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Literacy Program eview
"eading is the number one priority, and reading has been declared a critical teacher shortage area," (University Of Florida, 2013). It is not only the developing nations that are fighting for educational programs and improving literacy but the developed nations like America is also struggling to improve the quality of education (Florida Literacy Coalition, n.a.). American attempt for improving literacy programs focuses to improve the quality of reading, writing, English, Math and family literacy. In Florida alone, different programs are run by public and private institutes in order to achieve the goal of increased quality education. Programs like NSW Department of Education and Training's one to one computing offers digital education and the Florida Differentiated Accountability Program analyzes the administrations capability to offer quality education. The students often face difficulty in reading. Such students are offered programs on the basis of age and grades they study. Such…
Florida Literacy Coalition, (n.a.), Retrieved from:
University Of Florida, (2013), Retrieved from:
Literacy Coaching: Elementary Grades
Learning to read and write begins early in children's development, long before they enter kindergarten. Moreover, literacy skill development in early childhood provides the foundation for children's long-term academic success. Over the past two decades, researchers have identified key emergent literacy skills that develop progressively in children during their preschool years and are highly predictive of later success in learning to read (Elish-Piper, 2011). These skills include phonological awareness (e.g., hearing and manipulating smaller sounds in words), letter knowledge (e.g., identifying and naming letters), print awareness (e.g., noticing print and following words on a page), and oral language (e.g., describing events and telling stories). Many young children face significant challenges in learning to read because they lack essential early literacy skills when they begin school. In fact, children who are poor readers at the end of elementary school are most often those who fail to develop…
Bowman, M., & Treiman, R. (2004). Stepping stones to reading. Theory Into Practice, 43(4), 295-303.
Elish-Piper, L.K. (2011). Examining the relationship between literacy coaching and student reading gains in grades k-3. Elementary School Journal, 112(1), 83-106.
Savage, J.F. (2007). Sound it out: Phonics in a comprehensive reading program (3rd ed.). Boston: McGraw-Hill.
Stover, K. (2011). Differentiated coaching: Fostering reflection with teachers. Reading Teacher, 64(7), 498. doi:10.1598/RT.64.7.3
oskos (2004) contradicts that in their article becasuse they explain how wonderful early literacy has become with getting new technology but forgets to mention that only schools that have the money are able to have theses luxuries. The article is misleading because it makes it appear as though all school have all the proper tools they need when it comes to assessments and that simply is not true. (Boudreau, (2005) in his article evaluate the use of a parent questionnaire in the assessment of developing and early literacy skills of preschool children with language damages and states that all schools have this privilage and that they are equally succesful in the school. However, oskos (2004) does not believe that is true and states just the opposite and that all scgools do not have the proper assessment school and because of that misfortune has caused a lot of them to fall…
Agnew, J.C. (2005). Teaching early literacy: Development, assessment, and instruction. Choice, 14(5), 342.
Boudreau, D. (2005). Use of a parent questionnaire in emergent and early literacy assessment of preschool children. Language, Speech & Hearing Services in Schools,, 21(7), 33-47.
Hourcade, J.J. (2006). Handy manny and the emergent literacy technology toolkit. Early Childhood Education Journal,, 37(6), 483-491.
Manning, M. & . (2005). EARLY LITERACY ASSESSMENT SYSTEMS. Childhood Education,, 81(2), 117.
Literacy in Context Assessment - Science
Literacy Context Assessment -- Science
Literacy in Context Assessment -- Science
Brief Student Profile -- Student Unnamed
This student is in year 3. Compared with other students from this year, the student's handwriting is clear and neat. The student exhibits basic to intermediate understanding of the assignment and the information that is vital in order to complete the task. The child is like not at the top of his/her class, due to spelling issues and problems in sentence formation. It is additionally unclear as to what to degree science interests this student.
Analysis of Student's Work Sample
The paper will analyse the student sample is from a child in Year 3 and how the sample demonstrates the demands for since in Year 3. The work sample takes the shape of a work sheet. On the left half of the sheet, there are squares…
g., using prior knowledge, self-monitoring for breaks in comprehension, and analyzing new vocabulary);growth in conceptual knowledge (e.g., reading tradebooks to supplement textbook information) (Alvermann, D, 2001).
However a very important thing I should mention is the existence of big gaps in adolescent literacy achievement in high school, as I noted above, but, the gap was also defined as the disparity in White and Black students' achievement and in richer and poorer students' achievement. And what is even more worrying is that despite the longstanding federal agenda to reduce this disparity, it has remained largely unchanged. As I have shown, gaps exist between adolescents in terms of literacy achievement that seem to be even more evident among minority groups.
However, compared to early literacy, 9-12 students' literacy has receive less attention up to the present moment. Today there is a growing interest in adolescent literacy but however, early literacy has several…
Donna E. Alvermannn,
Kathleen A. Hinchman,
David W. Moore,
Stephen F. Phelps,
We therefore envision the Holy Cross Literacy Garden as an immensely beneficial social and educational community resource that will benefit not only our parish but the entire community. However, planning, developing, constructing, planting, and maintaining a literacy garden will require hard work, dedication, and funding. We currently seek community volunteers as well as grant money to help us complete the literacy garden. We expect a large turnout of volunteer manpower from the Church and from the community. We intend to keep the budget for the garden low, to ensure immediate construction and success. Local landscaping and gardening workers may be willing to donate their services for a nominal fee. Many of the people involved with the initial stages of the project will learn how to construct community gardens on their own: by conducting Internet and library research. This grant proposal includes a list of websites that we will draw on…
Dodds School Literacy Garden." (n.d.). Retrieved July 30, 2005 at http://www.springfield.k12.il.us/schools/dodds/literacygarden/stones.html
DeAraujo, C. (1998, Sept 9). "Garden helps to put down roots." Providence Journal Bulletin. Retrieved July 30, 2005 online at http://www.brown.edu/Departments/Swearer_Center/Literacy_Resources/garden.html
Linking Literacy and Garden Creatures." Retrieved July 30, 2005 online at http://www.kidsgardening.com/growingideas/Sept_01/2linking_literacy.htm
Polselli, M. (n.d.). "Literacy Garden. Retrieved online July 30, 2005 at http://polsellikindergarten.tripod.com/Comprehension%20Strategies/Planting%20a%20Literacy%20Garden.htm
These problems are compounded for frican-mericans by cultural insensitivity in health materials." (Birru and Steinman, 2004)
V. LITERCY TODY
8) Mann, John G. (1989) Literacy Today: Realtime Technology Transformation. Office of Educational Research and Improvement (ED), Washington, DC. bstract Online available at http://eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/custom/portlets/recordDetails/detailmini.jsp?_nfpb=true&_&ERICExtSearch_SearchValue_0=ED331475&ERICExtSearch_SearchType_0=no&accno=ED331475
s noted in the work of John G. Mann entitled: "Literacy Today: Realtime Technology Transformation" the meaning of literacy in today's world has expanded as it now includes literacy in regards to technology. Mann states: "Computer assisted instruction programs for adult literacy are becoming more prevalent in learning centers, community organizations, and in schools across the country. Computers are also being used to curb illiteracy at the source, in elementary and secondary schools, in an effort to reduce dropout rates"
9) Washington, Julie a. (2006) Emergent Literacy, Language, and frican-merican Preschoolers at Risk. RTLL Fall Conference 20 Oct 2006. Online available at http://www.cpb.org/grants/leadinliteracy/2006fallconferencepresentations/EmergentLiteracyLanguagefricanmericanPreschoolersJulieWashington.pdf
Julie a. Washington (2006)…
As noted in the work of John G. Mann entitled: "Literacy Today: A Realtime Technology Transformation" the meaning of literacy in today's world has expanded as it now includes literacy in regards to technology. Mann states: "Computer assisted instruction programs for adult literacy are becoming more prevalent in learning centers, community organizations, and in schools across the country. Computers are also being used to curb illiteracy at the source, in elementary and secondary schools, in an effort to reduce dropout rates"
9) Washington, Julie a. (2006) Emergent Literacy, Language, and African-American Preschoolers at Risk. RTLL Fall Conference 20 Oct 2006. Online available at http://www.cpb.org/grants/leadinliteracy/2006fallconferencepresentations/EmergentLiteracyLanguageAfricanAmericanPreschoolersJulieWashington.pdf
Julie a. Washington (2006) writes that literacy development "...begins long before a child ever enters a formal preschool or elementary classroom setting, or receives conventional reading instruction!!!" In fact small babies learn "the sound structure, rhythms and tones of the language in their environment. They are also learning to associate these wounds with words and meanings." (Washington, 2006) Washington states that when African-American children from low income families enter preschool "they are motivated, bright and eager to learn..." (2006) Unfortunately "Children who are poor, African-American or Hispanic and educated in urban schools are at high risk for reading difficulties." (2006)
A greater literacy lets us act as a guide to others, lets us grow ourselves from knowledge into wisdom -- it can even let us interpret reality without empirical data: for by learning the letter of the laws of nature, we are able to understand the ways in which nature and world conduct their affairs -- without forever being reliant upon the tables and stats of men. Literacy assists in the establishment of something sorely lacking in the world today: common sense. The lack of common sense is directly related to the illiteracy of men and the loss of identity.
If it were not so, why then would we hear of the "several people" who "reported using private writing to purge feelings, primarily anger or grief" ("Remembering riting, Remembering Reading" 107)? riting allows us to express the unexpressable -- it allows us to see who and what we are. It…
Brandt, D. "Literacy in American Lives." Literacy and Learning. Josey-Bass, 2009.
Brandt, D. "Remembering Writing, Remembering Reading." Literacy and Learning.
Josey-Bass, 2009. Print.
Literacy in the Aegean Bronze Age
Anthropologists and archaeologists call certain societies "iron age" or "bronze age." In doing this they recognize that the properties of the main metal used by a society's technology greatly affect both its use and through this the nature of that society. For instance, bronze unlike iron is too soft to be used for ploughing; it is an alloy. Bronze can be smelted at lower temperatures than iron which need specialized supplies of charcoal. All these facts affect societies which use bronze and iron. For example, since bronze cannot be used for ploughing these societies cannot produce in many regions the large agriculture surplus iron societies can; since bronze requires tin bronze age societies had to trade, etc. (Claiborne, 1974) I believe the same parallel exists between the different characteristics of different writing systems and its use as a communication technology in a society.
1. Claiborne, Robert. The Birth of Writing. The Emergence of Man Series. Alexandria, Virginia: Time Life Books: 1974.
2. Cline, E.H. Sailing the Wine-Dark Sea: International Trade and the Late Bronze Age Aegean. Oxford: Tempus Reparatum, 1994.
3. Davies, W.V. And Schofield, L., editors. Egypt, the Aegean and the Levant: Interconnections in the Second Millennium BC. London: British Museum, 1995.
4. Gelb, Ignace J. A Study of Writing. Revised edition. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1974.
I cannot blame my teachers, who were definitely doing their best to introduce their students to the great works of literature like Beowulf. However, so many of the texts they taught did not interest me. I found them difficult to comprehend and resented being told what to read. Although I persisted in reading and in developing my literacy, I ceased reading on my own. Mainly this was because I didn't have enough time to read what I wanted; I was too busy reading what I had to for class.
While I do appreciate the fact that I was introduced to Shakespeare and company in junior high and high school, I do wish that the material had been presented differently, perhaps in a similar way as I had been taught how to read in the first place: through pictures and other multimedia formats that would make the subject matter come to…
However although the authors say that "the first section provides a brief overview of research on learning difficulties in the middle-school years" (p. 222), the discussion of the research itself could have been more in-depth, beyond only mentioning a general conclusion of the findings by only a few researchers, with perhaps more recent research studies beyond 2005. Useful strategies derived from a meta-analysis done in 1999 for improving reading comprehension were provided. Two important skills were identified as common factors in learning difficulties and these were related to reading problems -- working memory and automaticity.
The Quick Smart program was described. There were many assessment strategies incorporated into the program. The computer assisted component of the program carried out assessments at the beginning, middle and end of the study, and there were also brief assessments on a particular sub-test at the end of some of the lessons. Other assessments were…
Graham, L., Pegg, J. And Alder, L. (2007) Improving the reading achievement of middle -years students with learning difficulties. Australian Journal of Language and Literacy. 30 (3): 221-234.
The R.E.A.D. program was founded by an existing Animal-Assisted Therapy nonprofit group, Intermountain Therapy Animals, that had years of experience bringing the benefits of animals to people in need. More than eighty articles have been published about the R.E.A.D. program, including popular media such as the Wall Street Journal, Time, Parenting, and Our Children (the official publication of the National PTA), as well as scholarly sources such as a book and journal published by the Association for Childhood Education International. (ITA 2005) When participating in this program, children are not actually taught to read by the dogs (of course), but having the dogs present is enough to make a big difference for many otherwise struggling readers. The environment created by having dogs present during reading activities has been described as an inviting and motivating one that is relaxed, comfortable, nonjudgmental, empowering, and fun by participants and educators. Part of the…
Large Scale Assessments are tests that are administered to large numbers of students, at the city, state, or district level. They are designed not so much to render individual measurement for the instructor (although this is not true for college boards), but to find strengths and weaknesses in programs, demographics, or other cross tabulated data sets. Typically, large scale assessment programs are designed to measure accountability of information and competency. Some examples are:
NAEP -- National Assessment of Educational Process. -- A periodic assessment of student progress development by the U.S. Department of Education. Covers math, science, reading, literacy, and by 2012 world history and foreign language where appropriate. Does not supply scores for individual students, but population cross-tabulated data.
WISC -- Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children -- Used for children between 6 and 16 to generate an IQ score; ten core and 5 supplemental subject areas. May be used…
Literacy and language offer meaning to the world through communication and symbolism. Yet, each individual is limited by his or her own history and perspective. The world that surrounds the individual is that which is made up of each poignant message they have heard before. Poignant does not necessarily have to be "important" by general standards. It simply has to be something that is memorable for the individual. Within Maxine Hong Kingston's work Silence is a demonstration of many significant ways of how preconceived notions based on history and culture effect the ways in which an individual perceives what is and what is not important. Kingston builds imagery around her experiences in her two very different schools and the experience within each, as she sees it today created her response to it and therefore her development of understanding.
Though the work also represents a backward glance, as most biographies do,…
The Persona Literacy Survey provided, allowed me to self-analyze my own approaches and philosophies towards the profession of education. The survey did provide some useful information as some of my own ideas on the subject were explored. The General Considerations portion of the survey revealed that I do have some unconventional techniques when assimilating my own reading skills. It is clear from my low ratings on the items that asked about collective learning that I prefer to be very individualistic when teaching myself any subject through literacy practices. Writing tests however comes very easy for me and I scored high on this section as well as the administration portion of the survey. The After Testing section also revealed that I am aligned with many of the principles explored in this area.
My greatest strength in regards to assessment literacy is my ability to empathize and relate what I…
The simple discipline of study might seem to broad an area of focus when discussing information literacy, yet it actually provides an excellent avenue for examining how scholarship, practice, and leadership are influenced by the ability to locate and process information. There has unquestionably been a fundamental change in the way information is accessed and approached in modern society; computers and the Internet have now been ubiquitous parts of everyday life for at least a generation, and today's college students have had very little if any schooling where Google was not a part -- if not the only part -- of the research conducted (ussell 2009). While these innovations have made information infinitely more accessible, this has not necessarily been an advantage in all respects, as current research shows.
Scholarship is the primary activity of the academic world, and it has suffered greatly under the burden of the abundant…
Badke, W. (2009). How we failed the net generation. Online 33(4): 47-51. Accessed 12 March 2011. http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_hb3328/is_200907/ai_n32423867/?tag=content;col1
Eisenberg, M., Lowe, C. & Spitzer, K. (2005). Information literacy: Essential skills for the information age. Library management and professional development.
Russell, P. (2009). Why universities need information literacy now more than ever. Feliciter 55(3): 92-4.
Turusheva, L. & Tusheva, O. (2006). Students' learning skills as a means of specialist development. Information technologies and education. Accessed 12 March 2011. http://aict.itf.llu.lv/files/rakstkraj/2006/Turusheva_2006.pdf
literacy educators utilize critical thinking skills identifying students' strengths challenges. They rely sound reasoning identify issues presenting obstacles reading process formulate inferences diagnosing reading difficulties.
Education unit discussions
The 'clues' that identify Gianna's innately weak literacy skills are her poor word identification skills and limited vocabulary. If Gianna simply had problems reading aloud to the class, it might be assumed this was due to a lack of self-confidence. However, her skill deficits are manifest even in non-oral work, although both her oral and written comprehension seems to be well below grade level. Combined with an unsupportive environment at home, an intervention seems warranted to improve word recognition, vocabulary, and poor reading comprehension strategies. It is essential to address the components that affect reading fluency as well as the issue itself in a more holistic fashion.
Unit 7 discussion
Writing can often seem like an overwhelming process to a young child…
literacy specialist who works in Adult Education. You have noticed that reading is very difficult for people to learn in adulthood, and you wonder whether this might be related to brain plasticity.
Gaillard, WH et al. (2002) Language dominance in partial epilepsy patients identified with an fMRI reading task, Neurology, 59, 2, 256-265
Search words:reading + fMRI; Google Scholar; neuroscience.
Poldrack, RA, Desmond, JE., Glover, GH & Gabrieli, JD. (1998) . The neural basis of visual skill learning: an fMRI study of mirror reading. Cereb. Cortex, 8, 1-10.
Search words:reading + fMRI; Google Scholar; neuroscience.
Guinevere F.E. et al. (2004) Neural Changes following Remediation in Adult Developmental Dyslexia, Neuron, 44, 3, 411-422
Search words: reading + fmri + adults + neuroplasticity; Google Scholar; neuroscience.
Brain imaging studies have investigated the neural mechanisms of recovery in adults following acquired disorders and childhood developmental disorders. However, there are few to no studies…
Educator Patricia M. Cunningham says in "What esearch Says about Teaching Phonics," for example, that children do profit from systematic phonics instruction. However, there is more than one effective way to teach phonics. Positive results are the result of a high level of interaction, classroom management, explicit skills teaching, curriculum integration and a great deal of enjoyable reading and writing practice.
Gambrell, L.B., Morrow, L.M., Pressley, M., & Guthrie, J.T. (Eds). Teaching children to become fluent and automatic readers. Journal of Literacy esearch 38(4): 357-387
Morrow, L.M., Gambrell, L.B., & Pressley, M. (Eds) (2003) Best practices in literacy instruction. New York: Guilford Press.
eutzel, D.. & Cooter, .B. (1996). Teaching children to read: From basals to books, 2/E. Upper Saddle idge, New Jersey: Prentice-Hall.
A balanced literacy program is a very effective means for enabling children to become successful, independent readers and writers. As part of this process, teachers…
Goodman, Y. (1996) Reading Strategies: Focus on Comprehension. Katonah, New York: Richard Owen
Mooney, M. (2000) Read it again! Portland, ME: Stenhouse
Rasinski, T. (2000) Effective reading strategies. Princeton, NC Merrill.
Reutzel, D. (1999) Balanced reading strategies and practices. Princeton, NC, Merrill
According to Stein, (as cited in Lauer & Yodanis, 2004), American students tend to be globally illiterate. A large amount of empirical research and anecdotal evidence from various perspectives documents, stresses the need to improve informational literacy throughout the American educational system (Schutt & Hightower, 2009; Zabel 2004). Without such improvement, education and knowledge will simply stagnate, and perhaps even regress. These authors do not agree on all of the specifics of what is lacking or how to address this lack, but there is a general consensus that American students especially are lacking in information literacy aptitude in a multicultural setting.
The American nursing schools have recognized this unfortunately common lack of education in issues such as cultural diversity in today's society, and have started to integrate related courses into their curriculums. The goal is to familiarize nursing students with different cultures, understanding the impact in relation to patient's quality…
The reason is that this has become a world of competition, and in that competition everyone has to stay ahead. Even in the business of literacy for children, I assume. But the trouble is that it gives the children a wrong start. What I have looked at is the initial introduction to the organization for many people, and if there are a lot of untruths in that, I assume that similar untruths will be a practice in the organization and that would certainly be extremely harmful for the organization and the children.
Then in the site we come to the area of children and their development and the main source of their education being the environment. This is certainly true and this is a wonderful part of human life. All of us learn, whatever the situation, which we are placed in be. The development of the capacity to take in…
Creating a Literate Environment. Retrieved at http://studentweb.tulane.edu/~ddeblanc/environment.html. Accessed on 22 May, 2005
Curriculum Development. Retrieved at http://studentweb.tulane.edu/~ddeblanc/curriculum.html. Accessed on 22 May, 2005
What is preschool Literacy? Retrieved at http://studentweb.tulane.edu/~ddeblanc/. Accessed on 22 May, 2005
The traditional definition of literacy is the ability to read and write. Reading, according to the Webster’s Dictionary (the first definition), is a term that means using touch or sight to receive the sense of letters. On the other hand, writing is the use of an instrument to develop characters or text on a surface (Merriam-Webster, 2017). The two definitions point to a written language with the potential to limit ideas that can be communicated. However, the two terms have other definitions. Writing can also be defined as the process of making an impression that is permanent. Reading is also the ability to decode or interpret significance or meaning (Merriam-Webster, 2017). Literacy practices and literacy events are also critical to being literate.
Literacy practice is the way people adopt written language in their daily lives. The practices encompass attitudes, values, social relationships and feelings (Street, 1993, 12), but…
[DoctorWho201195]. (2011, June 4). Doctor Who?—?Series 6?—?Is The Other Person River From the Past? Or The Future? [Video File]. Retrieved from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=QXxZI4v56u0
Barton, D., Hamilton, M. and Ivanic, R. (2000) Situated literacies: reading and writing in context. Abingdon, Routledge.
Gee, J.P. (2015). Literacy and education. New York: Routledge.
read. 2017. In Merriam-Webster.com. Retrieved May 24, 2017, from https://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/read
Royer, D. (1994). The Process of Literacy as Communal Involvement in the Narratives of Frederick Douglass. African American Review,28(3), 363–374. doi:10.2307/3041973
Sousanis, N. (2015). Unflattening. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Street, B. (1993) The new literacy studies. Journa l of Resea rch in Rea ding, 16 (2), 81-97. CrossRef
write. 2017. In Merriam-Webster.com. Retrieved May 24,2017, from https://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/write
Poverty or destitution is a severe problem that has a considerable effect on the ability of children to learn and to progress academically in school. To this perspective, income poverty, parental inputs, and family background, all have a considerable impact on the cognitive development of young children. The impact of income poverty on children's cognitive development is negative and significant. This negative effect is more significant for persistent poverty as it is more harmful to cognitive development than period to period poverty. It is noteworthy that teachers could play an essential role in helping students from low-income families when students face economic and educational challenges. The solution is developmentally appropriate, and culturally sensitive interventions such as the EAP could help young children from low SES families to improve their literacy skills, prepare better for kindergarten and perform better when they get to kindergarten. There is a need to look…
Activities such as reading the names of street signs and stores and reading the ingredients on packages can help make children aware of the importance of printed words.
One of the most important things parents can do to encourage literacy in their early learner is to talk to their child. In a study conducted by Hart and isley (1995, 1999 as cited by osenkoetter & Barton, 2002), children whose parents talked to them more frequently learned to read faster, had more proficient oral and written vocabularies, better grammatical skills, and performed higher on academic tasks than children whose parents were less verbal. Asking questions and sharing experiences are simple but effective methods of having children retell information and use sequencing skills.
Children who have access to computers and learning software have an academic advantage over other students. A study conducted by Zevenbergen & Logan (2008) examined the ways…
Campbell, a. (2009, June). Learning with technology for pre-service early childhood teachers. Australasian Journal of Early Childhood, 34(2), 11-18. Retrieved March 20, 2010 from http://www.earlychildhoodaustralia.org.au/australian_journal_of_early_childhood/ajec_index_abstracts/learning_with_technology_for_pre_service_early_childhood_teachers.html
Freeman, L. & Bochner, S. (2008, December). Bridging the gap: improving literacy outcomes for indigenous students. Australian Journal of Early Childhood, 33(4), 9-16. Retrieved March 20, 2010 from http://www.earlychildhoodaustralia.org.au/australian_journal_of_early_childhood/ajec_index_abstracts/bridging_the_gap_improving_literacy_outcomes_for_indigenous_students.html
Fluckiger, B. (2006). Children's cross-cultural literacy experiences in three worlds: enacting agency. School of Cognition Language and Special Education. Retrieved March 20, 2010 from http://www4.gu.edu.au:8080/adt-root/uploads/approved/adt-QGU20070814.144647/public/01Front.pdf
Gillet, J. et al. (2008). Understanding Reading Problems: Assessment and Instruction. (7th ed.). Boston: Pearson Education, Inc.
.." And is a concept which has as its basis that "at the beginning of learning, students needs a great deal of support" and over time the support is removed in a gradual manner as the student become prepared to be more independent. Modeling is the process of assisting the students in the construction of meaning and assisting them in learning the necessary strategies and skills in the learning process and in meaning making with what has been learned. Cooperative learning is a strategy for instruction that has been found to be especially effective in literacy instruction and the students "learn to read, write, and think by having meaningful engagements with more experienced individuals." (Wells, 1990; as cited in Useful Instructional Strategies for Literature-Based Instruction, 1997) the Greece School District website 'eading Strategies: Scaffolding Student's Interactions with Texts' document provides information concerning reading strategies that may be used along with…
Tom D. (1994), Teaching method: Best practice for teachers, Retrieved July 25, 2007 at http://northonline.sccd.ctc.edu/eceprog/bstprac.htm
Saskatoon Public Schools (2004),Balanced Literacy Instruction, Retrieved July 25, 2007 at http://olc.spsd.sk.ca/DE/PD/instr/strats/balancedliteracy/index.html
The TELUS Learning Connection, What is balanced literacy? Retrieved July 25, 2007 at http://www.earlyliterature.ecsd.net/balanced%20literacy.htm
Houghton Mifflin Company (1997), Useful Instructional Strategies for Literature-Based Instruction, Retrieved July 25, 2007 at http://www.eduplace.com/rdg/res/literacy/lit_ins4.html
By placing the demands of literacy education on the community as a whole, a shared responsibility is created and therefore a substantial interest is gained in the process. Literacy is indeed a problem of not just students and teacher, but for the entire population. The purpose of this essay is to review literature pertaining to this argument in order to defend my position and create an opportunity for knowledge and learning. This essay will discuss and reveal some expert opinions about the subject at large and adds context and ideas to the already heavily discussed topic of literacy programs and ways to successfully implement large scale educational changes within an already existing format.
eese & Goldenberg (2008) found explicit data that literacy resources within immigrant Latino families are seriously lacking. They wrote " findings from a study of 35 communities show that communities with greater concentrations…
Epstein, J. & Salinas, K. (2004). Partnering with Families and Communities. Educational Leadership, 61,8. May 2004, 12-18. Retrieved from http://www.ascd.org/publications/educational-leadership/may04/vol61/num08/Partnering-with-Families-and-Communities.aspx
Reese, L. & Goldenberg, C. (2008). Community Literacy Resources and Home Literacy Practices Among Latino Families. Marriage & Family Review, 43 (1/2) 2008. Retrieved from https://people.stanford.edu/claudeg/sites/default/files/Parental-Involvement.pdf
Sheldon, S.B., & Epstein, J.L. (2002). Improving student behavior and school discipline with family and community involvement. Education and Urban Society, 35(1), 4-26.
While this idea might work very well for most students, there are always students that do not do well with standard instruction and these students are going to need a different type of instructional attitude so that they can succeed. Of course, this does not mean that everything should be changed based on just one or two students in a classroom, but only that the literacy pyramid might not work as well as expected on a broad scale for each and every student.
Students today appear to have more needs than students in the past did, or perhaps it is simply that they are making their needs known more easily or that teachers and others that work in the education profession are becoming more aware of what the students really need from the instruction and interaction that they receive. This is important for both the students and the teachers, because…
The other sector of life where information literacy is vital and omnipresent is the career field. It is not simply a matter of preference or choice. Many businesses actively embrace the harnessing and day-to-day use of computer and informatics technology because the business being able to thrive in the marketplace or even survive in general as a business can literally depend upon it. Such a state of affairs requires employees and leaders that are well-versed and adept in literacy regarding information, computers and informatics, among other things such as project management skills, leadership traits, and so on.
Job descriptions discoverable online are bereft and thick with requirements that relate to information, computer and informatics literacy. Examples include prospective employees being familiar with the construction and/or use of database technology, internet technology, familiarity with operations systems such as Mac OS and Windows, software suites like Microsoft Office and so on. Failure…
Creedy, D.K., Mitchell, M., Seaton-Sykes, P., Cooke, M., Patterson, E., Purcell, C., & Weeks, P. (2007). Evaluating a Web-Enhanced Bachelor of Nursing Curriculum:
Perspectives of Third-Year Students. Journal of Nursing Education, 46(10), 460-
Edwards, J., & O'Connor, P.A. (2011). Improving Technological Competency in Nursing
Students: The Passport Project. Journal of Educators Online, 8(2), 1-20.
Literacy Short Assgts
READING. Fadi Awwad
My Reading Engagement Journal for Chapter 3
I already knew about the need for sensitivity to cultural differences in the classroom because I was raised in a devout Muslim home (that was also an American home), and the years corresponding to my own secondary education were years in American life where a kind of noxious Islamophobia very frequently poisoned public discourse. I am grateful to the extent that I had teachers who were able to rise above the level of Fox News idiocy.
I want to know more about the use of graphic novels in teaching content area literacy, as described by Vacca and Mraz on pages 79-80, because I happen to be a fan of a particular graphic novel, Palestine by Joe Sacco, which describes the artist's experiences staying on the Gaza Strip in 1991-1992. If graphic novels are an easier way to…
An often-forgotten component of advancing a nation’s economy is its literacy rate. As the world grows increasingly globalized as well as sophisticated in terms of the technology demanded to function at an optimal level, a literate population is critical for developing the necessary technological infrastructure needed for the state to operate within that global framework. However, not every nation has allowed female literacy to be a focus within its developmental strategy. In the Central African Republic, Iran and Myanmar, for example, female literacy rates are lower compared to male literacy rates—though there are differences that emerge when these rates are compared among one another. High levels of female literacy have been found to have a particularly dramatic impact upon a nation’s social and economic development, given the link between female literacy and lower birth rates, lower poverty rates (as a result of smaller family sizes), and improved health outcomes.[footnoteRef:2]…
Self-knowledge is a very important concept in the realm of education and self-improvement. Some of the greatest teachers in history echoed the sentiments of 'know thyself' and the know the universe. But before understanding how self knowledge can help, especially in an educational system, it is helpful to define and identify what exactly the self is and how it is influencing the situation.
Regardless of the finer points of defining the self, Thomas Jefferson Middle School, the target of my analysis, made me aware of the importance of knowing my own role within the education system. To me the education system is a community effort, and while teachers are often given the brunt of the workload to achieve this aim, parents and other leaders in the community are essentially responsible for the quality of education that is presented to the members of its group.
I have found that in this…
teacher will" will be abbreviated by TTW and "the student will" will be abbreviated by TSW.
"Phonemic Awareness" will be abbreviated by PA, "phonics" will b P. "fluency" will be F, and "omprehension" will be .
Student is in 2nd grade and reading on Pre-Primer 2, per QRI-5. She has trouble with beginning and final sounds, sight words, retelling, and short vowels.
Literacy Intervention Plan
Literacy Intervention Action Plan
Each tutoring session will be between 30-40 minutes
*Some Days may be doubled up due to school scheduling
* "The teacher will" will be abbreviated by TTW and "the student will" will be abbreviated by TSW.
* "Phonemic Awareness" will be abbreviated by PA, "phonics" will b P. "fluency" will be F, and "omprehension" will be .
*During each week, the fluency session will begin with a systematic review of the Dolch Sight Words. Week 1 will be the Pre-Primer Sight…
C: TSW read along with an audio book in which the emphasis is a word with a short vowel sound.
PA: With digital media (Raskind & Stanberry, 2009), TSW hear a list of words and put a thumb up if they think the vowel is short in a word. Short vowels, as well as long vowel words will be used.
P: TSW plays the sound game. TTW will have two words on the board representing the two different sounds for student to practice, e.g., RUN, RAN. TTW
Literacy in Secondary School in Ireland
The literacy curriculum in secondary school in Ireland is based on a strategy of language-related lesson modifications, identified by Peregoy and Boyle as good methods of ensuring that differentiation occurs in the classroom. This strategy allows for the use of "visuals, concrete objects, direct experience, and other nonverbal means to convey lesson content" alongside the main lesson taught by the teacher in the classroom (Peregoy, Boyle 86). In my area, this is consistent with what we experienced in school, and differentiation is a huge part of the cycle -- as much of what is centered on literacy is done so with direct relation to experiential learning, the use of visual aids, and the expression of ideas identified in readings via nonverbal means, such as drawings, videos or performance in the classroom. At the same time, there is a notable urgency among literacy leaders and…
Department of Education and Skills Press Release. Education.ie, 2011. Web. 1 June
Gottlieb, M. Assessing English Language Learners. CA: Corwin Press, 2006. Print.
Peregoy, S., Boyle, O. Reading, Writing and Learning. MA: Pearson, 2013.
literacy before ENG115
The way I understood literacy before the literacy class was majorly in three major sections, the ability to write correctly, ability to think before I spoke and ability to comprehend.
Writing correctly; was perceived as the ability to put down the content on paper in the correct grammar.
Ability to think before speaking; I considered this the capacity to contemplate the consequences of the words that I would speak before speaking them out.
Ability to read and comprehend; this was considered the capacity to take up material, read it and know exactly what it is talking about. These were the three perceptions that shaped my understanding of literacy before the ENG 115 class.
Newly developed definition of literacy (how/why it has changed)
After attending the full course class of literacy, there are changes that I had in perception of literacy and these included.
Using correct grammar was…
Brands R., (2014). 8 Step Process Perfects New Product Development. Retrieved March 1, 2014 http://www.huffingtonpost.com/robert-f-brands/8-step-new-product-development_b_4556363.html
Education Development Center Inc., (2014). What is Literacy. Retrieved March 5, 2014 from http://www.edc.org/newsroom/articles/what_literacy
Jamea Paul G. (2014). What is Literacy. Retrieved March 5, 2014 from http://www.ed.psu.edu/englishpds/Articles/CriticalLiteracy/What%20is%20Literacy.htm
Balanced Literacy Program for Second Grade
This paper outlines a sample balanced literacy program and how it is organized for second grade students. In addition, the paper explains instructional approaches that can be integrated in the balanced literacy program to improve students' reading and writing skills. Moreover, the paper gives an insight of school practices that when initiated can improve students' classroom learning. The paper further notes components of balanced literacy program that the instructional approaches satisfy.
ecently there has been a downhill trend in reading and writing among students in second grade. This is due to establishment of literacy programs providing students with little phonemic awareness. Additionally, the balanced literacy programs are poorly designed; often lacking effective educational support for students (Mermelstein, 2005). Furthermore, teachers undertake improper training on implementation of learning instructions such as phonics; often prodding the students to memorize lessons. Given this, integration of instructional approaches…
Altieri, J. (2011). Content Counts! Developing Disciplinary Literacy Skills, K-6. Houston:
International Reading Association .
Camilli, G., & Wolfe, P. (2004). Research on Reading: A Cautionary Tale. Educational Leadership Journal, 26-29.
Fresch, M.J. (2003). A National Survey of Spelling Instruction: Investigating Teachers' Beliefs
teacher instructional technology literacy instruction improve elementary (K-5) student achievement reading vocabulary? Create a qualitative research scenario phenomenology approach.
Does the use of instructional technology improve elementary (K-5) student reading vocabulary?
In the era of high-stakes testing, student performance on reading has become increasingly important in determining school evaluations. eading is a fundamental skill necessary for future success in life. Students are reading in a paper-based format less frequently, at younger ages. This research study will attempt to asses the impact of using technology within the classroom to enhance vocabulary recognition. Previous research indicates that "teacher-made online learning resources provide course content anchored resources that focus on specific real world tasks in class, and a supportive authentic learning environment to learners" (Li 2011).
Using technology to teach reading has several apparent advantages. First of all, it can deploy a multimedia strategy to enhance student engagement. Students are often…
Introna, Lucas. (2011). Phenomenological approaches to ethics and information technology.
The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy http://plato.stanford.edu/archives/sum2011/entries/ethics-it-phenomenology
Li, S., Price, D., & Fu, Y. (2011). The impact of the teacher-made online learning resources.
The Business Review, Cambridge, 18(1), 35-40.
The quality of this lesson is consistent from the beginning to the end of the project.
Lesson Plan #3: Adding Fun Game
Aim of the Lesson:
In this lesson, the students learn to decode using a chart where certain letters have an assigned number value. The students must solve the mathematical problem by decoding the word.
Literacy Elements Incorporated:
This lesson incorporates the concept that letters have a certain value. This can be tied to phonics, as the students develop the concept that a letter has a certain sound. Students use literacy skills to decode math problems and create number sentences.
How, when why, where and for whom they were used:
This lesson is designed for 3rd graders. One of the key difficulties with this age group is that consistency with skills is varied. Some students are more proficient than others at this stage. This makes it difficult to integrate…
Bintz, W., Moore, S., Hayhurst, E., Rubin, J., & Sherry, T. (2006). Integrating Literacy, Math, and Science to Make Learning Come Alive. Middle School Journal. 37 (3), 30-37. ERIC ID EJ752859.
Literacy Matters (2007). Math. Retrieved December 16, 2007 at http://www.literacymatters.org/content/math.htm.
In middle school, I discovered that I had a knack for telling stories -- and this discovery came about as a result of an assignment given to us by our English teacher. The assignment was to write a personal narrative about something that we had experienced in our lives. Being only in middle school and not having ever really done anything remarkable in my life up to that point, I was completely stumped about what to write. I could think of nothing that would be interesting to anyone else: I went to school, went home, watched TV, played with my friends, and ate dinner with my family. (Had I been skilled in realism at that age, I might have made this into an interesting narrative -- but my literacy skills were still very premature). Thus, with a deadline fast approaching I simply began writing about the first thing…
This model views literacy as woven into the person's identity, based in turn from his acculturation and participation in his socio-cultural community. Spoken or written communication is understood and appreciated according to who is reading or writing and the context and purpose of the communication. Learners come to the educational setting with individual experiences, perspectives, values and beliefs. They perform tasks subjectively. Their cultural background is, therefore, an essential requirement to teaching functional literacy.
The U.S. Department of Education through the Department of Adult Education and Literacy implements the Adult Education and Family Literacy Act. This legislation provides support money for adult literacy and basic education programs. It perceives adult education as that falling below post-secondary level for persons 16 years old and older. Statistics say there are about 51 million American adults in this category. Eligibility was adjusted from 18 to 16 in 1970; approved funding to non-profit organizations…
Guy, T. (2006). The adult literacy education systems in the United States. Literacy for Life. Education for All Global Monitoring Report. Retrieved on February 24, 2009 from http://unedoc.unesco.org/images/0014/001462/146281e.pdf
Onwuegbuzie, a., et al. (2004). Reading comprehension among African-American graduate students. The Journal of Negro Education: Howard University. Retrieved on February 24, 2009 at http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_qa3626/is_200410/ai_n13506807?tag=content;col1
Newsline. Adult literacy classes improve lives in California communities. Issue 4.
Office of Multifamily Housing Programs: U.S. Department of Housing and Urban
..now requires understanding and manipulating the processes used to create messages in the modern world" (Adams & Hamm, 2000, p. 22) in fact the student is expected to be able to decode the information from various types of media. However the equally important point is also made that this expanding definition of what literacy comprises does not "...diminish the importance of traditional reading and writing skills; rather, it recognizes the increasing importance of information and communication technology" (Adams & Hamm, 2000, p. 22).
This is an important caveat to the enthusiastic embrace of modern technology and visual aspects of modern teaching. In other words, while visual literacy has become more important and while this aspect is closely linked to the use of modern technological tools such as computer, yet the basics of teaching and education should not be forgotten. Of equal importance however is the view that; "Today's students live…
Adams, D., & Hamm, M. (2000, Winter). Literacy, Learning and Media. Technos: Quarterly for Education and Technology, 9, 22. Retrieved August 7, 2007, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5002377227
Bleed R. (2005) Visual Literacy in Higher Education. Retrieved August 6, 2007, at http://www.educause.edu/ir/library/pdf/ELI4001.pdf www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5010939928
Brumberger, E.R. (2005). Visual Rhetoric in the Curriculum: Pedagogy for a Multimodal Workplace. Business Communication Quarterly, 68(3), 318+. Retrieved August 7, 2007, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5010939928 www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5005970729
Bustle, L.S. (2004). The Role of Visual Representation in the Assessment of Learning. Journal of Adolescent & Adult Literacy, 47(5), 416+. Retrieved August 7, 2007, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5005970729 www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5011600259
Literacy is more than knowing how to read and write in a given language. At the level of college education, literacy pertains to mastering the means of communication for different subjects. Literacy therefore may entail understanding specific jargon of a chosen field, but it may also mean being literate in the modes of inquiry, paradigms, assumptions, and methodologies of specific subjects. Each college major will have different literacy needs and requirements for a successful college term and for graduation. It is crucial that college students master the literacy skills that relate to their chosen major, if they hope to graduate and succeed in their future career.
One type of literacy that pertains to almost all college majors is information literacy. According to the Association of College and esearch Libraries (ACL, 2014), information literacy is defined as "the set of skills needed to find, retrieve, analyze, and use information," (p. 1).…
Association of College and Research Libraries (ACRL, 2014). Introduction to information literacy. Retrieved online: http://www.ala.org/acrl/issues/infolit/overview/intro
"The Many Forms of Literacy," (n.d.). National Writing Project. Retrieved online:
It is important that children know how to use the resources in the room to get the words they do not know (alanced Literacy -- Helping Your & #8230;).
The alanced Concept Summary
This concept incorporates all reading approaches, realizing students will need to use multiple strategies to become proficient readers. Technology can also be integrated into a balanced approach for teaching literacy. Research indicates that student learning can be improved through the use of computers. Gains in self-confidence and motivation can be seen in those students who are using computers to enhance literacy instruction. The definition of literacy now includes a new literacy, where students need to read and write print text and also need to navigate and use the computer in their everyday lives (Cooperman and Cunningham).
alanced Literacy - Helping Your Child Love to Read and Write . (n.d.). Retrieved Mar 29, 2009, from Ovid-Elsie Area…
Balanced Literacy - Helping Your Child Love to Read and Write . (n.d.). Retrieved Mar 29, 2009, from Ovid-Elsie Area School District: http://www.oe.k12.mi.us/balanced_literacy/index.htm
Cooperman, N., & Cunningham, a. (2003, May). Balanced Literacy and Technology. Retrieved Mar 28, 2009, from Teaching Matters, Inc.: http://backend.teachingmatters.org/files/whitepaper.pdf
Definition of Balanced Literacy. (n.d.). Retrieved Mar 29, 2009, from Phillipsburg k12: http://www.pburg.k12.nj.us/CURRICULUM/Definition%20of%20Balanced%20Lit.pdf
Frey, B., Lee, S., Pass, L., & Tollefson, N. (n.d.). Balanced Literacy in an Urban School District. Retrieved Mar 29, 2009, from School of Education University of Kansas: http://web.ku.edu/~spear/Documents/Balanced_Literacy_in_an_Urban_School_District.pdf
Increased vocabulary levels leads to increases in reading comprehension. Students with higher levels of vocabulary can also express themselves in more unique and complex formats, essentially increasing their ability to comment on the reading material in a way that better correlates with their exact emotions or experiences associated with that reading material.
Writing summaries for reading material is another method of using writing exercises to increase literacy levels. Teachers should implement lessons were students write hierarchal summaries that help organize the structure of reading material in a shape that is more familiar and understandable to students (Meltzer, Cook, & Clark, 2011). Writing summaries force students to internalize the material and reassert it in a different way. This further engages them with the texts, as they are forced to put the material in their own words.
Thirdly, using student-generated content to expose weaknesses in understanding can play a key role. Having…
Guthrie, John T. (2001). Contexts for engagement and motivation in reading. Reading Online. 4(8). Retrieved September 21, 2012 from http://www.readingonline.org/articles/art_index.asp?HREF=/articles/handbook/guthrie/index.html
Guthrie, John T. (2012). Adolescent literacy: Issues, knowledge base, design principles, and challenges. Center on Instruction. Web. Retrieved September 21, 2012 from http://centeroninstruction.org/
Melzter, Julie, Cook, Nancy, & Clark, Holly. (2011). Adolescent Literary Resources: Linking Research and Practice. Center for Resource Management. Brown University. Web. Retrieved September 20, 2012 from www.alliance.brown.edu/pubs/adlit/alr_lrp.pdf
scu.edu).Andre goes on to say some critics see Hirsch's efforts to bring culture into the classroom are not so much "cultural literacy" but more like "cultural indoctrination." Not only is the Hirsch strategy and methodology seen as flawed, Andre and Velasquez continue, the "content" he prescribes is subject to criticism. For example, the question of "Whose form of knowledge, culture, vision, history and authority will prevail as the national culture?" should be asked, and Hirsch knows that is an issue. "Will they, like Hirsch, be white, middle-class males?" Andre wonders, and will they be elitist?
Hirsch meanwhile answers these accusations in his Core Knowledge Web site, saying that the contend must arise from "a broad consensus of diverse groups and interests." That consensus should include the parents, teachers, scientists, "professional curriculum organizations, and experts on America's multicultural traditions." The "central motivation behind" his core knowledge initiative is "to guarantee equal…
Booklist. "Reference Books Bulletin: The New Dictionary of Cultural Literacy." (2003): 1702.
In the first edition of Hirsch's book, the author was criticized as being "elitist," but the Subsequent editions add "tools for assessing cultural literacy" that makes sense and Now it does "keep up with changes in American culture."
Chylinski, Manya S. "Hirsch, E.D. Jr., & others. The New Dictionary of Cultural Literacy: What Every American Needs to Know." Library Journal, 127.18 (2002): 78-80. Chylinski writes that the book has been given "an exciting update" - "sorely needed"...for those "who like to have a great reference work..."
Giddings, Louise R. "Beyond E.D. Hirsch and Cultural Literacy: Thinking Skills for Cultural
Language and Literacy
Jeanne S. Chall was born in Poland on January 1, 1921. She moved to New York at a tender age of seven with her family. Jeanne S. Chall was one of the chief educators and researchers in the field of literacy during the past century. The Harvard Reading/Literacy Lab has recently been renamed in accolade of Dr. Chall.
hat follows is an account of Dr. Chall's life and work. Chall grew up in New York City, taught there, and received her bachelor's degree from City College in 1941. Due to a dearth of teaching posts open during the early 1940's, Chall took an assistantship at Teacher's College, Columbia University, subordinate to Irving Lorge, an intelligence-test researcher. It was there at Teacher's College that Chall first advanced a fascination and liking for educational research.
Chall then went on to seek her master's and doctoral degrees at Ohio State…
THE ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENT CHALLENGE: WHAT REALLY WORKS IN THE CLASSROOM?
The Guilford Press, March 2000
teacher instructional technology with new literacy instruction to improve elementary (K-5) student achievement in reading vocabulary?
The alternative hypothesis would be that new literacy instruction does have th potential to improve elementary (K-5) student achievement in reading vocabulary. In other words that significant difference is found between classrooms that employ new literacy instructions and classrooms that do not use this method.
The null hypothesis would be that no significant difference is found between classrooms that employ new literacy instructions and classrooms that do not use this method.
The study will choose 2 different schools in a certain district with classes k-5 where one school has introduced new literacy techniques (namely technological strategies), and the other school is still employing traditional instruction.
The schools would be as closely matched as possible with students coming from a similar socio-economic background and with their parents generally sharing a similar educational niche (i.e. either…
Babchuk, W. (1996). Glaser or Strauss? Grounded theory and adult education. Presented at the Midwest Research-to-Practice Conference in Adult, Continuing, and Community Education, University of Nebraska-Lincoln, Lincoln, Nebraska, October 17-19, 1996.
Glaser, B. (1993). Examples of grounded theory: a reader. Mill Valley, CA:
Glaser, B. (1998). Doing grounded theory. Mill Valley: Sociology Press.
Further, the work of Frances Rauscher, Gordon Shaw and their colleagues of the University of California, Irvine, on what is termed 'The Mozart Effect' reports research that show a causal relationship between aspects of intelligence and music.
Practical application of the principles related by Fisher and McDonald in the classroom that this researcher finds most relevant in early literacy instruction combined with music instruction is the technique related by which the teacher asks the students after they have learned the song the questions of: (1) who; (2) what; (3) when; (4) where which provides an excellent method for instructing students in terms of sentence structure and in terms of vocabulary "within meaningful, active, and expressive contents." (Fisher and McDonald, nd) an example of this method of literacy instruction using music is to make PowerPoint slides of songs to use when teaching the songs to students with the 'who', 'what',…
Language and Literacy Development of Head Start Children: A Study Using the Family and Child Experiences Survey Database." The report opens with a description of the Head Start program, established in 1965, and sums up their goal: to provide a comprehensive development program for low socioeconomic status (SES) children and their families.
In 1995 it was decided to evaluate the Head Start program's quality and effectiveness. To that end, the study defined a conceptual model that defined school readiness in terms of five developmental domains:
Physical well-being and motor development
Social and emotional development
Approaches to learning
Language usage and emerging literacy
Cognition and general knowledge
The Family and Child Experiences Survey (FACES) was then developed to provide information about Head Start children and their families, and to gather data about the program. The study included four cohorts for collection periods 1997, 2000, 2003, and 2006, with each cohort consisting…
Integrate Technology With Literacy Instruction
Researchers have investigated aspects of integrating technology with literacy instruction. In my strategy, I would focus on the use of a word processor on written expressions. While some studies have found either no significant outcomes or mixed outcomes with regard to the effect of the word processor on the development of literacy, most analyses have demonstrated word processor to be beneficial. This technology mitigates the complications young kids often experience with the fine-motor control necessary for letter development and help in revisions.
Further, complications met by disabled learners in expressing themselves through writing will be reduced using transcription software, word processor, spell checkers, multimedia applications, speech synthesizers and semantic organizers. Other researchers have shown that word processor improves cooperation and active participation among learners besides strengthening children's focus on the material they write. In addition, compared with paper-and-pencil arrangements, it improves sentence density, cohesion, revisions…
Thus, this needs assessment is required in order to determine the best ways to use resources in order to obtain maximum results for students. In order to conduct the assessment, then, data must be collected and analyzed. First, to address the problem of ESL students and their desired interactions with speakers of their own languages, researchers must determine whether or not interaction with a speaker of one's native language is beneficial when one is learning proficiency in another language. Methods of collecting this data include perusing already existing studies regarding the correlation between these two variables as well as conducting further studies based on the performance of a group that had access to a speaker of one's native language and one that did not. Furthermore, the students' expressed need regarding access to technological equipment and personalized training with that equipment can be assessed by gathering data that examines the best…
"hat was the plot of the book you read for today?' 'hat is the name of the main character?' 'hat is the setting of the story?' Often teachers are so happy that students have completed a reading assignment in a timely fashion, and can recollect the basic details of what they read, they do not encourage the student to go 'one step further' and to critically think about the reading material assigned. But students must also learn to thoughtfully engage with the written materials at hand. If teachers ignore the importance of thoughtful as well as technical literacy, teachers are not setting high enough goals for student achievement. They also inadvertently create the effect of making reading seem like a chore to be mastered for a test in the immediate future, rather than a source of personal enrichment and pleasure over the course of one's life.
Allington, Richard. (2001) What Really Matters for Struggling Readers: Designing Research-Based Programs. New York: Longman.
It is more likely that there will continue to be many varied and constantly changing definitions of the American family, and this will continue to confuse those learning English as they attempt to make concrete connections between words and concepts from their own language and those of the new -- and constantly developing -- culture and language they have adopted.
hen making cultural comparisons, it is important to refrain from qualitative judgments, and I do not mean to imply any here. The Korean concept of the family and its responsibilities is more concrete than the American cultural and linguistic definitions, but this does not necessarily make it better. The American ideals of freedom and self-determination lie at the root of the American family, and lead to very different cultural and linguistic perspectives. It is the difference in vantage point, and not in any perceived difference in quality, that proves a…
Graff, E.J. "What Makes a Family?" Frame Work. Ed. Gary Columbo, Bonnie Lisle, Sandra Mno. Boston: Bedford, 1997, 26-38.
New York Daily News. "American Role Models." 6 November 2008. Editorial: pg. 32
Tan, Amy. "Four Directions" Frame Work. Ed. Gary Columbo, Bonnie Lisle, Sandra Mno. Boston: Bedford, 1997, 124-127.
Wetzstein, Cheryl. "American Family Needs Some Help." Washington Times, 8 March 2009, M15.
hat is Multicultural Literacy?
Approaching the subject of multicultural literacy for the first time a student might think it has to do with getting minorities to become literate -- to be able to read and write in English or in their native language. That would be wrong, albeit it is a good goal in terms of bringing all students up to speed in communication skills. hat is important to remember about multicultural literacy is that by the year 2020, an estimated fifty percent of the student population in American public schools will belong "…to an economic, ethnic, racial, religious, and/or social class minority" (Stevens, et al., 2011, p. 32). Teachers and counselors must be fully knowledgeable vis-a-vis the culturally relevant issues that are present when the classroom is diverse, as it clearly is becoming today and will continue to be in the near future as well.
Authors and Artists for Young Adults. (2001). Diego Rivera. Retrieved October 16, 2012,
Encyclopedia of African-American Culture and History. (2006). W.E.B. Du Bois. Retrieved October 15, 2012, from Gale Biography in Context.
Stevens, Elizabeth Years, and Brown, Rachel. (2011). Lessons Learned from the Holocaust:
Blogging to Teach Critical Multicultural Literacy. Journal of Research on Technology in Education, 44(1), 31-51.
Language Development in Young Children
Early Childhood and Literacy
Language is a physical link of a child to his outside world. Language acquisition is essential for a child's social, physical and cognitive development. It plays a vital role in developing an individual who would be able to express himself adequately to his family, friends and the world around him. A vast majority of the children can develop linguistic skills effortlessly, whereas some have difficulty in developing these essential skills. They are slow to learn a language and eventually struggle with academic and literacy skills throughout their educational career. The first few years of a child's life are important and critical for their performance.
This project examines the issues related to language development in first two years of a child's life. It also discusses the importance of the language and the role linguistics play in preparing a child for his academic…
Byrne, M. (1978). Appraisal of child language acquisition. Diagnostic methods in speech pathology, 102-177.
Clark, B.A. (1991). First- and Second-Language Acquisition in childhood. Retrieved from http://ceep.crc.uiuc.edu/pubs/katzsym/clark-b.pdf
CLLRNet. (2007, June). Early Childhood Learning. Retrieved from http://www.ccl-cca.ca/pdfs/ECLKC/bulletin/ECLKCBulletinLanguage.pdf
fund, O. o. (2007). The Language of Babies, Toddlers and preschoolers. . Retrieved from http://www.ounceofprevention.org/research/pdfs/LanguageofBabies.pdf
assist students with literacy difficulties. The studies all used the academic classroom as the center of education and tested different learning methods.
Factors that influence the book selection process of students with special needs" is a study to learn how students with special needs react to choosing their own reading material. The results show that these children use a similar process as that of other students. The students with special needs do use more factors then typical children but it is clear that they want to read the same stories as typical children.
Many studies have concluded that choice is a necessary motivator to children and has a positive impact on their education. The most natural forum for self-selection is learning to read. Every child has different interests, unique needs and backgrounds and therefore tends to choose different books to read. There are different factors that affect children's book selection.…
Factors That Influence The Book Selection Process of Students With Special Needs" by Swartz and Hendricks.
Journal of Adolescents Adult Literacy 43:7 April 2000 pages 608-617
Writing Instruction For Struggling Adolescent Readers: A Gradual Release Model" by Fisher and Frey.
Journal of Adolescent & Adult Literacy 46:5 February 2003 pages 396-404
functional literacy activities? What are some examples?
Functional literacy activities refer to activities that focus on reading or writing in direct connection to actual tasks that can be easily applied or used in the real world. For example, functional literary activities might involve reading street signs, reading maps or drafting a grocery list.
What are ways to share literature with young children? What are important factors to consider when selecting literature to share and stocking classroom libraries? What are some effective story-reading strategies (read-alouds and shared reading)?
One way to share literature with young children would be to present it in the most dynamic and hands on approach possible. For example, using puppets or dolls or figurines when presenting a new book to students can be a way to help engage students' minds and imagination. Or dynamic follow-up activities which relate to the text can also be used with success:…
Golembeski, K. (2013). Preparing for Kindergarten Begins the Year Before. Retrieved from Getreadytoread.org: http://www.getreadytoread.org/early-learning-childhood-basics/early-childhood/preparing-for-kindergarten-begins-the-year-before
Teachervision.com. (2013, January). Shared Writing. Retrieved from Teachervision.com: https://www.teachervision.com/reading-and-language-arts/skill-builder/48883.html
Virginia.edu. (2003). What's the difference among phonological awareness, phonemic. Retrieved from Virginia.edu: http://www.readingfirst.virginia.edu/pdfs/Phon_Spel_Handout.pdf
Changes in and to children's literature mirror, as well as construct, changes in social norms. For example, the 1908 book by Kenneth Grahame, Wind in the Willows, is a frolicking fantasy tale starring a cast of anthropomorphic animals. Themes of camaraderie, friendship, and adventure do not serve as vehicles for political discourse. When Jan Needle published Wild Wood nearly a century later in 1981, the author imbued the basic structure of Grahame's story with political awareness. Issues like social justice are explored in Wild Wood, issues that were not touched upon in Wind in the Willows. A similar vehicle of storytelling was used for a different literary function. Both 1908 and 1981 were times ripe for the exploration of labor issues and class-consciousness, and it is in many ways ironic that Needle would have been more overtly political than his forebear.
There seems to have been a deliberate awakening of…
"Children's Book of the Year Awards." Retrieved online: http://cbca.org.au/awards.htm
DAWCL. Website retrieved: http://www.dawcl.com/introduction.html
Leland, C., Harste, J., Ociepka, A., Lewison, M. & Vasquez, V. (1999). Exploring critical literacy: You can hear a pin drop. Language Arts, v77 n1 p70-77 Sep 1999.
Shor, I. (1997). What is critical literacy? Journal for Pedagogy, Pluralism, and Practice. Retrieved online: http://www.lesley.edu/journals/jppp/4/shor.html
Next, the teacher, through questioning and eliminating, reduces the categories and establishes consensus on the order of information expected to be found. She also gets the students to consider the search terms that might get results. Once this in done a scaffold is constructed using the established order.
Still, in a group setting, students use personal semantic maps and begin to learn to create a collective scaffold of meaning in a way that is meaningful to their cognitive processes -- they learn how to learn, and how to communicate that learning in a classroom environment to the teacher and to their peers. (Grid of Constructs about Learning, 2004)
The teacher then takes the students to the computer room where they search the net for information that pertains to their particular category. They add the additional information that they have found their section of the scaffold.
This adds technical reinforcement and…
Grid of Constructs about Learning." (2004) Accessed on October 5, 2004 at http://www.math.uow.edu.au/people/ap_contnt.pdf
Reinhardt, Erica. (May 27, 2004) "Learning cycle." Accessed on October 5, 2004 at http://www.human.cornell.edu/units/dns/extension/youth/sciencediscovery/cornellnutritionresources.html
Scaffolding." (2004) Accessed on October 5, 2004 at http://www.ncrel.org/sdrs/areas/issues/students/learning/lr1scaf.htm www.uws.edu.au%2Fdownload.php%3Ffile_id%3D6974%26filename%3DA4611G__Spring_2000.University of Western Sydney, Macarthur "Erica Model -- Whole Language Strategies." (2004) Accessed on October 5, 2004 at http://www.uws.edu.au/download.php?file_id=6974&filename=A4611G__Spring_2000.pdf&mimetype=application/pdf
Also, the privacy of the venue, outside of a workplace or family setting, would encourage participation and attendance amongst fellow learners undergoing the same struggle.
c. How can finding a solution result in significant changes/improvements?
Possessing the skills that make one literate means an individual is less likely to need government assistance, is better able to be promoted and to find a secure job, and can feel more meaningfully engaged with society. Also, recruiting teachers and even properly trained volunteers from the community will enable more people to see that illiterate adults are often not lacking in intelligence, but simply in opportunities. Special volunteer campaigns could be created soliciting teachers with specializations in learning disabilities and ESL to treat the needs of these populations. To educate adults with more foundational skills, teenage volunteers and members of the community could provide tutoring services. This would create greater community connections between different…
She came up with an idea of a reading discussion group where the purpose of the group would be to communicate and exchange meaning, not focus on someone else's questions. The teacher let the students choose what books to discuss, and encouraged them to respond to pictures as well as words, and to return to the story as often as possible to simplify and clarify their ideas. Through these discussion groups the children shared their interpretations and connections. Instead of "directing" the discussions, the teacher facilitated them, and let the children talk more. These groups were a success in the classroom, and the groups met and discussed books on the regular basis throughout the story.
Another turning point in the story is when Jamie becomes too sick to attend school for extended periods of time, because her body becomes very weakened. At the end of the story she dies, peacefully,…