Two-Year Colleges. Westport, CT: Bergin & Garvey, 2000.
Behaviorist and Cognitive Theory
Psychology took a center stage and significant change in the early 20th Century when the behaviorism school of thought became dominant. This was a major change from other theoretical perspectives that existed before hence rejecting emphasis on unconscious and conscious mind. Behaviorism strove to see that psychology becomes a more scientific discipline in that focus will be mainly on observable behavior. This approach to psychology whereby the elements of philosophy, methodology and theory are combined. The primary tenet of behaviorism as it was expressed by JohnB.Watson, B.F Skinner in writing is that the primary concern in psychology should be the behaviors that can be observed both in humans and animals and not the unobserved events which take place within the minds of individuals. This school of thought maintains that behaviors can easily be described scientifically without recourse either to any psychological events that occur internally or…
Leahey, T.H., Greer, S., Lefrancois, G.R., Reiner, T.W., Spencer, J.L., Wickramasekera, I.E., & Willmarth, E.K. (2014). History of Psychology. San Diego, CA: Bridgepoint Education. ISBN-13: 9781621785682
Fritscher, L. (2014). Cognitive Theory. Retrieved September 17, 2014 from http://phobias.about.com/od/glossary/g/cognitivethedef.htm
Gonzalez-Prendes, A. & Resko, S. (2009). Cognitive-Behavioral Theory.
Gender-Specific Theory of Delinquency
Several theories have strived to explain delinquency and crime within the society, most of which center around the individual and the personal make up or biology, yet others focus on the surrounding that the individual grows up in and the people they interact with. There are theories that are gender specific in that they tend to explain how the fact that an individual is of a given gender is a predisposition to get involved in some given crime or delinquency within the society, one of such theories which will also form the focus of the paper is the social learning theory.
The society often ascribe gender specific roles that the girls and the boys are implicitly expected to adhere to. The girls are often expected to take up some form of behavior, often subtle, though effective way of perpetuating the responsibilities and characters that are deemed…
Albert Badnura, (1971). Social Learning Theory. Stanford University. Retrieved June 4, 2015 from http://www.jku.at/org/content/e54521/e54528/e54529/e178059/Bandura_SocialLearningTheory_ger.pdf
Smith M. & Berge Z., (2009). Social Learning Theory in Second Life. Retrieved June 4, 2015 from http://jolt.merlot.org/vol5no2/berge_0609.pdf
Learning & Teaching
Identify a behavior in the healthcare setting that you would like to change that involves extinguishing an undesirable behavior and replacing it with a healthier behavior (e.g., getting cardiac patients to reduce their high-fat diet and eat healthier foods; getting patients with low back pain to minimize their pain and become more independent in their activities). Describe how the behavior could be changed using the principles of a particular learning theory. Then describe how the same behavior could be changed using a different theory. Depending on the behavior to be changed and replaced, you might also discuss why one plan might work better for men than women, or for younger people than older people.
To start with the last sentence first, it is clear that the younger a person is, they are generally more pliable and "changeable" than with older and/or more mature people that are more…
Behlol, M., & Dad, H. (2010). Concept of Learning. International Journal Of
Psychological Studies, 2(2), 231-239.
Bradshaw, M.J. (2013). Innovative teaching strategies in nursing and related health professions (6th ed.). New York, NY: Jones & Bartlett.
DeYoung, P.A. (2003). Relational psychotherapy: a primer. New York: Brunner-
Learning that is imparted through an educational institution or training company within the workplace setting in known as Work-based learning (WL). WL is administered by an external teacher in professional capacity and supervised by an employee of the company where WL is imparted. An exhaustive literature review indicates that it was only after Moser report's shocking revelations, regarding lack of literacy, language, and numeracy skills in one out every five adults in ritain that U.K took expedited policy actions to introduce WL. WL is relevant for all adult and young learners and more pertinent for instruction of English as a second language (ESL). Since medium of interaction and business transactions in U.K is English, instruction of ESL is essential for empowering vast percentage of population that does not have requisite skills to compete in labor market due to lack of language skills. Increased use of computers and multimedia in teaching…
Anderson, RC & Freebody, P 1981. 'Vocabulary knowledge'. In J.T. Guthrie (Ed.),
Beck, IL, McKeown, MG & Kucan, L 2002. 'Bringing words to life: Robust vocabulary instruction'. New York: Guilford.
Becker, HJ 2000. 'Pedagogical motivations for student computer use that lead to student engagement'. Educational Technology, Vol. 40, no. 5, pp. 5-17. Viewed on 6 Mar 2013, [http://www.crito.uci.edu/tlc/findings/spec_rpt_pedagogical/ped_mot_pdf.pdf]
Brown, HD 2001. 'Teaching by principles: An interactive approach to language pedagogy'. (2nd ed.). White Plains, NY: Longman.
Educators as far back as Aristotle have attempted to determine the most optimal approach to teaching and learning. Any theory of learning must take a constellation of factors into consideration. Evidence-based research on the different components of learning theory, effective instruction, and learning environments abound, yet the one commonality is that individual differences are pivotal to the success of any approach. Additionally, even if perfect learning environments could be created, learning must be applicable to the world outside of the classroom. Indeed, that it its ultimate purpose. In this paper, this author will explore the characteristics of the backwards mapping, or designing for understanding, Common Core State Standards, both of which are integrative frameworks that promote efficient learning and effective teaching.
Learning Theory and Its Importance
A primary consideration of learning theorists is how to effectively address individual differences. Consider that from the 18th century and earlier, learning…
Bandura, A. (2001). Social cognitive theory: An agentic perspective. Annuals Rev. Psychology, 51(2), 1-26. Retrieved from http://moodle2.cs.huji.ac.il/nu14/pluginfile.php/179670/mod_resource/content/1/Bandura_2001.pdf
Brown, D. (2014). Opening classroom doors to collaborative learning. The Education Digest, 79(7), 19-22. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com/docview/1506936575?accountid=12085
Fine, L., & Myers, J.W. (2004). Understanding students with Asperger's syndrome. Phi Delta Kappa Fastbacks, (520), 3-39. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com/docview/203654515?accountid=12085
Griswold, D.E., Barnhill, G.P., Brenda, S.M., Hagiwara, T., & Simpson, R.L. (2002). Asperger syndrome and academic achievement. Focus on Autism and Other Developmental Disabilities, 17(2), 94. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com/docview/205061045?accountid=12085
Metacognition and Effective Study Strategies Among African-American College and University Students, Bernadette Nwafor discusses the fact that many African-American students have trouble with basic concentration and retention skills and how the implementation of various study techniques could enhance student concentration. Nwarfor purports that those students that try to understand what they are reading through "meaningfulness, collaboration and establishment of relationships between new ideas and old experiences" are more likely to do better on tests than those who learn by merely reading through text or memorization It is her perception that African-American students learn better when they can relate to the material in question. In this article she studies the three kinds of memory (sensory, short-term and long-term memory) as she shows that if a person associates something familiar with new material they are able to retain it better in their long-term memory. She cites for her example a study by…
Theory on Juvenile Delinquency
Interventions that involve life-course unrelenting offenders should place emphasis on remedial social abilities, for them to have a chance to decrease their frequency of offending in future, and to tackle conduct disorder problems. Interventions involving teenage-onset offenders should, wherever applicable, tackle issues relating to parenting, alcohol/drug misuse, and anti-social cronies. Keane, Krull and Phythian (2008) define self-control as the extent to which a person is susceptible to temptation. According to them, lack of self-restraint or self-control is a fairly universal and stable characteristic, accounting for individual discrepancies in deviant, reckless, and criminal conduct. Youngsters' parents are usually blamed for their kids' delinquent behavior. Some courts go as far as penalizing parents for their kids' antisocial actions. It is believed that weak self-control develops during early childhood, when one's family is the most central socializing agent. Hence, lack of self-restraint and the resultant deviant behavior result from…
Bandura, A. (1977). Social learning theory.
Burfeind, J. W., & Bartusch, D. J. (2006). Juvenile delinquency: An integrated approach. Jones & Bartlett Learning.
Demuth, Stephen and Susan L. Brown. 2004. "Family Structure, Family Processes, and Adolescent Delinquency: The Significance of Parental Absence vs. Parental Gender." Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency 41(1):58-81.
Farrington, D. P. (2010). Family influences on delinquency. Juvenile justice and delinquency, 203-222.
Theory-based information can help organizations to ascertain the most appropriate training and development programs for their employees. In fact, theory-based information helps human resources managers to structure training and development for specific groups of people. The most relevant theories include those that are related to learning, and those that are related to social relations and identity construction.
Learning theories can be based on basic behaviorism, including patterns of reward and punishment that can be used to motivate specific behaviors and discourage undesirable behaviors that detract from inter-group harmony (Duggan, n.d.). However, cognitive theories of learning can be even more helpful for structuring effective employee training programs designed to cultivate specific skills or to increase productivity (Duggan, n.d.).
Theories that focus more on employee engagement, group identity construction, and other sociological factors are also highly relevant in the process of employee training and development. Motivation theory not only informs best practices…
Integrated Lesson Plan
MATH Lesson Plan
Addition is fun!
Learning Domain Addition
Overview & Purpose Students will learn the basic concept of addition. Addition is useful because it provides a foundation for other aspects of arithmetic.
What will be learned and why it is useful.
Education Standards Addressed
If your state has early learning standards, please identify and list the standards that this lesson addresses
(Specify skills/information that will be learned.)
The objective is for students to learn to add.
(Specific skill / concept being taught in lesson)
The content is that students can combine objects to get more of them.
Addition, plus, equals.
(e.g. Web, books, etc.)
Procedure/s: (List of steps in lesson delivery) Include as applicable and in order of delivery:
Examine and Talk, Demonstrate, Model, Plan, Guide, ecord, Describe, Explore, Acquire, Practice, etc.…
Bandura, A. (1999). A social cognitive theory of personality. In L. Pervin & O. John (Ed.), Handbook of personality (2nd ed., pp. 154-196). New York: Guilford Publications. (Reprinted in D. Cervone & Y. Shoda [Eds.], The coherence of personality. New York: Guilford Press.)
Bandura, A. (2002). Social cognitive theory: an agentic perspective. Asian Journal of Social Psychology. 2(1), 21-41.
Frith, C.D., Singer, T. (2008). "The role of social cognition in decision making." http://rstb.royalsocietypublishing.org Retrieved from
According to the University of Canberra's Academic Skills Centre (2008), learning is a highly complex process that "takes place at different levels of consciousness, and in different ways, in everything we do. Moreover, individual people learn in different ways and have their preferred learning styles." One of the keys to improving student learning is to understand the different types of learning styles and apply that knowledge to study habits and practices. Study skills are themselves behaviors that need to be learned like any other. Using a combination of disciplinary techniques and cognitive shifts, students can improve their capacity for learning. This will, in turn, help boost grades and test scores. However, learning in an academic context is about more than earning grades. Learning should ultimately enhance one's view of the world and increase tolerance of diversity.
The theory of multiple intelligences has formed the theoretical foundation for the study…
Armstrong, T. (2010). Multiple intelligences. Retrieved online: http://www.thomasarmstrong.com/multiple_intelligences.php
Dartmouth College Academic Skills Center (2011). Managing your time. Retrieved online: http://www.dartmouth.edu/~acskills/success/time.html
Gardner, H. (2006). Multiple Intelligences: New Horizons. Perseus.
Langer, J.A. (1986). Learning through writing: Study skills in the content areas. Journal of Reading. Feb 1986.
Learning Power-Myth of Educational Empowerment
Education and empowerment
Education is important and essential for everyone be it formal, informal or even public education. It therefore means that everyone is entitled to education. Education is an entry point to many opportunities and it forms an integral part in the preparation for as well as the legitimization of forms of social life in particular. Education is not only purposed to "achievement" that is measured through standardized tests and assessments.
There are other important purposes of education one of them being empowerment. Empowerment is a process through which an individual's assumptions are challenged about how things can be done and are done. Empowerment challenges ones basic assumption on power, achievement, helping and succeeding in life. At the centre of the empowerment concept is the idea of power. For empowerment to take place there are two things to be considered; first requires that power…
Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development, (1996). Finding Common Ground in an Era of Fragile Support. Retrieved February 27, 2013 from http://www.ascd.org/publications/newsletters/policy-priorities/dec96/num07/toc.aspx
The Odysseus Group.(2003). Dumping us Down-Reviews. Retrieved February 27, 2013 from http://www.johntaylorgatto.com/bookstore/dumbdnlapp.htm
Given the capriciousness of the human condition with respect to continuing redefinitions of personal and professional success, human resource managers are faced with some difficult choices in formulating recommendations for best practices. Therefore, the learning journal would undergo a series of draft versions that would be used to solicit feedback from experts in the field who could point out flaws and areas that required additional research or support to be valid and trustworthy. The solicitation of feedback process would follow the guidance provided by Neuman (2003) who recommends having a manuscript reviewed by knowledgeable individuals who possess the requisite credentials to provide informed feedback. This feedback would be carefully reviewed and the collaborative process would result in changes and additions where they were deemed necessary and appropriate.
Outcomes and New Learning
Some of the overriding themes that emerged from the learning episodes outlined above was that the more researchers…
American Psychological Association. (2002). Publication manual of the American Psychological
Association (5th ed.). Washington, DC: Author.
Cheverton, J. 2007. 'Holding our own: Value and performance in nonprofit organizations.'
Australian Journal of Social Issues, vol. 42, no. 3, pp. 427-428.
" The advantages of such a curriculum is that the material stays with the student longer than mere memorization; the students experience prevails over the teachers (thus the student teaches themselves); and the information learned is customized to the needs of the individual learner. Disadvantages of such an approach is frustration on the part of the student for their being a lack of a "right and wrong answer (or instant gratification); there is immense responsibility on the individual student and therefore requires a certain level of maturity; and there is not defined start and finish to the learning process.
However, Bonoma cites numerous examples of case studies, in both administrative and health care situations, in various fields where the statistics show a higher level of learner comprehension of the subject. Bonoma then concludes his paper by laying out instruction on how to set up, implement, run and evaluate a marketing-based…
e. In instances where the students have already demonstrated a diversity of learning styles (DeCastro-Ambrosetti & Cho, 2005). The use of authentic assessments includes greater student directive-ness and increased empowerment and self-guidance and -reliance in the learning process.
Self-assessment is seen by many to be the culmination of the individualization of learning assessment, but when this occurs solely for the purposes of accountability, learning is far from guaranteed (Gaytan & McEwen, 2007). This is partially due to the difference students and instructors, at least in the study conducted by Gaytan and McEwen (2007), perceive in the purpose of self-assessment tests; students viewed them primarily as a way to receive feedback as to their progress and achievement, while instructors saw them more as a way to make sure students understood the material (Gaytan and McEwen, 2007). Both views underline the usefulness of self-assessments, but perhaps they can be best applied by…
Commons, P. "The contribution of inspection, self-assessment, investors in people...: an initial exploration." Journal of further & higher education, vol. 27, issue 1 (Feb 2003), pp. 27-47
DeCastro-Ambrosetti, D. & Cho, G. "Synergism in learning: A critical reflection of authentic assessment." High school journal, vol. 89, issue 1(Oct/Nov 2005), pp. 57-62
Feinstein, S. "Performance assessment in Juvenile Correction education programs." Journal of correctional education, vol. 53. Issue 1 (Mar 2002), pp. 9-12
Gaytan, J. & McEwen, B. "Effective online instructional and assessment strategies." American journal of distance education. Vol. 21 issue 3 (Sep 2007), pp. 117-32
This will be accomplished by studying the following problem:
What specific tools and tactics can be the most successful in helping field psychologists to maximize their total amounts of learning comprehension?
Once this query has been answered, is when actuaries can find data that will identify the best approaches and how they can be applied (in a real world environment) by mental health professionals.
The research method that will be used is the mixed approach. This is when there is a focus on specific tactics that will look at previous studies (i.e. The quantitative method). At the same time, actuaries are collecting specific samples from field psychologists (i.e. The qualitative methodology). These techniques were selected, because they can provide everyone with a background of key concepts. This will be used to establish a foundation of what processes are the most effective. ("Mixed Method esearch," 2011)
The Expected esults…
Mixed Method Research. (2011). Diversified Topics. Retrieved from: http://diversifiedtopics.com/tag/mixed-methods-research-definition/
Helms, J. (2011). Majoring in Psychology. Chichester: Wiley.
Mumford, a. (1997). Action Learning at Work. Aldershot: Gower.
Learning Needs Assessment and Analysis
The University of San Diego Counseling Center (USDCC) has been established to provide enrolled students with access to quality counseling and healthcare services. Employing a diverse selection of the university's most accomplished psychiatrists, psychologists, medical doctors, registered nurses, and other healthcare professionals, the USDCC operates a high-volume Critical Intensive Care Unit with the assistance of a 50-member nursing staff. Although the USDCC has built a reputation for delivering competent and qualified critical care services across a number of years, the organization's management structure has become concerned that educational priorities have not been updated to reflect modern advancements in the field. To that end, the USDCC recently elected to conduct a comprehensive Learning Needs Assessment and Analysis to identify the paramount educational needs in place, and the institutional forces working to facilitate or impede the implementation of these needs. Empirical research on the efficacy of various…
Lewin, K. (1939). Field theory and experiment in social psychology: Concepts and methods.
Journal of Sociology, 44, 868-896. Retrieved from http://www.jstor.org/discover/10.2307/2769418?uid=3739552&uid=2129&uid=2&uid=7
Morrison, G.R., Ross, S.M., Kalman, H.K., & Kemp, J.E. (2011). Designing effective instruction (6th ed). Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
Choosing the most effective style that relates to one's individual personality is very useful in terms of increasing one's learning strengths. I have personally found that in reality most people combine a number of learning styles in developing their unique approach to learning. From my perspective I have found that a combination of both imaginative and analytical learning styles best suits my needs. The emphasis in my approach is however on the imaginative style as I am more comfortable with a learning style that explores various sources and views of reality in a discursive and open-ended way. At the same time the more considered and careful analytical approach is also useful in that it tends to 'ground' one in reality.
Durbin G. (2002) Interactive Learning in Museums of Art and Design.
etrieved February 23, 2009, at http://22.214.171.124/search?q=cache:2V3DNJpxFKkJ:www.vam.ac.uk/files/file_upload/5752_file.pdf+%22dynamic+learning+style%22&hl=en&ct=clnk&cd=10&gl=za&client=firefox-a
Exploring Psychology. Learning Styles. etrieved February 23, 2009, at http://www.dushkin.com/connectext/psy/ch06/learnsty.mhtml www.questiaschool.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5000308203
Durbin G. (2002) Interactive Learning in Museums of Art and Design.
Retrieved February 23, 2009, at http://126.96.36.199/search?q=cache:2V3DNJpxFKkJ:www.vam.ac.uk/files/file_upload/5752_file.pdf+%22dynamic+learning+style%22&hl=en&ct=clnk&cd=10&gl=za&client=firefox-a
Exploring Psychology. Learning Styles. Retrieved February 23, 2009, at http://www.dushkin.com/connectext/psy/ch06/learnsty.mhtml www.questiaschool.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5000308203
Guild, P. (1994, January). Making Sense of Learing Styles. School Administrator, 51, 8. Retrieved February 26, 2009, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5000308203 www.questiaschool.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5002522655
') (Tingstrom et al., 226) in correspondence with the example provided by the researchers responsible for this evaluation, it may be deduced that such method of positive reinforcement implementation is best suited to a younger educational context such as grammar school. It may only be considered appropriate to attach the positive consequences of individual efforts with the capabilities of an entire class in settings where future prospects such as class rank and college admissions have not yet entered into the discourse over performance motivators.
Tingstrom et al. also identify the independent group-oriented contingencies, which "involve consequences, and criteria for all group members, but access to reinforcement for each group member is based on each member's performance (e.g., 'whoever makes a 90% or higher on the end chapter math test will be able to pick a prize from the treasure chest.' (Tingstrom et al., 226) in many ways, this has proved…
Bunderson, C.V. (1990). Computers in Educational Assessment: An Opportunity to Restructure Educational Practice. Educational Resource and Information Center.
Eisner, E. (1997). The Promise and Perils of Alternative Forms of Data Representation. Educational Researcher, Vol. 26, No. 6, p. 4-10.
Emerson, J. (1989). Review: Dead PoetsSociety. Jeems Cinepad. Online at http://cinepad.com/reviews/deadpoets.htm.
Florio-Ruane, Suzanne; Marianne George & Taffy E. Rapheal. (2004). Book Club Plus: Organizing Your Literacy Curriculum to Bring Students to High Levels of Literacy. Australian Journal of Language and Literacy, Vol. 27.
This is because it runs counter to their strategies. These distinctions are important, as it highlights how this concept would not be accepted, based upon these differences.
The effects of incorporating organizational theory into organizational economics
When you are incorporating organizational theory into an entity, there will be a number of different positive effects to include: improved cooperation and trust. This is important, because it shows how the organizational theory is having an impact upon economics, by changing the way administrators are dealing with organizational issues (which will have an impact upon spending and revenues received).
The effects of empirical research performed by organizational economists
The effects of empirical research are: that economist have been focused on the economic aspects of the theory vs. The organization itself. This is important, because it highlights how many administrators can face challenges as economic theories are providing a general view, about how to…
"Partial Equilibrium Analysis." Business Dictionary. 2010 http://www.businessdictionary.com/definition/partial-equilibrium-analysis.html
Barney Jay. "Learning from Organizational Economics." Organizational Economics Theory. 263 -- 267. n.d.,
Small Julie. "California Supreme Court Upholds Worker Furloughs." SCPR. 4 October 2010 http://www.scpr.org/news/2010/10/04/california-supreme-court-upholds-state-worker-fu/
Chicago Format. http://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/717/01/
Learning Differences and Learning Needs
Learning Styles and Learning Preferences
For many years a great debate has existed in the field of education. Teachers and educators have attempted to uncover the best method for teaching students. The majority of evidence available suggests that multiple factors influence a student's ability to achieve in the classroom, none the least of which is learning styles and preferences. There is ample evidence supporting the notion that intelligence aside, most students have a learning preference related to their cognitive style of thinking that is ingrained or innate.
Because of this students will react to material presented to them in the classroom in different ways. It is vital that teachers begin recognizing the significance of these individual learning differences and uncover methods for coping with and addressing learning style differences and preferences within the classroom. Only then will all children be afforded the opportunity to learn…
Fields S.C. ( 1985, April 15-18). Assessment of aptitude interactions for the most common science instructional strategies. Paper presented at the 58th annual meeting of the National Association for Research in Science Teaching, French Lick Springs, IN.
Grabowski, B.L. & Jonassen, DH (1993). Handbook of individual differences in learning and instruction. Hillsdale, Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Merrill M.D. ( 1973). "Content and instructional analysis for cognitive transfer tasks." A
V Communication Review, 21,109-125.
This, in effect, links learning to memory. Memory is likened to the idea of cognitive maps, or at least the way cognitive maps operate in the mind of the individual. Memory is described as processing information through encoding (getting information and memory), storage (retaining information over time), and retrieval (taking information out of storage) (219). These processes that the individual goes through to create and retain memory is highly related to the theories of learning enumerated earlier: classical conditioning posits that stimuli (a memory of an event) is needed to elicit a particular behavior from the individual; operant conditioning described learning as the consequences in behavior of the person, linked also to the memory of an event and its consequences; and lastly, cognitive maps, which aptly describes how an individual learns through memories mapped out and retain in his/her mind.
Santrock, J. 2000. Psychology. McGraw-Hill.
Learning Specialized Vocabulary
Educators that provide instruction in English as a Second Language (ESL) must provide students with the primary concepts of English in the early stages of language development. As students progress and become more familiar with the language and its idiosyncrasies, advanced training is likely to acclimate students to much of the daily slang as well as complex vocabulary that they hear from native English speakers in routine conversation. It is the responsibility of the ESL instructor to provide this teaching at the appropriate juncture, and the most advantageous route is specialized vocabulary. The following paper will provide a discussion of the concept of word elements in the English language. The paper will continue with an analysis of the methods by which ESL instructors teach technical or specialized vocabulary in their coursework, including various learning strategies for students. Finally, a brief discussion of the importance of specialized vocabulary…
American Guidance Service, Inc. (1997). Building Vocabulary
Skills. Minnesota: American Guidance Service, Inc.
Cohen, A., & Steinberg, J. (1983). Effects of three types of vocabulary on readability of intermediate grade science textbooks: an application of Finn's transfer feature theory. Reading Research Quarterly, 19(1), 87-101.
Coxhead, A. (2000). A new academic word list. TESOL
Learning Styles and Learning Practices
In general, psychological theorists and educators acknowledge that learning occurs quite differently in different individuals. Some people learn best by observing, whereas others learn best by listening, and still others learn best by participating or experiencing something more tangible in connection with the subject matter (Akkoyunlu, & Soylu, 2008). There are numerous theories about how people learn, and one of the most commonly used is Kolb's Learning Style Inventory (LSI), that categorizes learning according to the following broad distinctions: Concrete Experience or considering things substantially the way they are presented; Abstract Conceptualization or considering things as ideas and theories that represent or incorporate what is represented; Active Experimentation or forming conclusions based on what is represented and conducting experiments to confirm those conclusions; and eflective Observation or determining…
Akkoyunlu, B., & Soylu, M.Y. (2008). A Study of Student's Perceptions in a Blended
Learning Environment Based on Different Learning Styles. Educational Technology & Society, 11 (1), 183-193.
Chickering, A.W. & Gamson, Z.F. (1991). Applying the Seven Principles for Good
Practice in Undergraduate Education. New Directions for Teaching and Learning, 47.
Learning Growth Perspective
The success or failure of any business entity is greatly dependent on how well align its goals and management systems are with its strategic plans. There have been cases reported where businesses failed to make it big despite of having excellent strategic plans. This was because they failed to keep their management systems and activities in line with their strategic plans. While management in itself is a small term, it covers various dimensions of business activity that include both internal and external influences. These include management of business processes, financial management, customer satisfaction, human resource management and the internal and external communications pertaining to the business. All these management aspects must be integrated into a well balanced management system such that it keeps the overall business activity in line with the strategic plans of the business. Many businesses get on the…
Gumbus, A. & Johnson, S.D. (2003). The balanced scorecard at Futura Industries. Strategic Finance. Retrieved from http://www.allbusiness.com/finance/3591611-1.html
Balanced Scorecard Institute (n.d.). Balanced Scorecard Basics. Retrieved from http://www.waikato.ac.nz/library/learning/g_apaguide.shtml#Webpages
Niven, P. (n.d.). Learning and growth perspective. EPM Review. Retrieved from http://www.epmreview.com/Resources/Articles/Learning-and-Growth-Perspective.html
Business Balls (n.d.). Balanced Scorecard. Retrieved from http://www.businessballs.com/balanced_scorecard.htm
Within each of these are discriminatory and generalized patterns of learning; and can be incorporated into learning models.
My own learning style is a combination of listening (learning from others) and then doing. It depends on the material; for any tactile operation, I find it easier to understand by touching and manipulating than simply reading in a manual how to perform the task. I believe I make clear use of discrimination in learning; responding to different stimuli with different responses. When the learning task is more scholarly in nature, I tend to combine visual and aural methods with kinesthetic and write down, or outline material.
Burton, N. (March 15, 2012). Hide and Seek: Understanding Self-Deception, Self-Sabotage
nd More. Psychology Today. Retrieved from:
Burton's article is a combination of the psychodynamic and behavioral models of psychological investigation. The major point of the article is that humans are not always rational,…
And More. Psychology Today. Retrieved from:
Burton's article is a combination of the psychodynamic and behavioral models of psychological investigation. The major point of the article is that humans are not always rational, but are rationalizing. For instance, the trauma of 9/11, even for those not directly affected, caused a number of people to commit suicide. Moreover, if someone is the victim of beatings as a child, they tend to repress those memories, internalize some of the actions, and possibly have problems forming attachments. This, according to Dr. Burton, is the mind's way of defending and coping with stress. It becomes part of the unconscious, but often resurfaces in odd forms. The healthy individual can get on a path to deal with these issues; talk through them, analyze, and find coping mechanisms.
Another way of combining these two approaches is by having the students involved in the process of what is learned and how. Each learner brings something different to the classroom, so will want to take away something different as well. The teacher and student can work together to set goals of what is to be achieved. Similarly, the students need continual feedback, so they know how they are accomplishing these goals. Lastly, since all students do learn differently, the classroom environment has to be a place for sharing new ideas. Students can learn considerably by seeing how their peers perceive the same drawing, or science experiment or historical event. They gain both knowledge and acquire new learning about their own abilities and that of others in the room. More importantly, this gives each child a similar opportunity to express him or herself and build self-esteem, regardless of the students' varying…
English for academic purposes approach focuses on the reader, too, not as a specific individual but as the representative of a discourse community, for example, a specific discipline or academia in general. The reader is an initiated expert who represents a faculty audience. This reader, particularly omniscient and all-powerful, is likely to be an abstract representation, a generalized construct, one reified from an examination of academic assignments and texts (aimes, 1991).
Partnership Teaching is not just an extension of co-operative teaching. Co-operative teaching consists of a language support teacher and class teacher jointly planning a curriculum and teaching strategies which will take into account the learning needs of all pupils. The point is to adjust the learning situation in order to fit the pupils. Partnership Teaching is more than that. It builds on the notion of co-operative teaching by linking the work of two teachers with plans for curriculum improvement…
Davison, Chris. (2006). Collaboration Between ESL and Content Teachers: How Do We Know
When We Are Doing It Right? International Journal of Bilingual Education & Bilingualism, 9(4), 454-475.
Grover, Sam. (2009). Methods for Teaching TESOL. Retrieved August 31, 2010, from e-How
Web site: http://www.ehow.com/way_5403572_methods-teaching-tesol.html
Generally I feel the easiest and bets way of memorizing a poem is to hear it out aloud and form a mental picture of the sea described in the poem and the activities of the sea.
Types of ehearsals
In trying to memorize information, there are basically two types of rehearsals that people engage in; the elaborative rehearsal and the maintenance rehearsal.
The elaborative rehearsal is a detailed manner of memorizing concepts by relating the words to the meaning and even their relations to other concepts within the discipline. This is as opposed to constantly repeating the word or the chunk of information in order to memorize (Craik, F.I.M., & Lockhart, .S. (1972). For instance looking at a word like 'cell' you look up the meaning in the anatomy dictionary, you also find out what the purpose in the body is, you also look at the shape and draw it…
Craik, F.I.M., & Lockhart, R.S. (1972). Levels of processing. A framework for memory research. Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behaviour, 11, 671-684. Retrieved February 23, 2013 from http://penta.ufrgs.br/edu/telelab/3/elaborat.htm
Jeffry Ricker, (2013). Working Memory and Elaborative Rehearsal. Retrieved February 23, 2013 from http://sccpsy101.com/home/chapter-5/section-10/
Jennifer Mishra, (n.d). Correlating Musical Memorization Styles and Perceptual Learning Modalities. Retrieved February 23, 2013 from http://www-usr.rider.edu/~vrme/v9n1/vision/Mishra%20Final.pdf